Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic: Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Lens Cortex, Crystalline: The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.Lens Capsule, Crystalline: The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.Lens DiseasesLens Nucleus, Crystalline: The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Contact Lenses, Extended-Wear: Hydrophilic contact lenses worn for an extended period or permanently.Lens Subluxation: Incomplete rupture of the zonule with the displaced lens remaining behind the pupil. In dislocation, or complete rupture, the lens is displaced forward into the anterior chamber or backward into the vitreous body. When congenital, this condition is known as ECTOPIA LENTIS.Contact Lens Solutions: Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental: A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.Focal InfectionPresbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Focal Nodular Hyperplasia: Solitary or multiple benign hepatic vascular tumors, usually occurring in women of 20-50 years of age. The nodule, poorly encapsulated, consists of a central stellate fibrous scar and normal liver elements such as HEPATOCYTES, small BILE DUCTS, and KUPFFER CELLS among the intervening fibrous septa. The pale colored central scar represents large blood vessels with hyperplastic fibromuscular layer and narrowing lumen.Eye ProteinsPosterior Capsule of the Lens: The posterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.beta-Crystallins: A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.alpha-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.Lens Plant: A plant genus of the FABACEAE family known for the seeds used as food.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Anterior Capsule of the Lens: The anterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Focal Adhesion Kinase 2: A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.Phacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)delta-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in BIRDS and REPTILES. They are inactive forms of the enzyme argininosuccinate lyase.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Phakic Intraocular Lenses: Lenses, generally made of plastic or silicone, that are implanted into the eye in front of the natural EYE LENS, by the IRIS, to improve VISION, OCULAR. These intraocular lenses are used to supplement the natural lens instead of replacing it.Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Pseudophakia: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Aphakia, Postcataract: Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.beta-Crystallin B Chain: The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Capsulorhexis: The making of a continuous circular tear in the anterior capsule during cataract surgery in order to allow expression or phacoemulsification of the nucleus of the lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Corneal Edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf: Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.alpha-Crystallin B Chain: One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.Zyxin: A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.beta-Crystallin A Chain: The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.PhosphoproteinsIntegrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Notophthalmus viridescens: A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Capsule Opacification: Clouding or loss of transparency of the posterior lens capsule, usually following CATARACT extraction.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Keratoconus: A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: A genetic skin disease characterized by hypoplasia of the dermis, herniations of fat, and hand anomalies. It is found exclusively in females and transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Orthokeratologic Procedures: An alternative to REFRACTIVE SURGICAL PROCEDURES. A therapeutic procedure for correcting REFRACTIVE ERRORS. It involves wearing CONTACT LENSES designed to force corrective changes to the curvature of the CORNEA that remain after the lenses are removed. The effect is temporary but is maintained by wearing the therapeutic lenses daily, usually during sleep.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.KynurenineEnzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Mice, Inbred C57BLLasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Maf Transcription Factors: Maf transcription factors are a family of basic-leucine zipper transcription factors that are closely related to V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. The C-MAF PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN was the first mammalian Maf transcription factor identified, and now the family is known to include a variety of other Maf proteins such as MAFB TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; MAFF TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; MAFG TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; and MAFK TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Maillard Reaction: One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Emmetropia: The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Acrylic ResinsEye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Fluorophotometry: Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
"Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com.. *^ Pepper, Terry. "Database of Original Lenses". Seeing the ... The original structure was outfitted with Lewis lamps, which were thereafter upgraded to a fourth order Fresnel lens. The ... Finch aerobeacon lens was changed to a light-emitting diode (LED) lantern with a reduced range of 15 nautical miles (28 km; 17 ... The aerobeacon lens is stored in a building at the Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum complex for possible future public display. ...
Focal height. 55 feet (17 m). Original lens. Third and half order fresnel lens. ... The original lens, installed in 1896, was a third-and-half-order Fresnel lens. The upper two-thirds of the tower was removed by ...
Focal height. 80 feet (24 m). Original lens. 4th order Fresnel lens. ... 1969 The Fresnel lens is moved to Atwood House Museum, replaced with a Carlisle & Finch rotating light generating over 2.8 ... 1857 Fourth order Fresnel lenses are installed, fueled by lard oil. *1877 New twin towers of brick lined cast iron and a ...
