Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)SqualeneVaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Mice, Inbred BALB CMadin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.United StatesInfluenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Influenzavirus B: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.DucksVirus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Mice, Inbred C57BLViral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.PyransImmunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Tetanus ToxoidSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Developing a universal vaccine requires that researchers identify conserved regions of the influenza virus that do not exhibit ... The vaccine is made by Sinovac Biotech in Beijing, China, from an inactivated strain of H5N1 known as Vietnam/1194/2004." ... The vaccine focuses on the M2 viral protein, which does not change, rather than the surface hemagglutinin and neuraminidase ... "A universal influenza vaccine could provide protection against all types of influenza and would eliminate the need to develop ...
Vacc-4x aims to generate immune responses to conserved domains, regions of the virus common to all strains of HIV, even if the ... After the sale of their main brands, the company have moved focus to the vaccine business after the acquisition of ... Hepatitis C and Influenza. The company is also a leader in soy technology and has developed patented products for improved ... Other vaccines include humoral, antibody-mediated peptide-based therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine Vacc-C5, that aims to guide the ...
... so portions of the stalk remain highly conserved across all influenza subtypes. The FI6 antibody makes extensive contacts with ... protective effects against H1N1 and H3N2 strains in vaccinated animals. Using protein engineering and adjuvants to focus the ... in the HA stalk at the atomic level an important intellectual landmark for the development of a universal influenza vaccine. In ... FI6 is the only known antibody found to bind all 16 subtypes of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin and is hoped to be useful ...
This antibody attached to a "conserved" portion of gp120 that outlasts many of its mutations, affecting 17/24 tested strains at ... affect multiple strains of a particular virus. BNAbs are known for HIV and influenza. Los Alamos National Laboratory's HIV ... Integrated web resource BNAber, focused on broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies, has recently been introduced. In 2006, a ... and have suggested possible strategies to generate an improved vaccine that would confer long-lasting immunity. Another disease ...
... approved four vaccines against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus (the 2009 pandemic strain), and expected the initial vaccine lots ... early T-cell response have better outcomes when infected with influenza and because T-cells respond to conserved epitopes. The ... Vaccination campaigns usually focus special attention on people who are at high risk of serious complications if they catch the ... PATH's Vaccine Resource Library influenza resources CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement Vaccines and ...
... -known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent influenza research ...
... causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. Strains of all subtypes of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, although disease is uncommon. Some isolates of influenza A virus cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry, and this may cause an outbreak or give rise to human influenza pandemics. Influenza A viruses are negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses. The several subtypes are labeled according to an H number (for the type of hemagglutinin) and an N number (for the type of neuraminidase). There are 18 different known H antigens (H1 to H18) and 11 ...
Another technique is use of cell cultures to grow vaccine strains; such as genetically engineering baculovirus to express a gene that encodes an influenza coat protein such as hemagglutinin or neuraminidase. "A recent NIAID-supported Phase II clinical trial of a vaccine produced by Protein Sciences Corporation using this strategy showed that it is well tolerated and immunogenic; the company is[when?] conducting further clinical evaluation of this product. Other new pathways for producing influenza vaccines include DNA-based approaches and the development of broadly protective vaccines based on influenza virus proteins that are shared by multiple strains."[5]. AVI Bio Pharma Inc. has evidence of inhibition of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus in cell culture with Morpholino oligomers from the results of ...
... s were used to test if the efficacy of a vaccine could be predicted (in mice), using different strains of the influenza virus. Mice were given a seasonal flu vaccine, or a vaccine against the specific flu virus tested in the study (PR8). The mice were then infected with the PR8 flu strain. Those groups of mice which were given the PR8-specific vaccine not only survived, but did not display any symptoms of the flu. The mice which received either of the two seasonal flu vaccines all developed flu symptoms, and some (20-40%, depending on which seasonal vaccine received) were killed by the PR8 infection.[8] The group of mice which received sub-lethal infection doses of PR8, and the group of mice which received vaccines of killed PR8, had different immunosignatures. The two groups of mice immunized with the seasonal flu vaccines also had immunosignatures which were distinct from each other. This demonstrates ...
