Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Ischemic Preconditioning: A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Menispermum: A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain dauricine and other ALKALOIDS.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Mice, Inbred C57BLAstrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Warm Ischemia: A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.Phenazocine: An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1095)Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNecrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cold Ischemia: The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Thiocarbamates: Carbamates in which the -CO- group has been replaced by a -CS- group.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)CA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental: A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Acid Sensing Ion Channels: A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Focal InfectionIsoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Galectin 1: A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.Focal Nodular Hyperplasia: Solitary or multiple benign hepatic vascular tumors, usually occurring in women of 20-50 years of age. The nodule, poorly encapsulated, consists of a central stellate fibrous scar and normal liver elements such as HEPATOCYTES, small BILE DUCTS, and KUPFFER CELLS among the intervening fibrous septa. The pale colored central scar represents large blood vessels with hyperplastic fibromuscular layer and narrowing lumen.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Constriction: The act of constricting.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
"MiR-497 regulates neuronal death in mouse brain after transient focal cerebral ischemia". Neurobiology of Disease. 38 (1): 17- ... "MicroRNAs Show Mutually Exclusive Expression Patterns in the Brain of Adult Male Rats". PLoS ONE. 4 (10): e7225. doi:10.1371/ ...
"Neuroprotective role of a brain-enriched tyrosine phosphatase, STEP, in focal cerebral ischemia". The Journal of Neuroscience. ... a subfamily of brain-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatases". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 32 (1): 87-93. doi: ... Thus, STEP levels or activity is decreased in Huntington's disease, cerebral ischemia, alcohol abuse, and stress disorders. The ... was the first brain-specific PTP discovered. The human STEP locus maps to chromosome 11p15.2-p15.1 and the murine STEP gene to ...
"Neuroprotective role of a brain-enriched tyrosine phosphatase, STEP, in focal cerebral ischemia". The Journal of Neuroscience. ... The expression of PTPN5 is restricted to the brain. Differential expression of PTPN5 is found in many brain regions, with no ... Decreased levels of PTPN5 has been implicated in Huntington's disease, cerebral ischemia alcohol abuse, and stress disorders. ... Brain, and Behavior. 11 (5): 586-600. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2012.00781.x. PMC 3922131 . PMID 22405502. Kurup P, Zhang Y, Xu J ...
"Environmental enrichment induces synaptic structural modification after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats". ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery. BDNF was first isolated from pig brain in 1982 by Yves-Alain ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
Elevated MMP9 levels can be found in the cases of rheumatoid arthritis and focal brain ischemia. One of MMP9's most widely ... activities in human brain after focal ischemia". Neuroscience Letters. 238 (1-2): 53-6. doi:10.1016/s0304-3940(97)00859-8. PMID ... Brain. 128 (Pt 7): 1622-33. doi:10.1093/brain/awh489. PMID 15800021. Vandooren J, Van den Steen PE, Opdenakker G (2013). " ... "Time course of upregulation of inflammatory mediators in the hemorrhagic brain in rats: correlation with brain edema". ...
Elevated gelatinase B levels can also be found in the cases of rheumatoid arthritis and focal brain ischemia. However, one of ... activities in human brain after focal ischemia". Neuroscience Letters. 238 (1-2): 53-6. doi:10.1016/s0304-3940(97)00859-8. PMID ...
"Honokiol protects rat brain from focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration and reactive ... Studies examining honokiol as a protective therapy against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury have identified a number ... Because of its physical properties, honokiol can readily cross the blood brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid ... "Honokiol inhibits the inflammatory reaction during cerebral ischemia reperfusion by suppressing NF-κB activation and cytokine ...
"Endocannabinoids mediate neuroprotection after transient focal cerebral ischemia". Brain Research. 1240: 213-220. doi:10.1016/j ... Proposed role in the diseased brain". Experimental Neurology. 224 (1): 48-55. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2010.03.022. PMID ... Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 25 (6): 1099-1112. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2011.02.006. PMID 21354467. Scuderi, C.; Esposito, G.; ... "Palmitoylethanolamide Reduces Early Renal Dysfunction and Injury Caused by Experimental Ischemia and Reperfusion in Mice". ...