Focal height. 115 metres (377 ft)[3]. Original lens. Fresnel lens[1]. ...
Focal height. 163 feet (50 m). Original lens. Chance Brothers 3rd order Fresnel lens[1]. ... The original lens was a Chance Brothers 3rd order[1] 500-millimetre (20 in)[5] dioptric[3] fresnel lens. The apparatus was a ... In 2005, the original lens and its rotating apparatus were discovered in storage and donated to the Queensland Maritime Museum ... RNE229 says "36m", which List of Lights lists as the total focal height. ...
Focal height. 51 feet (16 m). Original lens. 4th order Fresnel. Current lens. 9.8 inches (250 mm). ...
Current Lens Focal Height Isles of Shoals Light Isles of Shoals 42°58′02″N 70°37′23″W / 42.96722°N 70.62306°W / 42.96722; - ... Current Lens Focal Height Burlington Breakwater North Light Burlington 44°28′50″N 73°13′47.2″W / 44.48056°N 73.229778°W / ... Current Lens Height Linoma Lighthouse Gretna 41°3′44″N 96°19′8″W / 41.06222°N 96.31889°W / 41.06222; -96.31889 1939 Always ... Current Lens Height Baker Island Light Baker Island 0°11′44.8″N 176°29′03.4″W / 0.195778°N 176.484278°W / 0.195778; - ...
Focal height. 124 feet (38 m). Original lens. Fourth order Fresnel lens. ... It had a fourth order Fresnel lens, which was transferred from the Point Hueneme Lighthouse. The tower was replaced in 1934 by ...
Focal height. 136 feet (41 m). Original lens. first order bivalve Fresnel lens (1873). ... The original lens was a first order bivalve Fresnel lens. The light characteristic of the original light was: flashing white ...
Focal height. 71 feet (22 m). Original lens. 4th order Fresnel lens. ... In 1858, the new tower was renovated to allow the installation of a 4th-order Fresnel lens. The current keepers dwellings were ...
An octagonal cast iron lantern was installed at its center, with a fixed white fourth-order Fresnel lens placed at a focal ... fixed white sixth-order Fresnel lens sat at a focal plane of 37 feet (11 m), sending its light 8 1⁄2 nautical miles (15.7 km; ... "Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. which states 61 feet (19 m) Pepper, Terry. "Database of Original ... In 2002, the Saginaw River Marine Historical Society "acquired a historic locomotive-style range lens of the type used in the ...
The focal plane is 56 feet (17 m). It now has a 9.8-inch (250 mm) acrylic optic Fresnel lens, and assuming it is properly ... "Database of Original Lenses". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Archived from the original on 2000-09-18. Light List, Volume ... "Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-30. Pepper, Terry. " ... Terry Pepper, database on heights and focal planes. National Park Service, Maritime Heritage Program, Inventory of Historic ...
"Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Pepper, Terry. "Database of Original Lenses". Seeing the Light. ... This housed the original Fresnel lens, made by Barbier & Fenstre in Paris in 1884, which is now on display at the Grice House ... In 1967, the fourth order Fresnel lens was removed, and replaced with a 12-inch (300 mm) Vega acrylic optic. The light and fog ...
The other Great Lakes 3½-order lenses were at (in alphabetical order): DeTour Reef (two 3½-order lenses, after the bivalve lens ... The focal plane is listed by the Coast Guard at 69 feet (21 m), which would be the height from the "mean high water mark," That ... The lens at Sturgeon Point is without a doubt a third-and-a-half order lens. As Terry Pepper, Executive Director of the Great ... The 3½-order Fresnel lens is still in place and was in use as of July 31, 2012. This is one of only 70 such Fresnel lenses that ...
The focal plane is at 70 feet (21 m) above the lake, and was visible for a distance of 10 nautical miles in clear weather. ... The new lens was visible up to 10 nautical miles (19 km; 12 mi). Because of weather conditions, installation, maintenance and ... The current lens is a DCB-36 Aerobeacon. Putting aside questions of nostalgia, aesthetics, or appreciation for the engineering ... "Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-30. Pepper, Terry. " ...
"Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Pepper, Terry. "Database of Original Lenses". Seeing the Light. ... The lantern originally held the first fourth order Fresnel lens on the Great Lakes. Although the light is now gray in color, it ...
This is one of only seventy such lenses that are still operational in the United States, sixteen of which are use on the Great ... "Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-30. Pepper, Terry. " ... "Database of Original Lenses". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Archived from the original on 2000-09-18. "Anderson, Kraig, ... "United States Coast Guard, Fresnel Lenses Still in Operation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Merkel, ...
"Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Pepper, Terry. "Database of Original Lenses". Seeing the Light. ... A light continues to operate to this day with a 9.8-inch (250 mm) acrylic lens, the original Fresnel lens having disappeared. ... Acrylic lens, Terry Pepper, Seeing the Light. Little Traverse Conservancy home page. Archived 2008-05-12 at the Wayback Machine ... 14,000 in 1872 for a lighthouse to be built of limestone and brick on this location and fitted with a 3.5-order Fresnel lens. ...
These massive lenses are 81.46 inches (2,069 mm) high, with a focal length of 27.6 inches (700 mm). It weighed 3,530 pounds ( ... In 1985, the Fresnel lens was replaced when the light was powered by solar energy. The original Fresnel Lens is on exhibit at ... In 1908, a 3rd Order Fresnel lens was temporarily installed, but the lantern was designed for the 2nd Order lens, which had not ... Second Order Fresnel lens, Terry Pepper, Seeing the Light. Putnam, George R., Lighthouses and Lightships of the United States ...
"Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Pepper, Terry. "Database of Original Lenses". Seeing the Light. ... Since the Fresnel lens was replaced by a modern acrylic lens, the Spectacle Reef Light has continued to serve as an active aid ... As the Coast Guard notes: "The focal plane is 4 feet 3 inches (1.30 m) above the top of the parapet, making it 97 feet 3 inches ... In the 1870s, so as to raise lights to a higher focal plane, conical brick towers, usually between 80 and 100 feet tall, were ...
Aids to navigation consisted of a 4th order Fresnel lens and a fog bell tower. The focal height is 89 feet (27 m). At one time ... "Database of Original Lenses". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Archived from the original on 2000-09-18. Light List, Volume ... Although the island is privately owned, an automated aid to navigation on a gray steel tower (with a 96 feet (29 m) focal plane ... "Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-30. Pepper, Terry. " ...
Second Order Fresnel lens, Terry Pepper, Seeing the Light. Fresnel lens Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of the United States: ... In the 1870s, so as to raise lights to a higher focal plane, conical brick towers, usually between eighty and one hundred feet ... The lighthouse is unique: The massive original lens was a 2nd Order Fresnel Lens manufactured by Barbier, Benard & Turenne of ... The original lens is on display at the Whitefish Point Light Museum. It is the sole "aluminum-topped" lighthouse on the Great ...
Terry Pepper, List of focal Planes. Pepper, Terry. "Database of Original Lenses". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Light List ... The original lens was replaced by a 9.8-inch (250 mm) plastic lens; this lens continues to function in the light. The keeper's ... The original lens was a Fourth Order Fresnel lens manufactured by Barbier and Fenestre of Paris. ... It is said to be on display at Whitefish Point Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum, although Terry Pepper claims that the lens may be ...
In 1963, the original lens was sent to the Smithsonian Institution. A fourth order Fresnel lens taken from Martin Reef Light is ... It has a 65-foot (20 m) tower height, and a focal plane that is variously reported as 68 or 72 feet (21 or 22 m). The new Light ... Being built on the Point's highest ground, this first light had a 63-foot (19 m) focal plane, and a range of visibility of 10 ... "Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. "Maritime History Project, Inventory of Historic Light Stations ...
Fourth order Fresnel lenses were 28 inches (710 mm), with a focal length of 9.8 inches (250 mm), and used 5 ounces (140 g) of ... the Charity Island lens had a range of 13 nautical miles. In 1900, an acetylene lens replaced the 4th order lens. The lights ... "Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-30. Seeing The Light - ... Although a lens in that configuration had a range of up to 15 nautical miles (28 km; 17 mi), ...