Le subtypos del virus Influenza A plus communmente trovate como le causa de infectiones de SIV es H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 e H3N2, [2] [3] ben que le H2N3 ha essite recentemente trovate, que etiam produce iste typo de pathologia.[4] In le mundo, il ha 3 subtypos de virus de influenza A (H1N1, H3N2, y H1N2), cognoscite per infectar porcos. In le Statos Unite, le subtypo classic H1N1 esseva quasi exclusivemente prevalente inter le populationes porcin ante 1998. Comocunque, ab augusto 1998 le subtypos H3N2 esseva etiam isolate. Il es trovate que le major parte del virus H3N2 ha material recombinate, con lineages de genes de virus que attacca esseres human (HA, NA, and PB1), porcos (NS, NP, and M) e aves (PB2 and PA). ...
The Influenza pandemic of 1918 was a heavy pandemic of influenza. It lasted from January 1918 to December 1920.[1] About 500 million[1] people were infected across the world. The pandemic spread to remote Pacific Islands and the Arctic. It killed 50 million[2] to 100 million people[3]-3 to 5 percent of the world's population at the time.[3] This means it was one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history.[1][4][5][6]. To maintain morale, wartime censors minimized early reports of illness and mortality in Germany, Britain, France, and the United States;[7][8] but papers were free to report the epidemic's effects in neutral Spain (such as the grave illness of King Alfonso XIII). This situation created the false impression of Spain being especially hard-hit.[9] It also resulted in the nickname Spanish flu.[10]. In most cases, influenza outbreaks kill young people, or the elderly, or those patients that ...
The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic. For other names see the Nomenclature section below. The virus is a novel strain of influenza. Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. A study at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published in May 2009 found that children had no preexisting immunity to the new strain but that adults, particularly those over 60, had some degree of immunity. Children showed no cross-reactive antibody reaction to the new strain, adults aged 18 to 64 had 6-9%, and older adults 33%. Much reporting of early analysis repeated that the strain contained genes from five different flu viruses: North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two ...
The influenza vaccine is recommended by the World Health Organization and United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for high-risk groups, such as children, the elderly, health care workers, and people who have chronic illnesses such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease, or are immuno-compromised among others.[104][105] In healthy adults it is modestly effective in decreasing the amount of influenza-like symptoms in a population.[106] In healthy children over the age of 2, the vaccine reduces the chances of getting influenza by around two-thirds, while it has not been well studied in children under 2.[107] In those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease vaccination reduces exacerbations,[108] it is not clear if it reduces asthma exacerbations.[109] Evidence supports a lower rate of influenza-like illness in many groups who are immunocompromised such as those ...
H2N3 is a subtype of the influenza A virus. Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its coat, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). H2N3 viruses can infect birds and mammals. According to research published by the US National Institutes of Health, the triple reassortant H2N3 virus isolated from diseased pigs in the United States in 2006 is pathogenic for certain mammals without prior adaptation and transmits among swine and ferrets. Adaptation, in the H2 hemagglutinin derived from an avian virus, includes the ability to bind to the mammalian receptor, a significant prerequisite for infection of mammals, in particular humans, which poses a big concern for public health. Researchers investigated the pathogenic potential of swine H2N3 in Cynomolgus macaques, a surrogate model for human influenza infection. In contrast to human H2N2 virus, which served as a control and largely caused mild pneumonia ...
... is a type of vaccine developed from mammalian cell lines rather than embryonic chicken eggs. The potential use of cell culture techniques in developing viral vaccines, especially for the Influenza virus, has been widely investigated in recent years as a complementary and alternative platform to the current egg-based strategies. The main benefit is the ability to rapidly produce vaccine supplies during an impending pandemic. Other benefits are the avoidance of egg-based allergy reactions. In addition, cell lines can be grown in synthetic media avoiding animal serum. This prevents the spread of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved Flucelvax as the first mammalian cell-based Influenza vaccine in the United States on November 20, 2012. The vaccine was produced by Novartis through culturing of the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Specifically, Flucelvax ...
