Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage by injection or infusion of chemical agents which cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A class of oxidized LDL receptors that contain LECTIN-like extracellular domains.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).

Cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in J774 macrophages occurs in the cytoplasm and lysosomes. (1/756)

The relationship of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis to the physical state of the cholesteryl ester in J774 murine macrophages was explored in cells induced to store cholesteryl esters either in anisotropic (ordered) inclusions or isotropic (liquid) inclusions. In contrast to other cell systems, the rate of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was faster in cells containing anisotropic inclusions than in cells containing isotropic inclusions. Two contributing factors were identified. Kinetic analyses of the rates of hydrolysis are consistent with a substrate competition by co-deposited triglyceride in cells with isotropic inclusions. In addition, hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters in cells with anisotropic droplets is mediated by both cytoplasmic and lysosomal lipolytic enzymes, as shown by using the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, and an inhibitor of neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase, umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. In cells containing anisotropic inclusions, hydrolysis was partially inhibited by incubation in media containing either chloroquine or umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. Together, chloroquine and umbelliferyl diethylphosphate completely inhibited hydrolysis. However, when cells containing isotropic inclusions were incubated with umbelliferyl diethylphosphate, cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was completely inhibited, but chloroquine had no effect. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated a primarily lysosomal location for lipid droplets in cells with anisotropic droplets and both non-lysosomal and lysosomal populations of lipid droplets in cells with isotropic droplets. These results support the conclusion that there is a lysosomal component to the hydrolysis of stored cholesteryl esters in foam cells.  (+info)

Specific interaction of oxidized low-density lipoprotein with macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. (2/756)

Interaction of oxidized LDL (OxLDL) with macrophage-derived foam cells is one of the key events in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. To study this interaction, macrophage-derived foam cells were isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions and the expression of scavenger receptors for OxLDL was examined. Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits by denudation of the large arteries, followed by a hypercholesteremic diet. Macrophage-derived foam cells, characterized by immunostaining with an RAM-11 antibody (a macrophage marker), contained a high content of intracellular lipid. Maximal binding of radiolabeled OxLDL to isolated macrophage-derived foam cells (1652+/-235 ng 125I-OxLDL/mg of cell protein) was 20-fold higher compared with Bmax values of monocytes. Levels of association of OxLDL to macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from atherosclerotic lesions 12 weeks after denudation were >3-fold higher compared with the levels expressed by macrophage-derived foam cells isolated after 6 weeks. Association of 125I-OxLDL could be completely blocked by OxLDL, and partially by acetylated LDL and polyinosinic acid, indicating the presence of a specific binding site for OxLDL on macrophage-derived foam cells. The induction of scavenger receptors for OxLDL on macrophage-derived foam cells during the development of atherosclerosis, as described in this study, may facilitate the lipid accumulation in macrophage-derived foam cells, as observed in advanced atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

The role of interleukin 12 in the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. (3/756)

The cytokine profile of atherosclerotic aortas from apoE-deficient mice was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The results clearly showed that the expression of mRNA for IL-12p40 was evident in aortas from 3-month-old apoE-deficient mice. The mRNA for IL-10 was detected in aorta from these mice at the age of 6 months, indicating that expression of IL-12 is earlier than that of IL-10 in these animals. Concurrent with IL-12p40, the mRNA for the T-cell cytokine IFN-gamma, but not IL-4, was detected in aortas of mice at young and old ages. Both in situ hybridization and immunostaining further demonstrated the localization of IL-12 in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated the expression of costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 in macrophages, suggesting that activation of T lymphocytes by macrophages may occur via surface antigens in lesions. When the immunoglobulin isotype of the antioxidized LDL antibodies in sera of apoE-deficient mice was determined, it revealed that both IgM and IgG were present. Furthermore, IgG2a is predominant and comprises approximately 50% of the antioxidized LDL IgG in sera from young mice (3 months), but decreased to lower levels (35%) in older mice (6 months). Daily administration of IL-12 led to an increase in serum levels of antioxidized LDL antibodies and accelerated atherosclerosis in young apoE-deficient mice compared with control mice injected with PBS alone. Taken together, these data suggest that IL-12 plays an active role in regulating the immune response during the early phase of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice.  (+info)

MCP-1 deficiency reduces susceptibility to atherosclerosis in mice that overexpress human apolipoprotein B. (4/756)

The earliest recognizable atherosclerotic lesions are fatty streaks composed of lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells). Circulating monocytes are the precursors of these foam cells, but the molecular mechanisms that govern macrophage trafficking through the vessel wall are poorly understood. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of the chemokine (chemotactic cytokine) family, is a potent monocyte agonist that is upregulated by oxidized lipids. Recent studies in hypercholesterolemic mice lacking apo E or the low-density lipoprotein receptor have suggested a role for MCP-1 in monocyte recruitment to early atherosclerotic lesions. To determine if MCP-1 is critically involved in atherogenesis in the setting of elevated physiological plasma cholesterol levels, we deleted the MCP-1 gene in transgenic mice expressing human apo B. Here we report that the absence of MCP-1 provides dramatic protection from macrophage recruitment and atherosclerotic lesion formation in apo B transgenic mice, without altering lipoprotein metabolism. Taken together with the results of earlier studies, these data provide compelling evidence that MCP-1 plays a critical role in the initiation of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Depletion of pre beta 1LpA1 and LpA4 particles by mast cell chymase reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells induced by plasma. (5/756)

Exposure of the LpA1-containing particles present in HDL3 and plasma to a minimal degree of proteolysis by the neutral protease chymase from exocytosed rat mast cell granules (granule remnants) leads to a reduction in the high-affinity component of cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time, a role for mast cell chymase in the depletion of the lipid-poor minor components of HDL that are specifically involved in reverse cholesterol transport as initial acceptors of cellular cholesterol. Thus, addition of proteolytically active granule remnants or human skin chymase to cholesterol-loaded macrophages of mouse or human origin incubated with human apoA1, ie, a system in which prebeta1LpA1 is generated, resulted in a sharp reduction in the high-affinity cholesterol efflux promoted by apoA1. As determined by nondenaturing 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, the granule remnants effectively depleted the prebeta1LpA1, but not the alphaLpA1, in HDL3 and in plasma during incubation at 37 degrees C for <1 hour. Incubation of plasma with granule remnants for 1 hour also led to near disappearance of the LpA4-1 and LpA4-2 particles, but did not affect the distribution of the apoA2-containing lipoproteins present in the plasma. We conclude that the reduced ability of granule remnant-treated HDL3 and granule remnant-treated plasma to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells is caused by selective depletion by mast cell chymase of quantitatively minor A1- and A4-containing subpopulations of HDL. Because these particles, ie, prebeta1LpA1 and LpA4, are efficient acceptors of cholesterol from cell surfaces, their depletion by mast cells may block the initiation of reverse cholesterol transport in vivo and thereby favor foam cell formation in the arterial intima, the site of atherogenesis.  (+info)

Effects of NTE-122, a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, on cholesterol esterification and high-density lipoprotein-induced cholesterol efflux in macrophages. (6/756)

We investigated the effects of a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, NTE-122 (trans-1,4-bis[[1-cyclohexyl-3-(4-dimethylamino phenyl)ureido]methyl]cyclohexane), on ACAT activities in macrophages originating from several species and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced cholesterol efflux in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cells. NTE-122 inhibited cell-free ACAT activities in human PMA-treated THP-1 cells and mouse J774.1 cells with IC50 values of 0.88 and 360 nM, respectively. NTE-122 competively inhibited the ACAT activity in PMA-treated THP-1 cells. NTE-122 also inhibited cellular ACAT activities in PMA-treated THP-1 cells, rat peritoneal macrophages and J774.1 cells with IC50 values of 3.5, 84 and 6800 nM, respectively. Furthermore, NTE-122 prevented cholesterol accumulation in PMA-treated THP-1 cells incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein, simultaneously with HDL, while it caused accumulation of a significant amount of free cholesterol in the absence and even in the presence of HDL. NTE-122 also enhanced HDL-induced cholesterol efflux from established foam cells converted from PMA-treated THP-1 cells. These results suggest that NTE-122, capable of inhibiting macrophage ACAT activity in humans more strongly than those in the other species, exhibits anti-atherogenic effects by preventing the foam cell formation and enhancing the foam cell regression in humans.  (+info)

Modified LDLs induce and bind to membrane ruffles on macrophages. (7/756)

Macrophage foam cell formation in vitro requires uptake of modified low density lipoproteins (LDL) such as acetylated LDL (AcLDL) and moderately oxidized LDL (OxLDL), or beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein (betaVLDL), a naturally occurring lipoprotein. Incubation ofmacrophages with AcLDL and OxLDL resulted in stimulation of membrane ruffle formation, while betaVLDL primarily resulted in increased numbers of microvilli. Time-lapse Allen video enhanced contrast differential interference contrast (AVEC-DIC) light microscopy and correlative whole mount intermediate-voltage transmission electron microscopy (IVEM) was used to examine the dynamics ofAcLDL stimulated membrane ruffling and membrane ruffle ultrastructure. Stereo 3D surface replicas confirmed that AcLDL bound to these AcLDL-induced membrane ruffles. Quantification of the plasma membrane surface area after incubation with AcLDL, betaVLDL or LDL confirmed that AcLDL stimulated membrane ruffling, while betaVLDL and LDL stimulated microvilli formation. These studies suggest that modified LDLs induce circular membrane ruffles and modified LDLs bind to these ligand-induced membrane ruffles.  (+info)

Modified LDLs are internalized by macrophages in part via macropinocytosis. (8/756)

Macrophage foam cell formation in vitro requires uptake of modified low density lipoproteins (LDL) such as acetylated LDL (AcLDL) and moderately oxidized LDL (OxLDL). Macrophages incubated with AcLDL and OxLDL, but not LDL, showed increased membrane ruffling as seen with time-lapse phase contrast video light microscopy. Modified LDLs stimulated circular membrane ruffles between 2 and 10 min after incubation. These membrane ruffles were readsorbed into the plasma membrane between 5 and 15 min later. Phase-bright macropinosomes formed at the base of the stimulated membrane ruffles. The fluid-phase marker lucifer yellow labeled the modified LDL stimulated macropinosomes. Modified LDLs stimulate fluid-phase uptake by 1.5-fold to threefold as measured with 14C-sucrose uptake. Transmission electron microscopy showed that gold conjugated AcLDL and OxLDL bound preferentially to membrane ruffles and were present in macropinosomes (diameter >0.2 pm) underneath these membrane ruffles. AcLDL and OxLDL were also present in clathrin-coated pits and endosomes. These studies suggest that modified lipoproteins stimulate macropinocytosis. AcLDL and OxLDL are partially internalized by macropinocytosis and partially internalized via clathrin-coated pit endocytosis.  (+info)

PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma activators induce cholesterol removal from human macrophage foam cells through stimulation of the ABCA1 pathway
Title: Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells in Atherosclerosis: Lessons from Murine Models and Implications for Therapy. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 12. Author(s):Nancy R. Webb and Kathryn J. Moore. Affiliation:Lipid Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, GRJ1328, Boston, MA 02114,USA.. Keywords:Macrophage foam cell, modified lipoprotein, scavenger receptor, oxidation, secretory phospholipase A2. Abstract: Macrophage-derived foam cells play integral roles in all stages of atherosclerosis. These lipid-laden immune cells are present from the earliest discernable fatty-streak lesions to advanced plaques, and are key regulators of the pathologic behavior of plaques. This review summarizes the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate macrophage cholesterol uptake, foam cell formation, and lipid-driven pro-inflammatory responses that promote atherosclerosis. Specific emphasis will be placed on recent findings from mouse models of atherosclerosis regarding the pathways of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage foam cell formation is augmented in serum from patients with diabetic angiopathy. AU - Cui, Xinglong. AU - Kushiyama, Akifumi. AU - Yoneda, Masayasu. AU - Nakatsu, Yusuke. AU - Guo, Ying. AU - Zhang, Jun. AU - Ono, Haruya. AU - Kanna, Machi. AU - Sakoda, Hideyuki. AU - Ono, Hiraku. AU - Kikuchi, Takako. AU - Fujishiro, Midori. AU - Shiomi, Masashi. AU - Kamata, Hideaki. AU - Kurihara, Hiroki. AU - Kikuchi, Masatoshi. AU - Kawazu, Shoji. AU - Nishimura, Fusanori. AU - Asano, Tomoichiro. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - The differentiation of macrophages into cytokine-secreting foam cells plays a critical role in the development of diabetic angiopathy. J774.1, a murine macrophage cell line, reportedly differentiates into foam cells when incubated with oxidized LDL, ApoE-rich VLDL or WHHLMI (myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic) rabbit serum. In this study, serum samples from Type 2 diabetic patients were added to the medium with J774.1 cells ...
Macrophage derived foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques are the major factor responsible for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS). During advanced AS, macrophage-specific macroautophagy/autophagy is dysfunctional. 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (VitD3) and its receptor VDR (vitamin D receptor) are reported to inhibit foam cell formation and induce autophagy; however, the role of VitD3-VDR-induced autophagy and foam cell formation in AS has not been explored. Here we find that VitD3 significantly recovered oxidized low-density lipoprotein-impaired autophagy, as well as increased autophagy-mediated lipid breakdown in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages, thus inhibiting the conversion of macrophages into foam cells. Importantly, VitD3 functions through its receptor VDR to upregulate autophagy and attenuate the accumulation of lipids in macrophages. Moreover, this study is the first occasion to report the interesting link between VitD3 signaling and ...
Early atherogenesis is characterized by the accumulation of intimal foam cells, which are often thought to be derived from the inflowing blood monocytes that differentiate into macrophages. But intimal foam cells may also be derived from SMC. The studies reported in this article have focused exclusively on cultured primary murine SMC which become foam cells in response to enzyme-modified lipoproteins, such as ELDL. We suspect that these mechanisms may also be operative in vivo.. The contribution of SMC to foam cells of the atheromatous plaque has been subject of recent studies. Identification of lesional SMC-derived foam cell is problematic because lipid-loaded SMC assume aspects of macrophage-like cells. Even an excellent recent review did not seem to resolve this issue because of the difficulty of positively identifying the cell of origin of foam cells.53 However, with the markers, miRNA 143/145 and myocardin, Vengrenyuk et al13 were able to indicate that SMCs probably account for ≈40% of ...
Macrophage derived foam cells are a major constituent of the fatty deposits characterizing the disease atherosclerosis. Foam cells are formed when certain immune cells (macrophages) take on oxidized low density lipoproteins through failed phagocytosis. High density lipoproteins (HDL) are known to have a number of anti-atherogenic effects. One of these stems from their ability to remove excess cellular cholesterol for processing in the liver---a process called reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). HDL perform macrophage RCT by binding to forming foam cells and removing excess lipids by efflux transporters. |br| We propose a model of foam cell formation accounting for macrophage RCT. This model is presented as a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. Motivated by experimental observations regarding time scales for oxidation of lipids and MRCT, we impose a quasi-steady state assumption and analyze the resulting systems of equations. We focus on the existence and stability of equilibrium
Abstract. Foam cell formation and further accumulation in the subendothelial space of the vascular wall is a hallmark of atherosclerotic lesions. Targeting foam cell formation in the atherosclerotic lesions can be a promising approach to treat and prevent atherosclerosis. The formation of foam cells is determined by the balanced effects of three major interrelated biologic processes, including lipid uptake, cholesterol esterification, and cholesterol efflux. Natural products are a promising source for new lead structures. Multiple natural products and pharmaceutical agents can inhibit foam cell formation and thus exhibit antiatherosclerotic capacity by suppressing lipid uptake, cholesterol esterification, and/or promoting cholesterol ester hydrolysis and cholesterol efflux. This review summarizes recent findings on these three biologic processes and natural products with demonstrated potential to target such processes. Discussed also are potential future directions for studying the mechanisms of ...
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Formation of foam cells by cholesterol accumulation in monocytes/macrophages is a primary step in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, the ability to inhibit cholesterol accumulation in macrophages or to remove CEs from mature foam cells in lesions would be of considerable therapeutic benefit. In macrophage foam cells, ACAT has been recognized to be responsible for CE synthesis. Furthermore, it has been proposed that whereas ACAT activity is regulated by the level of intracellular free cholesterol, the rate of CE hydrolysis remains unchanged under a variety of conditions.8 In addition, net hydrolysis of CEs obtained by inhibition of ACAT in peritoneal macrophages8 has provided a basis for designing therapeutic ACAT inhibitors to prevent cholesterol accumulation in macrophages.. It has been proposed that HSL is responsible for the nCEH activity in macrophage cell lines.9 10 In this report we present further evidence that HSL is present and accounts for essentially all of the nCEH ...
Aims: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in inflammatory responses of macrophages. However, the function of miRNAs in macrophage-derived foam cell formation is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of miRNAs in macrophage-derived foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development.. Methods and Results: Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found that level of miR-155 expression was increased significantly in both plasma and macrophages from atherosclerosis (ApoE-/-) mice. We identified that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induced the expression and release of miR-155 in macrophages, and that miR-155 was required to mediate oxLDL-induced lipid uptake and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of macrophages. Further, ectopic overexpression and knockdown experiments identified that HMG box-transcription protein1 (HBP1) is a novel target of miR-155. Knockdown of HBP1 enhanced lipid uptake and ROS production in oxLDL-stimulated macrophages, and overexpression of HBP1 repressed these ...
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Foam cells are the fat-laden M2 macrophages that serve as the hallmark of early stage atherosclerotic lesion formation. They are an indication of plaque build-up, or atherosclerosis, which is commonly associated with increased risk of heart attack and stroke as a result of arterial narrowing and hardening. Foam cell formation is triggered by a number of factors including the uncontrolled uptake of modified low density lipoproteins (LDL), the upregulation of cholesterol esterification and the impairment of mechanisms associated with cholesterol release. Foam cells are formed when circulating monocyte-derived cells are recruited to the atherosclerotic lesion site or fat deposits in the blood vessel walls. Recruitment is facilitated by the molecules P-selectin and E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Monocytes are then able to penetrate the arterial wall as a result of impaired endothelial integrity which increases permeability. Once ...
Definition of foam cell in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is foam cell? Meaning of foam cell as a legal term. What does foam cell mean in law?
Definition of Foam cells in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Foam cells? Meaning of Foam cells as a legal term. What does Foam cells mean in law?
Methods and Results Tregs were isolated by magnetic cell sorting-column and analysed by fl ow cytometry. Macrophages were cultured with or without Tregs in the presence of oxidised LDL (oxLDL) for 48 h to transform foam cells. After co-culture with Tregs, macrophages showed a decrease in lipid accumulation, which was accompanied by a significantly downregulated expression of CD36 and SRA but no obvious difference in ABCA1 expression.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages induces lipid accumulation and foam cell formation. AU - Funk, Janet L.. AU - Feingold, Kenneth R.. AU - Moser, Arthur H.. AU - Grunfeld, Carl. PY - 1993/1/4. Y1 - 1993/1/4. N2 - A role for immune and inflammatory processes in the induction of atherosclerotic lesions is emerging. These studies were undertaken to determine whether activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the ability of macrophages to become foam cells. Since LPS activation inhibits scavenger receptor activity, we studied the ability of LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages to accumulate lipid from a variety of lipid particles that are not ligands for the scavenger receptor. Macrophages activated by LPS, in the absence of lipid particles, accumulated triglyceride, but not cholesterol ester (CE). The addition of Soyacal, a triglyceride-rich particle, further enhanced this LPS-stimulated triglyceride accumulation. LPS activation similarly enhanced CE ...
Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) plays an important, in neutrophils essential, role in promoting survival and differentiation of leukocyte subsets. Mcl-1 was shown to be responsible for IL-10 dependent inhibition of macrophage apoptosis in response to oxidized LDL in vitro. In this study we have investigated the role of myeloid Mcl-1 deficiency in atherosclerotic plaque development and stability. LDLr−/− mice were lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow from transgenic mice with myeloid specific Mcl-1 deficiency (Mcl-1−/−) or WT littermates. After a recovery period of 8 weeks, the mice were fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks to induce atherosclerotic lesion development in the aortic root. Peritoneal leukocytes were analyzed for foam cell numbers and sensitivity towards Ox-LDL. The number of foam cells among the resting peritoneal leukocyte population showed a 2,5 fold (p=0.02) increase in Mcl-1−/− mice compared to WT controls. After ...
Atherosclerosis (AS) is chronic inflammation in response to lipid accumulation. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is being increasingly studied to evaluate its potential as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in many diseases. However, delineating the role of miR-155 in AS remains difficult. Here, we detected constitutive expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs) possibly associated with cardiovascular disease in foam cells and clinical specimens from patients with AS. Among them, we found that the level of miR-155 in foam cells was the most significantly elevated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of miR-155 was elevated in the plasma and plaque of patients with AS. We also reported for the first time that miR-155 targets calcium-regulated heat stable protein 1 (CARHSP1), which regulates the stability of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism by which the miR-155 level is elevated. miR-155 upregulation is due to transcriptional
Accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. The relevance of the key transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) for macrophage-derived foam-cell formation has not been unequivocally resolved. Transgenic mice lines were generated in which NF-κB activation is specifically inhibited in macrophages by overexpressing a trans-dominant, non-degradable form of IκBα (IκBα (32A/36A)) under control of the macrophage-specific SR-A promoter. Alanine substitution of serines 32 and 36 prevents degradation and retains the inactive NF-κB/IκBα (32A/36A) complex in the cytoplasm. Similarly, stable human THP1 monocytic cell lines were generated with integrated copies of IκBα (32A/36A) cDNA. Upon treatment with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), murine peritoneal macrophages from transgenic IκBα (32A/36A) mice, as well as THP1/IκBα (32A/36A) clones, display decreased lipid loading after differentiation into macrophages. This is accompanied by increased ...
Description: Macrophage-derived foam cells play a predominant role in the deposition of arterial plaques during the early stages of atherosclerosis. The deposition of arterial plaques is known to be effected by several factors, including a persons dietary habits. The consumption of a high-fat (,60% of calories from fat) meal is known to elevate serum LDL and triglycerides, which have been previously implicated in the formation pf foam cells. One limitation of current research models is that it is not possible to directly measure foam cells in vivo. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to validate the use of blood derived monocytes as a proxy measure of foam cells. In order to complete this objective, we evaluated monocyte oxLDL phagocytosis capacity following consumption of a high-fat meal. Eight men and women participated in the present study and venous blood samples were collected prior to the meal, 1-h, 3-h, and 5-h post-meal. Monocytes (CD14+/16- and CD14+/16+) were evaluated for ...
Description: Macrophage-derived foam cells play a predominant role in the deposition of arterial plaques during the early stages of atherosclerosis. The deposition of arterial plaques is known to be effected by several factors, including a persons dietary habits. The consumption of a high-fat (,60% of calories from fat) meal is known to elevate serum LDL and triglycerides, which have been previously implicated in the formation pf foam cells. One limitation of current research models is that it is not possible to directly measure foam cells in vivo. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to validate the use of blood derived monocytes as a proxy measure of foam cells. In order to complete this objective, we evaluated monocyte oxLDL phagocytosis capacity following consumption of a high-fat meal. Eight men and women participated in the present study and venous blood samples were collected prior to the meal, 1-h, 3-h, and 5-h post-meal. Monocytes (CD14+/16- and CD14+/16+) were evaluated for ...
Figure 1: From left to right, AR-AFFF, AFFF, and protein foam.. Fluoroprotein. Fluoroprotein foams are protein foams that also contain fluorochemicals for vapor suppression and reduced fuel pick up when applied to non-polar flammable liquids. These foams will appear a very dark brown color and will have a distinct odor.. Film Forming Fluoroprotein (FFFP). Fluoroprotein foams are protein foams that also contain fluorochemicals for vapor suppression. However, what sets these apart from regular fluorproteins is that the fluorochemical surfactants are generally used at a higher concentration than standard fluoroprotein foam, giving these solutions the ability to form a vapor sealing film on non-polar solvents in a way similar to AFFFs. FFFPs are for use on non-polar flammable liquids. These foams will appear a very dark brown color and will have a distinct odor. The difference between a regular protein and a FFFP can be determined at Dyne. If the lab results show that the foam will form a film, the ...
Solid foams are a class of lightweight cellular engineering materials. These foams are typically classified into two types based on their pore structure: open-cell-structured foams (also known as reticulated foams) and closed-cell foams. At high enough cell resolutions, any type can be treated as continuous or continuum materials and are referred to as cellular solids,[14] with predictable mechanical properties. Open-cell-structured foams contain pores that are connected to each other and form an interconnected network that is relatively soft. Open-cell foams fill with whatever gas surrounds them. If filled with air, a relatively good insulator results, but, if the open cells fill with water, insulation properties would be reduced. Recent studies have put the focus on studying the properties of open-cell foams as an insulator material. Wheat gluten/TEOS bio-foams have been produced, showing similar insulator properties as for those foams obtained from oil-based resources.[15][16] Foam rubber ...
Memory foam was developed in 1966 under a contract by NASAs Ames Research Center to improve the safety of aircraft cushions. The temperature-sensitive memory foam was initially referred to as slow spring back foam; Most called it temper foam.[2] Created by feeding gas into a polymer matrix, the foam has an open-cell solid structure that matches pressure against it, yet slowly springs back to its original shape.[3] Later commercialisation of the foam included use in both medical equipment such as X-ray table pads and sports equipment such as American / Canadian football helmet liners. When NASA released memory foam to the public domain in the early 1980s, Fagerdala World Foams was one of the few companies willing to work with the foam, as the manufacturing process remained difficult and unreliable. Their 1991 product, the Tempur-Pedic Swedish Mattress eventually led to the mattress and cushion company, Tempur World. Memory foam was subsequently used in medical settings. For example, it was ...
The results of this study show that the mitogenic effects of glucose-oxidized LDL are mediated primarily through CD36. Similarly, the ability of Cu2+-oxidized LDL to induce foam-cell formation was mainly dependent on CD36, consistent with a previous study that used macrophages from CD36- and SR-A-deficient mice (36). Recognition of oxidized LDL by macrophage scavenger receptors seems to be mediated by both the modified protein and lipid moieties (37,38). It is unclear whether the mitogenic effects are due to oxidized apolipoprotein B100 or to lipid oxidation products (9,18,19,39). In preliminary experiments, we found that neither the protein fraction nor the lipid fraction isolated from glucose-oxidized LDL increased DNA synthesis by macrophages (data not shown). These results suggest that combination of the lipid and the protein components may be essential to induce the mitogenic effect of glucose-oxidized LDL. One potential mechanism would involve binding of the protein component of ...
Meeting safety, compliance, and regulatory requirements.. Most international safety organizations require that fire foam concentrates are tested on an annual basis. Fire foam storage containers operating under harsh environmental conditions, such as ships, terminals, offshore platforms, and airports, should be routinely monitored for fire foam contamination and deterioration.. Intertek provides fire fighting foam laboratory services for test low, medium and high expansion foam fire-fighting products. Fire foam testing is run to EN 1568 and ISO 7203 Standard specifications.. Intertek fire foam testing is provided on a global basis. Shipping fire foam samples is easy to arrange, and testing results are prompt and rapid.. Fire foam testing includes:. ...