Focal Press. p. 170. ISBN 0-240-80500-3.. *^ Hsien-Che Lee (2005). Introduction to Color Imaging Science. Cambridge University ... color balance is typically achieved by using color correction filters over the lights or on the camera lens.[3] ...
An intraocular lens, for use within the human eye, contains three concentric regions. An innermost region provides far-field ... Multi focal intra-ocular lens. US5192318 *. 11 Aug 1992. 9 Mar 1993. Schneider Richard T. One-piece bifocal intraocular lens ... 1. An intraocular lens comprising:. a) a first region, of long focal length, located near the center of the lens, and having a ... A method for making multi-focal length contact lenses. US3339997 *. 30 Jul 1962. 5 Sep 1967. Plastic Contact Lens Company. ...
... lenses, accessories, and phones. Get answers to your questions in our photography forums. ... NewsReviewsArticlesBuying GuidesSample ImagesVideosCamerasLensesPhonesPrintersForumsGalleriesChallenges ... I shot each lens wide open focused on the wall, once with no shade and once with a 15 x 20 cm piece of cardboard above and in ... Interesting, the flare changes character with focal length. With the 100/2.8, it seems to be a fairly uniform veiling. With the ...
People keep telling me to ditch the contact lenses and go for eye surgery. Dunno. I hear that these things go wrong one in ... I havent had any problems with changing focal distance so it probably depends on the person (knock on wood) Im hoping to get ... It is so nice not to have to deal with finicky toric lenses anymore. ...
My experience of a multi-focal lens implant for cataracts. I had a sinlge multi focal lens implanted about 2 months ago. I hate ... Re: Multi-focal lens implant for cataracts. tumbleweed, Have you had your surgery yet? I had a monofocal lens for distance ... The idea that the lens is multi focal is just not what you and I might think as multi focal. You can see close up. You can ... Re: Multi-focal lens implant for cataracts. tumbleweed, My eye doctor gave me literature listing the various lens options. ...
This interactive Java tutorial explores the effect of tube lens focal length on the angle of off-axis light rays in microscopes ... Tube Lens Focal Length. As the focal length of the tube lens is increased, the distance to the intermediate image plane also ... The Focal Length slider is utilized to adjust the tube lens focal length to a new value, which either increases or decreases ... The advantages of a longer tube lens focal length becomes apparent when comparing systems having a focal length range between ...
The lens comprises an elastic element (36) capable of deforming in response to a change in pressure of the liquids, in such a ... A lens assembly of variable focal length comprises two transparent plates (24, 38) at least partially facing each other and ... way as to substantially maintain the optical properties of the lens assembly, e.g., in order to maintain the parallelism of the ... thereby ensuring that the lens maintains its optical properties when the lens/lens mount is being assembled and when the lens ...
Thus, when the layers of each lens are manipulated in unison, the focal length of the lens assembly is adjusted. ... Each lens has pair of parallel glass plates that are separated by upper and lower glass substrates. A series of polymer films ... A lens assembly has a pair of polarized liquid crystal lenses. ... The focal length of lens 15 should be longer than that of lens ... 1, a sensor or lens assembly 11 is shown. Lens assembly 11 comprises a front liquid crystal (LC) lens 13, a rear LC lens 15, ...
Management of focal limbal stem cell deficiency associated with soft contact lens wear.. Jeng BH1, Halfpenny CP, Meisler DM, ... The focal LSCD was found superiorly in all involved eyes and inferiorly in only 5 of 18 eyes (27.8%). The epitheliopathy ... Focal LSCD can be a result of SCL wear, presenting with varying manifestations. SCL wearers should be monitored routinely and ... Early identification of focal LSCD in SCL wearers with subsequent cessation of wear may prevent the need for surgical ...
Buy Reikan FoCal Focal Plus Lens Calibration featuring Calibration Software License, Includes Standard Hard Target 150mm ... Calibrate most Canon and Nikon cameras and lenses with FoCal Plus Lens Calibration from Reikan. In addition to the software ... Focal Plus Lens Calibration is rated 3.6 out of 5 by 9. ... Reikan FoCal Focal Plus Lens Calibration B&H # FOCLLPCAL MFR # ... Focal Plus is not recommended to be used with lenses of 400mm or longer. ...