The Hong Kong Flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift, in which genes from multiple subtypes reassorted to form a new virus. This pandemic of 1968 and 1969 killed an estimated one million people worldwide.[6][7][8] The pandemic infected an estimated 500,000 Hong Kong residents, 15% of the population, with a low death rate.[9] In the United States, about 33,800 people died.[10]. Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs coinfected with avian and human viruses and were soon transferred to humans. Swine were considered the original "intermediate host" for influenza, because they supported reassortment of divergent subtypes. However, other hosts appear capable of similar coinfection (e.g., many poultry species), and direct transmission of avian viruses to humans is possible. H1N1 may have ...
... (Neu5Ac ili NANA) je predominantna sijalinska kiselina u ćelijama sisara. Ovaj negativno naelektrisani ostatak je prisutan u kompleksnim glikanima na mucinima i glikoproteinima prisutnim na ćelijskim membranama. Neu5Ac ostaci su takođe prisutni u glikolipidima, poput gangliozida, ključnoj komponenti neuronskih membrana prisutnih u mozgu. Pored učešća u sprečavanju infekcija (sluz vezana za sluzokožne membrane - usta, nosa, GI, respiratornog trakta), Neu5Ac deluje kao receptor za influenza virus. On omobućava vezivanje za sluzne ćelije putem hemaglutinina (rani stupanj zadobijanja infekcije influenza virusom). ...
Kaman kuol, aalso nuo as fresh kuol ar simpli az kuol, a vairal infekshos diziiz a di opa resprichri chrak we praimerili afek di nuoz.[1] Di chruot, sainos, ah vais bax kiah aalso afek.[2] Sain ah simtom kiah bigin les dah tuu die afta expuoja.[2] Deh ingkluud kaafin, suo chuot, ronin nuoz, sniizin, ediek, ah fiiva.[3][4] Piipl yuujali rikova ina sebm tu ten die.[3] Som simtam kiah laas op tu chrii wiik.[5] Demde wid adaels elt prablem maita hokiejanali divelop nyuumuonia.[3] Wel uoba 200 vairos schrien implikiet ina di kaaz a di kaman kuol; di rainovairosdem a di muos kaman.[6] Deh pred chuu di ier juurin kluos kantak wid infektid piipl ah indirekli chuu kantak wid abjek ina di invairament fala bai chansfor tu di mout ar nuoz.[3] Rix fakta ingkluud wen pitni gaa diekier, smadi naa sliip gud, ah saikalajikal schres.[2] Simtam muosli juu tu di badi uona imyuun rispans tu di infekshan reda dah tu tishu dischrokshan bai di vairos dehself.[7] Piipl wid influenza noftaim shuo ...
2010) Influenza virus vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin stalk domain. MBio 1(1):e00018-e10. ... Recent efforts have focused on the highly conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem domain, which must undergo a significant ... virus emphasizes the need for universal influenza vaccines that would broadly protect against multiple mutated strains. ... Is It Possible to Develop a Universal Influenza Virus Vaccine?: Potential for a Universal Influenza Vaccine ...
Much of the current literature has focused on viral genetics and its impact on host immunity as well as novel risk factors for ... we will be able to better identify at-risk populations and new targets for therapeutic interventions and vaccines. This paper ... By better defining the role of genetic variability in influenza infection and identifying key polymorphisms that impair the ... an emphasis has been placed on better understanding the determinants and pathogenesis of severe influenza infections. ...
... that the same combination of three conserved viral genes provided significant protection against H5-carrying influenza strain ... Significant public attention has recently been focused on the development of new anti-influenza (flu) vaccines that provide ... Such a vaccine should be based on conserved flu proteins, which to a significant degree remain constant among all flu strains. ... One proposed strategy is to utilize conserved viral protein, M2. Clinical trials of M2-containing influenza vaccines were ...
... vaccines that elicit durable and broad protection against influenza have been elusive. Recent research has focused on the ... Highly conserved protective epitopes on influenza B viruses. Science 337: 1343-1348. ... 6). Therefore, exposure to these early strains is not a prerequisite, and exposure to recently circulating seasonal influenza ... and ontogeny of neutralizing Ab responses to influenza will aid rational influenza vaccine design. ...
The specificity of these cross-protective Abs and their protective capacities has been a recent focus of anti-influenza vaccine ... CD8 T cell immunity to influenza has long been known to target highly conserved internal proteins of influenza, particularly ... This is despite the fact that the yearly re-emerging seasonal strains of influenza virus undergo rapid point mutations, " ... Overcoming barriers in the path to a universal influenza virus vaccine. Cell Host Microbe 24: 18-24. ...
