Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage by injection or infusion of chemical agents which cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A class of oxidized LDL receptors that contain LECTIN-like extracellular domains.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Azo compounds are organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups, -N=N-, linking two aromatic rings, which can impart various colors and are used in dyes, pharmaceuticals, and chemical research.

Cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in J774 macrophages occurs in the cytoplasm and lysosomes. (1/756)

The relationship of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis to the physical state of the cholesteryl ester in J774 murine macrophages was explored in cells induced to store cholesteryl esters either in anisotropic (ordered) inclusions or isotropic (liquid) inclusions. In contrast to other cell systems, the rate of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was faster in cells containing anisotropic inclusions than in cells containing isotropic inclusions. Two contributing factors were identified. Kinetic analyses of the rates of hydrolysis are consistent with a substrate competition by co-deposited triglyceride in cells with isotropic inclusions. In addition, hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters in cells with anisotropic droplets is mediated by both cytoplasmic and lysosomal lipolytic enzymes, as shown by using the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, and an inhibitor of neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase, umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. In cells containing anisotropic inclusions, hydrolysis was partially inhibited by incubation in media containing either chloroquine or umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. Together, chloroquine and umbelliferyl diethylphosphate completely inhibited hydrolysis. However, when cells containing isotropic inclusions were incubated with umbelliferyl diethylphosphate, cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was completely inhibited, but chloroquine had no effect. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated a primarily lysosomal location for lipid droplets in cells with anisotropic droplets and both non-lysosomal and lysosomal populations of lipid droplets in cells with isotropic droplets. These results support the conclusion that there is a lysosomal component to the hydrolysis of stored cholesteryl esters in foam cells.  (+info)

Specific interaction of oxidized low-density lipoprotein with macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. (2/756)

Interaction of oxidized LDL (OxLDL) with macrophage-derived foam cells is one of the key events in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. To study this interaction, macrophage-derived foam cells were isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions and the expression of scavenger receptors for OxLDL was examined. Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits by denudation of the large arteries, followed by a hypercholesteremic diet. Macrophage-derived foam cells, characterized by immunostaining with an RAM-11 antibody (a macrophage marker), contained a high content of intracellular lipid. Maximal binding of radiolabeled OxLDL to isolated macrophage-derived foam cells (1652+/-235 ng 125I-OxLDL/mg of cell protein) was 20-fold higher compared with Bmax values of monocytes. Levels of association of OxLDL to macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from atherosclerotic lesions 12 weeks after denudation were >3-fold higher compared with the levels expressed by macrophage-derived foam cells isolated after 6 weeks. Association of 125I-OxLDL could be completely blocked by OxLDL, and partially by acetylated LDL and polyinosinic acid, indicating the presence of a specific binding site for OxLDL on macrophage-derived foam cells. The induction of scavenger receptors for OxLDL on macrophage-derived foam cells during the development of atherosclerosis, as described in this study, may facilitate the lipid accumulation in macrophage-derived foam cells, as observed in advanced atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

The role of interleukin 12 in the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. (3/756)

The cytokine profile of atherosclerotic aortas from apoE-deficient mice was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The results clearly showed that the expression of mRNA for IL-12p40 was evident in aortas from 3-month-old apoE-deficient mice. The mRNA for IL-10 was detected in aorta from these mice at the age of 6 months, indicating that expression of IL-12 is earlier than that of IL-10 in these animals. Concurrent with IL-12p40, the mRNA for the T-cell cytokine IFN-gamma, but not IL-4, was detected in aortas of mice at young and old ages. Both in situ hybridization and immunostaining further demonstrated the localization of IL-12 in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated the expression of costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 in macrophages, suggesting that activation of T lymphocytes by macrophages may occur via surface antigens in lesions. When the immunoglobulin isotype of the antioxidized LDL antibodies in sera of apoE-deficient mice was determined, it revealed that both IgM and IgG were present. Furthermore, IgG2a is predominant and comprises approximately 50% of the antioxidized LDL IgG in sera from young mice (3 months), but decreased to lower levels (35%) in older mice (6 months). Daily administration of IL-12 led to an increase in serum levels of antioxidized LDL antibodies and accelerated atherosclerosis in young apoE-deficient mice compared with control mice injected with PBS alone. Taken together, these data suggest that IL-12 plays an active role in regulating the immune response during the early phase of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice.  (+info)

MCP-1 deficiency reduces susceptibility to atherosclerosis in mice that overexpress human apolipoprotein B. (4/756)

The earliest recognizable atherosclerotic lesions are fatty streaks composed of lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells). Circulating monocytes are the precursors of these foam cells, but the molecular mechanisms that govern macrophage trafficking through the vessel wall are poorly understood. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of the chemokine (chemotactic cytokine) family, is a potent monocyte agonist that is upregulated by oxidized lipids. Recent studies in hypercholesterolemic mice lacking apo E or the low-density lipoprotein receptor have suggested a role for MCP-1 in monocyte recruitment to early atherosclerotic lesions. To determine if MCP-1 is critically involved in atherogenesis in the setting of elevated physiological plasma cholesterol levels, we deleted the MCP-1 gene in transgenic mice expressing human apo B. Here we report that the absence of MCP-1 provides dramatic protection from macrophage recruitment and atherosclerotic lesion formation in apo B transgenic mice, without altering lipoprotein metabolism. Taken together with the results of earlier studies, these data provide compelling evidence that MCP-1 plays a critical role in the initiation of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Depletion of pre beta 1LpA1 and LpA4 particles by mast cell chymase reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells induced by plasma. (5/756)

Exposure of the LpA1-containing particles present in HDL3 and plasma to a minimal degree of proteolysis by the neutral protease chymase from exocytosed rat mast cell granules (granule remnants) leads to a reduction in the high-affinity component of cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time, a role for mast cell chymase in the depletion of the lipid-poor minor components of HDL that are specifically involved in reverse cholesterol transport as initial acceptors of cellular cholesterol. Thus, addition of proteolytically active granule remnants or human skin chymase to cholesterol-loaded macrophages of mouse or human origin incubated with human apoA1, ie, a system in which prebeta1LpA1 is generated, resulted in a sharp reduction in the high-affinity cholesterol efflux promoted by apoA1. As determined by nondenaturing 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, the granule remnants effectively depleted the prebeta1LpA1, but not the alphaLpA1, in HDL3 and in plasma during incubation at 37 degrees C for <1 hour. Incubation of plasma with granule remnants for 1 hour also led to near disappearance of the LpA4-1 and LpA4-2 particles, but did not affect the distribution of the apoA2-containing lipoproteins present in the plasma. We conclude that the reduced ability of granule remnant-treated HDL3 and granule remnant-treated plasma to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells is caused by selective depletion by mast cell chymase of quantitatively minor A1- and A4-containing subpopulations of HDL. Because these particles, ie, prebeta1LpA1 and LpA4, are efficient acceptors of cholesterol from cell surfaces, their depletion by mast cells may block the initiation of reverse cholesterol transport in vivo and thereby favor foam cell formation in the arterial intima, the site of atherogenesis.  (+info)

Effects of NTE-122, a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, on cholesterol esterification and high-density lipoprotein-induced cholesterol efflux in macrophages. (6/756)

We investigated the effects of a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, NTE-122 (trans-1,4-bis[[1-cyclohexyl-3-(4-dimethylamino phenyl)ureido]methyl]cyclohexane), on ACAT activities in macrophages originating from several species and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced cholesterol efflux in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cells. NTE-122 inhibited cell-free ACAT activities in human PMA-treated THP-1 cells and mouse J774.1 cells with IC50 values of 0.88 and 360 nM, respectively. NTE-122 competively inhibited the ACAT activity in PMA-treated THP-1 cells. NTE-122 also inhibited cellular ACAT activities in PMA-treated THP-1 cells, rat peritoneal macrophages and J774.1 cells with IC50 values of 3.5, 84 and 6800 nM, respectively. Furthermore, NTE-122 prevented cholesterol accumulation in PMA-treated THP-1 cells incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein, simultaneously with HDL, while it caused accumulation of a significant amount of free cholesterol in the absence and even in the presence of HDL. NTE-122 also enhanced HDL-induced cholesterol efflux from established foam cells converted from PMA-treated THP-1 cells. These results suggest that NTE-122, capable of inhibiting macrophage ACAT activity in humans more strongly than those in the other species, exhibits anti-atherogenic effects by preventing the foam cell formation and enhancing the foam cell regression in humans.  (+info)

Modified LDLs induce and bind to membrane ruffles on macrophages. (7/756)

Macrophage foam cell formation in vitro requires uptake of modified low density lipoproteins (LDL) such as acetylated LDL (AcLDL) and moderately oxidized LDL (OxLDL), or beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein (betaVLDL), a naturally occurring lipoprotein. Incubation ofmacrophages with AcLDL and OxLDL resulted in stimulation of membrane ruffle formation, while betaVLDL primarily resulted in increased numbers of microvilli. Time-lapse Allen video enhanced contrast differential interference contrast (AVEC-DIC) light microscopy and correlative whole mount intermediate-voltage transmission electron microscopy (IVEM) was used to examine the dynamics ofAcLDL stimulated membrane ruffling and membrane ruffle ultrastructure. Stereo 3D surface replicas confirmed that AcLDL bound to these AcLDL-induced membrane ruffles. Quantification of the plasma membrane surface area after incubation with AcLDL, betaVLDL or LDL confirmed that AcLDL stimulated membrane ruffling, while betaVLDL and LDL stimulated microvilli formation. These studies suggest that modified LDLs induce circular membrane ruffles and modified LDLs bind to these ligand-induced membrane ruffles.  (+info)

Modified LDLs are internalized by macrophages in part via macropinocytosis. (8/756)

Macrophage foam cell formation in vitro requires uptake of modified low density lipoproteins (LDL) such as acetylated LDL (AcLDL) and moderately oxidized LDL (OxLDL). Macrophages incubated with AcLDL and OxLDL, but not LDL, showed increased membrane ruffling as seen with time-lapse phase contrast video light microscopy. Modified LDLs stimulated circular membrane ruffles between 2 and 10 min after incubation. These membrane ruffles were readsorbed into the plasma membrane between 5 and 15 min later. Phase-bright macropinosomes formed at the base of the stimulated membrane ruffles. The fluid-phase marker lucifer yellow labeled the modified LDL stimulated macropinosomes. Modified LDLs stimulate fluid-phase uptake by 1.5-fold to threefold as measured with 14C-sucrose uptake. Transmission electron microscopy showed that gold conjugated AcLDL and OxLDL bound preferentially to membrane ruffles and were present in macropinosomes (diameter >0.2 pm) underneath these membrane ruffles. AcLDL and OxLDL were also present in clathrin-coated pits and endosomes. These studies suggest that modified lipoproteins stimulate macropinocytosis. AcLDL and OxLDL are partially internalized by macropinocytosis and partially internalized via clathrin-coated pit endocytosis.  (+info)

Foam cells are a type of cell that form when certain white blood cells, called macrophages, accumulate an excessive amount of lipids (fats) within their cytoplasm. This occurs due to the ingestion and breakdown of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), which then get trapped inside the macrophages, leading to the formation of large lipid-rich vacuoles that give the cells a foamy appearance under the microscope.

Foam cells are commonly found in the early stages of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the walls of arteries. Over time, the accumulation of foam cells and other components of plaque can narrow or block the affected artery, leading to serious health problems such as heart attack or stroke.

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad cholesterol," are a type of lipoprotein that carry cholesterol and other fats from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to the buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of proteins (apolipoproteins) and lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids) that are responsible for transporting fat molecules around the body in the bloodstream. LDL is one type of lipoprotein, along with high-density lipoproteins (HDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and chylomicrons.