Memory foam cushions have actually wound up being fairly regular nowadays. A .com memory foam cushion varies from various other normal foam cushions around. Their growth began with the USA room program, among various other points. It arises from study done by NASA that became part of the advancement of the memory foam cushion.. NASA initially developed the memory foam to help astronauts to deal up with the high stress that could be caused by extreme G-force that takes place when the space capsule bus eliminate for area. It has actually not been used for the room program, the study and also explorations that were constructed from the memory foam had the ability to help supply benefits in the clinical area instead.. Memory foam is created from polyurethane incorporates wit included chemicals to add to the foams thickness degree. This will certainly improve the foams thickness. When cozy, the chemicals made use of on the polyurethane similarly allow it to wind up being stronger in cooler ...
Manufacturing with Foam Cores Material Preparation: When using foam cores in manufacturing, there are some strict guidelines that must be followed to produce a mechanically sound part. The foam materials must be stored and prepared correctly, or else the bonds will be highly suspect. First of all, the foam must be stored in a clean dry place. Any dust or moisture allowed to settle on the core may produce a disbond after laminating. If dust is present on the foam surface remove with a vacuum, or at worst blow it off with an air nozzle (with a DRY air source). Do not use solvent to wipe the surface; this only spreads the dust/contaminants around the foam surface and into the open surface cells. A strong solvent, such as acetone, might also degrade the foam on the surface, leaving a weak core/skin bond. With a properly clean surface, little else can go wrong when bonding on the skins. Processing with FRP: Foam cores can be used in almost all forms of fiberglass/advanced composite fabrication. The ...
Foam Fractionation - The Effect of Salts and Low Molecular Weight Organics on ABS Removal ASHIS K. SENGUPTA, Research Associate W. O. PIPES, Associate Professor of Civil Engineering The Technological Institute Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois INTRODUCTION Foam fractionation is a process by which a solution containing a surface active solute is separated into two fractions, the foam fraction which has a higher concentration of the surface active solute than the original solution and a drain fraction depleted of surface active material. The method of effecting the separation is to cause a foam to be produced by vigorous aeration and then to separate the foam from the bulk of the solution by mechanical means. When the foam is initially produced, the surface active solute is preferentially absorbed on the air water interfaces of the bubbles and thus the foam is richer in surface active material than the residual bulk solution. If some of the water held by the foam is allowed to drain back ...
MDI-based prepolymers are blown with a substantially nonaqueous blowing agent, such as pressurized air, and polymerized with stoichiometric amounts of polyoxyethylene polyol having at least two hydroxyl equivalents per mole, yielding a hydrophilic foam. The present foams may be extruded, knife-coated or otherwise cast into sheets, or may be fabricated by other known foam preparation techniques. Because the foam is polymerized with polyoxyethylene polyol instead of water, the foam exhibits both superior drape and improved stretch and recovery as compared with prior-art MDI-based flexible foams formed with aqueous reactants. The foam is particularly suited for use in external biomedical applications as, for example, a laminated medical/surgical dressing in which a thin sheet of the hydrophilic foam adheres to a nonstick aluminized veil on one side.
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Accumulation of foam cells containing cholesterol in arterial intima is a key event in the early stages of atherosclerosis (Paulson et al., 2010). Exposure to TLR agonists such as LPS or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide converts macrophages into foam cells (Kalayoglu and Byrne, 1998). There are various types of essential factors that contribute to foam cell formation. Among them, scavenger receptors that uptake modified lipoproteins are known to be critical (Badimón et al., 2009). TLRs directly cause inflammatory responses and induce the expression of specific scavenger receptors, such as lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 (Lee et al., 2008b). Although it is clear that PKC-PLD signaling participates in mechanisms that increase atherosclerosis, few research studies have addressed the function of RGS2 and the PKC-PLD pathway in the development of atherosclerosis.. The present results demonstrate that the PKC-η-PLD2 signaling pathway decreases LPS-induced RSG2 expression, thereby ...
Regulation of foam cells by adenosine.: Macrophages rely on reverse cholesterol transport mechanisms to rid themselves of excess cholesterol. By reducing accumu
The formation of an atherosclerotic lesion is mediated by lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells), which also establish chronic inflammation associated with lesion progression. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma promotes lipid uptake and efflux in these atherogenic cells. In contrast, we found that the closely related receptor PPARdelta controls the inflammatory status of the macrophage. Deletion of PPARdelta from foam cells increased the availability of inflammatory suppressors, which in turn reduced atherosclerotic lesion area by more than 50%. We propose an unconventional ligand-dependent transcriptional pathway in which PPARdelta controls an inflammatory switch through its association and disassociation with transcriptional repressors. PPARdelta and its ligands may thus serve as therapeutic targets to attenuate inflammation and slow the progression of atherosclerosis ...
2) Regulation of VSMC foam cell development Atherosclerosis is considered a cholesterol storage disorder characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol in the arterial wall leading to lumen narrowing due to plaque growth and thereby increasing the risk for myocardial infarction or stroke. Atherosclerotic plaques consist to a large extent of lipid-laden foam cells. In recent years, it has been discovered that these cells are mainly derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). While a considerable amount of proteins have been identified to regulate the VSMC phenotype, significantly less is known about the control of VSMC foam cell formation. The thickening of the vessel wall, as it occurs in arteriosclerosis or vessel injury, is caused by active, proliferating and migrating medial VSMCs in the intima layer which was identified as an important determinant of atherosclerotic plaque formation. To achieve this, the activity of transcription factors controlling the VSMC activation ...
The invention relates to foam structures with enhanced physical properties which can be used in the areas of packaging, athletics, water sports, and construction. In general, the structures are laminated polymer foams that include a core of a low density foam and one or more skins of relatively high density foam covering the core. The skins provide improved physical properties to the foam structures by improving the flexural strength, resistance to bending, and resulting damage from bending in the laminated foam structure while modestly increasing the weight of the laminated structure, for example. Uses of the foam structures include, but are not limited to, packaging materials, gym mats, body boards, or eaves fillers. The skin can act as a hinge to fold a die cut piece into a collapsible packaging system.
It is a foam with a nominal density of 3.12 PCF / 50 kg/m³ and can be used in a wide variety of applications. EV50 has an operating temperature of -70 C to 65 C. It is a closed cell, cross-linked EVA copolymer foam with a chemical-free nitrogen infusion process, producing an environmentally friendly product with low VOCs. Evazote foam is a high-density foam, i.e. 3.12 PCF / 50 kg / m³. It has exceptional properties such as its resistance to tearing and shock absorption. This foam is impermeable and resists to temperatures between -60°C and 55°C. It is easily glued with neoprene glue or contact glue. This foam is the best for making light, strong and safe LARPs weapons.. 1/16- This thickness will be perfect for your decorations and delicate details. The full sheet is 40 by 60. Half sheet is 40 by 30.. This thickness of foam may be suitable for the diameters of the structures we offer ...
Foams are under consideration for use in systems designed to absorb kinetic energy from projectiles. These systems are deployed to protect internal contents, people, precious objects, and other fragile items. Foams present an attractive option because they are light, simple and fast to form, and inexpensive. This work shows that foams are capable of absorbing kinetic energy from projectiles and will eventually arrest them. Though not immediately practical, this work with ideal foams opens up the way for future studies of projectile interaction with real foams. The initial work to characterize projectile interaction with bamboo, staircase, and oblique foams will contribute to the understanding of interaction with real foams ...
НИИ атеросклероза: научные исследования, публикации сотрудников института (abstracts, full-text.), дискуссионный клуб, посвященный вопросам механизмов атерогенеза.
A method for foaming a liquid-based composition, such as a softening composition, onto a tissue is provided. The foam composition can be formed in a foam generator by combining the liquid-based composition and a gas, such as air. The foam composition has a blow ratio, i.e, ratio of air volume to liquid volume, greater than about 3:1. Moreover, the foam composition is also generally stable such that it has a half-life greater than about 3 minutes. In one embodiment, a tissue product having elevated regions and non-elevated regions can be foamed with a foam composition such that the elevated regions are applied with a greater amount of the foam composition than the non-elevated regions.
The network of channels in a dry foam (much more air than liquid) are the liquid layers in between polyhedral air bubbles. Along the edges of the polyhedra, there are thin Plateau borders or channels which meet at vertices of the polyhedra in volumes the authors call nodes. See Figure 1 for a diagram of one network unit. The researchers are actually interested in the flow through the channels and nodes, but rather than struggle to image very small channels, they decide to learn from bulk flow through the foam driven by gravity: forced drainage. They introduce fluid to the top of a column of foam at a controlled rate ,math,Q,/math, and observe the front of wetter foam penetrate through the column of dry foam at velocity ,math,\nu_f,/math,. A quantity ,math,V_s,/math, is defined as the volumetric flow into the top of the tube divided by the cross-sectional area of the tube. The experimenters looked at three sizes of bubbles. The penetration speed ,math,\nu_f,/math, increases with ...
A method for generating a thermoplastic foam from an aqueous dispersion, the aqueous dispersion comprising a thermoplastic resin, water, and a dispersion stabilizing agent, the method including: adding at least one froth stabilizing surfactant to the aqueous dispersion to form a mixture; adding a fiber to the mixture; and frothing the mixture to create a froth, removing at least a portion of the water in the froth to create a foam, wherein the foam generated has a non-cellular fibrillated morphology. In another aspect, embodiments disclosed herein relate to a foam having a thermoplastic-based, fibrillated, non-cellular structure, wherein the foam has an average density of about 0.02 g/cm3 to about 0.07 g/cm3. In certain embodiments, the foam may be used in an absorbent article.
Saeed O, Otsuka F, Polavarapu R, Karmali V, Weiss D, Davis T, Rostad B, Pachura K, Adams L, Elliott J, Taylor R, Narula J, Kolodgie F, Virmani R, Hong CC**, Finn AV**. Pharmacologic suppression of hepcidin increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and reduces foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2012; 32:299-307. **co-corresponding authors ...
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The main subject is the equilibrium and the evolution of 2D and 3D dry soap-like |br /|foams. A star-triangle equivalence is proved using geometrical methods and |br /|invariance by inversion transformations. This equivalence states that triangular bubbles can be freely exchanged with threefold stars without perturbing the overall equilibrium; a star is a set of three edges ending at a central vertex. Considering an equilibrated foam in contact with a solid, curved and smooth, surface and considering the trace of the films on the surface as a non-conventional 2D foam, the equilibrium equations are established for this 2D foam, generalising the standard case of flat Hele-Shaw cells. The invariance of the vertex equilibrium conditions by conformal transformations is proved. As an application, the configurations of foams in thin interstices between two non parallel plates is analysed in details. Normal incidence and Laplaces law lead to an approximate equation relating the plate profile to a conformal map
High levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are inversely associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases; thus, pharmacological inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is considered to be a therapeutic method of raising HDL-C levels. However, many CETP inhibitors have failed to achieve a clinical benefit despite raising HDL-C. In the study, we generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits that overexpressed the human CETP gene to examine the influence of CETP on the development of atherosclerosis. Both Tg rabbits and their non-Tg littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet for 16 weeks. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Gross lesion areas of the aortic atherosclerosis along with lesional cellular components were quantitatively analyzed. Overexpression of human CETP did not significantly alter the gross atherosclerotic lesion area, but the number of macrophages in lesions was significantly increased. Overexpression of
Lipid-laden macrophages, or foam cells, are noticed in the lung area of individuals with fibrotic lung disease, but their contribution to disease pathogenesis continues to be unexplored. distance by targeted removal of the lipid efflux 184025-19-2 manufacture transporter ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 1 raises polyurethane foam cell development and worsens lung fibrosis after bleomycin. On the other hand, we discovered that treatment with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating element attenuates fibrotic reactions, at least in component through its capability to lower Are lipid build up. In overview, this function details a book system leading to polyurethane foam cell development in the mouse lung and suggests that strategies directed at obstructing polyurethane foam cell development might become effective for dealing with fibrotic lung disorders. activity of fats performed specifically by alveolar type II epithelial (ATII) cells. This function can be needed for creating the ...
The hallmark of the human atherosclerotic plaque is the presence of lipid-laden macrophages, or foam cells. However, many macrophage subsets are found within atherosclerotic lesions and it is not well understood how monocytes differentiate into these subsets. We focused on characterizing macrophages derived in vitro from human peripheral blood monocytes treated with IL-15, IL-4 or IL-10. We show these macrophages to have differing phenotypes: CD209+CD64+, CD209+CD23+, or CD209+CD163+ for macrophages derived from IL-15, IL-4, or IL-10 respectively. To characterize the macrophage subsets ability to become foam cells we measured their uptake of fluorescently-labeled oxidized LDL (oxLDL). IL-10 derived macrophages had the greatest amount of oxLDL uptake. We then investigated the mechanism of uptake and found that fucoidan, a class-A scavenger receptor competitor, significantly inhibited uptake of oxLDL in IL-10 cells. On the other hand a blocking antibody against the class B scavenger receptor, ...
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Polymeric Foams (Polyolefin Foams, Polystyrene Foams, Polyurethane Foams, PVC Foams) Polymeric Foams (Polyolefin Foams, Polystyrene Foams, Polyurethane Foams, PVC Foams) This report analyzes the worldwide markets - Market research report and industry analysis - 11703787
Blog provided by The Foam Factory. Weve previously discussed the types of sound proofing foam and how to effectively install them in a sound studio. The reason why these acoustic foam panels are so effective at absorbing sound lies in their unique properties. Acoustic foam is different from regular foam because of its cellular structure. Acoustic foam has more individual cells in each linear inch of foam, which makes it better at absorbing sound waves than other foam varieties.. When sound waves reach the surface of acoustic foam, the foam panels do not reflect them like hard surfaces. Echoes are caused by sound waves bouncing off hard surfaces and being reflected throughout a room. To avoid this, acoustic foam allows sound waves to pass through its structure while also dissipating sound wave energy as heat. This eliminates excess echoes and resonances that may distort your recordings when you are making music or adding voiceover to your film project.. For maximum effectiveness when using ...
Atherosclerosis is a lipid driven chronic inflammatory disorder of the arteries. Monocytes, macrophages and foam cells are the central players in atherosclerosis and contribute to all stages of lesion formation. Skewing monocytes and macrophages to cells with anti-atherogenic properties could be envisaged as an athero-protective treatment. The overall aim of this thesis was to identify novel regulators in monocytes and macrophages to combat atherosclerosis. Epigenetic pathways have been identified to play a key role in monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and activation. We hypothesized that interference with these pathways in macrophages can improve atherosclerosis outcome. In this thesis we validated the role of the repressive H3K27me3 methyltransferase enhancer of the zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) and lysine demethylase 6b (Kdm6b) in macrophage foam cells and atherosclerotic lesion development in mice. We identified the H3K27me3 methyltransferase Ezh2 as a novel target in myeloid cells to combat ...
You need to clean up the excess as it foams out of the crack - kind of a pain but the glue job in strong and light. You can reupholster most dining room chairs in about an hour. I ordered one of the dash caps, but to my dismay, when I pulled the dash apart, the foam and vinyl was far too gone for me to sand, fill and cap. Polyurethane foam (including foam rubber) is sometimes made using small amounts of blowing agents to give less dense foam, better cushioning/energy absorption or thermal insulation. Foam density is also relative and shouldnt be used to compare different product types. The right types of adhesive will allow you to manipulate the foam and keep it firmly in place. Thanks Julie. Polyurethane polymer foams can be made considerably tougher and less-friable than the polyisocyanurate foams, mostly at the expense of some modulus and high-temperature strength properties. Since it is glue, it can be hard to remove. With a simple flame treatment and Poly-Weld, one can create strong joints ...
The invention relates to the use of polymeric foam materials for insulation. These polymeric foams are prepared by polymerization of certain water-in-oil emulsions having a relatively high ratio of water phase to oil phase, commonly known in the art as high internal phase emulstions, or HIPEs. The HIPE-derived foam materials used in the present invention comprise a generally hydrophobic, flexible, semi-flexible, or rigid nonionic polymeric foam structure of interconnected open-cells. These foam structures have: A) a specific surface area per foam volume of at least about 0.01 m2 /cc; B) a density of less than about 0.05 g/cc; and C) a glass transition temperature (Tg) of between about -20 and 90 C. The foams can be used as thermal, acoustic, and/or mechanical insulation materials. In a preferred embodiment, the foams used can be prepared, packaged, and shipped in a compressed, high density state and will spring back upon activation (e.g. heat) to the original density of the foam.
To improve the performance of specific rotomoulded products being developed at a local company, reinforcement of the hollow core of the products with reaction injection moulded polyurethane (RIM PU) foam was investigated. Improvement of the foam mechanical properties was also investigated, with density variation and the addition of short glass fibre reinforcement. Testing showed the foams mechanical properties were not directly relative to density. When foam density was doubled from 300 to 600kg/m3, the tensile strength increased by a factor of 2.7 and the modulus by a factor of 2.5. For ME1020 (fibre type) 6mm chopped fibre reinforced foam, these increases were larger, at factors of 3.0 and 2.6 for strength and modulus, respectively. For 300kg/m3 foam, fibre made negligible difference to the tensile strength, but the ME1020 reinforced foam was found to have 29% higher modulus than the neat foam at the same density (for 5wt% fibre composites). The 101C (fibre type) reinforced foam performed ...