... may contribute to improved selection of vaccine strains by the WHO. A second consequence of preferential selection of B cell ... One novel antibody binds to the conserved active site of neuraminidase. Antibodies of this type may have therapeutic potential ... Monoclonal antibodies isolated from such focused responses selected escape mutations in vitro that matched actual antigenic ... In contrast to Influenza, the antibody response to the Ebola glycoprotein (GP) in vaccinated humans was essentially primary. ...
Therefore, we focused our efforts on developing a broadly protective influenza vaccine based on the Informational Spectrum ... Current influenza vaccines protect mostly against homologous virus strains. The presented VIN1-peptide cocktail did not confer ... Influenza virus vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin stalk domain. MBio 1. 2010. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ... The search for universal vaccines against influenza viruses is a must. Most efforts have been focussed on driving the immune ...
MF59 shifted the focus of antibody responses from predominantly HA2 sequences (conserved between H5 and seasonal H1 strains) to ... A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. J. Virol. 67, 2552- ... Immunogenicity and safety of AS03-adjuvanted 2009 influenza A H1N1 vaccine in children 6-35 months. Vaccine 28, 5837-5844 (2010 ... Role of conserved glycosylation sites in maturation and transport of influenza A virus hemagglutinin. J. Virol. 67, 3048-3060 ( ...
Development of influenza vaccines that promote cross protection and induce T cell memory responses to conserved antigens ... Our research interests are focused on HIV/AIDS, with the ultimate goal of developing an effective vaccine or a long-term ... Those mice strains end up with demyelination and symptoms like MS. In other strains of mice, TMEV is eliminated within a few ... Adenovirus vector for vaccine against influenza and other viruses. My current research explores the use of bioinformatics, ...
The current inactivated influenza virus vaccines induce antibodies that protect against closely related virus strains. They do ... component to current antibody-focused vaccine strategies with a view to reducing the impact of infection with novel influenza A ... Epitope-based vaccines containing conserved peptides recognized by various MHC molecules may therefore confer broad and potent ... Current influenza vaccines stimulate antibody responses against the surface glycoproteins but are ineffective against strains ...
Because of the high degree of antigenic drift among circulating influenza strains over the course of a year, vaccine strains ... Specifically, cell-mediated responses typically focus on peptides from internal influenza proteins, which are far less ... The time delay from isolating the pandemic strain to large-scale vaccine production would be detrimental in a pandemic ... We discuss the advantages of developing a vaccine based on cell-mediated immune responses toward highly pathogenic influenza ...
Currently used influenza vaccines provide good protection only against antigenically matching influenza strains. However, ... Other approaches have focused on the use of conserved epitopes of the viral proteins, including matrix protein 2 ectodomain ( ... Influenza Vaccines to Control Influenza-associated Bacterial Infection: Where Do We Stand? Expert Review of Vaccines. Jan, 2015 ... M2e-based Universal Influenza A Vaccine Vaccine. Oct, 2009 , Pubmed ID: 19840661 Human influenza causes substantial morbidity ...
A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. J. Virol. 67, 2552- ... Yet, antisera generated against the glycosylated HA mutant neutralized it, suggesting that the focus of the immune response can ... New strains of H1N1 influenza virus have emerged episodically over the last century to cause human pandemics, notably in 1918 ... 2, A and B, left panels). In marked contrast, the seasonal strains have two highly conserved glycosylation sites (142 and 177, ...
A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. J. Virol.67:2552- ... a highly conserved epitope that could be harnessed in the design of a broader and more universal influenza A virus vaccine. ... Notwithstanding, it still remains a significant obstacle to focus the host immune response on such conserved epitopes in order ... a novel strain of influenza A virus H1N1 (S-OIV) with swine origin emerged in North America and has become the first influenza ...
... vaccines expressing foreign (RSV) neutralizing epitopes or conserved M2e epitopes that are capab ... Disclosed are recombinant chimeric influenza virus vaccines and live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) ... antigen for developing universal influenza vaccines. Previous studies have focused on influenza A vaccines based on the small ... influenza virus type A strain. 15. A cross-protective vaccine comprising the recombinant influenza virus of claim 1. 16. The ...