"Blood-brain barrier taurine transport during osmotic stress and in focal cerebral ischemia". Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and ... Taurine crosses the blood-brain barrier and has been implicated in a wide array of physiological phenomena including inhibitory ... Tsuji, A; Tamai, I (1996). "Sodium- and chloride-dependent transport of taurine at the blood-brain barrier". Advances in ... Urquhart, N; Perry, TL; Hansen, S; Kennedy, J (1974). "Passage of taurine into adult mammalian brain". Journal of ...
Ischemia is the loss of blood flow to the focal region of the brain. This produces heterogeneous areas of ischemia at the ... When a reduction in blood flow lasting seconds occurs, the brain tissue suffers ischemia, or inadequate blood supply. If the ... Edema, or swelling, of the brain may occur which increases intracranial pressure and may result in brain herniation. A stroke ... The germinal matrix is a highly vascularized area within an unborn infant's brain from which brain cells, including neurons and ...
... or other focal brain pathology. Elevated Hachinski Ischemia Scale score. D. Clinical features that are neither supportive nor ... Alcohol has a direct effect on brain cells in the front part of the brain, resulting in poor judgment, difficulty making ... Long-time alcohol abuse can often lead to poor nutrition problems causing parts of the brain to be damaged by vitamin ... Diagnosing alcohol-related dementia can be difficult due to the wide range of symptoms and a lack of specific brain pathology. ...
... and focal demyelination as well as in the CNS tissues of humans suffering brain damage due to ischemia, trauma, and multiple ... Brain. 132 (Pt 8): 2206-18. doi:10.1093/brain/awp147. PMID 19528093. Marschallinger J, Schäffner I, Klein B, Gelfert R, Rivera ... GPR17 has been proposed as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain ... "A novel orphan G protein-coupled receptor primarily expressed in the brain is localized on human chromosomal band 2q21". ...
... impairment of cerebral energy metabolism and infarction following transient focal hypoxia ischaemia in the developing brain. ... 2001). "Mild hypothermia increases Bcl-2 protein expression following global cerebral ischemia. Brain Res. Mol". Brain Res. 95 ... What follows uses some of these data while trying to focus on the immature brain. Cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia results in reduced ... 1992). "Outcome after ischemia in the developing sheep brain: an electroencephalographic and histological study". Annals of ...
... with intravenous FGF-13 reduces infarct volume and ameliorates neurological deficits following focal cerebral ischemia in rats ... Schoorlemmer J, Goldfarb M (2003). "Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors and the islet brain-2 scaffold protein regulate ... ". Brain Res. 818 (1): 140-6. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(98)01118-4. PMID 9914447. Greene JM, Li YL, Yourey PA, et al. (1998). " ...
"Environmental enrichment induces synaptic structural modification after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats". ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 130 (1-2): 178-86. doi:10.1016/j.molbrainres.2004.07.019. PMID 15519688.. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein[5] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[6][7] BDNF ...
... brain damage and activation of p38 MAPK in rat focal cerebral ischemia". Brain Research. 1073-1074: 470-80. doi:10.1016/j. ... and brain-derived neurotrophic factor availability in a rat model of striatal neurodegeneration". Journal of Neuropathology and ... "Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors by SCH 58261 results in neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischaemia in rats". NeuroReport ...
"TLR3 ligand Poly IC Attenuates Reactive Astrogliosis and Improves Recovery of Rats after Focal Cerebral Ischemia". CNS Neurosci ... and activation of TLR3 signaling is associated with ischemic preconditioning-induced protection against brain ischemia and ... "TLR3 ligand Poly IC Attenuates Reactive Astrogliosis and Improves Recovery of Rats after Focal Cerebral Ischemia". CNS ... "Astrocytic Toll-like receptor 3 is associated with ischemic preconditioning-induced protection against brain ischemia in ...
Focal brain ischemia occurs when a blood clot has occluded a cerebral vessel. Focal brain ischemia reduces blood flow to a ... There are two types of ischemia: focal ischemia, which is confined to a specific region of the brain; and global ischemia, ... During brain ischemia, the brain cannot perform aerobic metabolism due to the loss of oxygen and substrate. The brain is not ... The causes of brain ischemia vary from sickle cell anemia to congenital heart defects. Symptoms of brain ischemia can include ...