LDL particles are smaller than HDL particles and can easily penetrate the artery walls, leading to the formation of plaques that can narrow or block the arteries. Therefore, maintaining healthy levels of LDL in the blood is essential for preventing cardiovascular disease.

Arteriosclerosis is a general term that describes the hardening and stiffening of the artery walls. It's a progressive condition that can occur as a result of aging, or it may be associated with certain risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle.

The process of arteriosclerosis involves the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this buildup can cause the artery walls to thicken and harden, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body's organs and tissues.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any of the body's arteries, but it is most commonly found in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, the cerebral arteries that supply blood to the brain, and the peripheral arteries that supply blood to the limbs. When arteriosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to heart disease, angina, or heart attack. When it affects the cerebral arteries, it can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). When it affects the peripheral arteries, it can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the limbs, and in severe cases, gangrene and amputation.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of plaques, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood, on the inner walls of the arteries. This process gradually narrows and hardens the arteries, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to various parts of the body. Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, including those that supply blood to the heart (coronary arteries), brain, limbs, and other organs. The progressive narrowing and hardening of the arteries can lead to serious complications such as coronary artery disease, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and aneurysms, which can result in heart attacks, strokes, or even death if left untreated.

The exact cause of atherosclerosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with several risk factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Atherosclerosis can often progress without any symptoms for many years, but as the disease advances, it can lead to various signs and symptoms depending on which arteries are affected. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, medications, and, in some cases, surgical procedures to restore blood flow.

Scavenger receptors, class A, are a group of membrane-bound proteins found on the surface of various cell types, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. These receptors play an essential role in recognizing and removing modified or damaged self and foreign molecules from the body.

Class A scavenger receptors include three members: SR-A1 (also known as Macrophage Scavenger Receptor 1 or MSR1), SR-A2 (also known as SCARA2 or MSR2), and SR-A3 (also known as SCARA3). These receptors have a wide range of ligands, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), polyanionic molecules, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and pathogens.

SR-A1 is the best characterized among the three members and has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as atherosclerosis, immune response, and neurodegenerative disorders. SR-A2 and SR-A3 have overlapping functions with SR-A1 but are less well studied.

Overall, scavenger receptors, class A, contribute to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by clearing cellular debris and modulating immune responses. However, dysregulation of these receptors has been associated with several diseases, making them potential therapeutic targets for various pathological conditions.

CD36 is a type of protein found on the surface of certain cells in the human body, including platelets, white blood cells (monocytes and macrophages), and fat (adipose) cells. It is a type of scavenger receptor that plays a role in various biological processes, such as:

1. Fatty acid uptake and metabolism: CD36 helps facilitate the transport of long-chain fatty acids into cells for energy production and storage.
2. Inflammation and immune response: CD36 is involved in the recognition and clearance of foreign substances (pathogens) and damaged or dying cells, which can trigger an immune response.
3. Angiogenesis: CD36 has been implicated in the regulation of blood vessel formation (angiogenesis), particularly during wound healing and tumor growth.
4. Atherosclerosis: CD36 has been associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls. This is due to its role in the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) by macrophages, leading to the formation of foam cells and the development of fatty streaks in the arterial wall.
5. Infectious diseases: CD36 has been identified as a receptor for various pathogens, including malaria parasites, HIV, and some bacteria, which can use this protein to gain entry into host cells.

As an antigen, CD36 is a molecule that can be targeted by the immune system to produce an immune response. Antibodies against CD36 have been found in various diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and certain infections. Modulation of CD36 activity has been suggested as a potential therapeutic strategy for several conditions, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and infectious diseases.

Cholesteryl esters are formed when cholesterol, a type of lipid (fat) that is important for the normal functioning of the body, becomes combined with fatty acids through a process called esterification. This results in a compound that is more hydrophobic (water-repelling) than cholesterol itself, which allows it to be stored more efficiently in the body.

Cholesteryl esters are found naturally in foods such as animal fats and oils, and they are also produced by the liver and other cells in the body. They play an important role in the structure and function of cell membranes, and they are also precursors to the synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D.

However, high levels of cholesteryl esters in the blood can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Cholesteryl esters are typically measured as part of a lipid profile, along with other markers such as total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.

Scavenger receptors are a class of cell surface receptors that play a crucial role in the recognition and clearance of various biomolecules, including modified self-molecules, pathogens, and apoptotic cells. These receptors are expressed mainly by phagocytic cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, but they can also be found on other cell types, including endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells.

Scavenger receptors have broad specificity and can bind to a wide range of ligands, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), polyanionic molecules, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The binding of ligands to scavenger receptors triggers various cellular responses, such as phagocytosis, endocytosis, signaling cascades, and the production of cytokines and chemokines.

Scavenger receptors are classified into several families based on their structural features and ligand specificity, including:

1. Class A (SR-A): This family includes SR-AI, SR-AII, and MARCO, which bind to oxLDL, bacteria, and apoptotic cells.
2. Class B (SR-B): This family includes SR-BI, CD36, and LIMPII, which bind to lipoproteins, phospholipids, and pathogens.
3. Class C (SR-C): This family includes DEC-205, MRC1, and LOX-1, which bind to various ligands, including apoptotic cells, bacteria, and oxLDL.
4. Class D (SR-D): This family includes SCARF1, which binds to PAMPs and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs).
5. Class E (SR-E): This family includes CXCL16, which binds to chemokine CXCR6 and phosphatidylserine.

Scavenger receptors play a critical role in maintaining tissue homeostasis by removing damaged or altered molecules and cells, modulating immune responses, and regulating lipid metabolism. Dysregulation of scavenger receptor function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, inflammation, infection, and cancer.

ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1 (ABC Transporter 1 or ABCB1) is a protein that belongs to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These proteins utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport various substrates across membranes.

The ABCB1 gene encodes for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a 170 kDa protein, which is an efflux transporter primarily located in the plasma membrane of various cell types, including epithelial and endothelial cells. P-gp plays a crucial role in limiting the absorption and facilitating the excretion of many drugs by actively pumping them out of cells, thereby contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells.

P-gp has a broad substrate specificity and can transport various structurally diverse compounds, including chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and natural toxins. Its expression is often upregulated in cancer cells, leading to reduced intracellular drug accumulation and decreased therapeutic efficacy. In addition to its role in drug resistance, P-gp also functions in the absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs in normal tissues, particularly in the intestine, liver, and kidney.

Lipoprotein receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells that play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipoproteins, which are complex particles composed of lipids and proteins. These receptors bind to specific lipoproteins in the bloodstream, facilitating their uptake into the cell for further processing.

There are several types of lipoprotein receptors, including:

1. LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor is responsible for recognizing and internalizing LDL particles, which are rich in cholesterol. Once inside the cell, LDL particles release their cholesterol, which can then be used for various cellular functions or stored for later use. Defects in the LDL receptor can lead to elevated levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood and an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
2. HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor is involved in the clearance of HDL particles from the bloodstream. HDL particles are responsible for transporting excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver, where it can be processed and eliminated from the body.
3. VLDL (Very Low-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor recognizes and internalizes VLDL particles, which are produced by the liver and carry triglycerides and cholesterol to peripheral tissues. VLDL particles are subsequently converted into LDL particles in the bloodstream.
4. LRP (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein) Family: This family of receptors includes several members, such as LRP1 and LRP2, that play roles in various cellular processes, including lipid metabolism, protein trafficking, and cell signaling. They can bind to a variety of ligands, including lipoproteins, proteases, and extracellular matrix components.

In summary, lipoprotein receptors are essential for maintaining proper lipid metabolism and homeostasis by facilitating the uptake, processing, and elimination of lipoproteins in the body.

Sterol O-Acyltransferase (SOAT, also known as ACAT for Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in cholesterol homeostasis within cells. Specifically, it catalyzes the reaction of esterifying free cholesterol with fatty acyl-coenzyme A (fatty acyl-CoA) to form cholesteryl esters. This enzymatic activity allows for the intracellular storage of excess cholesterol in lipid droplets, reducing the levels of free cholesterol in the cell and thus preventing its potential toxic effects on membranes and proteins. There are two isoforms of SOAT, SOAT1 and SOAT2, which exhibit distinct subcellular localization and functions. Dysregulation of SOAT activity has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids, particularly cholesterol. It is produced primarily by the liver and is a component of several types of lipoproteins, including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).

ApoE plays a crucial role in the transport and uptake of lipids in the body. It binds to specific receptors on cell surfaces, facilitating the delivery of lipids to cells for energy metabolism or storage. ApoE also helps to clear cholesterol from the bloodstream and is involved in the repair and maintenance of tissues.

There are three major isoforms of ApoE, designated ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4, which differ from each other by only a few amino acids. These genetic variations can have significant effects on an individual's risk for developing certain diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. For example, individuals who inherit the ApoE4 allele have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, while those with the ApoE2 allele may have a reduced risk.

In summary, Apolipoprotein E is a protein involved in lipid metabolism and transport, and genetic variations in this protein can influence an individual's risk for certain diseases.

Scavenger receptors, class B (SR-B) are a type of scavenger receptors that play a crucial role in the cellular uptake and metabolism of lipids, particularly modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and other lipid-soluble molecules. They are membrane-bound glycoproteins that contain an extracellular domain with a characteristic structure, including cysteine-rich repeats and transmembrane domains.

The best-characterized member of this class is SR-B1 (also known as CD36b, SCARB1), which is widely expressed in various tissues, such as the liver, steroidogenic organs, macrophages, and endothelial cells. SR-B1 selectively binds to HDL and facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL particles into cells while allowing HDL to maintain its structural integrity and continue its function in reverse cholesterol transport.

SR-B1 has also been implicated in the uptake and degradation of oxidized LDL, contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. Additionally, SR-B1 is involved in several other cellular processes, including innate immunity, inflammation, and angiogenesis.

Other members of class B scavenger receptors include SR-BI, SR-B2 (also known as CLA-1 or LIMPII), SR-B3 (also known as CD36c or SCARB2), and SR-B4 (also known as CXorf24). These receptors have distinct expression patterns and functions but share structural similarities with SR-BI.

In summary, scavenger receptors, class B, are a group of membrane-bound glycoproteins that facilitate the cellular uptake and metabolism of lipids, particularly modified LDL and HDL particles. They play essential roles in maintaining lipid homeostasis and have implications in various pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis and inflammation.

Peritoneal macrophages are a type of immune cell that are present in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space within the abdomen that contains the liver, spleen, stomach, and intestines. These macrophages play a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and injury by engulfing and destroying foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms.

Macrophages are large phagocytic cells that originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter tissue, they can differentiate into macrophages, which have a variety of functions depending on their location and activation state.

Peritoneal macrophages are involved in various physiological processes, including the regulation of inflammation, tissue repair, and the breakdown of foreign substances. They also play a role in the development and progression of certain diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

These macrophages can be collected from animals or humans for research purposes by injecting a solution into the peritoneal cavity and then withdrawing the fluid, which contains the macrophages. These cells can then be studied in vitro to better understand their functions and potential therapeutic targets.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "ketocholesterols" is not a recognized term in medicine or biochemistry. Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins. The term "ketone" refers to a type of chemical compound that can be produced by the body during fat metabolism, particularly in conditions of low carbohydrate availability or high energy demand.

There is no known connection between cholesterol and ketones in the body, so it is unlikely that a substance called "ketocholesterol" would exist. If you have any further questions about cholesterol or ketones, I'd be happy to help clarify!