Objective: Macrophage foam cells play a crucial role in several pathologies including multiple sclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, and atherosclerosis. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4) was previously shown to inhibit chyle-induced foam cell formation in mesenteric lymph nodes. Here we characterized the regulation of Angptl4 expression in macrophages and examined the impact of Angptl4 on atherosclerosis development. Approach and Results: Macrophage activation elicited by pathogen-recognition receptor agonists decreased Angptl4 expression, whereas lipid loading by intralipid and oxidized low-density lipoprotein increased Angptl4 expression. Consistent with an antilipotoxic role of Angptl4, recombinant Angptl4 significantly decreased uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by macrophages, via lipolysis-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Angptl4 protein was detectable in human atherosclerotic lesions and localized to macrophages. Transgenic overexpression of Angptl4 in atherosclerosis-prone ...
Ive been looking through the archives reading about using acrylic spray paint on foam and I hear mention of using a clear coat to seal the paint to prevent running. I was under the impression that the absorption of resin into the foam was a major par
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Using VERDESO AEROSOL FOAM 0.05% during pregnancy may raise the risk of children developing some disorder (commpon for some such kind of drugs), however it depends upon how VERDESO AEROSOL FOAM 0.05% ingredients pass through placenta and may have effect on baby - Strength of VERDESO AEROSOL FOAM 0.05% is major factor in determination of such side effects, The possible danger in pregnancy are under research. DREIMAN LABOR. FARMAC. S.A. Canada publish leaflet about VERDESO AEROSOL FOAM 0.05% every update to describe possible risks of using VERDESO AEROSOL FOAM 0.05% side effect in pregnancy and pregnant women. You may download DREIMAN LABOR. FARMAC. S.A. issued leaflet regarding side effects of VERDESO AEROSOL FOAM 0.05% - DESONIDE. Pregnancy Side Effects can be easily know by Atc code of VERDESO AEROSOL FOAM 0.05% ATC CODE.. ...
This is a list of all employees at the Department of Biomedical Sciences. The list is sorted in alphabetical order in accordance to the employees first name.
Some of the main common foam roller exercises target specific muscle groups for loosening any tight spots that the user might have. For example, if the individual lies on his or her side, rolling the foam roller from the hip to the knee, it works the body area known as the IT band, where some muscle and connective tissue problems can often occur.. Foam roller exercises can also be good for the lower back. Generally, the user lies face up with the foam roller under their upper or lower back. As they roll up and down on the roller, they work all of the spinal support muscle areas and loosen any tightness there.. A variety of other exercises work differ body areas. Foam rollers have been effective for many in eliminating tight spots, also called trigger areas, and improving range of motion and overall body response.. Half and Full Foam Rollers ...
A composition for saturation of preformed, previously cured foam substrates having an at least partially open cell configuration, includes a polymer binder in which microspheres containing a phase change material are dispersed. Preferred phase change materials include paraffinic hydrocarbons. The microspheres may be microencapsulated. A preferred cured foam substrate is a skived polyurethane or polyether foam of from 20 to 1000 mils in thickness, preferably 20 to 200 mils in thickness, having up to 6 ounces per square yard or more of encapsulated phase change material embedded in a polymer binder. One method of applying the binder with dispersed encapsulated phase change materials is by applying a binder/microsphere dispersion to the upper surface of a previously cured foam sheet with, then drawing a vacuum from the underside of the cured foam sheet to permeate from 20% to 100% of the cured foam sheet with the binder/microsphere dispersion. The resulting product is then cured. An alternative method of
Spray foam can fully insulate your home. The other purpose is that it can seal from air and moisture infiltration. This will result in a more efficient structure with lower energy bills. This will save you money on heating and cool your home. Spray foam also can strengthen the walls and roof of your home. The biggest benefit is that it can protect it from airborne particulates and mold.. Spray foam can be installed over a wide variety of substrates, including concrete, wood, steel, and most existing roof systems. Spray Foam can be easily be installed as a tapered foam roofing system. This is less expensive than installing other tapered roofing systems.. ...
This medicine is for use on the scalp. It is for external use only. Follow the directions on the prescription label exactly. Wash your hands before and after use. Hold can upside down and release a small amount of foam onto a saucer or other cool surface. Do not put foam directly onto hands because foam will begin to melt immediately in your hands. Pick up small amounts of foam with fingers and gently massage onto scalp area until foam disappears. Repeat until entire affected scalp area is treated. Do not wash or rinse the treated area immediately after applying the foam. Do not use an airtight bandage to cover the affected area unless your doctor or health care professional tells you to. Covering the area can increase the amount that passes through the skin and increase the risk of side effects. Do not get this medicine in your eyes. If you do, rinse out with plenty of cool tap water. It is important not to use more medicine than prescribed. Do not use your medicine more often than ...
This medicine is for use on the scalp. It is for external use only. Follow the directions on the prescription label exactly. Wash your hands before and after use. Hold can upside down and release a small amount of foam onto a saucer or other cool surface. Do not put foam directly onto hands because foam will begin to melt immediately in your hands. Pick up small amounts of foam with fingers and gently massage onto scalp area until foam disappears. Repeat until entire affected scalp area is treated. Do not wash or rinse the treated area immediately after applying the foam. Do not use an airtight bandage to cover the affected area unless your doctor or health care professional tells you to. Covering the area can increase the amount that passes through the skin and increase the risk of side effects. Do not get this medicine in your eyes. If you do, rinse out with plenty of cool tap water. It is important not to use more medicine than prescribed. Do not use your medicine more often than ...
This medicine is for use on the scalp. It is for external use only. Follow the directions on the prescription label exactly. Wash your hands before and after use. Hold can upside down and release a small amount of foam onto a saucer or other cool surface. Do not put foam directly onto hands because foam will begin to melt immediately in your hands. Pick up small amounts of foam with fingers and gently massage onto scalp area until foam disappears. Repeat until entire affected scalp area is treated. Do not wash or rinse the treated area immediately after applying the foam. Do not use an airtight bandage to cover the affected area unless your doctor or health care professional tells you to. Covering the area can increase the amount that passes through the skin and increase the risk of side effects. Do not get this medicine in your eyes. If you do, rinse out with plenty of cool tap water. It is important not to use more medicine than prescribed. Do not use your medicine more often than ...
Cervical Contour Memory foam Pillow is designed to keep the neck in the slight hyperextension position at night to counter the muscular strain generated in the day where we tend to keep the neck in the flexion position. It cures memory foam problems while you sleep.. A memory foam pillow is additionally referred to as an associate degree orthopedic pillow. Maybe a pillow designed to correct the positioning of the body in bed or whereas lying down. theyre designed to make sure the proper placement and support of the neck supply safe and healthy rest to the sleeper. They need been historically a product of foam and fiber. However alternative sorts currently exist, like pillows products of memory foam. A heat-sensitive material that may acquire the form of the body lying upon it. So buy a memory foam pillow on Amazon.. ...
Foam Specifications: Cut to fit the Benelli M4 Tactical Shotgun. Shells with removable compartment and accessory compartment. Shotgun overall length is 40 Overview : Polyurethane foam is the most common type of foam used in cases. The foam is soft enough to provide flexibility for items, but also dense enough to provi
This listing is for a custom foam insert for the Oculus Rift S Virtual Reality System and 15 laptop. NO CASE INCLUDED - FOAM ONLY Accommodates the following: 1- Headset 2- Touch Controllers 1- 15 Laptop - 15 x 10.5 1- Accessory Compartments Overview: Polyurethane foam is the most common type of foam used in cases.
Sprayed foam insulation offers one of the highest R-values, which is 3.5 per inch for open-cell and 6.5 for closed-cell. These cells are made with polyurethane. Closed-foam cells are filled with a gas that allows the foam to expand and fill spaces around it. Meanwhile, open-cell foam cells are packed with air, giving it a spongy texture. Keep in mind that this type of insulation is best applied by a professional. At DryTech Roofing LLC, were not only known siding contractors but also attic insulation installers.. ...
The complete identification of the cell types accumulating inside human atherosclerotic lesions had to wait until the advent of monoclonal antibody technology, which eventually permitted to recognize mononuclear phagocytes as the primary precursors of foam cells typically populating the plaques. The same was noticed for even muscles cells from the arterial wall structure after that, that may also originate macrophage-like as well as usual foam cells through type of a metaplastic change (Bennett et al., 2016). The proliferative as well as the inflammatory interpretations of atherogenesis could be reunified into one extensive theory hence, observing atherosclerosis as an extraordinarily complicated pathobiological process where pathways of irritation are established into movement by several risk factors and in turn promote modified behaviors of arterial wall cells. With this picture, cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules associated with components of the vessel wall, as well as the ...
In the present work, metallic foams of Al, Mg and an Al-SiC nanocomposite (MMNC) have been fabricated using a new manufacturing technique by employing melt infiltration assisted with an electromagnetic force. The aim of this investigation was to study and to develop a reliable manufacturing technique consisting of different types of metallic foams. In this technique, an electromagnetic force was used to assist the infiltration of Al-SiC slurry and of pure liquid metal into a leachable pattern of NaCl, thus providing perfect cellular structures with micro-sized porosities. A high frequency induction coil unit equipped with a vacuum chamber and a hydraulic press was used to manufacture the foam materials. Microstructures of the produced foam materials were explored by using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The mechanical behavior of the manufactured foams was investigated by applying compression testing. The results indicate a high applicability of the new technique in producing
By STACEY PENNEY, MS, NASM-CPT, CES, PES, FNS. Foam rolling is a self-myofascial release (SMR) stretching technique that has been embraced throughout the fitness industry. This effective and simple to do technique delivers positive, feel-good results. Foam rollers have become easily accessible, either shared at the gym or found in almost any sporting goods aisle to bring home for a minimal investment. Using the foam roller can deliver improvements in flexibility, muscle recovery, movement efficiency, inhibiting overactive muscles, and pain reduction with just minutes of application. Why SMR?. SMR can be done with a variety of tools beyond foam rollers, such as medicine balls, handheld rollers or other assistive devices. Foam rollers vary in density, surface structure, and even temperature modifications. Whatever the tool or variation selected, SMR focuses on the neural and fascial systems in the body that can be negatively influenced by poor posture, repetitive motions, or dysfunctional ...
Enjoy customizable comfort combined with the support of memory foam when sleeping on this Adjust-A-Cube Bed Pillow from SensorPEDIC®. This adjustable gel-infused memory foam bed pillow allows you to personalize your sleep experience by customizing your pillow firmness by simply removing and depositing the fill into the included storage bag. The inner liner features a layer of memory foam for additional comfort and is generously filled with memory foam cubes that are removable so you can adjust to your desired support level: most fill for firm, less fill for medium, and the least fill for soft. Regardless of your desired comfort level, the memory foam fill will continue to conform to the head and neck to offer pressure-relieving support throughout the night, while the outer cover is made of luxury circular-knit polyester to provide durability and a layer of smooth softness. Simply zip off the easy to remove the outer cover and machine wash for lasting freshness. Standard/Queen pillow
Posey - Trach Tube Foam Holder/Ties includes Velcro tabs that quickly position any tracheostomy tube into place. The fastener tabs can be threaded through the flange of the tracheostomy tube to firmly set the tubes position. The Posey Trach Tie can also be used in oxygen cannula support. This foam tie securely fashions oxygen lines too. The soft foam padding with the double track hook and loop closure helps prevent extubation during severe coughing spasms. Sizes: Medium (neck size: 9 - 17), Large (neck size: 13 - 24) and X-Large (neck size: 16 - 30). Holder Width: 1. Each, Box of 12. Posey - Trach Tube Foam Holder/Ties: Safely secures trach tubes in place Soft foam padding with double track hook and loop closure Works with oxygen cannulas and oxygen lines
Top quality motorsport products, providing the highest levels of safety, reliability and peace of mind and wherever possible, at some of the most affordable prices. Our passion is Rallying and our aim has always been to offer a wide range of trusted products to enable our customers to prepare themselves and their cars for their planned motorsport events. International delivery and provide expert technical support, product knowledge and satisfaction guaranteed.
Savio Black Foam Direct the flow of water over the rocks in your stream or waterfall with Savio Black Foam. This convenient, black colored polymer expands to form a waterproof seal in cracks or voids between rocks and most construction materials. The foams easy-to-use can makes it simple to point and fill, while the foams black color discretely blends with liner and rocks. The foam is closed
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Did you know that the recycle #6 on foam means that it can be recycled over and over again? There are over 300 foam recycling locations around the US for these items. Foam recycling is often mistakenly referred to as Styrofoam® recycling.
The atherosclerotic plaque is characterised by the presence of macrophage foam cells that arise from dysfunctional cholesterol metabolism and trafficking. Cytokines are highly expressed within the plaque and play a critical function in initiating and augmenting the disease state. Previous studies have shown that the novel cytokine, interleukin-33 (IL-33), exerts anti-atherogenic actions in animal and in vitro models of the disease. The effect of IL-33 on pro-atherosclerotic markers was assessed in human THP-1 and murine RAW264.7 macrophages and primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) by real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The studies then focused on characterising the signalling pathways involved in the regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression by IL-33. The expression of key signalling components implicated in atherosclerosis were knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi). These experiments ...
High quality Fire Retardant Soundproof Foam Board , Industrial Use High Density PVC Sheet from China, Chinas leading PVC Foam Sign Board product market, With strict quality control PVC Foam Sign Board factories, Producing high quality Fire Retardant Soundproof Foam Board , Industrial Use High Density PVC Sheet products.
Ergoflex is first and foremost a high density memory foam mattress. You will need to know what memory foam is like to live with to understand if Ergoflex is right for you. Just as with the Nectar mattress. Memory foam sleeps hotter than other foams and the firmness can change depending on room temperature and bedding being used. However memory foam also offers the smallest amount of motion transfer compared to other foams and the least push-back or springiness. This means less pressure on painful parts of the body and hospitals use memory foam to reduce bed sores. The Ergoflex 5G memory foam mattress offers true high density foam which translates into longer life and greater durability in the real world. How dense it is I cannot tell you because Eegoflex no longer advertise this information. However I do know that weighing the mattress shows me it has a very high overall density (including base layer) and I can make a confident guess the memory foam is of a higher density than others I have ...
A temperature regulator includes at least one electrically conductive carbon foam element. The foam element includes at least two locations adapted for receiving electrical connectors thereto for heating a fluid, such as engine oil. A combustion engine includes an engine block and at least one carbon foam element, the foam element extending into the engine block or disposed in thermal contact with at least one engine fluid.
Formation of foam cells is inhibited by adenosine A2A receptors. Abnormal levels of ATP and adenosine are present in the ... In white blood cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells, purinergic signalling ... Reiss, A. B.; Cronstein, B. N. (8 June 2012). "Regulation of Foam Cells by Adenosine". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and ... Generally speaking, all cells have the ability to release nucleotides. In neuronal and neuroendocrinal cells, this mostly ...
Extruded polystyrene foam[edit]. See also: Styrofoam. Extruded polystyrene foam (XPS) consists of closed cells. It offers ... Water absorption of polystyrene foams[edit]. Although it is a closed-cell foam, both expanded and extruded polystyrene are not ... "Blue Foam, Pink Foam and Foam Board". Antenociti's Workshop. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 29 ... Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is a rigid and tough, closed-cell foam with a normal density range of 11 to 32 kg/m3.[36] It is ...
... s, also known as pulmonary foam cells, are cells found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens ... Foam cell Davidson, Kevin; Brancato, Alison; Heetderks, Peter; Mansour, Wissam; Matheis, Edward; Nario, Myra; Rajagopalan, ... specimen treated with a lipid stain and scoring each macrophage from 0 to 4 based on the amount of lipids present in the cell. ...
Ouimet M, Marcel YL (February 2012). "Regulation of Lipid Droplet Cholesterol Efflux From Macrophage Foam Cells". Arterioscler ... Activity of HSL is important in preventing or ameliorating the generation of foam cells in atherosclerosis.[13] ... Cell. Endocrinol. 265-266: 42-5. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2006.12.001. PMID 17208360.. ... During fasting-state the increased free fatty acid secretion by adipocyte cells was attributed to the hormone epinephrine, ...
... "foam cells". Foam cells characterize atherosclerotic lesions. In addition to this possible mechanism of foam cell generation, ... What is also clear is that the ApoB on the LDL particle acts as a ligand for LDL receptors in various cells throughout the body ... Cell. Biol. 13 (12): 7288-7294. doi:10.1128/MCB.13.12.7288. PMC 364799. PMID 8246950. Greeve J, Navaratnam N, Scott J (July ... fat carrying particles are ready to enter any cells with ApoB receptors and deliver fats carried within into the cells). ...
Copper sulfide foam in a froth-flotation cell. Water[edit]. Collectors[edit]. For many ores (e.g. those of Cu, Mo, W, Ni), the ... The scavenger cell froth [3] is usually returned to the rougher cells for additional treatment, but in some cases may be sent ... A mixture of ore and water called pulp [1] enters the cell from a conditioner, and flows to the bottom of the cell. Air [2] or ... The mineral concentrate froth is collected from the top of the cell [3], while the pulp [4] flows to another cell. ...
It features closed-cell-foam lower layers. A cushioned floor has more give and spring. Low-VOC vinyl flooring is certified by ... Because the closed-cell foam backing of vinyl sheet can be varied, it can be given the resilience profile of sprung performance ...