"Environmental enrichment induces synaptic structural modification after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats". ... Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed prenatally, parts of the adult brain retain the ability ... "Behaviorally-induced ultrastructural plasticity in the hippocampal region after cerebral ischemia". Brain Research. 997 (2): ... Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 130 (1-2): 178-86. doi:10.1016/j.molbrainres.2004.07.019. PMID 15519688. Henneberger ...
"Temporary focal ischemia in the mouse: Technical aspects and patterns of Fluoro-Jade evident neurodegeneration". Brain Research ... "Dose-dependent neuronal injury after traumatic brain injury". Brain Research. 1044 (2): 144-154. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2005.02 ... Traumatic brain injury Spinal cord injury Alzheimer's disease Aging Stroke Epilepsy Alcoholism Drug abuse Fluoro-jade may also ... Auer R. N.; Kalimo H.; Olsson Y.; Siesjo¨ B. K. (1985). "The temporal evolution of hypoglycemic brain damage. I. Light- and ...
Cerebral edema can be generalized or focal. Brain ventricles are compressed, cortical gyri flattened. Diagnostic methods for ... which results in cerebral ischemia and cytotoxic edema. According to the autoregulation breakthrough conception, cerebral ... Tamaki K, Sadoshima S, Baumbach GL, Iadecola C, Reis DJ, Heistad DD (1984) Evidence that disruption of the blood-brain barrier ... Hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is general brain dysfunction due to significantly high blood pressure. Symptoms may include ...
TIA is now defined as a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia, ... A mild to moderate impairment of brain function due to low oxygen levels in the blood. Focal cerebral ischemia - A stroke ... focal cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and global cerebral ischemia. Prolonged hypoxia induces neuronal cell death via ... The brain requires approximately 3.3 ml of oxygen per 100 g of brain tissue per minute. Initially the body responds to lowered ...
... iridoid glycoside promotes neurogenesis and angiogenesis and improves neurological function after focal cerebral ischemia in ... rats." Brain Res Bull. 2009 Apr 6;79(1):69-76 Kam S.C., Choi S.M., Jeh S.U., Lee S.H., Hwa J.S., Jung K.H., Kang C.W., Hyun J.S ... promoted neurogenesis and angiogenesis and improved neurological function after ischemia in rats. A randomized, double-blinded ...
... calpain inhibitor AK275 protected against focal ischemic brain damage in rats when administered after ischemia, and MDL28170 ... Calpain may be released in the brain for up to a month after a head injury, and may be responsible for a shrinkage of the brain ... ischemia, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. Excessive amounts of calpain can be activated due to Ca2+ influx after ... In the brain, while μ-calpain is mainly located in the cell body and dendrites of neurons and to a lesser extent in axons and ...
TIA is now defined as a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia, ... focal cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and global cerebral ischemia. Prolonged hypoxia induces neuronal cell death via ... a b Richmond, T. S. (May 1997). "Cerebral Resuscitation after Global Brain Ischemia", AACN Clinical Issues 8 (2). Retrieved on ... Focal cerebral ischemia - A stroke occurring in a localized area that can either be acute or transient. This may be due to a ...
... gene knock-out on the proteolysis of blood-brain barrier and white matter components after cerebral ischemia". Neuroprotection ... Namun beberapa kondisi lain dapat menimbulkan gejala yang sangat serupa dengan TIA, seperti focal seizure activity, migraine ... "Calgary Stroke Program (E.E.S.), Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Canada; Duke Clinical Research Institute (L. ... Empat jenis FABP terdapat di sistem saraf, dua diantaranya hanya ditemukan di sistem saraf pusat orang dewasa, yaitu brain-type ...
... hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH (previous denomination: benign hepatoma, solitary hyperplastic nodule, focal sclerosis, ... vascular anomalies in the brain berry aneurysms. biliary atresia patient after Kasai hepatic portoenterostomy (# 18084770#, ... local ischemia. * sickle cell anemia (1929517, 6766634). hepatic vascular anomalies. * congenital absence of the portal vein ... Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in a child with sickle cell anemia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1980 Mar;134(3):594-7. PMID: ...