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyurethanes" are not a medical term. They are a type of polymer that is used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including foam cushions, insulation, and packaging materials. Polyurethanes are created through a chemical reaction between diisocyanates and polyols. While they have many applications in the medical field, such as in the production of medical devices and equipment, they are not a medical term themselves.

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of membrane proteins that utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport various substrates across extra- and intracellular membranes. These transporters play crucial roles in several biological processes, including detoxification, drug resistance, nutrient uptake, and regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

The structure of ABC transporters consists of two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) that bind and hydrolyze ATP, and two transmembrane domains (TMDs) that form the substrate-translocation pathway. The NBDs are typically located adjacent to each other in the cytoplasm, while the TMDs can be either integral membrane domains or separate structures associated with the membrane.

The human genome encodes 48 distinct ABC transporters, which are classified into seven subfamilies (ABCA-ABCG) based on their sequence similarity and domain organization. Some well-known examples of ABC transporters include P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

Dysregulation or mutations in ABC transporters have been implicated in various diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, neurological disorders, and cancer. In cancer, overexpression of certain ABC transporters can contribute to drug resistance by actively effluxing chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells, making them less susceptible to treatment.

An atherogenic diet is a type of eating pattern that can contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, which is the hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls.

An atherogenic diet is typically high in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, refined carbohydrates, and salt, and low in fiber, fruits, vegetables, and unsaturated fats. This type of diet can increase the levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) or "bad" cholesterol in the blood, which can lead to the formation of plaques in the arteries and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke.

Therefore, it is recommended to follow a heart-healthy diet that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Sclerosing solutions are medications or substances that are used to intentionally cause the scarring and hardening (sclerosis) of tissue, usually in the context of treating various medical conditions. These solutions work by irritating the interior lining of blood vessels or other targeted tissues, leading to the formation of a fibrous scar and the eventual closure of the affected area.

One common use of sclerosing solutions is in the treatment of abnormal veins, such as varicose veins or spider veins. A solution like sodium tetradecyl sulfate or polidocanol is injected directly into the problematic vein, causing inflammation and eventual closure of the vein. The body then gradually absorbs the closed vein, reducing its appearance and associated symptoms.

Other medical applications for sclerosing solutions include the treatment of lymphatic malformations, hydroceles, and certain types of tumors or cysts. It is essential to administer these substances under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to complications such as infection, tissue damage, or embolism.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

LDL receptors (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptors) are cell surface receptors that play a crucial role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis within the body. They are responsible for recognizing and binding to LDL particles, also known as "bad cholesterol," which are then internalized by the cell through endocytosis.

Once inside the cell, the LDL particles are broken down, releasing their cholesterol content, which can be used for various cellular processes such as membrane synthesis and hormone production. The LDL receptors themselves are recycled back to the cell surface, allowing for continued uptake of LDL particles.

Mutations in the LDL receptor gene can lead to a condition called familial hypercholesterolemia, which is characterized by high levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood and an increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease.

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are large cells with a round or oval shape and a nucleus that is typically indented or horseshoe-shaped. Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow and then circulate in the bloodstream, where they can differentiate into other types of immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells.

Monocytes play an important role in the body's defense against infection and tissue damage. They are able to engulf and digest foreign particles, microorganisms, and dead or damaged cells, which helps to clear them from the body. Monocytes also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response.

Elevated levels of monocytes in the bloodstream can be a sign of an ongoing infection, inflammation, or other medical conditions such as cancer or autoimmune disorders.

Sclerotherapy is a medical procedure used to treat varicose veins and spider veins. It involves the injection of a solution (called a sclerosant) directly into the affected vein, which causes the vein to collapse and eventually fade away. The sclerosant works by irritating the lining of the vein, causing it to swell and stick together, which then leads to clotting and the eventual reabsorption of the vein by the body.

The procedure is typically performed in a doctor's office or outpatient setting and may require multiple sessions depending on the severity and number of veins being treated. Common side effects include bruising, swelling, and discomfort at the injection site, as well as the possibility of developing brownish pigmentation or small ulcers near the treatment area. However, these side effects are usually temporary and resolve on their own within a few weeks.

Sclerotherapy is considered a safe and effective treatment for varicose veins and spider veins, with high success rates and low complication rates. It is important to note that while sclerotherapy can improve the appearance of affected veins, it does not prevent new veins from developing in the future.

Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase or just thiolase) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and ketone bodies. Specifically, it catalyzes the reaction that converts two molecules of acetyl-CoA into acetoacetyl-CoA, which is a key step in the breakdown of fatty acids through beta-oxidation.

The enzyme works by bringing together two acetyl-CoA molecules and removing a coenzyme A (CoA) group from one of them, forming a carbon-carbon bond between the two molecules to create acetoacetyl-CoA. This reaction is reversible, meaning that the enzyme can also catalyze the breakdown of acetoacetyl-CoA into two molecules of acetyl-CoA.

There are several different isoforms of Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase found in various tissues throughout the body, with differing roles and regulation. For example, one isoform is highly expressed in the liver and plays a key role in ketone body metabolism, while another isoform is found in mitochondria and is involved in fatty acid synthesis.

Orphan nuclear receptors are a subfamily of nuclear receptor proteins that are classified as "orphans" because their specific endogenous ligands (natural activating molecules) have not yet been identified. These receptors are still functional transcription factors, which means they can bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the expression of target genes when activated by a ligand. However, in the case of orphan nuclear receptors, the identity of these ligands remains unknown or unconfirmed.

These receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes, including development, metabolism, and homeostasis. Some orphan nuclear receptors have been found to bind to synthetic ligands (man-made molecules), which has led to the development of potential therapeutic agents for various diseases. Over time, as research progresses, some orphan nuclear receptors may eventually have their endogenous ligands identified and be reclassified as non-orphan nuclear receptors.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins and lipids (fats) that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules in the body. They consist of an outer shell of phospholipids, free cholesterols, and apolipoproteins, enclosing a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters.

There are several types of lipoproteins, including:

1. Chylomicrons: These are the largest lipoproteins and are responsible for transporting dietary lipids from the intestines to other parts of the body.
2. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): Produced by the liver, VLDL particles carry triglycerides to peripheral tissues for energy storage or use.
3. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): Often referred to as "bad cholesterol," LDL particles transport cholesterol from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to plaque buildup in artery walls and increase the risk of heart disease.
4. High-density lipoproteins (HDL): Known as "good cholesterol," HDL particles help remove excess cholesterol from cells and transport it back to the liver for excretion or recycling. Higher levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

Understanding lipoproteins and their roles in the body is essential for assessing cardiovascular health and managing risks related to heart disease and stroke.

Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in human plasma. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism and transport of lipids, particularly cholesterol, within the body. ApoA-I facilitates the formation of HDL particles, which are involved in the reverse transport of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. This process is known as reverse cholesterol transport and helps maintain appropriate cholesterol levels in the body. Low levels of ApoA-I or dysfunctional ApoA-I have been associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

Dietary cholesterol is a type of cholesterol that comes from the foods we eat. It is present in animal-derived products such as meat, poultry, dairy products, and eggs. While dietary cholesterol can contribute to an increase in blood cholesterol levels for some people, it's important to note that saturated and trans fats have a more significant impact on blood cholesterol levels than dietary cholesterol itself.

The American Heart Association recommends limiting dietary cholesterol intake to less than 300 milligrams per day for most people, and less than 200 milligrams per day for those with a history of heart disease or high cholesterol levels. However, individual responses to dietary cholesterol can vary, so it's essential to monitor blood cholesterol levels and adjust dietary habits accordingly.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

A sterol esterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sterol esters, which are fatty acid esters of sterols (such as cholesterol) that are commonly found in lipoproteins and cell membranes. Sterol esterases play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids by breaking down sterol esters into free sterols and free fatty acids, which can then be used in various biochemical processes.

There are several types of sterol esterases that have been identified, including:

1. Cholesteryl esterase (CE): This enzyme is responsible for hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters in the intestine and liver. It plays a critical role in the absorption and metabolism of dietary cholesterol.
2. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL): This enzyme is involved in the hydrolysis of sterol esters in adipose tissue, as well as other lipids such as triacylglycerols. It is regulated by hormones such as insulin and catecholamines.
3. Carboxylesterase (CES): This enzyme is a broad-specificity esterase that can hydrolyze various types of esters, including sterol esters. It is found in many tissues throughout the body.

Sterol esterases are important targets for drug development, as inhibiting these enzymes can have therapeutic effects in a variety of diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Atherosclerotic plaque is a deposit of fatty (cholesterol and fat) substances, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of an artery. This plaque buildup causes the artery to narrow and harden, reducing blood flow through the artery, which can lead to serious cardiovascular conditions such as coronary artery disease, angina, heart attack, or stroke. The process of atherosclerosis develops gradually over decades and can start in childhood.

Immunologic receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of immune cells that recognize and bind to specific molecules, known as antigens, on the surface of pathogens or infected cells. This binding triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that activate the immune cell and initiate an immune response.

There are several types of immunologic receptors, including:

1. T-cell receptors (TCRs): These receptors are found on the surface of T cells and recognize antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
2. B-cell receptors (BCRs): These receptors are found on the surface of B cells and recognize free antigens in solution.
3. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs): These receptors are found inside immune cells and recognize conserved molecular patterns associated with pathogens, such as lipopolysaccharides and flagellin.
4. Fc receptors: These receptors are found on the surface of various immune cells and bind to the constant region of antibodies, mediating effector functions such as phagocytosis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).

Immunologic receptors play a critical role in the recognition and elimination of pathogens and infected cells, and dysregulation of these receptors can lead to immune disorders and diseases.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Esterification is a chemical reaction that involves the conversion of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid into an ester, typically through the removal of a molecule of water. This reaction is often catalyzed by an acid or a base, and it is a key process in organic chemistry. Esters are commonly found in nature and are responsible for the fragrances of many fruits and flowers. They are also important in the production of various industrial and consumer products, including plastics, resins, and perfumes.

High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) are a type of lipoprotein that play a crucial role in the transportation and metabolism of cholesterol in the body. They are often referred to as "good" cholesterol because they help remove excess cholesterol from cells and carry it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and removed from the body. This process is known as reverse cholesterol transport.

HDLs are composed of a lipid core containing cholesteryl esters and triglycerides, surrounded by a shell of phospholipids, free cholesterol, and apolipoproteins, primarily apoA-I. The size and composition of HDL particles can vary, leading to the classification of different subclasses of HDL with varying functions and metabolic fates.

Elevated levels of HDL have been associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, while low HDL levels increase the risk. However, it is essential to consider that HDL function and quality may be more important than just the quantity in determining cardiovascular risk.

Scavenger receptors, class E (SR-E), also known as CD36 and scavenger receptor family member 8 (SCARF8), are a group of membrane-bound receptors found on the surface of various cell types, including macrophages, platelets, and endothelial cells. They play a crucial role in the recognition and clearance of damaged or modified self-molecules, as well as foreign substances, from the body.

SR-E receptors have a wide range of ligands, such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), apoptotic cells, bacteria, and long-chain fatty acids. The binding of these ligands to SR-E triggers various intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cellular processes like phagocytosis, foam cell formation, inflammation, and lipid metabolism.

Dysregulation of SR-E receptors has been implicated in several diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these receptors can provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of various disorders and potentially lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Pinocytosis is a type of cellular process involving the ingestion and absorption of extracellular fluid and dissolved substances into a cell. It is a form of endocytosis, where the cell membrane surrounds and engulfs the extracellular fluid to form a vesicle containing the fluid and its contents within the cell cytoplasm.