34mm diameter and 66mm focal length. If youre In need of a lens for an art project or DIY magnifier, this is the lens for you ... GRADE A PRIME LENS. A beautiful glass achromat lens. 34mm diameter and 66mm focal length. If youre In need of a lens for an ... Little Bitty Lenses These 9mm dia plano-convex (PCx)glass lenses have an appx. 154mm focal length, and are perfect for arts and ... Placebo Lens Great little glass DCX lenses for all of your project needs. Utilize their 48.3mm focal lengths for all classroom ...
Find the best prices from top brands, for daily, colored, and multi-focal astigmatism lenses at Lens.com. ... Toric contact lenses are designed to correct astigmatism and help you see with clarity. ... Home , Contact Lenses , Toric Lenses Toric Contact Lenses for Astigmatism. Lens.com is a proud provider of quality toric ... Lens.com is a contact lens replacement company, and a direct to consumer marketer of contact lenses.. As a contact lens ...
8.5mm Fixed Focal Length 69.4° Diagonal Field of View. Review computar ... Buy computar C-Mount 8.5mm Fixed Focal Lens featuring Compatible with 2/3 Cameras, ... The C-Mount 8.5mm Fixed Focal Lens from Computar is designed for C-mount CCTV cameras with 2/3" sensors. With an iris range of ... Rated 4 out of 5 by Skyline Robotics from OK lens This lens does what it promises to do. The image quality is decent for the ...
Abbott won FDA approval for the Tecnis Symfony intraocular lenses that are implanted during cataract surgeries. These are the ... Tecnis Symfony Intraocular Lenses with Wide Focal Range for Cataracts Approved by FDA. July 19th, 2016 Editors Ophthalmology ... pivotal study that compared the Tecnis Symfony lens to a Tecnis aspheric monofocal lens in 298 patients. Compared with patients ... These lenses have already been approved in over 50 countries, studies in which showed the device to provide improved vision in ...
An optical lens array whose focal length and lens pitch can be varied by acoustic radiation force was investigated. It has no ... Its focal length can be controlled by varying the voltage applied to the transducers and the lens pitch can be altered by ... Ultrasonic optical lens array with variable focal length and pitch Daisuke Koyama, Megumi Hatanaka, Kentaro Nakamura, and Mami ... Daisuke Koyama, Megumi Hatanaka, Kentaro Nakamura, and Mami Matsukawa, "Ultrasonic optical lens array with variable focal ...
4 "Re: Solar Beam Welding Using Fresnel Lens Focal Spot" by SolarEagle on 03/02/2016 3:56 PM (score 2) ... 5 "Re: Solar Beam Welding Using Fresnel Lens Focal Spot" by Rixter on 03/02/2016 8:55 PM (score 2) ... 1 "Re: Solar Beam Welding Using Fresnel Lens Focal Spot" by Fredski on 03/02/2016 8:04 AM (score 1) ... 7 "Re: Solar Beam Welding Using Fresnel Lens Focal Spot" by welderman on 03/03/2016 10:33 AM (score 1) ...
They do need corrective lenses in order to see farther distances during activities such as driving, or playing sports. ... ... Modern day progressive lenses do not have the line in the middle that old style bi-focal lenses once had. ... Solutions for near sighted people who develop Presbyopia - Those who need bi-focal lenses or progressive lenses. Updated on ... Progressive Lenses. Progressive lenses are available as either contacts or glasses. The one pair of lenses will correct both ...
... medium-telephoto fixed focal length lens with a focal length of 85 mm and a maximum aperture of f/1.8 compatible with the Nikon ... The AF-S NIKKOR 85mm f/1.8G is the new addition to the Nikon FX-format lens lineup. It utilizes an all ... Nikon today announced the release of the AF-S NIKKOR 85mm f/1.8G, a fast, medium-telephoto fixed focal length lens with a focal ... Nikon launches AF-S NIKKOR 85mm f/1.8G - fast medium-telephoto fixed focal length lens. Dhiram Shah ...
... posted in Lenses and Lens Accessories: I have a set of three Schneider Xenon FFs (35,50,75) that have been serving me very well ... What Schneider Xenon FF focal lengths would you rent? - ... What Schneider Xenon FF focal lengths would you rent?. Started ... 75 will get me through nearly every shot I need and than the 18 will serve as a stylized special lens, however I worry that my ... once it is a full set but Im trying to figure out what indie/low-budget shooter that can only rent a selection of lens would ...