It is well-established that ischemia leads to very complex and heterogenous changes in microcirculation and metabolism of the ... Microcirculation and Mitochondrial Function in Focal Brain Ischemia. In: Longmuir I.S. (eds) Oxygen Transport to Tissue VIII. ... Raichle, M. A., 1983, The pathophysiology of brain ischemia, Ann. Neurol., 13: 2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Middle Cerebral Artery Brain Cortex Sham Control Ischemic Brain Damage Stroke Group These keywords were added by machine and ...
The small-animal model of focal cerebral ischemia produced by occluding a middle cerebral (MCA) of the rat has already proved ... Specific Gravity Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Caudate Nucleus Brain Edema Focal Cerebral Ischemia These keywords were added ... Shigeno T., Teasdale G.M., McCulloch J., Mandelow D., Graham D.I. (1984) Brain Edema Following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in the ... The small-animal model of focal cerebral ischemia produced by occluding a middle cerebral (MCA) of the rat has already proved ...
B and Protects Rat Brains against Focal Ischemia. Hongguang Fan, Litao Li, Xiangjian Zhang, Ying Liu, Chenhui Yang, Yi Yang, ... B and Protects Rat Brains against Focal Ischemia," Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2009, Article ID 704706, 10 pages, 2009. ...
1993) Antagonism of the NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in global versus focal brain ischemia. Prog Brain Res 96:125-135. ... Focal transient ischemia (MCA occlusion) model. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the left MCA with an 8-0 ... A2A Adenosine Receptor Deficiency Attenuates Brain Injury Induced by Transient Focal Ischemia in Mice. Jiang-Fan Chen, Zhihong ... 1992) Flow thresholds for extracellular purine catabolite elevation in cat focal ischemia. Brain Res 579:309-314. ...
The significance of brain temperature in focal cerebral ischemia: histopathological consequences of middle cerebral artery ... of brain temperature have a greater influence on the resulting cortical infarction in the setting of transient focal ischemia ... Three models of proximal MCA occlusion were used, in which the effect of brain-temperature modulations could be studied. These ... The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of selective modulation of brain temperature in the experimental settings ...
To investigate whether changed expression of caveolins has a pivotal role in focal cerebral ischemia, we induced middle ... rats were used to compare the effects of hypertension on focal cerebral ischemia. All MCAo groups showed neurological ... Expression of caveolins was decreased in MCAo brain tissue, whereas the levels of iNOS and glial fibrillary acidic protein ( ... These results suggest that forced exercise may be beneficial for promoting functional recovery following cerebral ischemia ...
Reperfusion was done 2 h after ischemia. Twenty-four hours after ischemia phospholipase A2 (PLA2) levels and metabolic changes ... spectroscopy of brain tissues. MCAo in rats was induced by insertion of nylon filament. One hour after ischemia, rapamycin (250 ... Perchloric acid extraction was performed on the brain of all animals (n=7; sham, vehicle; DMSO and rapamycin 250 μg/kg) and the ... In all 44 metabolites were assigned in the proton NMR spectrum of rat brain tissues. In the vehicle group, we observed ...
... ... We investigated whether stroke changes the circRNAs expression profile in the mouse brain. ... and gene ontology of circRNAs altered after ischemia. ...
Sensory deprivation after focal ischemia in mice accelerates brain remapping and improves functional recovery through Arc- ... Sensory deprivation after focal ischemia in mice accelerates brain remapping and improves functional recovery through Arc- ... Sensory deprivation after focal ischemia in mice accelerates brain remapping and improves functional recovery through Arc- ... Sensory deprivation after focal ischemia in mice accelerates brain remapping and improves functional recovery through Arc- ...
Hyperglycemia and Focal Brain Ischemia : Clinical and Experimental Studies. by Farrokhnia, Nasim ... The findings suggest that ERK is an important mediator of hyperglycemic-ischemic brain injury and possible target for future ... curves.Cerebral ischemia triggers different signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) which ... ischemia; mitogen-activated protein kinases; mortality; rats; reactive oxygen species; reperfusion; signal transduction; ...