In pinocytosis, the cell membrane invaginates and forms small vesicles (pinocytotic vesicles) that contain extracellular fluid and dissolved substances. These vesicles then detach from the cell membrane and move into the cytoplasm, where they fuse with endosomes or lysosomes to break down and digest the contents of the vesicle.

Pinocytosis is a non-selective process that allows cells to take up small amounts of extracellular fluid and dissolved substances from their environment. It plays an important role in various physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, cell signaling, and the regulation of extracellular matrix composition.

Organosilicon compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain at least one organic group (a group of atoms composed mainly of carbon and hydrogen) bonded to a silicon atom. The organic group can be an alkyl group, aryl group, or any other group that is derived from a hydrocarbon.

The term "organosilicon" is used to describe the covalent bond between carbon and silicon atoms, which is a type of bond known as a "sigma bond." This bond is formed by the overlap of atomic orbitals between the carbon and silicon atoms. The resulting organosilicon compound can have a wide range of physical and chemical properties, depending on the nature of the organic group and the number of such groups attached to the silicon atom.

Organosilicon compounds are widely used in various industries, including electronics, coatings, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. They are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemical compounds. Some common examples of organosilicon compounds include silicones, which are polymers that contain repeating units of siloxane (Si-O-Si) bonds, and organofunctional silanes, which are used as coupling agents to improve the adhesion of materials to surfaces.

Aortic diseases refer to conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can weaken or damage the aorta, leading to various complications. Here are some common aortic diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Aortic aneurysm: A localized dilation or bulging of the aortic wall, which can occur in any part of the aorta but is most commonly found in the abdominal aorta (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the thoracic aorta (thoracic aortic aneurysm). Aneurysms can increase the risk of rupture, leading to life-threatening bleeding.
2. Aortic dissection: A separation of the layers of the aortic wall due to a tear in the inner lining, allowing blood to flow between the layers and potentially cause the aorta to rupture. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
3. Aortic stenosis: A narrowing of the aortic valve opening, which restricts blood flow from the heart to the aorta. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe aortic stenosis may require surgical or transcatheter intervention to replace or repair the aortic valve.
4. Aortic regurgitation: Also known as aortic insufficiency, this condition occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly, allowing blood to leak back into the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Treatment may include medication or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.
5. Aortitis: Inflammation of the aorta, which can be caused by various conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or vasculitides. Aortitis can lead to aneurysms, dissections, or stenosis and may require medical treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or surgical intervention.
6. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue, including the aorta. People with Marfan syndrome are at risk of developing aortic aneurysms and dissections, and may require close monitoring and prophylactic surgery to prevent complications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poly I" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in the context of human diseases or conditions. It's possible that there might be a typo or misunderstanding in your query. If you intended to ask about a specific medical condition, medication, or concept, please provide the full and correct term so I can give you an accurate and helpful response.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Hyperlipidemias are a group of disorders characterized by an excess of lipids (fats) or lipoproteins in the blood. These include elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or both. Hyperlipidemias can be inherited (primary) or caused by other medical conditions (secondary). They are a significant risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

There are two main types of lipids that are commonly measured in the blood: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, known as "good" cholesterol. High levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to the formation of plaques in the arteries, which can narrow or block them and increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are protective because they help remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream.

Triglycerides are another type of lipid that can be measured in the blood. Elevated triglyceride levels can also contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly when combined with high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels.

Hyperlipidemias are typically diagnosed through a blood test that measures the levels of various lipids and lipoproteins in the blood. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, losing weight, and quitting smoking, as well as medication to lower lipid levels if necessary.

VLDL (Very Low-Density Lipoproteins) are a type of lipoprotein that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules, known as triglycerides, in the body. They are produced by the liver and consist of a core of triglycerides surrounded by a shell of proteins called apolipoproteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol.

VLDL particles are responsible for delivering fat molecules from the liver to peripheral tissues throughout the body, where they can be used as an energy source or stored for later use. During this process, VLDL particles lose triglycerides and acquire more cholesterol, transforming into intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) and eventually low-density lipoproteins (LDL), which are also known as "bad" cholesterol.

Elevated levels of VLDL in the blood can contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease due to their association with increased levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, as well as decreased levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which are considered "good" cholesterol.

Hypercholesterolemia is a medical term that describes a condition characterized by high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Specifically, it refers to an abnormally elevated level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, which can contribute to the development of fatty deposits in the arteries called plaques. Over time, these plaques can narrow and harden the arteries, leading to atherosclerosis, a condition that increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular complications.

Hypercholesterolemia can be caused by various factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and underlying medical conditions. In some cases, it may not cause any symptoms until serious complications arise. Therefore, regular cholesterol screening is essential for early detection and management of hypercholesterolemia. Treatment typically involves lifestyle modifications, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and weight management, along with medication if necessary.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Azo compounds are organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups (-N=N-) in their molecular structure. The term "azo" is derived from the Greek word "azō," meaning "to boil" or "to sparkle," which refers to the brightly colored nature of many azo compounds.

These compounds are synthesized by the reaction between aromatic amines and nitrous acid or its derivatives, resulting in the formation of diazonium salts, which then react with another aromatic compound containing an active methylene group to form azo compounds.

Azo compounds have diverse applications across various industries, including dyes, pigments, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. They are known for their vibrant colors, making them widely used as colorants in textiles, leather, paper, and food products. In addition, some azo compounds exhibit unique chemical properties, such as solubility, stability, and reactivity, which make them valuable intermediates in the synthesis of various organic compounds.

However, certain azo compounds have been found to pose health risks due to their potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. As a result, regulations have been imposed on their use in consumer products, particularly those intended for oral consumption or direct skin contact.