Vaccine strategies that focus the immune response to the HA stalk region by employing a series of chimeric HA antigens in which ... broadly reactive against circulating IBV strains by targeting the conserved HA stalk region, (ii) high-affinity binding in ... necessitating annual vaccine reformulation. Influenza vaccine effectiveness can be further compromised when trivalent vaccines ... Impact of influenza B lineage-level mismatch between trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines and circulating viruses, 1999-2012. ...
The result will be a single vaccination that protects against a wider range of influenza strains than traditional vaccines. ... This should focus the production of highly reactive antibodies against the conserved HA epitopes, which will eliminate a wider ... However, these regions are frequently mutated, rendering the vaccines useless. Vaccines directed towards more conserved ... of the University of Tokyo in Japan will develop broadly effective influenza vaccines by mixing together epitopes of conserved ...
... confer protective immunity when there is antigenic similarity between the selected vaccine strains and circulating influenza ... For this reason, if an antigenic mismatch exists between the current vaccine and circulating influenza isolates, vaccinated ... However, the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines are limited because they only ... Annual influenza vaccination is the primary prophylactic countermeasure aimed at limiting influenza burden. ...
This article focuses on the induction of the influenza-specific CD8.sup.+ T-cell response and how these cells acquire and ... Current influenza vaccines generate protective antibody responses; however, these must be given annually to provide protection ... By contrast, CD8.sup.+ T cells are capable of recognizing conserved antigenic determinants within the influenza virion and, as ... such, may provide protection against a number of variant strains of the virus. CD8.sup.+ T cells play a critical key role in ...
With regards to a universal influenza vaccine, attention has focused on conserved sequences across strains. For example, the ... The availability of a vaccine or vaccines against multiple strains of influenza A and the implementation of cell-based ... In general, it takes five to six months from the selection of an influenza strain for a vaccine to become available as a ... The scientific community is awaiting these and other similar investigations to develop new influenza vaccines with cross-strain ...
... the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that ... Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. ... Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Pandemics , Seasons , Vaccination , Vaccines , Viral ... Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza ...
The result will be a single vaccination that protects against a wider range of influenza strains than traditional vaccines. ... This should focus the production of highly reactive antibodies against the conserved HA epitopes, which will eliminate a wider ... Combining Epitope-Based Vaccine Design with Informatics-Based Evaluation to Obtain a Universal Influenza Vaccine. Peter Kwong ... They will extend this work to influenza vaccine development, determining whether a CMV vaccine can protect cynomolgus macaque ...
Influenza viruses are important pathogens which pose an ongoing threat to public health due to their ability to mutate and ... To date, vaccines have focused on eliciting largely strain-specific immune responses toward the HA head. However, novel ... Universal Influenza Virus Vaccines That Target the Conserved Hemagglutinin Stalk and Conserved Sites in the Head Domain. ... universal influenza vaccines aim to refocus immunity toward the immunosubdominant but conserved influenza virus HA stalk domain ...
Developing a universal vaccine requires that researchers identify conserved regions of the influenza virus that do not exhibit ... The vaccine is made by Sinovac Biotech in Beijing, China, from an inactivated strain of H5N1 known as Vietnam/1194/2004." ... The vaccine focuses on the M2 viral protein, which does not change, rather than the surface hemagglutinin and neuraminidase ... "A universal influenza vaccine could provide protection against all types of influenza and would eliminate the need to develop ...
Overcoming Barriers in the Path to a Universal Influenza Virus Vaccine To date, vaccines have focused on eliciting largely ... However, novel universal influenza vaccines aim to refocus immunity toward the immunosubdominant but conserved influenza virus ... strain-specific immune responses toward the hemagglutinin (HA) head. ... Such vaccines could provide heterologous protection against diverse influenza viruses. [Cell Host Microbe] Full Article ...