Interrelationship of brain edema, motor deficits, and memory impairment in rats exposed to focal ischemia.. T Tominaga, S T ... Interrelationship of brain edema, motor deficits, and memory impairment in rats exposed to focal ischemia. ... Interrelationship of brain edema, motor deficits, and memory impairment in rats exposed to focal ischemia. ... Interrelationship of brain edema, motor deficits, and memory impairment in rats exposed to focal ischemia. ...
... ... The mRNA expression of NGFI-A showed a similar pattern of BDNF except for an increase at 30 d after induction of brain ischemia ... The mRNA expression of NGFI-A showed a similar pattern of BDNF except for an increase at 30 d after induction of brain ischemia ... Enriched environment (EE) housing significantly ameliorates neurological deficits induced by cortical brain ischemia without ...
Quantitative characterization of the progression of focal brain ischemia in a rat photochemical stroke model using in-vivo MRI ...
Download Free Full-Text of an article EFFECT OF AMINOGUANIDINE ON POST-ISCHEMIC BRAIN EDEMA FORMATION IN TRANSIENT MODEL OF ... Conclusion: Our findings show that administration of AG in early phase of transient focal cerebral ischemia reduces brain edema ... EFFECT OF AMINOGUANIDINE ON POST-ISCHEMIC BRAIN EDEMA FORMATION IN TRANSIENT MODEL OF FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA. ... Methods: Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in rats by 60 minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by 23 ...
Conclusion: This study is the first study to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect against focal cerebral ischemia of M. ... It suggests that M.oleifera may be served as natural resource for developing neuroprotectant against focal cerebral ischemia. ... we aimed to determine the protective effect of M.oleifera leaves extract in animal model of focal cerebral ischemia induced by ... Results: Rats subjected to M.oleifera extract at all doses used in this study significantly decreased brain infarct volume both ...
There has been extensive research on persistent TA in global models of brain I/R, whereas research in focal ischemia, as occurs ... The purpose of this Dissertation is to investigate mechanisms of TA in the brain following focal ischemia, with and without ... Brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) occurs primarily following resuscitation from cardiac arrest and stroke and presents one ... Donald DeGracia Major: Physiology Degree: Doctor of Philosophy The loss of blood flow to the brain is termed ischemia and the ...
PREDICTION OF BRAIN DAMAGE BY BRAIN ENZYME LEVELS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) OF PATIENTS AFTER GLOBAL OR FOCAL ISCHEMIA. ... PREDICTION OF BRAIN DAMAGE BY BRAIN ENZYME LEVELS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) OF PATIENTS AFTER GLOBAL OR FOCAL ISCHEMIA ... PREDICTION OF BRAIN DAMAGE BY BRAIN ENZYME LEVELS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) OF PATIENTS AFTER GLOBAL OR FOCAL ISCHEMIA ... PREDICTION OF BRAIN DAMAGE BY BRAIN ENZYME LEVELS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) OF PATIENTS AFTER GLOBAL OR FOCAL ISCHEMIA. ...
Moreover, NOS activity assays revealed that no iNOS activity was present in any of the brains tested and that constitutive ... we also performed a biochemical analysis of nitric oxide metabolites and NOS isoforms in our model of ischaemia. Daily ... Neuroprotective effect of aminoguanidine on transient focal ischaemia in the rat brain.. @article{Cash2001NeuroprotectiveEO, ... title={Neuroprotective effect of aminoguanidine on transient focal ischaemia in the rat brain.}, author={Diana Cash and J. S. ...
Primate Brain Tolerance to Temporary Focal Cerebral Ischemia during Isoflurane- or Sodium Nitroprusside-induced Hypotension. ... Primate Brain Tolerance to Temporary Focal Cerebral Ischemia during Isoflurane- or Sodium Nitroprusside-induced Hypotension ... Primate Brain Tolerance to Temporary Focal Cerebral Ischemia during Isoflurane- or Sodium Nitroprusside-induced Hypotension ... Primate Brain Tolerance to Temporary Focal Cerebral Ischemia during Isoflurane- or Sodium Nitroprusside-induced Hypotension. ...
MicroRNA expression in the blood and brain of rats subjected to transient focal ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion. ... MicroRNA expression in the blood and brain of rats subjected to transient focal ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion. ...