Instead CXCL5 has a protective role in atherosclerosis by directly controlling macrophage foam cell formation. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "CXCL5 limits macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerosis". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 123 (3): 1343-7. doi: ... Cell Genet. 84 (1-2): 39-42. doi:10.1159/000015209. PMID 10343098. S2CID 8087808. Mei J, Liu Y, Dai N, Hoffmann C, Hudock KM, ... It elicits these effects by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR2. The gene for CXCL5 is encoded on four ...
Harikrishnan, G.; Patro, T. Umasankar; Khakhar, D. V. (2006). "Polyurethane Foam−Clay Nanocomposites: Nanoclays as Cell Openers ... "Polyurethane Foam−Clay Nanocomposites: Nanoclays as Cell Openers". Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 45 (21): 7126-7134. doi:10.1021/ ... Method for improving particulate mixing and heat transfer in tumbling mixers and rotary kiln, Polyurethane Foam−Clay ... Nanocomposites: Nanoclays as Cell Openers, and Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Controlled Pore Size and Enhanced Electrical ...
... and become foam cells. A cholesterol core forms as foam cells die. In response to growth factors secreted by macrophages, ... This leads to an ischemic cascade of intracellular changes, necrosis and apoptosis of affected cells. Cells in the area with ... If impaired blood flow to the heart lasts long enough, it triggers a process called the ischemic cascade; the heart cells in ... The re-perfusion injury is a consequence of the calcium and sodium uptake from the cardiac cells and the release of oxygen ...
Silicone doesn't have cell structure, like foam does. It doesn't breathe. So Brian was basically encased in a sixty-pound wet- ... Nicotero added: "If we made it out of foam latex, it would've been stiff. But we used silicone that was heavily plasticized- ... Melton took a picture of it with his cell phone, and sent the picture to creator Frank Darabont. Darabont reacted positively to ... Nicotero inserted water balloons between the silicone and foam layering. He explained that as the performer begins to move, the ...
There are other foams which do not change significantly with aging because they are blown with water or are open-cell and ... "Elastochem Specialty Chemicals , Foams: Spray Foam Insulation, Injection Foam and Pour in Place Foam". Elastochem-ca.com. ... "Foams". www.isover.com.. *^ "European phenolic foam association: Properties of phenolic foam". Archived from the original on ... Closed-cell polyurethane spray foam 0.97-1.14. R-5.5-R-6.5. 38-45 ...
When spray foam (also referred to as closed-cell foam) cures it can become a sound conductor. Spray foam is not porous enough ... Synthetic Absorption materials are porous, referring to open cell foam (acoustic foam, soundproof foam). Fibrous absorption ... typically open cell rubber foams or melamine sponges, absorb noise by friction within the cell structure.[6] Porous open cell ... Mass Loaded Vinyl, in combination with open-cell rubber or a closed-cell foam floor underlayment, will further reduce sound ...
... suppresses foam cell formation to reduce atherosclerosis development. The reduction in LPL activity in adipose tissue ... ANGPTL4 contributes to tumor growth and protects cells from anoikis, a form of programmed cell death induced when contact- ... Cell. 133 (1): 66-77. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.046. PMC 2390892. PMID 18394990. Kim SH, Park YY, Kim SW, Lee JS, Wang D, ... ANGPTL4 disrupts endothelial cell junctions by directly interacting with integrin, VE-cadherin and claudin-5 in a sequential ...
May have foam cells or hyalinization in the stroma. CD10+ muscle markers (muscle specific actin MSA, smooth muscle actin SMA ... Monotonous ovoid cells to spindly cells with minimal cytoplasm. Prominent arterioles. Angiolymphatic invasion common. Up to 10- ... 2009). "Gene fusion and RNA trans-splicing in normal and neoplastic cells". Cell Cycle. 8 (2): 218-222. doi:10.4161/cc.8.2.7358 ... Even normal endometrial stroma cells express the fusion gene, derived not by translocation, but by the "stitching" together of ...
Hot foam (foamstream) causes the cell walls to rupture, killing the plant. Weed burners heat up soil quickly and destroy ...
"Diffuse foam cell pneumonia following fatty embolism treated with lipostabil. A contribution to the pathology of therapy". Z ... is a controversial cosmetic procedure in which drug mixtures are injected into patients with the goal of destroying fat cells. ...
1996: Puma is listed in the German M-DAX index; introduction of the CELL technology, the first foam-free midsole. 1997: Launch ...
... foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis". Circulation Research. 116 (5): 789-96. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.305811. PMC ... As a sorting receptor on the cell surface and on the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi apparatus within the cell, sortilin is ... as it has been detected in several cancer cell lines. Notably, human cancerous epithelial cells exhibited increased levels of ... In humans, sortilin is expressed over a wide range of cell types and tissues such as the brain, spinal cord, adrenal gland, ...
Lord Kelvin identified the problem of the most efficient way to pack cells of equal volume as a foam in 1887; his solution uses ... A foam is a mass of bubbles; foams of different materials occur in nature. Foams composed of soap films obey Plateau's laws, ... The cells in the paper nests of social wasps, and the wax cells in honeycomb built by honey bees are well-known examples. Among ... At the scale of living cells, foam patterns are common; radiolarians, sponge spicules, silicoflagellate exoskeletons and the ...
Some stress relievers are made from closed-cell polyurethane foam rubber. These are made by injecting the liquid components of ... The resulting chemical reaction creates carbon dioxide bubbles as a byproduct, which in turn creates the foam. Stress balls, ... most common are the foam type, which prevents stress through resistance from squeezing the ball. Chinese-form balls are known ...
Some dry foam structures with interior cells were found to consist of a chain of pentagonal dodecahedra or Kelvin cells in the ... By putting the resulting foam column under forced drainage (feeding it with surfactant solution from the top), the foam can be ... Further discovered structures include complex structures with internal spheres/foam cells. ... On a smaller scale bubbles of equal size crystallise to columnar foam structures when confined in a glass tube. In nanoscience ...
An open-cell foam windscreen is being used on the right. "Dead cat" and a "dead kitten" windscreens. The dead kitten covers a ... This limits the practical size of simple foam screens. While foams and wire meshes can be partly or wholly self-supporting, ... In the studio and on stage, pop-screens and foam shields can be useful for reasons of hygiene and protecting microphones from ... While pop-screens give protection from unidirectional blasts, foam "hats" shield wind into the grille from all directions, and ...
It is equipped with closed cell foam flotation and is unsinkable. The boat has a draft of 3.58 ft (1.09 m) with the lifting ...
... for timber floors is typically 3mm closed cell plastic foam. This primarily provides sound insulation and a vapour ... Underlay or underlayment generally refers to a thin layer of cushioning made of materials such as sponge rubber, foam, felt, ... Popular carpet underlays are foam rubber crumb rubber felt cork More recent innovations in underlay materials include recycled ... foam, and latex. In music, underlay refers to text intended for vocalization - positioned either directly or indirectly under ...
... they are called foam cells. When foam cells die, their contents are released, which attracts more macrophages and creates an ... Isolated macrophage foam cells Type II: Multiple foam cell layers Type III: Preatheroma, intermediate lesion Type IV: Atheroma ... "Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Controls M2 Macrophage Differentiation and Foam Cell Formation". Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... they are not composed of fat cells but of accumulations of white blood cells, especially macrophages, that have taken up ...
... is a powerful antioxidant which inhibits the oxidation of cholesterol in LDLs; this slows the formation of foam cells ...
Accumulation of lipid droplets induce the modification of macrophages to foam cells. Lysis of foam cells resulted in ... Perlipin 2 protein around the macrophages and foam cells was found to play important role in formation of atheroma. ... "Enhanced atheroprotection and lesion remodelling by targeting the foam cell and increasing plasma cholesterol acceptors". ... "Adipophilin is a specific marker of lipid accumulation in diverse cell types and diseases". Cell and Tissue Research. 294 (2): ...
Role of beer lipid-binding proteins in preventing lipid destabilization of foam. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50. vsk, nro 26, s ... Cornelius AS, Yerram NR, Kratz DA, Spector AA: Cytotoxic effect of cis-parinaric acid in cultured malignant cells. Cancer Res. ... Townsend A-A, Nakai S. (1983). Relationships between hydrophobicity and foaming characteristics of food proteins. Journal of ... Zhu H, Damodaran S. (1994). Heat-induced conformational changes in whey protein isolate and its relation to foaming properties ...
Cell Press. doi:10.1016/j.isci.2020.101234. Retrieved July 7, 2020.. Cite journal requires ,journal=. (help). ... Batches of eggs can look like a long chain or a ball of foam. They may wrap their eggs around plants in the water. They do this ... Amphibians lay their eggs in water, usually in a foam nest. After hatching they are tadpoles, which live in the water and have ...
Compared to closed cell, Polyurethane foam insulation (R=5.5 to 6.5 per inch), cellulose has a lower R-value per inch, but is ... Unlike foam insulations, many of which use HFC or HCFC blowing agents[citation needed] which have global warming potential ... The word cellulose comes from the French word cellule, for a living cell, and glucose, which is sugar. Building insulation is ... The non-recycled components of cellulose insulation are still environmentally preferable to the raw materials of foam ...
Metal foam Research, commercialization Hulls Space colonies, floating cities Multi-function structures[21]. Hypothetical, ... Lighter and cheaper wires, antistatic materials, organic solar cells Femtotechnology, picotechnology Hypothetical Present ... Other examples can be seen in the "plastic" casings of television sets, cell-phones and so on. These plastic casings are ... storing hydrogen for fuel cell powered cars, filtration systems, longer-lasting and faster-charging batteries, sensors to ...
Foam cell. *Fatty streak. *Atheroma. *Intermittent claudication. *Critical limb ischemia. *Monckeberg's arteriosclerosis ...
They would pulverize the roots, mix in water to create a foam, and then add the suds to a stream. This would kill or ... Bark extracts of Lannea coromandelica caused lysis of cell membranes followed by fragmentation of cellular materials. ...
Gerald Karp (19 October 2009). Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 14-. ISBN 978-0- ... The blooms can look like foam, scum or mats or like paint floating on the surface of the water, but they are not always visible ... Toxic effects from anatoxin-a progress very rapidly because it acts directly on the nerve cells (neurons) as a neurotoxin. The ... It acts on the voltage-gated sodium channels of nerve cells, preventing normal cellular function and leading to paralysis. The ...
Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion engines, turbines or high-temperature fuel cells.[27] The wood gas ... Electricity from wood through the combination of gasification and solid oxide fuel cells, Ph.D. Thesis by Florian Nagel, Swiss ...
The Scoville rating of these sprays are 500,000 (sabre MK9 HVS unit) and 2,000,000 (Sabre, cell buster fog delivery). This was ... "Michigan Penal Code 750.224d Self-defense spray or foam device". Legislature.mi.gov. Retrieved 2011-12-02.. ...
... red blood cell fragmentation, extravasation, thrombosis. These changes create an exaggerated layered appearance (onion skinning ...
Stem-cell therapy. *Tissue engineering. *Robot-assisted surgery. *Synthetic biology *Synthetic genomics ...
X. Zhang, D. Golberg, Y. Bando and N. Fukata : «n-ZnO/p-Si 3D heterojunction solar cells in Si holey arrays» NANOSCALE 4[3] ( ... Template-free synthesis of boron nitride foam-like porous monoliths and their high-end applications in water purification» J. ... L. Li, H. Wang, X. Fang, T. Zhai, Y. Bando and D. Golberg : «High-performance Schottky solar cells using ZrS2 nanobelt networks ... L. Li, T. Zhai, Y. Bando, D. Golberg : «Recent progress of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructured solar cells» NANO ENERGY 1[1] ( ...
An alternative to the autoclave method is to use internal pressure via inflatable air bladders or EPS foam inside the non-cured ... This type of carbon fiber assembly is most widely used in the "safety cell" monocoque chassis assembly of high-performance race ...
"Oxidative activity of ammonium persulfate salt on mast cells and basophils: implication in hairdressers' asthma". Int. Arch. ... Foaming agents (E990-999). *L-cysteine (E920). *L-cystine (E921). *Potassium persulfate (E922) ...
... square cells, and circular-cored hexagonal cells, and circular-cored square cells.[33] The relative densities of these cells ... foam cores or corrugated cores. ... The cells are often columnar and hexagonal in shape. A ... Shapes that are commonly used besides the regular hexagonal cell include triangular cells, ... Elastic buckling of the cell walls is the mode of failure for elastomeric materials [31], ductile materials fail due to plastic ...
They then poured the drink back and forth from a cup to a pot until a thick foam developed. Chocolate was available to Maya of ... which resulted in an improvement in blood flow and the function of endothelial cells that line blood vessels.[25] ...
great-wave-erni-vales.jpg (JPEG Image, 750x485 pixels), Harold Olejarz - Wood Waves, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, YVR ... and check out the simple blobs of the foam. --Hillbillyholiday talk 20:15, 7 January 2017 (UTC) ...
The majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. The structural (load carrying) member of ... The recovered glass for example is readily accepted by the glass foam and glass insulation industry. ... In rigid thin-film modules, the cell and the module are manufactured in the same production line. The cell is created on a ... The basis of producing solar panels revolves around the use of silicon cells.[41] These silicon cells are typically 10-20% ...
... created by a piece of insulation foam that came off the external tank during liftoff, though the foam impact that ultimately ... by saving cryogenic liquid hydrogen and oxygen needed to run the fuel cells which generate electricity aboard the orbiter; ... An almost identical section of foam was lost on STS-115, but did not strike the orbiter. John reported after further review of ... Shannon did report that following STS-118, NASA will do a thorough review of the history of foam loss from the area of the ...
Lei M, Chuong CM (2016). "STEM CELLS. Aging, alopecia, and stem cells". Science. 351 (6273): 559-60. Bibcode:2016Sci...351.. ... In a liquid or foam, it is rubbed into the scalp twice a day. Some people have an allergic reaction to the propylene glycol in ... The condition also presents as a side effect of chemotherapy - while targeting dividing cancer cells, this treatment also ... Proteolysis of collagen leads to elimination of the damaged cells and then to terminal hair follicle miniaturization. ...
... rubber is a type of open-cell foam. Closed-cell foams do not have interconnected pores. The closed-cell foams normally ... Soap foams are also known as suds. Solid foams can be closed-cell or open-cell. In closed-cell foam, the gas forms discrete ... Foam can also refer to something that is analogous to foam, such as quantum foam, polyurethane foam (foam rubber), XPS foam, ... open-cell-structured foams (also known as reticulated foams) and closed-cell foams. At high enough cell resolutions, any type ...
If we consider only those flowers which consist in a single flower, rather than a flower head or inflorescence, we can group the flowers into a relatively small number of 2D symmetry groups. Monocots are identifiable by their trimerous petals, thus monocots often have rotational symmetry of order 3. If the flower also has 3 lines of mirror symmetry the group it belongs to is the dihedral group D3. If not, then it belongs to the cyclic group C3. Eudicots with tetramerous or pentamerous petals may have rotational symmetry of order 4 or 5. Again, whether they also have mirror planes decides whether they belong to dihedral (D4 and D5) or cyclic groups (C4 or C5). The sepals of some monocot flowers develop to replicate the petals, thus, superficially, certain monocots can appear to have rotational symmetry of order 6 and belong to either symmetry group D6 or C6. However, flower symmetry is rarely perfect.[citation needed]. ...
Such foams present a problem in how to pack cells as tightly as possible: in 1887, Lord Kelvin proposed a packing using only ... which uses less surface area to separate cells of equal volume than Kelvin's foam.[88] ... Tessellations form a class of patterns in nature, for example in the arrays of hexagonal cells found in honeycombs. ... Weaire, D.; Rivier, N. (1984). "Soap, cells and statistics: Random patterns in two dimensions". Contemporary Physics. 25 (1): ...
A simple example of this concept comes by considering the hydrogen atom. The ground state of the hydrogen atom corresponds to having the atom's single electron in the lowest possible orbit (that is, the spherically symmetric "1s" wave function, which, so far, has demonstrated to have the lowest possible quantum numbers). By giving the atom additional energy (for example, by the absorption of a photon of an appropriate energy), the electron is able to move into an excited state (one with one or more quantum numbers greater than the minimum possible). If the photon has too much energy, the electron will cease to be bound to the atom, and the atom will become ionized. After excitation the atom may return to the ground state or a lower excited state, by emitting a photon with a characteristic energy. Emission of photons from atoms in various excited states leads to an electromagnetic spectrum showing a series of characteristic emission lines (including, in the case of the hydrogen atom, the Lyman, ...
First a raft is built, then eggs are laid in the centre, and finally a foam cap is overlaid. The foam has anti-microbial ... Iodine and T4 (over stimulate the spectacular apoptosis [programmed cell death] of the cells of the larval gills, tail and fins ... The skin colour of amphibians is produced by three layers of pigment cells called chromatophores. These three cell layers ... "Proteins of frog foam nests". School of Life Sciences, University of Glasgow. Retrieved August 24, 2012.. ...
To produce the clearest sound, percussionists hang the drum with nylon cord or place it on foam. Other methods include mounting ... Fuel cell. *Hybrid (Plug-in hybrid). *Internal combustion engine. *Petrol engine. *Steam engine ...
Cell phone promotion[edit]. For the film's home media release, Universal partnered with cell-phone company Hop-On to produce " ... Three months were spent laying foam blocks that were molded by hand to form jagged rock. A team subsequently built a 10-story, ... "Universal Studios Home Video and Hop-On Introduce the World's First Disposable, Fully Recyclable Cell Phone: The Jurassic Park ... An investigation by the San Francisco Chronicle revealed that sample versions of Hop-On's cell phones were actually modified ...
In this way, energy that would have been required to build structural cells is also freed for crop growth.[24][citation needed] ... Hop acids also contribute to and stabilize the foam qualities of beer.[2] ... "Plant Cell Walls". Plant Physiology. 154 (2): 483-486. doi:10.1104/pp.110.161240. ISSN 1532-2548. PMC 2949028. PMID 20921169 ...
Note that the area being filled is a single, well-defined "cell" and that a protective landfill liner is in place (exposed on ... Alternative waste-cover materials include chipped wood or other "green waste",[2] several sprayed-on foam products, chemically ... The space that is occupied daily by the compacted waste and the cover material is called a daily cell. Waste compaction is ...
Foam cells are lipid‐loaded macrophages that aregenerated from the massive uptake of modified low‐density lipoproteins and the ... Foam cells are lipid‐loaded macrophages.. *Foam cells are generated upon massive uptake of modified low‐density lipoproteins ... The rapid accumulation of cholesteryl esters results in foam cell formation. Infiltrated macrophages and foam cells also ... Foam cells can also be generated as a consequence of infection by persistent pathogens, such as Mycobacterium, Chlamydia and ...