Tamron, as an integrated lens manufacturer, aggressively develops distinguished high-resolution fixed-focal lenses that address ... Tamron releases new fixed-focal lenses series for 5-mega-pixel machine vision applications. Photo by TAMRON Europe GmbH ... Navigation : EXPO21XX News » Automation & Robotics » Tamron releases new fixed-focal lenses series for 5-mega-pixel machine ... Market offers an extensive selection of lenses that fit each application. However, a camera-and-lens combination needs to be ...
... lens having a first aspect positioned to image the received item, wherein the first aspect of the TAG lens is configured to ... have an optical power profile in accordance with an operational frequency of the TAG lens; one or more lenses configured to ... configured to illuminate the received item and to pulse at one or more points within the optical power profile of the TAG lens ... Justification for Approximation that TAG Lens is a Thin Lens. The TAG lens 300 can be approximated as a thin lens. This ...
20090 Camera Lenses DSLR Lenses Full Frame Fixed Focal Length Lenses Telephoto Lenses cameras frames dslrs teleconverter ... Nikon NIKKOR Z 85mm f/1.8 S Lens ... Fixed Focal Length Lenses. *Full-Frame Fixed Focal Length ... NIKKOR Z 85mm f/1.8 S Lens. LC-67B 67mm Snap-On Front Lens Cap. LF-N1 Rear Lens Cap. HB-91 Bayonet Lens Hood. CL-C1 Lens Case ... Intuitive on-lens controls can be customized to your individual shooting style and so much more. Z lenses are designed with a ...
Focal Length Standard Lenses DSLR Non-Full Frame Fixed Focal Length Wide Angle Lenses DSLR Non-Full Frame Zoom Telephoto Lenses ... DSLR Non-Full Frame Zoom Standard Lenses Medium Format Lenses DSLR Non-Full Frame Fixed Focal Length Telephoto Lenses Camera ... Lens Accessories Caps Remote Controls Medium Format Lens Accessories B&W Film 120 Roll Digital P&S Components Telephoto Lenses ... Extenders/Tilt Camera Mounted Flash DSLR Non-Full Frame Zoom Wide Angle Lenses DSLR Non-Full Frame Specialty Macro Lenses ...
A multifocal ophthalmic lens has diffractive power produced by a plurality of concentric zones. The zones have radii that meet ... G02C7/02-Lenses; Lens systems ; Methods of designing lenses * G02C7/06-Lenses; Lens systems ; Methods of designing lenses ... In such lenses a first region of the lens is typically provided with a first focal length while a second region of the lens is ... Multi-focal contact lenses utilizing an approach similar to that used in spectacle lenses are described in Contact Lenses: A ...
Vari- and bi-focal lenses - a risk factor for falling?. 3 December, 2014. Graeme 1 Comment ... Vari- and bi-focal lenses are a well recognised risk for falls among experts. This is based on the results of well conducted ... One thought on "Vari- and bi-focal lenses - a risk factor for falling?" * Aija Svilane says: ... In vari-focals, the lower part of the glass contains the lens for reading and the upper part contains the lens for long ...
Lens Focal Length 5.0 (W) - 25.0 (T) mm (35mm film equivalent: 28 (W) - 140 (T) mm) ... lenses or LCD display or damage to any of the accessories mentioned in the first paragraph above, will be presumed to have ...