Focal brain ischemia models can be categorized into two groups: permanent and transient ischemia. Permanent ischemia results in ... Rat Models of Focal Cerebral Ischemia. Many animal models of focal cerebral ischemia exist. In this chapter, special focus is ... Li F, Tatlisumak T: Focal brain ischemia models in rodents. In Handbook of Experimental Neurology: Methods and Techniques in ... Brint S, Jacewicz M, Kiessling M, Tanabe J, Pulsinelli W: Focal brain ischemia in the rat: methods for reproducible neocortical ...
Sicard KM, Fisher M. (2010). Animal models of focal brain ischemia. Neurology Publications. https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-7378-1 ...
Animals were euthanized, and brain tissues were obtained at 72 h or 8 days after pMCAo. Expression of M1- and M2-like microglia ... Ischemia was induced in C57Bl/6 mice on postnatal (P) day 9 by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo), and followed ... significantly increased in the penumbra at 72 h after pMCAo but was significantly decreased 8 days after ischemia in sildenafil ... induces microglial modulation after focal ischemia in the neonatal mouse brain. *Raffaella Moretti1,2. , ...
Metyrapone, an inhibitor of glucocorticoid production, reduces brain injury induced by focal and global ischemia and seizures. ... Metyrapone, an inhibitor of glucocorticoid production, reduces brain injury induced by focal and global ischemia and seizures. ... Metyrapone, an inhibitor of glucocorticoid production, reduces brain injury induced by focal and global ischemia and seizures. ... title = "Metyrapone, an inhibitor of glucocorticoid production, reduces brain injury induced by focal and global ischemia and ...
  • Together with complimentary pharmacological studies, these data suggest that A 2A receptors play a prominent role in the development of ischemic injury within brain and demonstrate the potential for anatomical and functional neuroprotection against stroke by A 2A receptor antagonists. (jneurosci.org)
  • We investigated whether stroke changes the circRNAs expression profile in the mouse brain. (ovid.com)
  • Brain injury due to ischemic stroke is a major cause of permanent behavioral disabilities. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, our findings suggest that enhancing perilesional cortical plasticity via focal sensory deprivation improves recovery after ischemic stroke in mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Introduction: Brain edema is one of the most important mechanisms responsible for brain damage and mortality after ischemic stroke. (sid.ir)
  • Brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) occurs primarily following resuscitation from cardiac arrest and stroke and presents one of the most significant clinical challenges. (wayne.edu)
  • There has been extensive research on persistent TA in global models of brain I/R, whereas research in focal ischemia, as occurs in stroke, has not been as extensive. (wayne.edu)
  • Given these facts, stroke is a major public health issue requiring urgent development of effective therapies: experimental models of focal brain ischemia help in achieving this goal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, experimental models of focal cerebral ischemia have been developed in an attempt to closely mimic the changes that occur during and after human ischemic stroke. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These models aim to satisfy the following criteria: (1) to mimic the pathophysiological changes found in human stroke, (2) to create reproducible lesions, (3) to employ procedures that are relatively simple and noninvasive, (4) to be of low financial cost, and (5) to enable monitoring of physiologic parameters and analysis of brain tissue for outcome measures [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Partially maintained blood flow in the penumbral tissue after stroke is primarily due to the recruitment of collateral circulation in the brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings indicate that endogenous corticosterone contributes to the basal level of brain injury resulting from cerebral ischemia and excitotoxic seizure activity and suggest that drugs that suppress glucocorticoid production may be effective in reducing brain damage in stroke and epilepsy patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Other effects that may result from brain ischemia are stroke , cardiorespiratory arrest , and irreversible brain damage. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The broad term, " stroke " can be divided into three categories: brain ischemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated occludin degradation and caveolin-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution contribute to blood-brain barrier damage in early ischemic stroke stage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ischemic stroke-induced neuronal cell death results in the permanent disabling of brain function. (nature.com)
  • These findings present strong evidence that Fas ligand/receptor pathway promotes cell death following brain ischemia and inhibition of Fas ligand/receptor interaction may provide significant neuroprotection affording a new treatment modality in ischemic stroke injury. (nature.com)
  • The Na + -Ca 2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) is reduced in stroke by the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), whereas it is increased in ischemic brain preconditioning (PC) by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). (jneurosci.org)