Macrophages differentiate into foam cells during the formation and progression of atherosclerosis. Understanding the process of ... Macrophage to Foam Cell Transition. The induction of foam cell formation has several causes. The most prominent being the death ... The formation of foam cells occurs when macrophages engulf an excess of many types of LDL, including oxidized LDL (OxLDL) and ... The accumulation of foam cells contributes to the development of atherosclerosis by progressing plaque formation and causing ...
... closed cell spray foam insulation from CertainTeed provides exceptional thermal performance and acts as a moisture and air ... The closed cell 2-pcf foam can be spray-applied into open wall cavities, crawlspaces, perimeter joists, cathedral ceilings, and ... CertaSpray closed cell foam insulation is the newest addition to the complete line of quality insulation Products from ... CertaSpray Closed Cell Spray Foam has achieved GREENGUARD Gold Certification for low chemical emissions into indoor air during ...
Effective Inhibition of Foam Cells Formation by Tanshinone IIA in RAW264.7 Macrophages Induced with LDL Isolated from ... We have identified proteins modulated by Tanshinone IIA during the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells to uncover its ... the total cholesterol and the proportion of cholesterol ester in the RAW264.7 macrophage and transform it into foam cell, which ... differentially expressed after Tanshinone IIA treatment of HP-LDL induced RAW264.7 macrophage transformation into foam cell. ...
... and cholesterol homeostasis in the peripheral blood is maintained by specialized cells, such as macrophages. Macrophages ... and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), can also become foam cells. In this review, we discuss known pathways of foam cell ... Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Cholesterol; Endothelial cell; Foam cell; Macrophage; Smooth muscle cell; oxLDL. ... This results in deposition of free and esterified cholesterol in macrophages and generation of foam cells. Moreover, other cell ...
Apply close-cell foam insulation through a spraying process that combines two distinct chemicals. Point the nozzle into the ... Since close-cell foam insulation is considerably denser than the common alternative, open-cell foam, it is often utilized in ... Apply close-cell foam insulation through a spraying process that combines two distinct chemicals. Point the nozzle into the ... A: The costs that are associated with spray foam insulation are the cost of the type of foam, the amount of space that needs to ...
Image 1 of 8 from gallery of Stabilized Aluminum Foam Medium Cell Panel - Alusion™ , Cymat Technologies Ltd.. OMA Architects ... Stabilized Aluminum Foam Small Cell Panel - Alusion™ Cymat Technologies Ltd. ✕ Stabilized Aluminum Foam Medium Cell Panel - ...
For the ultimate product in stopping sound penetration it is hard to beat this Super-Duty Neoprene Foam. ... Details about Ultimate SOUND BARRIER 1 closed cell neoprene acoustic foam weather resistant. ... Acoustic Foam Sound Proofing Fabric Sponge Fire Retardant 6mm 12mm 15mm 25mm ... 48 Pack Black Blue 1" X 12" X 12" Acoustic Wedge Studio Foam Sound Absorption Wa ...
What is Foam cells? Meaning of Foam cells as a legal term. What does Foam cells mean in law? ... Definition of Foam cells in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Foam cells legal definition of Foam cells https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Foam+cells ... Caption: FIGURE 4: Infiltration of inflammatory cells including foam cells, plasma cells, and lymphocytes ((a) x40).. ...
CRP inhibits cholesterol efflux from human foam cells derived from THP-1 and PBMCs in vitro though oxidative stress, ERK1/2 ... C-reactive protein inhibits cholesterol efflux from human macrophage-derived foam cells Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008 Mar ... Conclusions: CRP inhibits cholesterol efflux from human foam cells derived from THP-1 and PBMCs in vitro though oxidative ... Furthermore, CRP substantially activated ERK1/2 in THP-1-derived foam-like cells. Reducing superoxide anion by antioxidant ...
Spray Foam: Open Cell vs. Closed Cell , Building Insulation Differences Between Open Cell and Closed Cell Polyurethane Spray ... Closed cell spray foam has an R-value of R-7 per inch. In comparison, open cell spray foam has an R-value of R-3.8 per inch. ... Open cell spray foam has a density of 0.5lb/ft3 whereas the density of closed cell spray foam is 2lbs/ft3. While both materials ... While open cell spray foam tends to be less costly than closed cell foam in terms of material costs, the difference in the R- ...
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Foam cells form the fatty streaks of the plaques of atheroma in the tunica intima of arteries. Foam cells are not dangerous as ... foam cells can either be degraded though the de-esterification and secretion of cholesterol, or can further promote foam cell ... such that not all LDL need to be modified for foam cell formation when LDL levels are high. The maintenance of foam cells and ... is contained by a foam cell - a marker of atherosclerosis. The uptake of LDL-C alone does not cause foam cell formation; ...
The present invention is also directed to the closed-cell water blown rigid polyurethane foams produced by the process of the ... Foams produced according to the present invention have reduced friability and acceptable adhesion to substrates as well as ... The invention is further directed to a polyurethane-foam forming mixture which is used to produce the water-blown rigid ... closed-cell content which involves reacting a) at least one polyol mixture which is composed of (i) at least one polymer polyol ...
Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 interactions with LDLR and AMPK regulate foam cell formation. ... Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 interactions with LDLR and AMPK regulate foam cell formation. ... resulting in increased foam cells due to impaired lysosomal function. Our studies reveal a novel role of ALDH2 and LDLR in ...
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Foam cells are formed when certain immune cells (macrophages) take on oxidized low density lipoproteins through failed ... br, We propose a model of foam cell formation accounting for macrophage RCT. This model is presented as a system of non-linear ... HDL perform macrophage RCT by binding to forming foam cells and removing excess lipids by efflux transporters. , ... Macrophage derived foam cells are a major constituent of the fatty deposits characterizing the disease atherosclerosis. ...
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What is Foam cells? Meaning of Foam cells as a finance term. What does Foam cells mean in finance? ... Definition of Foam cells in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Foam cells financial definition of Foam cells https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Foam+cells ... where they reside as so-called foam cells. (75,76) And foam cells, in turn, trigger inflammatory changes in the arterial wall, ...
What is foam cell? Meaning of foam cell as a legal term. What does foam cell mean in law? ... Definition of foam cell in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Foam cell legal definition of foam cell https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/foam+cell ... Cell. (redirected from foam cell). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related ...
Meanwhile, the presence of Mg2Si phase influenced the mechanical properties of the foam by acting as the crack source during ... Finite element modeling of the magnesium composite foam was established to predict localized stress, fracture of CMs, and the ... The results showed that CMs and pores directly affected the compressive deformation behavior of the magnesium composite foam by ... The effect of CMs on the compressive deformation behavior of CM-containing magnesium composite foam was investigated. Optical ...
In the present study, we have employed three-dimensional graphene foams as culture substrates for human mesenchymal stem cells ... and provide evidence that these materials can maintain stem cell viability and pr ... foams as culture substrates for human mesenchymal stem cells and provide evidence that these materials can maintain stem cell ... foams promote osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells Spencer W. Crowder,ab Dhiraj Prasai,c Rutwik Rath,a ...
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Among them, we found that the level of miR-155 in foam cells was the most significantly elevated in a dose- and time-dependent ... possibly associated with cardiovascular disease in foam cells and clinical specimens from patients with AS. ... chronic inflammation by a negative feedback loop and plays a protective role during atherosclerosis-associated foam cell ... Cell culture and establishing the foam cell model. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 and human embryonic kidney (HEK)293T ...
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Characterization of foam cell formation in human macrophage subsets (95.17) Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Characterization of foam cell formation in human macrophage subsets (95.17). Dennis Montoya, Daniel Cruz and Robert Modlin ... These data suggests that IL-10 may promote foam cell formation and is dependent on class-A, but not class B scavenger receptors ... The hallmark of the human atherosclerotic plaque is the presence of lipid-laden macrophages, or foam cells. However, many ...
Title: Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce migration and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and accelerate foam cell ... Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce migration and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and accelerate foam cell formation ... Highlights: •more » Effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on foam cell formation were investigated. • Exposure to ZnO ... These results suggest that nanosized ZnO particles could potentially enhance atherosclerogenesis and accelerate foam cell ...
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Dynamic viscous permeability of an open-cell aluminum foam: Computations versus experiments Camille Perrot Fabien Chevillotte 1 ... Dynamic viscous permeability of an open-cell aluminum foam: Computations versus experiments. Journal of Applied Physics, ...
  • Foam cells are present in all stages of atherosclerosis and participate in inflammatory responses and tissue remodelling within the arterial intima. (els.net)
  • This article reviews the processes that lead to the regulation of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis and infection. (els.net)
  • Foam cells form during development of atherosclerosis and as a result of different infections. (els.net)
  • Macrophages differentiate into foam cells during the formation and progression of atherosclerosis. (news-medical.net)
  • The accumulation of foam cells contributes to the development of atherosclerosis by progressing plaque formation and causing the formation of unstable plaques. (news-medical.net)
  • In this review, we discuss known pathways of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C - also known as "bad" cholesterol) and particularly modified forms of LDL cholesterol such as oxidized, glycated, or acetylated LDL, is contained by a foam cell - a marker of atherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foam cells are not dangerous as such, but can become a problem when they accumulate at particular foci thus creating a necrotic centre of atherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophage derived foam cells are a major constituent of the fatty deposits characterizing the disease atherosclerosis. (aimsciences.org)
  • Ishibashi, "The role of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolysis in macrophage foam cells ," Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Posing another threat are foam cells , which may live in the walls of the arteries, contributing to atherosclerosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In summary, increased miR-155 relieves chronic inflammation by a negative feedback loop and plays a protective role during atherosclerosis-associated foam cell formation by signaling through the miR-155-CARHSP1-TNF-α pathway. (nature.com)
  • Our findings reveal a new regulatory pathway of YY1/HDACs/miR-155/HBP1 in macrophage-derived foam cell formation during early atherogenesis and suggest that miR-155 is a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Zhou Y, Chen R, Liu D, Wu C, Guo P, Lin W. Asperlin Inhibits LPS-Evoked Foam Cell Formation and Prevents Atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− Mice. (mdpi.com)
  • These data revealed that human CETP may play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis mainly by decreasing HDL-C levels and increasing the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells. (hindawi.com)
  • This is perhaps most apparent in the development of atherosclerosis , when macrophages attempt to sweep up damaged lipids and in the process become foam cells , packed so full of fats and cholesterols that they cannot function properly. (fightaging.org)
  • The plaques that form in blood vessels walls as a part of the progression of atherosclerosis are in large part comprised of foam cells, the remains of previous foam cells, and the lipids that they tried and failed to clean up. (fightaging.org)
  • While foam cell formation has been an area of extensive study in the atherosclerosis field, macrophage foam cell formation in adipose tissue has only been reported recently. (fightaging.org)
  • Exophagy-mediated foam cell formation is a highly efficient means by which macrophages internalize large amounts of lipid, which may overwhelm the metabolic capacity of the macrophage, as has been demonstrated in the setting of atherosclerosis, leading to a maladaptive inflammatory response. (fightaging.org)
  • Background and Objective Cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) exert a suppressive activity on atherosclerosis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. (bmj.com)
  • We conclude that macrophage LKB1 reduction caused by oxidized low-density lipoprotein promotes foam cell formation and the progression of atherosclerosis. (ovid.com)
  • A large number of macrophage-derived foam cells stores excessive neutral lipids in intracellular droplets, and plays a major role during the development of atherosclerosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In order to illustrate the function of LD-associated proteins during the process of atherosclerosis, the foam cell model is induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in macrophages originated from the THP-1 cell line, and cDNA microarrays are used to monitor the gene expression profiles of LD-associated proteins. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the gene expression of LD-associated proteins during the differentiation of human foam cells, which may play an important role in the process of atherosclerosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Macrophage-derived foam cells play integral roles in all stages of atherosclerosis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This review summarizes the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate macrophage cholesterol uptake, foam cell formation, and lipid-driven pro-inflammatory responses that promote atherosclerosis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Specific emphasis will be placed on recent findings from mouse models of atherosclerosis regarding the pathways of macrophage differentiation into foam cells and their implications for developing macrophage-directed therapeutic targets. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Interferon-α priming promotes lipid uptake and macrophage-derived foam cell formation: a novel link between interferon-α and atherosclerosis in lupus. (springer.com)
  • Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerosis progression, as demonstrated by their abundance in human plaques as foam cells and by the dramatic reduction in atherosclerosis in mice after genetic ( 1 ) or pharmacological ( 2 ) deletion of macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Accumulation of lipid-laden "macrophage foam cell" in the arterial wall is the hallmark of atherosclerosis that leads to the highest number of cardiovascular disease-related deaths in United States. (umd.edu)
  • We have found that a calcium-permeable plasma membrane protein TRPV4, a mechanosensor, may play an essential role in regulating macrophage foam cell formation, a critical process in atherosclerosis. (umd.edu)
  • In this study, MA was shown to target important steps that contribute to foam cell formation, including its ability in reducing monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells and LDL peroxidation, down-regulating scavenger receptors expression as well as enhancing cholesterol efflux, which might be of great importance in the context of atherosclerosis prevention and treatment. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Methods and results Using partial SIRT1 deletion in atherosclerotic mice, we demonstrate that SIRT1 protects against atherosclerosis by reducing macrophage foam cell formation. (uzh.ch)
  • The accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells in the subendothelial space is the crucial step in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • High-density, spray-applied polyurethane foam. (certainteed.com)
  • The invention is further directed to a polyurethane-foam forming mixture which is used to produce the water-blown rigid polyurethane foams of the present invention. (google.com)
  • 2. The rigid polyurethane foam composite of claim 1 , comprising (2) two facer substrates, with (1) said rigid polyurethane foam being sandwiched between the two facer substrates. (google.com)
  • 3. The rigid polyurethane foam composition of claim 1 , in which (2) said facer substrates are selected from the group consisting of aluminum substrates and acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) substrates. (google.com)
  • 5. The process of claim 4 , additionally comprising placing a second facer substrate onto the exposed surface of the rigid polyurethane foam forming reaction mixture prior to curing. (google.com)
  • Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) is produced by reacting isocyanates such as MDI (Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and polyols in the presence of catalysts, flame retardants and blowing agents. (sbwire.com)
  • Albany, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 11/19/2015 -- Spray polyurethane foam are produced by mixing certain isocyanates and polyols in the presence of catalysts, flame retardants and blowing agents. (sbwire.com)
  • This report comprises in-depth analysis and forecast of the spray polyurethane foam market on a global as well as regional level. (sbwire.com)
  • Quantitative data has been derived through extensive secondary research of the global spray polyurethane foam market. (sbwire.com)
  • Furthermore, bottom up approach was employed to derive data for various application segment based on the demand for spray polyurethane foam in each geographic segment. (sbwire.com)
  • Detailed analysis of various factors driving the global spray polyurethane foam market has been included for astute decision making. (sbwire.com)
  • Opportunities comprise the untapped or recently explored factors that are anticipated to offer growth opportunities for the spray polyurethane foam market during the forecast period. (sbwire.com)
  • The value chain analysis comprises detailed evaluation of the roles of various entities involved in the spray polyurethane foam industry, from raw material supplier to the end-user. (sbwire.com)
  • Various processes used for manufacturing of spray polyurethane foam also have been included in the value chain analysis. (sbwire.com)
  • The spray polyurethane foam market has been segmented on the basis of product type and application. (sbwire.com)
  • On the basis of product type, the market has been segmented as open cell, closed cell and others including high density spray polyurethane foam. (sbwire.com)
  • On the basis of application, spray polyurethane foam market has been segmented as residential walls, residential roofing, commercial walls, commercial roofing, and others including geo thermal applications. (sbwire.com)
  • The report provides company profiles of major industry participants operating in the spray polyurethane foam market including BASF MaterialScience, Bayer, Lapolla, The Dow Chemical Company, Demilec and CertainTeed among others. (sbwire.com)
  • In the case of flexible polyurethane foam manufacture, surfactants are added to the foam formulation to act as stabilisers. (technicalfoamservices.co.uk)
  • As well as the various types of surfactants that can be used to regulate the cell size of polyurethane foam, mechanical factors are also important. (technicalfoamservices.co.uk)
  • Arcylic PU Foam Sponge Fireproof , Elastic Sound Insulation Sponge Product Description PU Foam Polyurethane foam (PU foam ) is a very versatile material. (fazendomedia.com)