Some foam cells are derived from smooth muscle cells and present a limited macrophage-like phenotype. Foam cell formation is ... Foam cells form the fatty streaks of the plaques of atheroma in the tunica intima of arteries. Foam cells are not dangerous as ... foam cells can either be degraded though the de-esterification and secretion of cholesterol, or can further promote foam cell ... such that not all LDL need to be modified for foam cell formation when LDL levels are high. The maintenance of foam cells and ...
... rubber is a type of open-cell foam. Closed-cell foams do not have interconnected pores. The closed-cell foams normally ... Soap foams are also known as suds. Solid foams can be closed-cell or open-cell. In closed-cell foam, the gas forms discrete ... open-cell-structured foams (also known as reticulated foams) and closed-cell foams. At high enough cell resolutions, any type ... a closed-cell foam has more material at the cell edges which makes it more closely follow the equation for open-cell foams. The ...
In foams, this is evidenced by the metal's tendency to trap oxides within cell edges. Micro-hardness of cell walls, elastic ... Metal foam Titanium Bone ingrowth in NRC Ti Foam on YouTube Experimental investigation of a titanium foam at low and high ... N. Jha, D. Mondal, J. Dutta Majumdar, A. Badkul, A. Jha, A. Khare (2013). "Highly porous open cell Ti-foam using NaCl as ... It was generally accepted that the compressive properties of metal foams depended on the properties of the cell wall rather ...
The pores can be sealed (closed-cell foam) or interconnected (open-cell foam). The defining characteristic of metal foams is a ... Aluminium foam sandwich Aluminum polymer composite Ceramic foam Nanofoam Porous medium Reticulated foam Titanium foam Compare ... Heat sink with copper foam Crash box including Aluminium foam Aluminium foam with big porosity Aluminium foam with aluminium ... Closed-cell metal foam was first reported in 1926 by Meller in a French patent where foaming of light metals, either by inert ...
... "slow spring back foam"; most called it "temper foam". Created by feeding gas into a polymer matrix, it had an open-cell solid ... A memory foam mattress is usually denser than other foam mattresses, making it both more supportive and heavier. Memory foam ... It is often referred to as "viscoelastic" polyurethane foam, or low-resilience polyurethane foam (LRPu). The foam bubbles or ' ... Most memory foam mattresses are firm (IFD 12 to IFD 16). Second and third generation memory foams have an open-cell structure ...
... s, also known as pulmonary foam cells, are cells found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens ... Foam cell Davidson, Kevin; Brancato, Alison; Heetderks, Peter; Mansour, Wissam; Matheis, Edward; Nario, Myra; Rajagopalan, ... specimen treated with a lipid stain and scoring each macrophage from 0 to 4 based on the amount of lipids present in the cell. ...
Foams used in this method are either closed-cell or open-cell. When a closed-cell foam is used then it is produced from ... Carolin Koerner, Book - Integral foam molding of light metals: technology, foam physics and foam simulation, Springer-Verlag ... Open-cell foam core is made of aluminium and other metals as well. Face sheets are chosen from a variety of aluminium alloy, ... For in-situ bonded face sheets the core is closed-cell foam. The goal of in-situ bonding is to create a metallic bonding ...
... "foam cells". Foam cells characterize atherosclerotic lesions. In addition to this possible mechanism of foam cell generation, ... What is also clear is that the ApoB on the LDL particle acts as a ligand for LDL receptors in various cells throughout the body ... Cell. Biol. 13 (12): 7288-7294. doi:10.1128/MCB.13.12.7288. PMC 364799. PMID 8246950. Greeve J, Navaratnam N, Scott J (July ... fat-carrying particles are ready to enter any cells with ApoB receptors and deliver fats carried within into the cells). ...
Low density foams are referred to as open cell SPF while higher density foams are referred to as closed cell foam. 1.8-2 pound ... Closed cell is rigid to the touch and each air cell is completely sealed. While closed cell foam has a higher R-value, it is ... Light-density open-cell spray foam (ocSPF) Light-density open-cell SPF is commonly known as half-pound foam. It is a semi-rigid ... Medium-density closed-cell spray foam (ccSPF) Medium-density closed-cell foam insulation is often referred to as two pound (2 ...
Reticulated foams are extremely open foams i.e. there are few, if any, intact bubbles or cell windows. In contrast, the foam ... Reticulated metal foam can also be made using polyurethane foam as a template similar to its use in ceramic foams. Metals can ... closed-cell) polyurethane foam, after which cell faces (or "windows") are removed. To do so, the fact that the higher surface ... Thus, closed-cell foam is either filled with a combustible gas like hydrogen and ignited under controlled conditions, or it is ...
Formation of foam cells is inhibited by adenosine A2A receptors. Abnormal levels of ATP and adenosine are present in the ... In white blood cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells, purinergic signalling ... Reiss AB, Cronstein BN (April 2012). "Regulation of foam cells by adenosine". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular ... Generally speaking, all cells have the ability to release nucleotides. In neuronal and neuroendocrinal cells, this mostly ...
... is a tough foam made from ceramics. Manufacturing techniques include impregnating open-cell polymer foams ... The foaming method uses a chemical reaction of a foaming agent. The foaming agent generates volatile gas that foams the slurry ... Close-cell ceramic foam serves as a good insulation material for walls and roofs. The large number of closed cells allow the ... This method can be used in the preparation of small pore size closed cell ceramics. Much like metal foams, there are a number ...
It features closed-cell-foam lower layers. A cushioned floor has more give and spring. Low-VOC vinyl flooring is certified by ... Because the closed-cell foam backing of vinyl sheet can be varied, it can be given the resilience profile of sprung performance ...
... is a solid, open-cell foam made of single-layer sheets of graphene. It is a candidate substrate for the electrode ... The foam can be manufactured using vapor deposition to coat a metal foam, a three-dimensional mesh of metal filaments. The ... The anode was made by coating the foam with a lithium-titanium compound (Li 4Ti 5O 12) and the cathode by coating the foam with ... Aerographene Lithium-ion battery Foam Wikimedia Commons has media related to Graphene foam. Li, Na; Chen, Zongping; Ren, Wencai ...
Instead CXCL5 has a protective role in atherosclerosis by directly controlling macrophage foam cell formation. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "CXCL5 limits macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerosis". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 123 (3): 1343-7. doi: ... Cell Genet. 84 (1-2): 39-42. doi:10.1159/000015209. PMID 10343098. S2CID 8087808. Mei J, Liu Y, Dai N, Hoffmann C, Hudock KM, ... It elicits these effects by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR2. The gene for CXCL5 has four exons and ...
G. Harikrishnan , T. Umasankar Patro , D. V. Khakhar (2006). "Polyurethane Foam−Clay Nanocomposites: Nanoclays as Cell Openers ... Harikrishnan, G.; Patro, T. Umasankar; Khakhar, D. V. (2006). "Polyurethane Foam−Clay Nanocomposites: Nanoclays as Cell Openers ... Method for improving particulate mixing and heat transfer in tumbling mixers and rotary kiln, Polyurethane Foam−Clay ... Nanocomposites: Nanoclays as Cell Openers, and Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Controlled Pore Size and Enhanced Electrical ...
... and become foam cells. A cholesterol core forms as foam cells die. In response to growth factors secreted by macrophages, ... This leads to an ischemic cascade of intracellular changes, necrosis and apoptosis of affected cells. Cells in the area with ... If impaired blood flow to the heart lasts long enough, it triggers a process called the ischemic cascade; the heart cells in ... The re-perfusion injury is a consequence of the calcium and sodium uptake from the cardiac cells and the release of oxygen ...
Silicone doesn't have cell structure, like foam does. It doesn't breathe. So Brian was basically encased in a sixty-pound wet- ... Nicotero added: "If we made it out of foam latex, it would've been stiff. But we used silicone that was heavily plasticized- ... Melton took a picture of it with his cell phone, and sent the picture to creator Frank Darabont. Darabont reacted positively to ... Nicotero inserted water balloons between the silicone and foam layering. He explained that as the performer begins to move, the ...
... may also prevent LPS-induced arterial foam cell formation in vivo. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136250 - Ensembl, ... dendritic cells (especially in the colon), NK cells, ILC1 cells, neutrophils and renal proximal tubule cells. The AOAH gene has ... September 2021). "A host lipase prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced foam cell formation". iScience. 24 (9): 103004. Bibcode: ... the LPS remains bioactive and may pass from cell to cell in vivo for many weeks. The LPS-injected mice develop strikingly high ...
... suppresses foam cell formation to reduce atherosclerosis development. The reduction in LPL activity in adipose tissue ... ANGPTL4 contributes to tumor growth and protects cells from anoikis, a form of programmed cell death induced when contact- ... Cell. 133 (1): 66-77. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.046. PMC 2390892. PMID 18394990. Kim SH, Park YY, Kim SW, Lee JS, Wang D, ... ANGPTL4 disrupts endothelial cell junctions by directly interacting with integrin, VE-cadherin and claudin-5 in a sequential ...
May have foam cells or hyalinization in the stroma. CD10+ muscle markers (muscle specific actin MSA, smooth muscle actin SMA ... Monotonous ovoid cells to spindly cells with minimal cytoplasm. Prominent arterioles. Angiolymphatic invasion common. Up to 10- ... 2009). "Gene fusion and RNA trans-splicing in normal and neoplastic cells". Cell Cycle. 8 (2): 218-222. doi:10.4161/cc.8.2.7358 ... Even normal endometrial stroma cells express the fusion gene, derived not by translocation, but by the "stitching" together of ...
Macrophages accumulate modified lipid particles and become foam cells. The formation of foam cells and their continued ... oxidized LDL causes endothelial cells to secrete molecules that cause monocytes to penetrate between the endothelial cells and ... Continued cell migration and proliferation eventually result in the formation of a fibrous plaque. Once LDL accumulates in the ... Ross and Glomset initially proposed that endothelial cell uncovering was the first step in the development of atherosclerosis. ...
... cell density and cell morphology of the foam. In the recent past, numerous researchers have studied the cell nucleation ... As the shear enhanced, the cell size diminished and thereby increased the cell density in the foam. (Articles lacking sources ... Nucleation in microcellular plastic is an important stage which decides the final cell size, ... Studies were performed with ultrasound induced nucleation during microcellular foaming of Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ...
Activity of HSL is important in preventing or ameliorating the generation of foam cells in atherosclerosis. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Ouimet M, Marcel YL (March 2012). "Regulation of lipid droplet cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells". Arteriosclerosis ... Such enzymatic action plays a key role in providing major source of energy for most cells. Extracellular hormones, such as ... During fasting-state the increased free fatty acid secretion by adipocyte cells was attributed to the hormone epinephrine, ...
Foaming these surfaces results in a variety of surface modifications that may improve the material's ability for cell adhesion ... Soni, B.; Biswas, S. (2017-09-01). "Processing of Open-Cell Metallic Foams for High Pressure Hydrogen Storage". Transactions of ... Science portal Technology portal Nanoporous material Ceramic foam Metal foam Carbon nanofoam Ultrashort pulse Tappan, B.; et al ... "A PEM fuel cell with metal foam as flow distributor". Energy Conversion and Management. 62: 14-21. doi:10.1016/j.enconman. ...
"Diffuse foam cell pneumonia following fatty embolism treated with lipostabil. A contribution to the pathology of therapy". Z ... is a controversial cosmetic procedure in which drug mixtures are injected into patients with the goal of destroying fat cells. ...
Closed-cell foam does not absorb water and is impermeable. Closed-cell rods are less compressible and should not be compressed ... Open-cell rod is more compressible than closed-cell foam and should be compressed 25% to 75%. According to the Consumer ... Out-gassing is the reason that open-cell backer rod was developed. Open-cell foam is porous so it will let gasses through which ... Additionally, open-cell backer rod allows air to get to the back side of the caulk or sealant which accelerates curing when ...
February 2015). "Macrophage sortilin promotes LDL uptake, foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis". Circulation Research. 116 ... As a sorting receptor on the cell surface and on the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi apparatus within the cell, sortilin is ... as it has been detected in several cancer cell lines. Notably, human cancerous epithelial cells exhibited increased levels of ... In humans, sortilin is expressed over a wide range of cell types and tissues such as the brain, spinal cord, adrenal gland, ...
Lord Kelvin identified the problem of the most efficient way to pack cells of equal volume as a foam in 1887; his solution uses ... A foam is a mass of bubbles; foams of different materials occur in nature. Foams composed of soap films obey Plateau's laws, ... The cells in the paper nests of social wasps, and the wax cells in honeycomb built by honey bees are well-known examples. Among ... At the scale of living cells, foam patterns are common; radiolarians, sponge spicules, silicoflagellate exoskeletons and the ...
Some stress relievers are made from closed-cell polyurethane foam rubber. These are made by injecting the liquid components of ... The resulting chemical reaction creates carbon dioxide bubbles as a byproduct, which in turn creates the foam. Stress balls, ... most common are the foam type, which prevents stress through resistance from squeezing the ball. Chinese-form balls are known ...
Some foam cells are derived from smooth muscle cells and present a limited macrophage-like phenotype. Foam cell formation is ... Foam cells form the fatty streaks of the plaques of atheroma in the tunica intima of arteries. Foam cells are not dangerous as ... foam cells can either be degraded though the de-esterification and secretion of cholesterol, or can further promote foam cell ... such that not all LDL need to be modified for foam cell formation when LDL levels are high. The maintenance of foam cells and ...
Shop Nemo Closed Cell Foam, along with other outdoor gear and apparel. FREE SHIPPING on orders over $49 and earn up to 10% back ...
JAZ Products 215-012-01 - Pro Street Flat Bottom Fuel Cell 12-Gallon 0-90 ohm Without Foam - IMCA-Approved Fill Valve ... JAZ Products 220-002-NF - Drag Race Fuel Cell Pro Stock Vertical 2-Gallon Black without Foam ... JAZ Products 220-108-NF - Drag Race Fuel Cell 8-Gallon Pro Modified Vertical Black without Foam ... JAZ Products 250-016-NF - Drag Race Fuel Cell 16-Gallon Horizontal Black without Foam ...