  • However, transient global ischemia in rodents represents a model of brain hypoperfusion associated with cardiac arrest or hypotensive shock, but has no translational value for drug development in the treatment of stroke. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In severe cases, brain ischemia may result in irreversible brain damage, stroke or cardiac arrest. (reference.com)
  • The neurotoxicity of splenocytes from these immunodeficient mice was consistent with their effects on stroke in vivo, except for the mice with the paucity of CD4 or CD8 T cells, which did not alter the ratio of neuronal death.T cell subsets play critical roles in brain injury induced by stroke. (stanford.edu)
  • Over the past 20 years, researchers examining brain tissue at various time intervals after stroke observed the presence of inflammatory cells, neutrophils and monocytes at the site of injury, as well as the activation of endogenous glia and microglia. (wiley.com)
  • In POINT, eligibility is limited to brain TIAs and to minor ischemic strokes (with an NIH Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score less than or equal to 3). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In stroke, for instance, Na/K ATPase failure results in rapid loss of ion homeostasis and subsequent swelling of brain cells in a process that is referred to as cytotoxic cerebral edema (CCE). (genetics.org)
  • Surgical induction of ischemic brain damage in the rat is a widely used model for stroke research. (jove.com)
  • In recent years CSD have been demonstrated also in the human brain where they occur spontaneously in different neuropathologies (ischemic stroke, hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury and migraine). (uniklinikum-jena.de)
  • 1 Yet, the brain is highly vulnerable to a variety of insults such as stroke, cardiac arrest, trauma, near-drowning, carbon monoxide poisoning, etc. with high morbidity and mortality. (springer.com)
  • In this study, post-mortem brain slices from ischemic stroke patients were obtained corresponding to infarcted (IC) and contralateral (CL) areas. (mcponline.org)
  • Therefore, the quantitative proteomes of neurons and the BBB (or proteotypes) after human brain ischemia presented here contribute to increasing the knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of ischemic stroke pathology and highlight new proteins that might represent putative biomarkers of brain ischemia or therapeutic targets. (mcponline.org)
  • It is well known that diabetes aggravates brain damage in experimental and clinical stroke subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, since acute hyperglycemia induced by glucose solution infusion or acute diabetes (2-3 days) induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection exacerbates brain damage exactly in the same way as chronic diabetes enhances cerebral stroke, other mechanisms may be involved. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ischemic brain damage was measured by determining stroke volume and by stereologic quantifications of surviving neurons in the striatum/cortex. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Neuroinflammation is a secondary response following ischemia stroke. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we show that arginine treatment decreases neuronal death after rat cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and improves functional recovery of stroke animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In spite that LDHA is the downstream effector of HIF-1α and mediates the inflammatory response, the role of LDHA in ischemia stroke remains largely unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Duration versus severity of ischemia as critical factors of cortical cell damage, in: Cerebro-vascular Diseases, Reivich, M. and Hurtig, H. I., eds. (springer.com)
  • However, early intravenous injection of VEGF increases blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, hemorrhagic transformation and infarct volume whereas its application to cortical surface is neuroprotective. (acibadem.edu.tr)
  • After intraperitoneal injection of the photosensitive dye Rose bengal, subsequent focal illumination of the brain with a cold light source through the intact skull led to focal cortical infarcts of reproducible size, location and geometry. (nih.gov)
  • Because ncx1 brain promoter (ncx1-Br) has five putative consensus sequences, named Sp1A-E, for the specificity protein (Sp) family of transcription factors (Sp1-4), we investigated the role of this family in regulating ncx1 transcription in rat cortical neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, recent studies have demonstrated that this vulnerability can be dramatically reduced by preconditioning the brain with brief ischemia or cortical spreading depression. (upenn.edu)
  • The sensitivity of MRI has been exploited in the study of normal brain development, 2 , 3 characterizing changes in myelination and cortical folding. (aappublications.org)
  • The less marked RISA −131 activity in the cortical grey matter of the treated animals indicates blood-brain barrier damage of a smaller degree due to dexamethasone. (springer.com)