  • It should be no surprise that Nikon chose the 50mm to be among the first of a new generation of superb NIKKOR Z lenses. (nikonusa.com)
  • Empowered by the Z system's larger mount, shorter flange distance, raw imaging power and video capabilities, the NIKKOR Z 50mm f/1.8 S will redefine your notion of what a 50mm f/1.8 lens can do. (nikonusa.com)
  • Paying homage to the acclaimed Noct Nikkor 58mm f/1.2, the 58mm focal length falls in the sweet spot between a standard lens (50mm) and a medium telephoto lens (85mm). (nikonusa.com)
  • Canon EF 50mm f/1.4 USM is a standard lens featuring superb quality and portability. (ebay.com.au)
  • Bausch & Lomb's contact lenses offer a new level of vision quality thanks to revolutionary Natra-Sight Optics, a unique system utilizing two different lenses that work together to provide clear vision whether you're looking near, far or anywhere in between. (justlenses.com)
  • An intraocular lens, for use within the human eye, contains three concentric regions. (google.co.uk)
  • After removal, the lens can be replaced by an artificial lens 22, shown in FIG. 2, and which is termed an intraocular lens (IOL). (google.co.uk)
  • An open chamber, accommodative, intraocular lens method and apparatus operable to be positioned within an evacuated capsular bag of a human eye following extracapsular extraction of a natural crystalline lens is provided having an anterior refractive lens optic, a first haptic segment having a first. (google.com)
  • said first, longitudinally arcuate, haptic and said at least a second, longitudinally arcuate, haptic being also arcuate transverse to the direction of said optic axes so as to operably fit smoothly within the interior of and abut against the interior surfaces of the evacuated capsular bag of a wearer of the intraocular lens system. (google.com)
  • The lens is then removed through the incisions and the procedure continues as the new intraocular lens is placed in the eye. (maloneyvision.com)
  • An intraocular lens (2) with which the natural lens of the eye (1) is replaced in connection with, for example, a cataract operation. (google.co.uk)
  • By using a bifocal intraocular lens which has advantageously two different focal distances (8, 9), two images are produced on the retina (3), one of the images being sharp. (google.co.uk)
  • 1. An intraocular lens to be fitted inside the eye, the lens being made up of at least ' two- parts having different refractive powers. (google.co.uk)
  • 4. An intraocular lens according to Claim 2, in which the first part (8) of the lens is of a first material and the second part (9) of the lens is of a second material, the second material having a refractive coefficient different from that of the first material. (google.co.uk)
  • 5. An intraocular lens according to Claim 3, in which the second, central part (9) of the lens is a hole (9) , cavity or depression formed in the lens, or a piece of another material embedded in it. (google.co.uk)
  • 6. An intraocular lens according to Claim 3, in which the second, central part (9) of the lens is a hole which extends through the lens, a so-called pinhole. (google.co.uk)
  • 10. An intraocular lens according to Claim 2, in which the lens is divided into substantially concentric parts, every second part (ll 1 , respectively 12! (google.co.uk)
  • The invention relates to an intraocular lens to be fitted inside the eye. (google.co.uk)
  • Therefore in recent years the use of a so-called intraocular lens, a lens fitted inside the eye in connecti with a cataract operation to replace the natural lens, has been started. (google.co.uk)
  • A lens assembly of variable focal length comprises two transparent plates (24, 38) at least partially facing each other and parallel to one another and delimiting, at least in part, an internal volume (15) containing two non-miscible liquids having different optical indices. (google.com.ar)
  • For most photographers, a versatile, wide focal-range zoom will be the best bet. (engadget.com)
  • At the top of the ever-expanding NIKKOR Z lens lineup, S-Line lenses push Nikon's tradition of optical excellence and innovation to unprecedented new heights. (vistek.ca)
  • Go beyond the ordinary with the AF-S NIKKOR 58mm f/1.4G, a lens designed to excel in low-light and nighttime applications but with characteristics you'll enjoy for so much more. (nikonusa.com)
  • When shooting stills of a close subject, the AF-S NIKKOR 58mm f/1.4G can achieve beautiful bokeh with soft, natural edges that diminishes smoothly away from your focal point. (nikonusa.com)
  • Nikon Super Integrated Coating is Nikon's term for its multilayer coating of the optical elements in NIKKOR lenses. (nikonusa.com)
  • Select NIKKOR lenses have a focusing mode which allows switching from automatic to manual focusing with virtually no lag time by simply turning the focusing ring on the lens. (nikonusa.com)
