A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Measurement of cells' substrate utilization and biosynthetic output for modeling of METABOLIC NETWORKS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
Glucose in blood.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An infant during the first month after birth.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 6.4.1.1.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
  • Riding high with 20 million Euros in fresh funding and a contract to power Ferrari's first hybrid-electric automobile (pictured above), English motor manufacturer YASA is gearing up for higher production volume of its innovative axial-flux motors. (magneticsmag.com)
  • That news followed an announcement in May that Ferrari is now in series production of its first e-vehicle, a hybrid-electric being powered by a customized axial-flux motor from YASA. (magneticsmag.com)
  • The CRP system utilises two 750 Series Axial Flux YASA motors each providing a maximum power of 112.5kW (150 hp). (contraelectric.com)
  • According to the rotating magnetic field theory with combining the recoil line characteristics of permanent magnet and the equivalent operational magnetic circuits, appropriate projection of the stator currents to achieve an optimal ratio of the machine propulsive/axial forces has been confirmed through detailed three-dimensional finite element analysis (3-D FEA) and numerical studies. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • 7]R. Wang and M. J. Kamper, "Evaluation of eddy current losses in axial flux permanent magnet machine with an ironless stator," Proceedings of the IEEE IAS 37th Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 2002. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • In this paper a novel stator design is introduced for HTS axial flux machines which enables a reduction in their structural mass. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The stator is for the first time designed with a 45° angle that deviates the air gap closing forces into the vertical direction reducing the axial forces. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The proposed motor breaks the traditional design rule which stipulates that the pole-pair numbers of the stator and the rotor must be the same. (edu.hk)
  • Since this is a single rotor design stators on Otherpower are usually made for dual rotors we will only be generating half the stated voltage So for this project I wanted 12 volts and had to buy a 24 volt stator Otherpower actually is now offering a kit for a single rotor wind. (aplikacjebiznesowe.net.pl)
  • Vibrodynamical behavior of bulb units, due to specific design and operating conditions, depend very much on the relative position of the rotor and stator as well as the bearings. (irispower.com)
  • The monitoring system included rotor vibrations, air gap and flux, rotor pole temperatures, stator winding temperatures, axial displacements and process operating quantities (e.g. active and reactive power) as well as electrical values. (irispower.com)
  • The number of coils, the number of wire turns in each coil, the relative number of teeth in the stator and rotor, and the diameter and flux density of the magnet are all of the parameters used in the design considerations of the motor. (techbriefs.com)
  • Coaxial rotors or coax rotors are a pair of helicopter rotors mounted one above the other on concentric shafts with the same axis of rotation but turning in opposite directions contra-rotating This rotor configuration is a feature of helicopters produced by the Russian Kamov helicopter design bureau. (aplikacjebiznesowe.net.pl)
  • It was found that in case of the dual rotor wind turbine the optimal axial distance for half diameter radial shift was in the range of 0 2 - 0 25 diameter View full-text Preprint. (aplikacjebiznesowe.net.pl)
  • The NASA Rotor 67 axial compressor was simulated. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • Using Neodymium magnets and axial flux motor designs, electric motor developer Torqeedo of Germany is powering through a flurry of innovations to become one of the world's leading manufacturers bent on electrifying marine mobility. (magneticsmag.com)
  • Live demonstration on the design of a high-pressure multistage axial compressor. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • 1. CAE Software for Axial Compressors and Turbines A meanline design and analysis tool for multistage axial turbomachinery including compressors, gas, steam, and hydraulic turbines, and pumps. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • After that I played around with radial flux machines (notably the brake drum design, and the AWP) for about ten years, only returning to the axial style alternator in 1998. (scoraigwind.co.uk)
  • Compared with those of radial-flux-modulated motor (RFMM), its manufacturing and assembling process are simple and easy. (edu.hk)
  • Technology startups such as Magnax claim that electric motors and generators based on axial flux technology will be a step change in efficiency, size, reliability and cost-effectiveness versus the current generation of direct drive machines (based on Radial Flux). (magnax.com)
  • The Radial flux automotive In-Wheel motors segment is pegged to witness widespread adoption in high-performance vehicles as they are easy to manufacture. (wsearch1.com)
  • How does the peak torque capacity of an axial-flux motor compare to radial-flux. (anttilehikoinen.fi)