... - Apr 14, 2023 - ERG Aerospace ... and customizable open cell foam material with solid ligaments.. Finished aerospace products and Duocel® foam samples will be on ... Open-Cell Foam Demonstrations Coming to MRO Americas 2023. ERG Aerospace Apr 14, 2023 ... The company holds several patents for their open-cell foam products.. Contact information:. ERG Materials and Aerospace Corp.. ...
Folding Closed-Foam Sleeping Pad is a sure bet. IXPE closed-cell foam gently cradles your body, while simultaneously providing ... www.basspro.com/shop/en/ascend-folding-closed-cell-foam-sleeping-pad-2832838", "displaySKUContextData" : "false", "buyable" : " ... Ascend Folding Closed-Cell Foam Sleeping Pad, image: https://assets.basspro.com/image/list/fn_select:jq:first(.%5B%5D% ...
These good quality Styrofoam discs are perfect for art, hobby, and craft use. Sizes listed are approximate.
It appears that there is enough foam to seal to the outside, but not full thickness because of a bubble. The contractor and the ... manufacturer both advised that I should just fill these up with canned window foam. SO HERES THE QUESTIONS---- ... Closed-cell foam would also work fine. In general, open-cell spray foams are associated with more moisture accumulation ... Closed-cell foam or open-cell foam -- it doesnt matter which you use. ...
... coat of closed cell spay foam insulation and filling the rest with 3 1/2″ Rockwool Comfortbatt […] ... when insulating a 2×4 stud wall (16″o.c.) by first spraying a thin (1/2″ plus-or-minus) coat of closed cell spay foam ... First, its nearly impossible to spray a half-inch of closed cell foam with ANY kind of consistency. The unevenness will almost ... by first spraying a thin (1/2″ plus-or-minus) coat of closed cell spay foam insulation..." ...
... be used in conjunction with Icynene foam insulation? ... do you recommend closed-cell or open-cell foam? ... Ask The Expert - Q & A › Category: Radiant Barrier › Open/Closed Cell Foam and Radiant Barrier ... be used in conjunction with Icynene foam insulation? Can the foam be sprayed onto the surface of the foil coated underlayment ... If you spray the foam on the foil surface it will destroy the reflectivity of the radiant barrier. ...
... and show the pros and cons of both types of foam. ... Whats the difference between closed-cell foam and open-cell ... foam? We take a close look, detail the differences, ... closed cell foam.. Open Cell Foam. A foam is classified as an ... Lower breathability than open-cell foam.. Ideal Usage of Open Cell and Closed Cell Foam. Closed-cell foams are ideal for uses ... Open-cell acoustic foam can help dampen soundwaves.. Cons of Using Open-Cell Foam:. *Open-cell foams tend to have a lower R- ...
... between open cell and closed cell foam insulation.Understanding the difference between open cell and closed cell foam ... Understanding the difference between open cell and closed cell foam insulation is very important. ... Open Cell Vs Closed Cell Foam It seems quite a few readers have questions about the difference ... Foam Insulation has become very popular for home insulation. ... Closed cell foam. , Open cell foam. , Typical standard ...
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... its insulation market reach with the release of Stablebase 2.0 Max R and Stablebase 0.5 Max Yield spray polyurethane foam ... product listings to Firestable Insulation for Stablebase 2.0 Max R closed-cell foam and Stablebase 0.5 Max Yield open-cell foam ... Stablebase 0.5 Max Yield is a two-component, one-to-one, open-cell, spray-applied polyurethane foam. It is a high-yield, low- ... Stablebase 2.0 Max R is a two-component, next-generation hydrofluoroolefins-blown, closed-cell, spray-applied polyurethane foam ...
... open cell, high density, and slow rise spray foams. We also offer a one component sealant & a thermal barrier. ... Versi-Foam® open cell spray foam has a density of 0.75 pounds per cubic foot. This foam will expand more than the closed cell ... Versi-Foam® open cell spray foam has a density of 0.75 pounds per cubic foot. This foam will expand more than the closed cell ... Versi-Foam® closed cell spray foam insulation is highly dense and expansive insulating foam that has been used for years in all ...
This PVC closed cell foam comes in a 54x20 roll. Order today. ... PVC closed cell foam board reduces noise transmission through ... Caution: Polyurethane foam is flammable and may emit toxic fumes when burned. Do not use PVC closed cell foam board near open ... PVC Vinyl Barrier with Closed Cell Foam Decoupler. Made to last. Acoustical Surfaces offers a PVC solution tailored for the ... When a decoupler closed cell sound deadening foam layer is added sound transmission is improved. ...
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Todol low expansion foam will seal and stop the passage of air, gases, water, dust, fibers, and sound into a building. ... Todol Duo Fill 400 Closed Cell Straw Foam Can DF01. ... Spray Foam Cans * Todol Duo Fill 400 Closed Cell Straw Foam Can ... This is a urethane, closed cell foam dispensed through a straw. The Duo Fill 400 Foam DF01 is fast curing, curing in only three ... Todol Duo Fill 400 Closed Cell Straw Foam Can DF01 - Case of 15. ... Spray Foam Insulation * All Spray Foam Insulation * CPDS & ...
Hapla Swanfoam is a closed cell latex foam bonded to a brushed fibre. Absorbs pressure with instant recovery, ideal for ... Hapla Swanfoam is a closed cell latex foam bonded to a brushed fibre surface. ... Hapla Foam-O-Felt Regular Price £25.56 4 Sheets Special Price £20.88 4 Sheets ...
Open Cell vs Closed Cell Foam Insulation , Aeroflex USA , Uniquely formulated for success. ... Open Cell Foam Insulation. Spray foam is a common open cell foam utilized to insulate open spaces and voids on commercial and ... Closed Cell Foam Insulation. Closed cell foam insulation types are composed of individual cells that are not interconnected. ... Insulations that have greater than 90% closed-cell content are considered closed-cell. Furthermore, closed cell foam ...
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The guy that did the spray foam says I need to run an a/c… My attic is Open Cell Spray Foam - I have a 2600 sq ft dehumidifier ... My attic is Open Cell Spray Foam - is it OK to air condition the space?. by , Aug 27, 2022 , Uncategorized , 0 comments ... My attic is Open Cell Spray Foam - I have a 2600 sq ft dehumidifier running. ... The guy that did the spray foam says I need to run an a/c…Read MoreGreenBuildingAdvisor ...
Aguirre, A., Chandra, V., Peters, E. A. J. F., Kuipers, J. A. M., & Neira DAngelo, M. F. (2020). Open-cell foams as catalysts ... Open-cell foams as catalysts support: a systematic analysis of the mass transfer limitations. / Aguirre, A.; Chandra, V.; ... Open-cell foams as catalysts support: a systematic analysis of the mass transfer limitations. Chemical Engineering Journal. ... Open-cell foams as catalysts support : a systematic analysis of the mass transfer limitations. In: Chemical Engineering Journal ...
Custom Kids Open cell EPE foam Buoyancy Swim Vest Supplier Manufacturer.Supply Type: OEM service.User: Children.Factory Price. ... Custom Open cell EPE foam Buoyancy Floating Suit Color. Pink White Pink Yellow Blue White Yellow Blue Size. S M L XL Product ... Foam: Open cell EPE foam. Packing: OPP Bag+hangtag+Hanger. Characteristic: Provide safety for beginner. Serve: OEM & ODM. ...
  • U.S.-based Firestable Insulation Company is expanding its insulation market reach with the release of Stablebase 2.0 Max R and Stablebase 0.5 Max Yield spray polyurethane foam products. (wconline.com)
  • Stablebase 2.0 Max R is a two-component, next-generation hydrofluoroolefins-blown, closed-cell, spray-applied polyurethane foam system. (wconline.com)
  • Stablebase 0.5 Max Yield is a two-component, one-to-one, open-cell, spray-applied polyurethane foam. (wconline.com)
  • Polyurethane foam is flammable and may emit toxic fumes when burned. (acousticalsurfaces.com)
  • Polystyrene or polyurethane (PUR) foams are the most widely sold materials for building thermal insulation after glass wools. (thermopedia.com)
  • Extruded polystyrene foam (XPS) and polyurethane foam have a similar structure (see the article Classification of foam structures ). (thermopedia.com)
  • Closed Cell Spray Foam is a high density/lower yield polyurethane foam. (assuredinsulating.com)
  • Closed cell foam insulation is a closed cell polyurethane foam (CFC) that has closed cells. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • Foam cell formation is triggered by a number of factors including the uncontrolled uptake of modified low density lipoproteins (LDL), the upregulation of cholesterol esterification and the impairment of mechanisms associated with cholesterol release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C - also known as "bad" cholesterol) and particularly modified forms of LDL cholesterol such as oxidized, glycated, or acetylated LDL, is contained by a foam cell - a marker of atherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other major difference between open cell and closed cell foam insulation is the density of the in-place foam. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • It is a high-yield, low-density, no-mix, insulation foam, which contains zero ozone-depleting blowing agents and is designed to provide exceptional thermal performance and significant control of air infiltration as an air-barrier assembly. (wconline.com)
  • Our closed cell spray foam formula has a density of 1.75 pounds per cubic foot free rise or a 2 pounds per cubic foot in place. (rhhfoamsystems.com)
  • Versi-Foam® open cell spray foam has a density of 0.75 pounds per cubic foot. (rhhfoamsystems.com)
  • Versi-Foam® high density spray foam insulation has a low moisture absorption rate and excellent compressive strength. (rhhfoamsystems.com)
  • High density limp material with acoustic foam decoupler to reduce noise transmission. (acousticalsurfaces.com)
  • Simulations show that elastic modulus of Voronoi foams can be described in terms of relative density (ρ ̅) using a second order polynomial whereas the plastic-collapse strength scales with ρ ̅1.5. (auburn.edu)
  • Highly porous cellular foams generally present a low density and, thus, the radiative heat transfer is significant. (thermopedia.com)
  • Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foams have a very low density (in the range of 10-35 kg/m 3 ). (thermopedia.com)
  • Microscopic analysis of the cellular materials shows that the polymer is mainly concentrated in the cellular walls, whereas the struts can be neglected in the case of low-density EPS foams. (thermopedia.com)
  • open-cell and closed-cell , differ on a myriad of levels, such as: structure, application, density, composition and their R-Value. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • EPE foam is an expanded polyethylene closed cell foam, also known as Pearl foam. (titanav.co)
  • EPE foam is a low cost expanded polyethylene foam with non-crosslinked and closed cell structure. (titanav.co)
  • Polyethylene foam (also known as closed cell foam) is a popular foam suitable for a wide range of applications. (upholsteryfoamsheets.co.uk)
  • Plastazote LD33 is a specialised type of polyethylene foam and a member of the Azote range created by Zotefoam. (upholsteryfoamsheets.co.uk)
  • Water cannot travel into the cells of this polyethylene foam which also makes it a very buoyant material. (upholsteryfoamsheets.co.uk)
  • Cell-Aire® polyethylene foam provides superior protection and is an efficient replacement for bulkier, heavier packaging materials, helping reduce solid waste. (packprintsa.com)
  • Cube Optimization: Cell-Aire® polyethylene foam provides better protection allowing you to use less wraps or downguage to a thinner material, reducing carton size. (packprintsa.com)
  • This post will summarize the types of mechanical insulations followed by a focus on the differences between open cell and closed cell foam insulation. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • Insulations that have greater than 90% closed-cell content are considered closed-cell. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • Furthermore, closed cell foam insulations are either rigid or flexible. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • It has been found that closed-cell foam can provide up to three times the thermal resistance than other types of insulations. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • Versi-Foam insulation foam spray is available in standard and flame retardant formulas to meet all of your insulation project needs. (rhhfoamsystems.com)
  • Calgary Spray Foam Pros are the most trusted and experienced spray foam insulation company in Calgary Alberta. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • A spray foam insulation company named Vancouver Spray Foam Insulation Co offers closed cell spray foams services in Vancouver with high-quality materials and excellent customer service at an affordable price. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • Foam cells are fat-laden cells with a M2 macrophage-like phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some foam cells are derived from smooth muscle cells and present a limited macrophage-like phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • These droplets are responsible for the foamy appearance of the macrophage and thus the name of foam cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of novel lipid droplet factors that regulate lipophagy and cholesterol efflux in macrophage foam cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we employed mass spectrometry to identify lipophagy factors within the macrophage foam cell LD proteome . (bvsalud.org)
  • In this context, the Voronoi tessellation technique in different Euclidean spaces is employed in the present thesis to better represent structural foams. (auburn.edu)
  • Closed-cell increases structural strength. (360thermal.com)
  • Open Cell Foam Insulation is a porous material that can allow air and moisture to penetrate the insulation. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • Closed Cell Foam Insulation is non-porous with all of the voids closed to each other which makes it difficult for water vapor and air to pass through it. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • Baillis and Coquard (2008) and Dombrovsky and Baillis (2010) give comprehensive general overviews of experimental approaches and theoretical models used to determine the radiative properties of highly porous cell foams in their books. (thermopedia.com)
  • Company representatives will show samples and answer questions about their Duocel® foam material-a lightweight, rigid, and customizable open cell foam material with solid ligaments. (thomasnet.com)
  • This is a great opportunity for manufacturers and researchers to experience firsthand how open cell foam can solve difficult problems in all facets of the aerospace industry. (thomasnet.com)
  • The company holds several patents for their open-cell foam products. (thomasnet.com)
  • Closed-cell foam or open-cell foam -- it doesn't matter which you use. (greenbuildingadvisor.com)
  • If yes to the above two questions then, do you recommend closed-cell or open-cell foam? (rimainternational.org)
  • It seems quite a few readers have questions about the difference between open cell and closed cell foam insulation .Understanding the difference between open cell and closed cell foam insulation is the most important step in determining which product is best for your next insulation project. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • Open cell foams typically weigh about 0.5 lbs per cubic foot while closed cell foams are about 3 lbs per cubic foot. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • This is also one of the reasons that closed cell foam is quite a bit more expensive compared to open cell foam. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • The final issue when discussing the differences between open cell and closed cell foam insulation is the insulating value or R value per inch of insulation. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • Open cell foam insulation typically has average R values of about 3.5 per inch while closed cell foam insulation has average R values of about 6.5. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • IMHO open cell should really never be used. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • I try to avoid open cell foam altogether to be honest. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • I've seen far too many situations where open cell foam turned into a nightmare because it holds water. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • Regardless of if you are new to our foam products or have been with us a while, you have probably noticed we provide both open-cell and closed-cell foam types. (foambymail.com)