  • Limb Ischemic Perconditioning Attenuates Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption by Inhibiting Activity of MMP-9 and Occludin Degradation after Focal Cerebral Ischemia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Delivery of drugs through the systemic route to the brain is restricted due to the presence of blood brain barrier (BBB), which is composed of specialized endothelial cells that are selective in permitting diffusion into the central nervous system (CNS). (nature.com)
  • S.I. Rapoport, Brain Edema and the Blood-Brain Barrier. (bookdepository.com)
  • Because of its physical properties, honokiol can readily cross the blood brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seizures were elicited through transient opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the left hemisphere by injection of hyperosmolar mannitol solution into the left internal carotid artery, following an intravenous injection of bicuculline methiodide. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Nishino H, Kumazaki M, et al: 'Acute 3-nitropropionic acid intoxication induces striatal astrocytic cell death and dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier:involvement of dopamine toxicity' Neuroscience Res. (nii.ac.jp)
  • By means of laser microdissection, neurons and blood brain barrier structures (BBB) were isolated and analyzed using label-free quantification. (mcponline.org)
  • We aimed to ascertain whether EP + protects against ischemic brain injury by preserving heat shock protein (HSP) 72-containing neurons in ischemic brain tissues. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Conclusions: The percentages of both old and newly formed HSP72-containing neurons are inversely correlated with the outcomes of ischemic brain injury. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • These results indicate that there are intrinsic mechanisms that protect neurons against ischemia. (upenn.edu)
  • It was in the 1960´s when the first evidence emerged against Cajal´s dogma that new neurons cannot be produced in the adult brain. (uniklinikum-jena.de)
  • Since then it became widely accepted that new neurons are generated continuously in two regions of the mammalian brain: the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. (uniklinikum-jena.de)
  • Our current projects aim to characterize the contribution of newborn neurons to hippocampal function and experience-dependent plasticity, both in the adult and aged brain. (uniklinikum-jena.de)
  • We will review this complex field from the perspective of neurons, extra-neuronal brain cells, and the systemic environment and highlight the possibility that cell intrinsic innate immune molecules in neurons may function in neurodegenerative processes. (jci.org)
  • Instead, we explore immune responses in neurodegeneration at three levels: (a) cell-autonomous immune mechanisms in neurons, (b) immune responses in the extra-neuronal brain tissue, and (c) immune responses associated with neurodegeneration at a systemic level (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • Immune interactions in neurodegeneration can occur within neurons, in the brain tissue, or in the systemic environment through cytokines, neurotransmitters, cell-cell interactions, and peripheral nerves. (jci.org)
  • Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed prenatally, parts of the adult brain retain the ability to grow new neurons from neural stem cells in a process known as neurogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibiting NF-κB activation with super-repressor IκB-α, BAY 11 7082 (IκB-α phosphorylation inhibitor) or N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-norleucinal (proteosomal degradation inhibitor), or inhibiting NF-κB transcriptional activity with κB decoy DNA substantially reduced the size and complexity of the neurite arbors of sensory neurons cultured with brain-derived neurotrophic factor while having no effect on their survival. (biologists.org)
  • Results from rabbit (n=4) and rat (n=4) models of focal ischemia are presented. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, in animal models of focal brain ischemia, neutrophils have been targeted with successful results. (hindawi.com)
  • The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen can trigger the unfolded protein response, which is implicated in the shutdown of protein synthesis that is a hallmark of the response to ischemia and other severe cellular stresses ( Paschen, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • Inflammation is associated with a large number of human diseases such as atherosclerosis, glomerulonephritis, inflammatory bowel disease, transplant rejection, neurodegenerative brain diseases, brain and spinal cord trauma, myocarditis, and ischemic heart disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Harmful molecules are released after ischemia phase and result in brain sterile inflammation with the presence of parenchyma infiltration and cytokine release. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I will discuss clinical outcomes, the major mechanisms, and especially focus on TA following brain I/R. The most current ideas on TA link it to intracellular stress responses and the formation of subcellular particles involved in mRNA metabolism such as stress granules and mRNA granules. (wayne.edu)
  • Although MES are frequently of little clinical significance, 6 , 7 they have the potential to produce brain ischemic lesions and consequently new neurologic symptoms. (ajnr.org)
  • Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is considered the most sensitive tool for early detection of cerebral ischemia, 8 - 12 independent of its clinical relevance. (ajnr.org)