  • Era of polyurethane foam cells, an necessary stage for change cholesterol transportation research, uses the technique of receptor-dependent macrophage launching with radiolabeled acetylated LDL. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Within the present study the elastic response of a flexible open cell polyurethane foam was studied by means of experimental compression tests and finite element (FE) modelling. (witpress.com)
  • At a recent building science conference in Florida (Conference on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings XII, December 1-4, 2013), two academic papers were presented that shed light on questions surrounding the moisture content of roof sheathing that has been insulated on the underside with spray polyurethane foam. (sbcmag.info)
  • Asperlin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharides (LPS)- but not oxidated low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-evoked foam cell formation and promoted cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. (mdpi.com)
  • OxLDL and MCP‐1 act as chemoattractants for circulating monocytes that then attach to endothelial cells via adhesion molecules. (els.net)
  • The formation of foam cells occurs when macrophages engulf an excess of many types of LDL, including oxidized LDL (OxLDL) and minimally modified LDL (mmLDL), which result in the death of the macrophages once they become oversaturated with LDLs. (news-medical.net)
  • OxLDL signals through TLR4, as well as CD36 and TLR6, which impairs the LPS-induce immune response and induces the formation of foam cells. (news-medical.net)
  • These scavenger receptors act as "Pattern recognition receptors" (PRR's) on macrophages and are responsible for recognizing and binding to oxLDL, which in turn promotes the formation of foam cells through internalization of these lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this process, macrophages are recruited to take up oxLDL to form lipid-overloaded foam cells 8 , which play a crucial role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and the progression of AS. (nature.com)
  • To characterize the macrophage subsets ability to become foam cells we measured their uptake of fluorescently-labeled oxidized LDL (oxLDL). (jimmunol.org)
  • We then investigated the mechanism of uptake and found that fucoidan, a class-A scavenger receptor competitor, significantly inhibited uptake of oxLDL in IL-10 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Detailed analysis showed that the YY1/HDAC2/4 complex negatively regulated the expression of miR-155 to suppress oxLDL-induced foam cell formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Macrophages were cultured with or without Tregs in the presence of oxidised LDL (oxLDL) for 48 h to transform foam cells. (bmj.com)
  • Influence of 3A6 on formation of foam cells was observed by Oil Red O staining and the affinity of Na 125 I-conjugated oxLDL. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Natural anti-oxLDL IgM monoclonal antibody 3A6 specifically inhibited the binding of CuoxLDL to naïve macrophages and foam cell formation in vitro. (bmj.com)
  • Altogether, herein, we demonstrate that TRPV4 plays a critical role in macrophage-foam-cell formation by regulating oxLDL uptake in cells. (umd.edu)
  • Peritoneal macrophages from heterozygous SIRT1 mice accumulate more oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), thereby promoting foam cell formation. (uzh.ch)
  • Homeostatic responses to prevent accumulation of foam cells include upregulation of the expression of molecules that participate in cholesterol efflux to HDL, such as apoE and ABCA1. (els.net)
  • This signaling changes the metabolic state of macrophages resulting in decreased cholesterol efflux, which causes increased foam cell formation. (news-medical.net)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects and potential mechanisms of C-reactive protein (CRP) on cholesterol efflux from human macrophage foam cells, which may play a critical role in atherogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Human THP-1 monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were preincubated with acetylated LDL and [3H]-cholesterol to form foam cells, which were then treated with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) or HDL for cholesterol efflux assay. (nih.gov)
  • CRP inhibits cholesterol efflux from human foam cells derived from THP-1 and PBMCs in vitro though oxidative stress, ERK1/2 activation, and downregulation of intracellular cholesterol transport molecules ABCA1 and ABCG1. (nih.gov)
  • Although macrophage RCT is a very small part of RCT, the efficiency of cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells to feces plays a key role in protecting against AS progression [8]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Moreover, cortistatin reduced the capacity of endothelial cells to bind and recruit immune cells to the plaque and impaired the formation of foam cells by enhancing cholesterol efflux from macrophages. (harvard.edu)
  • Monocytes from HIV+ individuals show impaired cholesterol efflux and increased foam cell formation after transendothelial migration. (edu.au)
  • Conclusion: Monocytes from HIVþ individuals show impaired cholesterol efflux and are primed for foam cell formation following transendothelial migration. (edu.au)
  • Under conditions of hypercholesterolaemia, LDL accumulates in the arterial intima and is progressively oxidised by endothelial and other arterial cells. (els.net)
  • Endothelial cells also become activated, thus increasing the expression of adhesion molecules, including selectins, VCAM‐1 and ICAM‐1, on their surfaces. (els.net)
  • Moreover, other cell types, such as endothelial (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), can also become foam cells. (nih.gov)
  • In chronic hyperlipidemia, lipoproteins aggregate within the intima of blood vessels and become oxidized by the action of oxygen free radicals generated either by macrophages or endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study investigated the effects of nanosized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles on the migration and adhesion of monocytes, which are essential processes in atherosclerogenesis, using an in vitro set-up of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). (osti.gov)
  • It is hypothesized that MA can suppress monocyte recruitment to endothelial cells and inhibit macrophage foam cells formation. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Our findings demonstrate that MA inhibits THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC cells in a TNFα-dependent and independent manner, but it induces trans-endothelial migration marginally at low concentration. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Aims Endothelial activation, macrophage infiltration, and foam cell formation are pivotal steps in atherogenesis. (uzh.ch)
  • Here the goal was to develop a full-thickness artificial cornea using an optimized collagen-chondroitin sulfate foam, with a thickness close to that of human cornea, by coculturing human corneal epithelial and stromal cells and transfected human endothelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Corneal extracellular matrix was simulated by a porous collagen/glycosaminoglycan-based scaffold seeded with stromal keratocytes and then, successively, epithelial and endothelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • An endothelial cell monolayer beneath the foam was also apparent. (arvojournals.org)
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol homeostasis in the peripheral blood is maintained by specialized cells, such as macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Macrophages within the atherosclerotic legion area have a decreased ability to migrate, which further promotes plaque formation as they are able to secrete cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and growth factors that stimulate modified lipoprotein uptake and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, LKB1 deficiency in macrophages significantly increased the expression of SRA (scavenger receptor A), modified low-density lipoprotein uptake and foam cell formation, all of which were abolished by blocking SRA. (ovid.com)
  • As an early step in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions is the transformation of arterial wall macrophages into lipid-loaded foam cells, we studied cholesterol metabolism after cholesterol loading with acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL) in bone marrow-derived macrophages from apoE-deficient AKR and DBA/2 mice in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • Membrane scavenger receptors such as SR-A, and CD36 play important role in controlling oxidized low-density lipoprotein binding and uptake, and, thereby, in macrophage foam cell formation. (umd.edu)
  • Modified lipoproteins recruit monocytes to the vascular intima, where monocytes differentiate into macrophages to engulf these lipoprotein molecules and then become foam cells ( 4 , 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These pathogens meet nutritional advantages by residing within cells that accumulate lipids. (els.net)
  • b) Microphotograph of the earliest stage of an atherosclerotic lesion, the fatty streak, after staining with oil‐red O. The fatty streak is characterised by subendothelial accumulation of macrophages/foam cells, which contain massive amounts of lipids, as indicated by oil‐red O staining. (els.net)
  • HDL perform macrophage RCT by binding to forming foam cells and removing excess lipids by efflux transporters. (aimsciences.org)
  • LDs are cytoplasmic organelles, present in high levels in foam cells , that are comprised by a hydrophobic core of neutral lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol esters) surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer and a growing list of associated proteins [7-9]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Monocytes get attracted to and accumulate in the subendothelial space where they take up lipids to become foam cells [42]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • How do Macrophages take in Enough Lipids to Become Dysfunctional Foam Cells? (fightaging.org)
  • The end result is much the same, in the sense that the macrophage becomes bloated by lipids and in consequence becomes a harmful foam cell. (fightaging.org)
  • Other than M1/M2 plasticity, MTb has the ability to convert macrophage into foam cells that are rich in lipids and cholesterol. (frontiersin.org)
  • Macrophages transform into foam cells upon taking-in lipids. (ovid.com)
  • Maslinic acid suppresses macrophage foam cells formation: Regulation of monocyte recruitment and macrophage lipids homeostasis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We further showed that MA suppresses macrophage foam cells formation, as indicated from the Oil-Red-O staining and flow cytometric analysis of intracellular lipids accumulation. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Lipid-laden alveolar macrophages, also known as pulmonary foam cells, are cells found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens that consist of macrophages containing deposits of lipids (fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipid-laden macrophage index (LLMI) can be calculated by counting 100 macrophages in a BAL specimen treated with a lipid stain and scoring each macrophage from 0 to 4 based on the amount of lipids present in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foam cells, also called lipid-laden macrophages are a type of cell that contain cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest lesions of atherogenesis consist of arterial intimal accumulations of foam cells (primarily lipid-laden macrophages) and T lymphocytes intermixed with smooth muscle cells (7). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The hallmark of the human atherosclerotic plaque is the presence of lipid-laden macrophages, or foam cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We also examined the effects of exposure to nanosized metal oxide particles on macrophage cholesterol uptake and foam cell formation. (osti.gov)
  • In particular, the role of SIRT1 in monocyte adhesion, macrophage infiltration, lipid uptake and foam cell formation remains to be determined. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the present study, we have employed three-dimensional graphene foams as culture substrates for human mesenchymal stem cells and provide evidence that these materials can maintain stem cell viability and promote osteogenic differentiation. (rsc.org)
  • Moreover, the use of an extracellular acceptor of free cholesterol, eg, HDL, also enhanced the net hydrolysis of CEs by stimulating the efflux of free cholesterol from these cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Foams produced according to the present invention have reduced friability and acceptable adhesion to substrates as well as acceptable compressive strength. (google.com)
  • The foam is then sprayed or pumped on building substrates as an insulating material. (sbwire.com)
  • CertaSpray closed cell foam insulation is the newest addition to the complete line of quality insulation Products from CertainTeed. (certainteed.com)
  • As an all-in-one insulation air sealing system, CertaSpray foam insulation is designed to solve your extreme insulation requirements. (certainteed.com)
  • How do you use close-cell foam insulation? (reference.com)
  • Apply close-cell foam insulation through a spraying process that combines two distinct chemicals. (reference.com)
  • Use a small sprayer tool with close-cell foam insulation to fill in gaps in the region. (reference.com)
  • One advantage to this type of insulation solution is the additional structural support provided by the foam. (reference.com)
  • Since close-cell foam insulation is considerably denser than the common alternative, open-cell foam, it is often utilized in the construction of ceilings, roofs and walls. (reference.com)
  • The equipment required to apply close-cell insulation depends on the size of the project. (reference.com)
  • Several different problems can arise when the foam insulation is not properly applied. (reference.com)
  • To get the most out of this particular type of insulation, it is critical that no excess foam is applied. (reference.com)
  • Blown in insulation, fiberglass and sprayed foam insulation are the most effective forms of attic insulation. (reference.com)
  • Sprayed foam insulation offers the highest in. (reference.com)
  • The costs that are associated with spray foam insulation are the cost of the type of foam, the amount of space that needs to be covered and the cost of lab. (reference.com)
  • Spray foam insulation is known for offering excellent thermal control for residential and commercial applications. (jm.com)
  • Understanding the differences between open and closed cell spray foam insulation can be critical to ensuring your home's walls and attic are properly sealed and insulated. (jm.com)
  • In closed cell insulation, the bubbles don't rupture, creating interconnected closed pockets, shown in the picture on the right. (jm.com)
  • Though you can use either open or closed cell spray foam insulation anywhere, many people like to use the southern Pennsylvania border as a rule of thumb: in structures south of the southern border of Pennsylvania, use open cell, north of that border use closed cell. (jm.com)
  • If the application calls for an integrated vapor barrier and insulation all in one, closed cell spray foam insulation will provide this necessary performance. (jm.com)
  • For this reason, all continuous exterior insulation applications using spray foam should be closed cell. (jm.com)
  • To learn more about spray foam insulation visit our spray foam insulation page , or whysprayfoam.org . (jm.com)
  • Designed on the molecular level to specifically address the challenges of today's building envelope, the spray foam is certified by the Air Barrier Association of America for adhesion to most air barrier materials and achieves an R-11 to exceed ASHRAE 90.1 continuous insulation requirements at 1.5 inches. (wconline.com)
  • Cost to install spray foam insulation varies greatly by region (and even by zip code). (fixr.com)
  • The average cost of installing spray foam insulation is $2,700 . (fixr.com)
  • How much does it cost to install spray foam insulation? (fixr.com)
  • There are many types of insulation on the market, with spray foam being one of the most effective at both insulating and creating an air and vapor barrier 1 . (fixr.com)
  • Many factors determine the cost of spray foam insulation, including the amount, depth, and type of insulation. (fixr.com)
  • The average homeowner, insulating a 1,200-square-foot attic with 3 inches of open cell insulation , will spend around $2,700 . (fixr.com)
  • Like any material, spray foam insulation has advantages and disadvantages. (fixr.com)
  • There are two types of spray foam insulation, and they work slightly differently from one another. (fixr.com)
  • Open cell insulation is less expensive, facilitates two-way drying, and when thick enough, can be an air barrier. (fixr.com)
  • Closed cell insulation is more expensive and acts as an air and water barrier. (fixr.com)
  • Open cell insulation absorbs sound significantly better than closed cell, though. (fixr.com)
  • Open cell insulation tends to emit gas more than closed cell, so people sensitive to the material may experience more negative health effects. (fixr.com)
  • Spray foam insulation is more common in new home construction than in existing homes. (fixr.com)
  • For areas like attics and other open spaces, spray foam insulation is applied similarly to that of a new home. (fixr.com)
  • If you insulate your entire existing home with spray foam insulation, you will not pay more for the insulation itself. (fixr.com)
  • The particularity of foam metal structure endows these materials with many excellent properties, such as light-weight, thermal-insulation, energy-absorbing, permeation performance etc. (scirp.org)
  • For building professionals, the most energy-efficient, eco-friendly technology available today is spray foam insulation. (demilec.com)
  • Within the spray foam insulation and coatings industry, value engineering involves considering various methods and construction materials, evaluating those, then determining the most cost-effective path to achieve the desired result. (demilec.com)
  • As an industry leader in spray foam insulation, we take our commitment to promoting safe practices and educating people about our product seriously. (demilec.com)
  • This construction uses 3 1/2" closed cell high density spray foam insulation on the interior of the rimjoist and foundation wall, and 2" XPS rigid insulation under slab. (buildingscience.com)
  • self-adhesive 6mm thickness Closed - cell foam car sound insulation car floor sound deadening Product Description: WanTai sound insulation foam is self adhesive mats of highly effective acoustical grade close cell foam as thermal-acoustic barrier. (xpandrally.com)
  • 2. Foam Board is sound insulation, heat insulation, noise absorption, heat preservation and corrosion prevention. (futurenowinc.com)
  • This foam provides thermal and moisture insulation and is flexible and durable which is resistance to petroleum based fluids. (foamforyou.com)
  • Volara With Adhesive Backing on a roll features a very fine, uniform cell structure and offers superior chemical resistance, possesses excellent cushioning and thermal insulation properties, as well as exceptional mechanical strength and durability. (foamforyou.com)
  • Now that insulation contractors have been installing spray foam insulation on the underside of roof sheathing for several years, we're beginning to accumulate anecdotes and data on successful installations and failed installations. (sbcmag.info)
  • As originally understood, the problem with open-cell foam was that it is vapor-permeable, and therefore allows moisture in the interior air to diffuse through the insulation and reach the cold roof sheathing during the winter. (sbcmag.info)
  • The apparent densities of the foams were about 0.67 g∙cm −3 , cell size was approximately 3 - 7 mm, porosity was 74%, and selecting the same pore structure of CAF specimens was cut into 18 × 11 × 4.5 mm by the electrical discharge machining. (scirp.org)
  • A finite element analysis was employed to simulate the deformation behavior of Al-Mg alloy foams of 92% porosity during compressive testing and the simulated results were compared with experimental ones. (go.jp)
  • For the melt foaming approach the maximum achieved porosity of approx. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Shaped foam parts made by the powder metallurgical process route showed a porosity level similar to aluminium foams (approx. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Results: Monocytes from HIVþ individuals showed increased foam cell formation compared with controls (18.9 vs. 0%, respectively, P¼0.004) and serum from virologically suppressed HIVþ individuals potentiated foam cell formation by monocytes from both uninfected and HIVþ donors. (edu.au)
  • The closed-cell micro-pore magnesium composite foam with hollow ceramic microspheres (CMs) was fabricated by a modified melt foaming method. (mdpi.com)