  • The specificity of these cross-protective Abs and their protective capacities has been a recent focus of anti-influenza vaccine development efforts and are reviewed in detail elsewhere ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Inaccuracies in prediction of circulating viral strain genotypes and the possibility of novel reassortants causing a pandemic outbreak necessitate the development of an anti-influenza vaccine with increased breadth of protection and potential for rapid production and deployment. (nature.com)
  • The new technology could provide an answer to the urgent need for better anti-influenza drugs. (genengnews.com)
  • The anti-influenza drugs zanamivir and oselatamivir (Relenza and Tamiflu) operate by blocking the NA active site and, as this was first characterized by the structural analysis of NA-antibody complexes, are among the earliest examples of rational drug design. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Will the vaccine be effective against all strains of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, or will it need to be "tweaked" occasionally to protect against different strains, like the regular flu vaccine? (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Application of molecular biology techniques to the production of new vaccines against different strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been the subject of recent research reports. (ebscohost.com)
  • Moreover, these new methods will also serve as a reference tool for the development of future vaccines against several other pathogens. (doabooks.org)
  • Public health has benefitted greatly from the development of over 70 licensed vaccines that prevent infections or limit the infectivity of approximately 30 common pathogens that have historically been significant causes of morbidity and mortality ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Dr. Mahony's research interests focus on the pathophysiology of respiratory pathogens including influenza, SARS and coronaviruses and the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae. (cpnhelp.org)
  • Previous studies have reported that PCV2 has coinfection with other swine pathogens, such as Mhp, porcine parvovirus and swine influenza. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work aims to understand the molecular 'rules' underlying the development of immune responses and may contribute to the design of vaccines against pathogens such as influenza. (ragoninstitute.org)
  • We have been investigating the use of gamma-irradiation to inactivate pathogens for vaccine purposes. (nature.com)
  • Our general hypothesis is that the structural damage associated with gamma-irradiation could be controlled by manipulating irradiation conditions, allowing inactivated vaccine candidates to behave like live pathogens in terms of immune stimulation, for induction of highly effective immune responses. (nature.com)
  • Overall, our study illustrates a direct physical interaction between two prominent respiratory pathogens, which could have a major impact on pathogenicity and vaccine design. (nature.com)
  • Due to inherent difficulties in generating sufficient doses of vaccine, it is always an advantage to minimize the amount of antigen per effective dose. (sciencemag.org)
  • Improving IAV vaccines will likely require the inclusion of adjuvants, which enhance antigen presentation and innate responses ( 3 ) and boost immunogenicity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Some attention and progress appears to be focused on vaccines based on the M2 ectodomain (M2e) employing a variety of constructs, adjuvants and delivery systems, including M2e-hepatitis B core antigen, flagellin constructs, and virus-like particles (VLP). (doabooks.org)
  • Also, a "novel antigen" vaccine could activate more elements of the immune system than are simulated by existing vaccines. (umn.edu)
  • Some novel-antigen vaccines are in development and testing, but they face a steep uphill road, because the current regulatory system is designed to deal with small changes in existing vaccines, the authors concluded. (umn.edu)
  • In Silico Design of Multimeric HN-F Antigen as a Highly Immunogenic Peptide Vaccine Against Newcastle Disease Virus. (ebscohost.com)
  • This superior protection observed following vaccine co-administration is associated with enhanced cytokine responses (particularly those important for the recruitment and differentiation of T-cells and antigen presenting cells), enhanced γ-Flu uptake, and enhanced tissue resident memory cell responses in the lung. (nature.com)
  • In some individuals this can lead to focusing of the polyclonal antibody response to a single site on the influenza haemagglutinin. (bl.uk)
  • In contrast to Influenza, the antibody response to the Ebola glycoprotein (GP) in vaccinated humans was essentially primary. (bl.uk)
  • To reliably initiate that VRC01-class antibody response, Schief and his colleagues therefore sought to develop a new method for designing vaccine immunogens. (anl.gov)
  • Understanding host antibody response is crucial for predicting disease severity and for vaccine development. (cdc.gov)
  • Yet, antisera generated against the glycosylated HA mutant neutralized it, suggesting that the focus of the immune response can be selectively changed with this modification. (sciencemag.org)
  • Alternatively, other approaches aim toward eliciting a broader immune response capable of conferring protection against the diversity of currently circulating seasonal influenza strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • attenuated virus, which is a weaker form of the virus, and an inactivated split influenza vaccine with or without an adjuvant to potentially boost immune response. (dcri.org)