  • While both kinds of foam are ideal for a vast array of applications, some of the differences between open-cell and closed-cell foam may influence your choice of which foam to use. (foambymail.com)
  • The most apparent difference between these two foams is that one type has tiny spaces, or cells, that are entirely closed and contained, whereas the other has open cells, but, let's take a closer look at comparing open cell vs. closed cell foam. (foambymail.com)
  • A foam is classified as an open cell when more than half of its cells are open. (foambymail.com)
  • Open-cell foam behaves more like a spring. (foambymail.com)
  • Open cell is also soft to the touch, breathable, flexible, and can easily conform to objects. (foambymail.com)
  • Open cell foam typically weighs anywhere from 1.2lbs per cubic foot to 2.8lbs per cubic foot. (foambymail.com)
  • Incredibly flexible, open-cell materials can expand and contract with heat or cold when used. (foambymail.com)
  • Some open-cell foams, like our Dryfast can be used outdoors, and may retain little to no moisture. (foambymail.com)
  • Open-cell acoustic foam can help dampen soundwaves. (foambymail.com)
  • Open-cell foams tend to have a lower R-value, and are not suitable for use in places or climates with extreme temperatures. (foambymail.com)
  • Open-cell foams can sometimes shrink over time, depending on what conditions it is in. (foambymail.com)
  • Lower breathability than open-cell foam. (foambymail.com)
  • We hope we've been able to help answer your questions about the differences between closed-cell and open-cell foam. (foambymail.com)
  • The International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials Evaluation Services, which establishes codes and standards for the industry, has issued product listings to Firestable Insulation for Stablebase 2.0 Max R closed-cell foam and Stablebase 0.5 Max Yield open-cell foam for its compliance to International Building Code AC-377. (wconline.com)
  • The formulation is 92% open cell. (rhhfoamsystems.com)
  • All of our open cell products are produced in the Flame Retardant formula. (rhhfoamsystems.com)
  • Do not use PVC closed cell foam board near open flame. (acousticalsurfaces.com)
  • Granular insulation is sometimes considered an open cell material since gasses can be transferred between the hollow spaces. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • Spray foam is a common open cell foam utilized to insulate open spaces and voids on commercial and residential projects. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • Although technically not a foam, fiberglass pipe and duct insulation is the most common open cell insulation type for a number of reasons. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • However, fiberglass is not the best choice for all applications due to its open-cell structure. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • An open-cell structure is susceptible to moisture-wicking when it's all-surface jacket (ASJ) is penetrated. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • My attic is Open Cell Spray Foam - is it OK to air condition the space? (mbpa.us)
  • My attic is Open Cell Spray Foam - I have a 2600 sq ft dehumidifier running. (mbpa.us)
  • The guy that did the spray foam says I need to run an a/c… My attic is Open Cell Spray Foam - I have a 2600 sq ft dehumidifier running. (mbpa.us)
  • The analysis presented for Voronoi honeycombs is also extended to the 3D space to simulate open cell Voronoi foams. (auburn.edu)
  • In this work, the analysis of the mass transfer phenomena in catalytic open-cell foams is carried out through the combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and experiments, using the CO oxidation on Pt(1%)/γ-Al 2 O 3 /foam as a model reaction. (tue.nl)
  • The influence of the local hydrodynamic effects on the diffusion-reaction phenomena occurring at the gas-solid interface of the open-cell solid foams are investigated by Direct Numerical Simulations assuming an infinitely fast reaction. (tue.nl)
  • Open Cell Foam, Closed Cell Foam, Which Should I Choose? (assuredinsulating.com)
  • Open-cell spray foam is perfect for insulating all those hard to reach places of the home, as well as soundproofing, too. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Open-cell foam insulation is one of two types of foam insulation, the other being closed cell foam insulation. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Open-cell spray foam is the go-to form of insulation for many homeowners. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Open-cell spray foam is often cheaper than its counterpart due to its expansive capabilities. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Open-cell insulation is a great thermal insulator, but did you know it can also offer other benefits to your property? (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Open-cell foam has superior soundproofing properties to reduce noise pollution. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • If you live near an airport, next to a noisy pub or club, or are conscious of the noise you're making indoors - open-cell insulation can absorb up to 40% of the sound as it travels through the air. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Open-cell composition allows for breathable insulation, preventing mould growth. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Not only this, but the fact that the open-cell insulation expands up to 100x its original size means that a full fill can be more easily achieved. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Our water-blown open-cell spray foam has a low potential to harm the environment (known as a GWP) and can be left exposed in an uninhabited loft area. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Reduce your carbon footprint with this 100% water-blown spray foam open-cell insulation. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • As mentioned, the low GWP of water-blown spray foam makes it an eco-friendly alternative to traditional insulation - that would also have a lot more waste material than open-cell insulation. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Open-cell insulation is a specific form of insulating foam that can be applied under a variety of circumstances. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Both open-cell spray foam and closed-cell can be used for commercial and residential properties, as they both offer high performance insulation, and offer strong energy efficiency values. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • For example, if you want to provide soundproofing benefits for a room, you would choose open-cell spray foam. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Open cell composition for acoustic insulation. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Let Us Take Care of Your Open-Cell Insulation Needs! (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Investing in open-cell spray insulation for your home or commercial property is a wise and important move. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • There are actually two different kinds of spray foam to choose from - closed cell foam and open-cell foam - and here at 360 Thermal, we are dedicated to helping you find the right option for your needs. (360thermal.com)
  • In this blog series, we're carefully examining both types of insulation to help you determine which is best for you, and in Part 1 , we went over open-cell foam. (360thermal.com)
  • The gasses these chemicals create will expand, much like they do in open-cell foam, but they expand much slower and the plastic sets before the bubbles start to burst. (360thermal.com)
  • This results in a foam that is much denser and more impermeable than open-cell foam. (360thermal.com)
  • Closed-cell is more expensive than open-cell. (360thermal.com)
  • Closed-cell is denser than open-cell and, therefore, requires more materials. (360thermal.com)
  • When should you use closed-cell foam over open-cell? (360thermal.com)
  • Closed-cell and open-cell spray foam insulation both have pros and cons, and the right one for your needs will depend on the nature of the project at hand. (360thermal.com)
  • Although there is some overlap between applications that closed-cell and open-cell foam can be used for, in most cases, one is clearly more beneficial than the other. (360thermal.com)
  • But once you choose spray foam insulation, your job isn't quite complete, because there are two types of spray foam insulation: open-cell and closed-cell. (360thermal.com)
  • In Part 1 of this blog series, we'll be focusing on open-cell spray foam insulation. (360thermal.com)
  • Of the two types of spray foam insulation, open-cell is the less common option. (360thermal.com)
  • Water is the blowing agent that is used to install open-cell foam, which then becomes carbon dioxide after it has reacted with the air. (360thermal.com)
  • The carbon dioxide quickly expands, and the bubbles it forms tend to burst before the plastic has set, which is why it's called "open-cell. (360thermal.com)
  • Calgary Spray Foam Pros are the experts in open cell spray foam insulation. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • Open cell spray foam is a type of spray foam insulation that is made up of cells that are not completely closed. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • Open cell spray foam is also known for being more effective at absorbing sound than other types of insulation. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • If you're looking for a top-quality insulation material for your home or business, open cell spray foam is an excellent option to consider. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • Here are just a few of the benefits that open cell spray foam insulation can provide. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • We specialize in open cell spray foam insulation, which is the most effective type of insulation on the market today. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • Our team of experts have installed open cell spray foam in hundreds of homes and businesses in Calgary, and we are confident that we can provide you with the best possible service. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • Open cell spray foam insulation is made up of two parts: an inner layer of closed cells and an outer layer of open cells. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • The closed cells are filled with a gas that expands when it comes into contact with air, while the open cells are filled with a liquid that expands when it comes into contact with air. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • What To Expect During Open Cell Spray Foam Insulation? (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • The installation of open cell spray foam insulation is a job that requires the expertise of a professional contractor. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • When you hire a professional contractor to install open cell spray foam insulation, they will first assess the area that needs to be insulated. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • Calgary Spray Foam Pros are proud to be the leading provider of open cell spray foam insulation in Calgary. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • After you have had open cell spray foam insulation installed in your home or business, you can expect to see a significant reduction in your energy bills. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • If you have any questions about our open cell spray foam insulation or would like to schedule a free consultation, please contact us today. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • As a homeowner, you can choose between two types of insulation: open cell foam and closed cell foam. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • The first benefit is that it provides better soundproofing than open-cell foam, and this makes it ideal for noise-sensitive individuals who live close to busy streets or airports. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • It's also more resistant to mold growth so if there's an issue with moisture buildup, you're less likely to experience mold as a result of using closed-cell insulation than if you used open-cell insulation. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • If affordability is an issue, then one perk of closed-cell insulation is that it has a longer lifespan than open-cell insulation, which means you'll likely spend less money on this type of insulation over time. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • One drawback to closed cell foam insulation is that it can be more expensive than open-cell alternatives because closed cells require much more material to provide the level of effectiveness necessary for homeowners. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • The other issue with closed cell foam insulation is that closed cell insulation requires a professional to install it, so if you find yourself in the position of needing closed-cell foam and don't have access to someone who can do this for you, then open-cell spray foam might be your best option. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • Glass, plastic, and rubber typically are the base materials manufactured with various foaming agents. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • Representing the complex morphology of cellular solids in general and metal foams in particular for understanding key factors governing their mechanical behavior is typically achieved using periodic unit cells. (auburn.edu)
  • Closed cell foam typically lasts longer than other types of insulation because it does not break down over time like many fiberglass or mineral wool products do. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • Foam cells are formed when circulating monocyte-derived cells are recruited to the atherosclerotic lesion site or fat deposits in the blood vessel walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • I understand that I should use closed cell in my below grade poured concrete basement walls due to moisture, but what about the above grade rim joist and the above grade wall in the walk out part of the basement? (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • Closed-cell foam consists of cells that are entirely enclosed by walls. (foambymail.com)
  • As a result, the height of the walls of the material cells is much larger than the wavelength. (thermopedia.com)
  • As a result, the radiative properties can be obtained on the basis of the model of a homogeneous cellular structure made of randomly oriented cell walls, assumed as infinite thin slabs, which scatter radiation independently of each other. (thermopedia.com)
  • Introduction to spray foam insulation and its benefits Spray foam insulation is a revolutionary type of insulation that can provide superior thermal and sound insulation for your existing walls. (bmcsprayfoaminsulation.com)
  • This type of foam is often used as a thermal and acoustic insulator in building construction, for example in walls, ceilings, or roofs. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • It is shown that the deleterious effect of sudden collapse of regular 3D foams at yield can be mitigated by introducing a small perturbation to the regularity, say, δ = 0.95. (auburn.edu)