  • Generation of a homogeneous pore distribution and its stabilisation until the liquid foam has been frozen into the solid state still requires further research and development. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Known for their high mechanical and thermal strength as well as their good thermal conductivity, SiSiC solid foams (silicon infiltrated silicon-carbide, IKTS Fraunhofer, Dresden) with pore densities of 20, 30 and 45 ppi (pores per linear inch) were applied for experimental investigations. (hzdr.de)
  • Fig. 2: Flow map of transition ranges for different foam pore densities, liquid distributors and fluid properties. (hzdr.de)
  • Coarse foams were found to suffer from significant maldistribution of fluids at trickle flow, which decreased with higher pore densities and stronger capillary forces. (hzdr.de)
  • This study develops a Representative Unit Cell Structure (RUCS) model for Open Pore Cellular Foam (OPCF) material, based on a dodecahedron cell. (dcu.ie)
  • Effective housing designs are proposed for both hydrogen and oxygen sides and through the application of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling and analysis techniques the flow regime through the open pore cellular metal foam flow plate are identified. (dcu.ie)
  • CXCL12 binds to receptors such as C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and CXCR7, which allows it to regulate cell migration, adhesion, and survival. (news-medical.net)
  • Recruitment is facilitated by the molecules P-selectin and E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to ZnO particles also induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. (osti.gov)
  • Adhesion and retention of mesenchymal stem cells cultured in collagen-coated GF shown by (a) SEM imaging and (b) fluorescent images of PKH26-prestained cells within the scaffold. (hindawi.com)
  • Ironman Foam Cell provides the ultimate in 4x4 shock absorber design and features with 50% more oil for cooler running. (ironman4x4.com)
  • CAF was fabricated by melt-foaming method at the Xinjiang University of China. (scirp.org)
  • Effective Inhibition of Foam Cells Formation by Tanshinone IIA in. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Our results demonstrating that inhibition of CD36 markedly reduced LD formation imply the involvement of this scavenger receptor in foam cell formation induced by MT-III in macrophages. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On the other hand, miR-155 may promote AS, as it has been observed to derepress BCL6-mediated inhibition of CCL2 transcription in the bone marrow cells of ApoE -/- mice 19 . (nature.com)
  • 6 7 8 Mechanisms to decrease the accumulation of CEs in foam cells could include inhibition of CE synthesis or stimulation of CE hydrolysis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition of PLD2 expression by siRNA also weakened foam cell formation and partially recovered LPS-mediated RGS2 down-regulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Seattle Fabrics carries a great supply of Neoprene Closed Cell Foam. (seattlefabrics.com)
  • are produced in Neoprene Strip, EPDM Strip, Neoprene Sponge Strip, PVC foam Strip, Polythene (PE) Strip, Acoustic Foam Strip, Expanding Foam Tape, High Temperature Silicone Strip as well as Silicone Strip. (xpandrally.com)
  • The aim of the current study was to investigate whether human macrophage foam cells degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) of atherosclerotic plaques by cathepsin K mediated processes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Human macrophage foam cells degrade the atherosclerotic plaques though cathepsin K mediated processes, resulting in increase in levels of CTX-I. Serum CTX-I was not elevated in women with aortic calcification, likely due to the contribution of CTX-I from osteoclastic bone resorption which involves Cathepsin-K. The human macrophage model system may be used to identify important pathway leading to excessive proteolytic plaque remodeling and plaque rupture. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Foam cells are lipid‐loaded macrophages that are generated from the massive uptake of modified low‐density lipoproteins and the intracytoplasmatic accumulation of cholesteryl esters. (els.net)
  • Oxidised LDL is rapidly taken up by scavenger receptors, such as CD36 and SR‐A. The rapid accumulation of cholesteryl esters results in foam cell formation. (els.net)
  • However, accumulation of high levels of cholesteryl ester may lead to the formation of foam cells and, later, to atherogenesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therefore, prevention or reversal of CE accumulation in macrophage foam cells could result in protection from multiple pathological effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • Macrophages showed concentration-dependent increased accumulation of NBD-cholesterol in the cytoplasm, which was further confirmed by measuring the fluorescence intensity in the corresponding cell lysates (Fig. 1D). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The results from Oil Red O staining and HPLC revealed that BBR effectively suppressed foam cell formation and lipid and cholesterol accumulation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Silent information regulator T1 (sirtuin 1 or SIRT1), a NAD + -dependent histone deacetylase, is a fundamental factor in sensing caloric restriction, improving insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells, and reducing the accumulation of fatty acids in white adipose tissue ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • For these studies, RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line, were found to be a suitable model of foam cell formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods The Murine macrophage cell line RAW-264.7 was cultured in vitro. (bmj.com)
  • Once monocytes reach the arterial wall intima, they undergo phenotypic transformation into macrophages, internalise large amounts of modified LDLs and become foam cells. (els.net)
  • Treatment of human monocytes with M-CSF or M-CSF+LDL generated macrophages and foam cells producing CTX-I when cultured on type I collagen enriched matrix. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Methods: Using an in-vitro model of atherosclerotic plaque formation, we measured the transendothelial migration of purified monocytes from age-matched HIVþ and uninfected donors and examined their differentiation into foam cells. (edu.au)
  • Foam cells participate in inflammatory responses and tissue remodelling. (els.net)
  • Infiltrated macrophages and foam cells also participate in the inflammatory process by secretion of pro‐inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF‐α, IL‐1β and IL‐6. (els.net)
  • Caption: FIGURE 4: Infiltration of inflammatory cells including foam cells , plasma cells, and lymphocytes ((a) x40). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chen, "Effects of Alisma Decoction on lipid metabolism and inflammatory response are mediated through the activation of the LXRa pathway in macrophage-derived foam cells ," International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 75,76) And foam cells , in turn, trigger inflammatory changes in the arterial wall, which eventually lead to the formation of an inflammatory plaque. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our group has previously demonstrated that an Asp49 [sPLA.sub.2], named myotoxin-III (MT-III), isolated from Bothrops asper snake venom, activates inflammatory functions of macrophages, including formation of lipid droplets (LDs) and upregulation of perilipin 2 (PLIN2), a scaffold protein involved in LD assembly and macrophage differentiation into foam cells [5-7]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cortistatin reduced Th1/Th17-driven inflammatory responses and increased regulatory T cells in atherosclerotic arteries and lymphoid organs. (harvard.edu)
  • It is known that adipose tissue macrophages transform into foam cells and drive the inflammatory changes that occur in adipose tissue, and it appears that macrophages play a protective role in adipose homeostasis , but mount a maladaptive immune response in the setting of obesity. (fightaging.org)
  • Our results showed inflammatory factors IL-6 and MCP-1 concentrations in cell culture medium of macrophages and foam cell transfected with miR-23a mimics were decreased. (springer.com)
  • Meanwhile, inflammatory macrophages and foam cells transfected with miR-23a mimics, showed a significant decrease in both HSP90 and NF-κB proteins. (springer.com)
  • Previous study shows that MA inhibits inflammatory effects induced by sPLA2-IIA, including foam cells formation. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Both treatment with exogenous recombinant RBP4 and overexpression of RBP4 gene promoted macrophage-derived foam cell formation through the activation of scavenger-receptor CD36-mediated cholesterol uptake, and RBP4 transcriptionally upregulated CD36 expression in a manner dependent on jun N-terminal kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. (ovid.com)
  • The maintenance of foam cells and the subsequent progression of plaque build-up is caused by the secretion of chemokines and cytokines from macrophages and foam cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive oxygen species, cytokines, and cell surface modifying proteinases produced by macrophages promote apoptosis, thereby contributing to the cellular rarefaction of vulnerable plaques ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Solid gutter covers, fine mesh gutter covers, foam inserts and brush-style inserts are some of the types of gutter guards available. (reference.com)
  • Pro-Line is proud to introduce our next generation of Rock Crawling Performance Foam Inserts: the all-new 2.2 Dual Stage Closed Cell Inner/Soft Outer Foam! (rpphobby.com)
  • Pro-Line s new inner inserts are made from lightweight and waterproof Blue Closed Cell Foam while the outer is made from Soft open cell foam. (rpphobby.com)
  • The inner Closed Cell inserts are completely contoured to correctly match the shape of Pro-Line s tires for improved tire performance and appearance. (rpphobby.com)
  • Get your own set of Pro-Line s new Rock Crawling Dual Stage Closed Cell Foam Inserts today! (rpphobby.com)
  • These are the Pro-Line 2.2 XL Dual Stage Closed Cell Rock Crawler Tire Foam Inserts. (rcsuperstore.com)
  • MCP-1 and its receptor play key roles in monocyte recruitment during foam cell and fatty streak formation in atherogenesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While both materials can be used as an air barrier (open cell at 3.75" thickness or greater and closed cell at 1" thickness or greater), only closed cell spray foam creates a fully sealed system that can be used as an air and vapor barrier (at 1.5" thickness or greater). (jm.com)
  • In this article, we report the effects of darapladib on lipid profile, Ox-LDL level, number of foam cells , and PVAT thickness in Sprague--Dawley rats that were given high-fat diet. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1.0 mM) added to serum act catalytically, accelerating the exchange of cholesterol between cells and lipoproteins. (jci.org)
  • Foam cells are fat-laden M2 macrophages containing low density lipoproteins (LDL). (wikipedia.org)
  • They are named because the lipoproteins give the cell a foamy appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foam cell formation is triggered by a number of factors including the uncontrolled uptake of modified low density lipoproteins (LDL), the upregulation of cholesterol esterification and the impairment of mechanisms associated with cholesterol release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foam cells are formed when certain immune cells (macrophages) take on oxidized low density lipoproteins through failed phagocytosis. (aimsciences.org)
  • More importantly, tamoxifen was able to inhibit ACAT on intact macrophages stimulated with acetylated low-density lipoproteins and blocked the formation of foam cells, a step that precedes the formation of the atheromatous plaque. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The transition from macrophages to foam cells is a key step that occurs when fatty streaks are formed during the development of atherosclerotic plaques. (news-medical.net)
  • There were also similar percentages of foam cell macrophages (FCMs) carrying M1/M2 markers and MMPs in atherosclerotic plaques from ApoE KO and ApoE/Rag-1 double-KO mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • RBP4 promotes atherogenesis by inducing macrophage-derived foam cell formation. (ovid.com)
  • Conclusion Our findings demonstrate protective effects of SIRT1 in atherogenesis and suggest pharmacological SIRT1 activation as a novel anti-atherosclerotic strategy by reducing macrophage foam cell formation. (uzh.ch)
  • Conclusions- ELDL is highly potent in inducing foam cells in murine SMC. (ahajournals.org)
  • Open cell spray foam has a density of 0.5lb/ft 3 whereas the density of closed cell spray foam is 2lbs/ft 3 . (jm.com)
  • We used U937-derived macrophages because these cells are frequently used to develop foam cells after treatment with modified low density protein (Martens et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • S t = Mass of fluorinated GHG per unit of equipment type t or foam type t (charge per piece of equipment, kg) or density of fluorinated GHG in foam (charge per cubic foot of foam, kg per cubic foot). (cornell.edu)
  • S t = Mass in CO 2 e of the fluorinated GHGs per unit of equipment type t or foam type t (charge per piece of equipment, kg) or density of fluorinated GHG in foam (CO 2 e per cubic foot of foam, kg CO 2 e per cubic foot). (cornell.edu)
  • Selecting varying thicknesses of high- or low-density open cell PE foam , and high- or medium-density closed cell PE foam . (fazendomedia.com)
  • This higher the density the firmer the foam is. (foamforyou.com)
  • Our objective is to understand the mechanisms of ELDL uptake and its effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). (ahajournals.org)
  • Oxidized LDL modulates Bax/Bcl-2 through the lectinlike ox-LDL receptor-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells. (springer.com)
  • Closed-cell aluminum foam was shot peened at different processing time (0 s, 5 s, 10 s, and 20 s), the intensity was the 0.12 mmA. (scirp.org)
  • Combined with Popa model and lognormal distribute model, the surface microstructure of closed-cell aluminum foam was inves-tigated by using the Rietveld whole pattern fitting analysis method. (scirp.org)
  • Moreover, the corrosion behavior of closed-cell aluminum foam was studied by weight-loss test. (scirp.org)
  • According to the cell space structure, the aluminum foam can be classified as closed cell aluminum foam (CAF) and open aluminum foam. (scirp.org)
  • Plastic deformation by extrusion and high-ratio differential speed rolling on closed-cell aluminum foams resulted in the formation of ultrafine grains in the densified matrix. (go.jp)
  • The thermoplastic foamed interior of the seal also provides consistent low closing forces that can be tailored to your application needs. (ultrafab.com)
  • The behaviour of the foam matches that of the alloy from which it is made: three-power law creep with the same activation energy as for Al-Mg alloy creeping by viscous dislocation glide in the high stress regime and five-power law creep in the low stress regime. (epfl.ch)
  • 5] reported that the corrosion resistance of closed-cell Al-A356 alloy foam can be enhanced by the plasma electrolytic oxidation treatment. (scirp.org)
  • Two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrixassisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to analysis and identify the proteins differentially expressed after Tanshinone IIA treatment of HP-LDL induced RAW264.7 macrophage transformation into foam cell. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Gene expression data show that 2% of changed genes are lipid binding genes during the transformation of foam cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Approach and Results- Transformation of murine aortic SMCs into foam cells in response to ELDL was analyzed. (ahajournals.org)
  • Yan L, Gao H, Li C, Han X, Qi X. Effect of miR-23a on anoxia-induced phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle cells of rat pulmonary arteries and regulatory mechanism. (springer.com)
  • The transformation of macrophages to foam cells is a critical component in atherosclerotic lesion formation. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The paper here examines that question, albeit with a focus on how macrophages engulf fat cells elsewhere in the body. (fightaging.org)
  • There are two different types of spray foam, open cell, like JM Corbond ® Open-cel l, and closed cell, like JM Corbond® III , and each offers varying benefits concerning cost and performance. (jm.com)
  • Open cell spray foam and closed cell spray foam have different physical structures that give them different thermal and acoustic performance properties. (jm.com)
  • In open cell spray foam, the bubbles rupture, leaving behind only the struts (the point at which two bubbles were touching each other), as shown in the picture on the left. (jm.com)
  • In comparison, open cell spray foam has an R-value of R-3.8 per inch. (jm.com)
  • That being said, the porous structure of open cell spray foam allows for improved acoustics over closed cell spray foam. (jm.com)
  • While open cell spray foam tends to be less costly than closed cell foam in terms of material costs, the difference in the R-values between the two products means that any system using open cell spray foam will need more material than closed cell spray foam to achieve a given R-value. (jm.com)
  • Keep in mind that while open cell spray foam can be used anywhere, it does not create a vapor barrier like closed cell spray foam does. (jm.com)
  • Thus, any structure using open cell spray foam (whether it is in the north or the south), would need an additional vapor barrier to prevent condensation from forming. (jm.com)
  • While both open and closed cell spray foam will entirely fill the cavities where they are installed (when installed properly), only closed cell spray foam can offer the added benefit of a vapor barrier. (jm.com)
  • magnesium open cell foam produced by replication and tested in tension at 300, 350 or 450 degrees C creeps at rates between 10(-3) and 10(-8) s(-1). (epfl.ch)
  • Ideal for padding under compression bandages, the CompriFoam Open-Cell Foam Bandages are designed to evenly distribute the pressure from compression bandages over extremities, helping to ensure effective compression therapy and prevent constrictions. (ameswalker.com)
  • Open-cell spray foam is typically used in warmer climates. (demilec.com)
  • EPDM (Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Monomer), it is classified into closed-cell foam and open-cell foam. (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • Cell Sponge Foam Sealing EPDM Open - Cell Foam Sheet EPDM foam is a rubber foam sponge, soft foam material. (fazendomedia.com)
  • Noise reduction:25dB Material:aluminum Type:close sell, open cell Factory Standard. (fazendomedia.com)
  • Its open and elastic cell structures make it very resistant to oxidation and aging, especially if. (fazendomedia.com)
  • Surface evolver software was used to model the open cell foam structures. (witpress.com)
  • The thus build FE-models possess a good resemblance to real open cell foam structures. (witpress.com)
  • Foam cell formation by uninfected (solid bars) and C. pneumoniae -infected (open bars) macrophages. (asm.org)
  • The foam has from about 30 to about 80 percent open cell content. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to a method of employing an extruded, open-cell alkenyl aromatic polymer foam in roofing systems. (google.com)
  • To cope the vast amount of reaction heat produced by the process, the application of open-cell solid foams as catalyst carrier denotes a promising option. (hzdr.de)
  • Within the Energy Alliance joint project, open-cell solid foams were characterized at descending gas-liquid multiphase flows. (hzdr.de)
  • Does Open-Cell Spray Foam Lead to Damp Roof Sheathing? (sbcmag.info)
  • Most of these damp-sheathing problems involve open-cell foam rather than closed-cell foam. (sbcmag.info)
  • I've been reporting on wet-sheathing problems arising from the use of open-cell spray foam since 2005, when I wrote two articles on the topic for Energy Design Update ( "Vapor Retarders and Icynene," April 2005, and "Every Failure Holds a Lesson," July 2005). (sbcmag.info)
  • One paper discussed a field study that found that even in a relatively warm climate (South Carolina), roof sheathing can accumulate moisture when open-cell spray foam is installed on the underside of the sheathing. (sbcmag.info)
  • The other paper reported on a computer modeling study that showed that when spray foam is installed on the underside of roof sheathing, open-cell foam is riskier than closed-cell foam in all U.S. climate zones. (sbcmag.info)
  • A reticulated open cell foam dressing with through holes (ROCF-CC) was developed to assist with wound cleansing by removing thick wound exudate and infectious materials, and it may be used when debridement is not possible or appropriate. (woundsresearch.com)
  • 6-8 For wounds with thick exudate, a reticulated open cell foam dressing with through holes (ROCF-CC) has been developed to assist with wound cleansing. (woundsresearch.com)