  • One of the potential benefits of this investigational vaccine is that at least in animal studies so far, it does generate a long-lasting immune response which means we may not have to get vaccinated every year," said Jeff Guptill, MD, DEPRU associate faculty director ( pictured right ). (dcri.org)
  • These minor mutations are the reason constant surveillance of circulating strains is needed. (ppd.com)
  • Osivax is founded on a ground-breaking technology capable of producing a universal flu vaccine that delivers long-term protection despite naturally-occurring mutations. (yahoo.com)
  • Takizawa N, Ogura Y, Fujita Y, Noda T, Shigematsu H, Hayashi T, Kurokawa K. Local structural changes of the influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein complex by single mutations in the specific residues involved in efficient genome packaging. (harvard.edu)
  • The prevailing view of interpandemic influenza evolution (which informs influenza vaccine composition) conceptualises the virus population as being driven by the appearance, spread, and accumulation of mutations, through a largely unoccupied "antigenic space" in a directional and usually irreversible fashion ( 2 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is particularly virulent for poultry, and has a high capacity for genetic change, both by single mutations and by recombination with the genetic material of other flu strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the early stages, the focus is on immediate problems, such as discovering mutations causing resistance to current drugs, such as artemisinin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Antisera from the 1918 SC immune mice unexpectedly neutralized heterologous 2009 CA virus entry with a high titer, almost as high as the homologous strain ( Fig. 1A , 1918, left versus middle panel). (sciencemag.org)
  • Also, the team concluded that the live-attenuated flu vaccine (LAIV, the nasal-spray version) is about 83% protective in children aged 6 months to 7 years, but there is inconsistent evidence of protection in people 60 and older and no evidence of protection in those 8 to 59 years old. (umn.edu)
  • How does this type of vaccine differ from live attenuated or killed whole-cell vaccines? (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The lab is focused on using live attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants as vaccine candidates and is currently evaluating this approach in non-human primate studies. (duke.edu)
  • Research Interests: Dr. Angeletti's research is focused on topics relating to sexually transmitted Human papillomaviruses (HPVs). (unl.edu)
  • The extracellular domain (M2e) has remained nearly invariable since the first human influenza strain was isolated in 1933. (jove.com)
  • In August 2006, WHO changed the prototype strains and now offers three new prototype strains which represent three of the six subclades of the clade 2 virus which have been responsible for many of the human cases that have occurred since 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • Announces the start of the expanded human safety and immunogenecity testing of the intranasal influenza vaccine from ID Biomedical Corporation. (ebscohost.com)
  • While human influenza virus challenge studies are valuable, they have some limitations. (arcillaresearch.com)
  • Professor Odile Launay from the Cochin Vaccine Evaluation Center at the Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) will conduct the Phase 1 and Phase 2a trials, and Professor Behazine Combadière from Inserm will run immune analyses on human samples. (yahoo.com)
  • Their paper is titled, " Insertion of N-Terminal Hinge Glycosylation Enhances Interactions of the Fc Region of Human IgG1 Monomers with Glycan-Dependent Receptors and Blocks Hemagglutination by the Influenza Virus . (genengnews.com)
  • In addition, every few decades a new virus emerges in the human population that causes a global pandemic, and the current flu vaccines cannot be used to protect the population against the next pandemic virus. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • The complete polynucleotide sequence of the human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup B strain 9320 genome is provided. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The influenza virus genome is organized in eight discrete segments and, if a single cell is infected simultaneously with a 'human' and an 'avian' virus, the segments can become re-packaged to give a novel variant that could, for instance, express completely new (to humans) avian HA or NA types but whose other genes remain adapted to enable them to spread in people. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though the first human influenza A virus was not isolated until 1933, the 1918 virus has been reconstructed by PCR from preserved lung tissues and from exhuming people who were buried in the Alaskan permafrost. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But the problem is that there are three types of influenza virus that can infect humans - strains A, B and C. They circulate in the human population globally, and mutate every flu season. (edu.au)
  • Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses have shown that the novel SARS-CoV-2 strain is closely related to a group of human SARS-like coronaviruses and bat SARS-related coronaviruses ( 9 - 11 ). (asm.org)
  • The search for a human avian-flu vaccine that could be developed and delivered in time to short-circuit a pandemic has been dogged by multiple obstacles across many sectors. (umn.edu)