  • It appears that there is enough foam to seal to the outside, but not full thickness because of a bubble. (greenbuildingadvisor.com)
  • With the proper insulation thickness and quality installation, closed-cell elastomeric has the potential to last the useful life of the mechanical system and ultimately delivers a favorable life cycle cost to the facility owner. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • As an economically priced closed cell foam, EPE foam is quite popular to use for various moisture resistance and thermal insulation required applications wear price is important. (titanav.co)
  • We worked hard to optimize these products to outperform others when combined with our Firestable FS 2.0 NFPA-275 thermal barrier foam," stated Tyler Boehs, Firestable Insulation's Vice President of Sales. (wconline.com)
  • For below-ambient (cold) piping systems, such as chilled water, refrigeration, and domestic cold water, closed cell elastomeric foam (also known as rubber) offers a nearly 70-year track record of thermal insulating performance in the United States. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • Thermal properties are greatly dependent on the type of foam associated with different cellular structures. (thermopedia.com)
  • In a previous blog , your insulation contractors at 360 Thermal did a side by side comparison of the three main types of insulation: spray foam, cellulose and fiberglass. (360thermal.com)
  • Here at 360 Thermal, our goal is to provide you with the best insulation solution for your needs, and that means helping you find the right spray foam insulation. (360thermal.com)
  • EPE foam features don't end there, it is a dust free (does not powder), is non-abrasive and has great thermal insulation properties. (titanav.co)
  • Spray foam insulation provides great thermal performance by filling the gaps in a building's exterior and providing an air-tight seal for heat loss prevention. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • The medicine cabinets in the exterior wall have foam insulation behind them to maintain the thermal envelope. (tjp.us)
  • Duocel® foam is available in a variety of raw materials including aluminum, copper, steel, carbon and ceramics such as silicon carbide. (thomasnet.com)
  • Foam cells, also called lipid-laden macrophages, are a type of cell that contain cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point, foam cells can either be degraded though the de-esterification and secretion of cholesterol, or can further promote foam cell development and plaque formation - a process that is dependent on the balance of free cholesterol and esterified cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • This patient presented with nodular cutaneous lesions on both elbows, which were diagnosed as tuberous xanthomata, that resulted from the accumulation of cholesterol rich material in foam cells located in the tendons, and the skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Attic spray foam insulation is a popular choice among homeowners because of its ability to reduce energy costs and maintain indoor temperature However, with different types of spray foam insulation available. (bmcsprayfoaminsulation.com)
  • We also offer home insulation, attic spray foam insulation, and many more! (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • FDP005 is a black single sided EPDM closed cell foam tape with an acrylic adhesive. (fireprotect.co.uk)
  • Finished aerospace products and Duocel® foam samples will be on display in booth 4923 to demonstrate the abilities of this exciting material. (thomasnet.com)
  • ERG Aerospace has been in business since 1967 and is the sole manufacturer of Duocel® foam, a strong, light weight, rigid foam material with solid ligaments and a variety of uses. (thomasnet.com)
  • In new home construction, can a radiant barrier (foil adhered directly to roofing underlayment material) be used in conjunction with Icynene foam insulation ? (rimainternational.org)
  • Can the foam be sprayed onto the surface of the foil coated underlayment material? (rimainternational.org)
  • Poly foam excels as packaging material, for mailing and transporting items and protecting delicates in storage. (thefoamfactory.com)
  • The EPE foam material is a lightweight, semi-rigid, flexible foam, most commonly used in packaging, for impact and shock absorption, vibration dampening, and surface protection. (titanav.co)
  • This closed cell foam sheet can be heat moulded between the temperatures of 85 - 140 ° C. This makes it a great material for crafting certain medical support aids such as splints and braces. (upholsteryfoamsheets.co.uk)
  • Neimann-Pick is a disease in which excess material is stored inside cells (metabolic storage disease). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Effect of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) closed cell foam on transmitted forces in mouthguard material. (bvsalud.org)
  • They are named because the lipoproteins give the cell a foamy appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are referred to as "foam cells" because of their foamy or soap-suds appearance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The typical histologic appearance of JXG consists of a dense dermal infiltrate of foamy histiocytes, foreign body and Touton giant cells, the latter being nearly pathognomonic of JXG [1]. (who.int)
  • Although closed cell elastomeric foam is generally more expensive than fiberglass, it does not require an outer protective jacket for most applications unless direct UV exposure, mechanical damage, or extreme vapor drive are expected. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • TITAN FOAM™ is a soft, grey, non-gassing , pliable backer rod, with an impervious outer skin, used as a backing for elastomeric and other cold applied sealants. (wgsonline.com)
  • Versi-Foam® slow rise spray foam insulation is a Class I (flame retardant) formula with a slower reactivity which is useful in applications where the foam needs to flow to distant areas before it solidifies. (rhhfoamsystems.com)
  • These traits make Closed Cell Spray Foam useful in commercial, agricultural and industrial applications where the foam may be prone to damage from exposure to equipment, occupants, or the elements. (assuredinsulating.com)
  • Therefore, determination of the transport extinction coefficient, β λ tr , as a function of the type of foam, cellular microstructure, cell diameter, and porosity, represents a considerable importance to researchers. (thermopedia.com)
  • If you spray the foam on the foil surface it will destroy the reflectivity of the radiant barrier. (rimainternational.org)
  • If your insulation application needs a vapor barrier then you MUST select closed cell foam insulation. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • One way is through installing closed cell foam insulation, which seals air leaks and creates an insulating barrier. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • These tiny, discrete pockets of gas make this type of foam extremely hardy and result in higher densities. (foambymail.com)
  • The elastic modulus of foams with different regularities and relative densities in the range of 3% to 9% are compared with the analytical and empirical models available in the literature. (auburn.edu)
  • We want to share with you what makes these two foam types unique, the pros and cons of each, and clarify which foam will work best for your application. (foambymail.com)
  • This closed cell foam sheet has an inherently high impact threshold due to its tightly bonded cell structure. (upholsteryfoamsheets.co.uk)
  • The differences between these two types of foam are important to understand. (foambymail.com)
  • I think the question of the vapor permeance of any type of foam used to make this repair is irrelevant. (greenbuildingadvisor.com)
  • Spray foam insulation is a type of insulation that is sprayed onto surfaces. (calgarysprayfoam.ca)
  • Closed cell foam has many benefits that are worth considering when deciding on which type to use in your home. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • Foam-cell infiltration and visceromegaly are common features in all forms, but neurologic involvement occurs only in types A and C and not in type B. (medscape.com)
  • Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign, self-healing, non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages. (who.int)
  • ERG is the sole manufacturer of Duocel® foam and has a team of experienced engineers to design custom foam-based products. (thomasnet.com)
  • Duocel® foam is found in a variety of products including air/oil separators, heat sinks, energy absorbers, flame arrestors, electrodes and more. (thomasnet.com)
  • A professional spray foam company with many years of experience in residential construction has been providing Vancouver homeowners with superior products and services - we're here to help you make smart decisions that could save you money down the road. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • This unique, two-component Duo Fill 400 Straw Foam is used to seal and prevent air leaks air, water, gases, pests, rodents, insects into a home or building. (conservationmart.com)
  • If not, now is the time to consider investing in insulation that will keep your utility bills low while also protecting your property from air leaks: spray foam insulation. (bmcsprayfoaminsulation.com)
  • Due to the intricacies of foam microstructures, however, such idealizations have many limitations. (auburn.edu)
  • Due to closed cell elastomeric's flexible closed cell structure and built-in vapor retarder, it is an excellent choice for insulating cold lines due to its ability to efficiently control condensation. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • First, closed-cell foam greatly reduces absorption of chemical, so that the chemical remains in contact with the paint surface much longer. (detailing.com)
  • Closed-cell foams are ideal for uses that require a sturdier option, such as in packaging and commercial uses. (foambymail.com)
  • Because of its great strength to weight ratio, you find them in basic foam packaging, floor underlay, furniture edge protection and water flotation. (titanav.co)
  • Plastazote LD33 is a particularly popular choice for foam packaging. (upholsteryfoamsheets.co.uk)
  • Cell-Aire® foam packaging materials are a versatile and cost-effective solution for a wide range of packaging applications. (packprintsa.com)
  • Foam cells are not dangerous as such, but can become a problem when they accumulate at particular foci thus creating a necrotic centre of atherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes involved in atherosclerosis include coagulation, inflammation, lipid metabolism, intimal injury, and smooth muscle cell proliferation (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • 1) Window foam is closed cell. (greenbuildingadvisor.com)
  • when insulating a 2×4 stud wall (16″o.c.) by first spraying a thin (1/2″ plus-or-minus) coat of closed cell spay foam insulation and filling the rest with 3 1/2″ Rockwool Comfortbatt insulation, How well does that work? (greenbuildingadvisor.com)
  • by first spraying a thin (1/2″ plus-or-minus) coat of closed cell spay foam insulation. (greenbuildingadvisor.com)
  • First, it's nearly impossible to spray a half-inch of closed cell foam with ANY kind of consistency. (greenbuildingadvisor.com)
  • So you can see closed cell foam insulation can be almost twice the insulating values per inch. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • Matt - I would always use closed cell foam. (homeconstructionimprovement.com)
  • Versi-Foam® closed cell spray foam insulation is highly dense and expansive insulating foam that has been used for years in all sizes of insulation projects. (rhhfoamsystems.com)
  • The formulation is 97% closed cell. (rhhfoamsystems.com)
  • This foam will expand more than the closed cell formula and is tack free in approximately 2 minutes. (rhhfoamsystems.com)
  • When a decoupler closed cell sound deadening foam layer is added sound transmission is improved. (acousticalsurfaces.com)
  • Closed-cell foam with pressure-sensitive adhesives. (cgrproducts.com)
  • This is a urethane, closed cell foam dispensed through a straw. (conservationmart.com)
  • Hapla Swanfoam Hapla Swanfoam is a closed cell latex foam bonded to a brushed fibre. (algeos.com)
  • Closed cell foam insulation types are composed of individual cells that are not interconnected. (aeroflexusa.com)
  • A synthesis is presented herein concerning closed cell foams. (thermopedia.com)
  • Closed cell foams find applications in a large number of technological fields. (thermopedia.com)
  • As a matter of fact, numerous materials used in frigorific or building insulation have a closed cell structure. (thermopedia.com)
  • This means that EPS foams can be treated as homogeneous cellular closed cell foams. (thermopedia.com)
  • Closed cell foam is often applied in lieu of a vinyl-faced fiberglass insulation system, providing a better insulated structure with a great finished appearance. (assuredinsulating.com)
  • TITAN FOAM™ is suited for specialty applications such as irregular and varying joint widths where standard closed cell backer rods are not appropriate. (wgsonline.com)
  • Limit: 5 closed cell foam tape weatherstripping per account, per year. (energizedelawaremarketplace.com)
  • Cheaper form of foam insulation compared to closed-cell, and it's highly effective. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Lower R-Value than its counterpart, closed cell foam. (sprayfoam.co.uk)
  • Keep reading to learn about closed-cell spray foam insulation. (360thermal.com)
  • Closed-cell insulation utilizes chemical blowing agents in a liquid form. (360thermal.com)
  • Closed-cell has a higher R-Value. (360thermal.com)
  • Closed-cell can be applied at low temperatures. (360thermal.com)
  • Closed-cell is ideal for flood zones because it is designed to reject bulk water. (360thermal.com)
  • Closed-cell is ideal for both interior and exterior use. (360thermal.com)
  • To learn about closed-cell spray foam insulation, stay tuned for Part 2. (360thermal.com)
  • Because it is a closed cell foam, Plastazote LD33 is also water-resistant. (upholsteryfoamsheets.co.uk)
  • Closed cell foam insulation is a great option for homeowners in Vancouver. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • Closed cell foams are also made with fire retardant materials which not only protect your home but also keep it safe from smoke damage as well. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • Closed cell foam is also an environmentally friendly option because the closed cells allow gases to escape and prevent them from becoming trapped inside your home. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • If closed cell foam is installed during construction, then there is a lower risk of it becoming damaged or contaminated during the building process. (sprayfoamvancouver.ca)
  • The URO-CELL pads use closed-cell foams, which has several benefits. (detailing.com)
  • We are committed to providing a better way to buy closed cell foams. (worldwidefoam.com)
  • Technicians are reporting amazing results with less time using the URO-CELL Foam Pads with their favorite polishes and compounds. (detailing.com)
  • This foam is commonly created from a rubber compound subjected to gas, such as nitrogen, under high pressure. (foambymail.com)
  • Ideal uses for this foam are in cushioning, padding and backing for furniture where a balance of comfort and support is desired. (thefoamfactory.com)
  • The maintenance of foam cells and the subsequent progression of plaque build-up is caused by the secretion of chemokines and cytokines from macrophages and foam cells. (wikipedia.org)