  • Calibrate most Canon and Nikon cameras and lenses with FoCal Plus Lens Calibration from Reikan . (bhphotovideo.com)
  • The Silent Wave Motor (SWM) ensures not only quiet autofocus operations, but also makes autofocus shooting possible when the lens is used with entry-level Nikon DX-format digital-SLR cameras such as the D5100 and D3100, which are not equipped with an autofocus drive motor. (fareastgizmos.com)
  • An anti-reflective coating developed by Nikon that virtually eliminates internal lens element reflections across a wide range of wavelengths. (nikonusa.com)
  • Note that any 'DX' lenses will have a 1.5x crop automatically applied by a full-frame Nikon camera by default. (dpreview.com)
  • In this guide, I'll touch on all that and look at some of the best lenses for Sony, Canon, Nikon, Fujifilm and Micro Four Thirds cameras. (engadget.com)
  • Lenses are usually designed for specific brands (Nikon, Sony) and sensor sizes (full frame, APS-C or Micro Four Thirds). (engadget.com)
  • Full-frame lenses for Canon, Sony and Nikon work just fine on their APS-C models. (engadget.com)
  • You can also stick APS-C lenses on full-frame Nikon and Sony cameras, but the image will be cropped and zoomed in. (engadget.com)
  • FoCal 2.1 - Adds Full Nikon D5/D500 Support and New Dust Analysis. (reikanfocal.com)
  • Nikon D5 and D500 support added - FoCal can now control the latest Nikon cameras. (reikanfocal.com)
  • Added support for the Nikon D810A - we've had a few users requesting support for this camera, with their help it's been added to FoCal, thanks! (reikanfocal.com)
  • Aspherical lens elements correct these distortions by continuously changing the refractive index from the center of the lens. (nikonusa.com)
  • The EF 24-70mm f/2.8L II USM delivers superb image quality throughout its zoom range, thanks to aspherical lens elements and ultra-low dispersion (UD) and super UD glass . (johnlewis.com)
  • Lenses with low apertures (which allow for more light to hit the sensor) also produce that blurred "bokeh" effect, perfect for portraits. (lifehacker.com)
  • A camera lens' focal length (the distance from the lens' most focused image to the camera's sensor itself) is written in millimeters. (lifehacker.com)
  • The distance from the sensor and the optical centre of the lens when focused to infinity. (johnlewis.com)
  • A lower focal length means that the lens can project a wider image onto the sensor, capturing more of what you see. (wikihow.com)
  • Shutter Speed an opening within a lens which light travels into the camera body the wider the opening, the more light travels into the camera sensor expressed in ' f-stops ' eg. (prezi.com)
  • The 50-150 mm Premium S Lens features 4-axis control with a 6-axis sensor for detecting camera shake that enables the OIS system to make precision corrections necessary for sharp pictures at low shutter speeds. (samsung.com)
  • 2 Extra-low Dispersion (ED) and 2 Aspherical (AS) lens elements plus Nano Crystal Coat for virtually zero flare, ghosting, coma or chromatic, spherical and axial aberration, even at the far edges of the frame. (nikonusa.com)
  • A lens with a curved, non-spherical surface. (nikonusa.com)
  • Aspheric lenses compensate for spherical aberration and are used primarily for their light gathering ability. (globalspec.com)
  • Spherical lenses, also known as singlets, are transparent optical components consisting of one or more pieces of optical glass with surfaces so curved that they serve to converge or diverge the transmitted rays from an object, thus forming a real or virtual image of that object. (globalspec.com)
  • Negative meniscus (convex-concave) lenses, which are thinner in the middle than at the edges and cause light rays to diverge, are designed to minimize third-order spherical aberration. (thorlabs.com)
  • These are typically clear spheres, and while they have advantages over traditional lenses, they are difficult to fabricate and the focus point is spherical. (photonics.com)
  • You can use filters on your camera lens to reduce glare or filter out colors to achieve some cool effects. (lifehacker.com)
  • The more interesting features of a camera lens are often obscured behind brand-specific lingo. (lifehacker.com)
  • Would you like to protect your camera lens for 2 years against accidental damage with Protect Plus? (johnlewis.com)
  • With Protect Plus for your camera lens, you'll get 2 years of protection against accidental damage alongside your guarantee. (johnlewis.com)
  • Disposable lenses are designed to be worn for a limited time and then discarded. (focalpoint.net.nz)
  • Disposable lenses are more comfortable and easy to maintain because they are used till the replacement time and just thrown away. (focalpoint.net.nz)