  • In order to increase the power generation of existing tubular linear generators, we changed the axial-direction permanent magnet array to a Halbach-type array. (jvejournals.com)
  • Small, compact axial and transverse Hall generators for measuring flux density. (janis.com)
  • Existing technologies can detect the presence of corrosion, determine the additional strain caused by pipe curvature and, given the right conditions, Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) technologies have demonstrated the capability to indicate regions with crack-like flaws. (pipeline-conference.com)
  • To investigate the leakage flux and their linkage with different metallic parts inside the transformer, FEM based analysis is performed using FEMM software. (ifqu.de)
  • 5: magnet thickness parallel the direction of flux in inches: magnetic flux leakage g m F g F m P ℜ ℜ. (segninuovialcamo.it)
  • The magnetic flux leakage field induced by the broken-wire flaw in the 3D space is analyzed. (cnki.net)
  • The spatial distribution of the axial component of the leakage field is highlighted and discussed. (cnki.net)
  • The scanning system is constructed to measure the axial component of the leakage field. (cnki.net)
  • The threshold method is applied to estimate the effective diffusion angle of the axial component of the leakage field along circumferential direction as ± 6°, which determines that the minimum number of elements in the sensor array is 30. (cnki.net)
  • A circular magnetic flux leakage sensor array is developed for the stay cable. (cnki.net)
  • This study provides a reference for designing circular magnetic flux leakage sensor array for surface flaw detection in large-diameter stay cables. (cnki.net)
  • In particular, an innovative axial-flux permanent magnet motor has been optimized and simulated to increase its electromagnetic performance and to decrease its vibrations, noise and working temperatures. (spinmag.eu)
  • 8]F. Caricchi, F. G. Capponi, F. Crescimbini, and L. Solero, "Experimental study on reducing cogging torque and core power loss in axial flux permanent magnet machines with slotted winding," Proceedings of the IEEE IAS 37th Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 2002. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Designed with a radically different magnetic configuration than traditional motors, axial-flux motors typically are lighter yet have high power and torque densities while using fewer magnets than a comparably rated motor. (magneticsmag.com)
  • Axial flux machines on the other hand offer higher torque/volume ratios than the radial machines, which makes them an attractive option where space and transportation becomes an issue. (ed.ac.uk)
  • SMCs allow e-motor manufacturers to make complete use of design space to maximize torque and power requirements. (gknpm.com)
  • Conventional motor designs show a decrease in efficiency once torque increases to a higher operating level. (gknpm.com)
  • Engineers face the challenge to create motor designs that keep efficiency levels high even if torque is increased. (gknpm.com)
  • Proven through a transverse flux motor case study of an e-bike application, GKN Powder Metallurgy's motor design can double the efficiency of a traditional motor design once torque levels are reached, especially at low speeds. (gknpm.com)
  • 10]C.-T. Liu, L.F. Chen, J.L. Kuo, Y.N. Chen, Y.J. Lee, and C.T. Leu, "Microcomputer control implementation of transverse flux linear switched reluctance machine with rule-based compensator,'' IEEE Trans. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • In addition, the air gap flux density increases due to the new claw pole shapes improving its power density from 53.19 to 61.90 W kg−1. (ed.ac.uk)
  • It is expected that the HTS axial flux machines designed with the new methodology offer a competitive advantage over other proposed superconducting generator designs in terms of cost, reliability and power density. (ed.ac.uk)
  • This release further expands electromagnetic application coverage for electric machines with the introduction of a new excitation coil model, allowing the design of higher power density machines with closed coils such as those found in axial flux machines. (3dcadworld.com)
  • MIP has a new CVD Center Drive Kit for Axial SCX10s with a 12.3″ wheelbase (which includes the Axial Jeep Rubicon). (bigsquidrc.com)
  • Capacity audience is expected for a magnetics industry session focused on high-frequency power conversion design challenges at APEC 2020 in New Orleans next month. (magneticsmag.com)
  • The design and manufacture of the power supply system is provided by our partner POTENZA LIMITED. (contraelectric.com)
  • We offer a bespoke, turnkey product design and manufacture service, tailored to your needs. (walkersubsea.com)
  • Part II (d) In this final study design and manufacture of LVDT signal ICs based on AD598. (pgvcollege.com)
  • Extensive research and development, advanced design procedures, modern manufacturing techniques and first hand on-site experience in compressor operation are behind the success achieved by our compressors. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • Without discounting the importance of other components, the axial compressor is one of the most critical in a gas turbine engine for propulsion, power generation and mechanical drive as, while it contributes to the overall engine efficiency, it dictates the operability range and requires demanding aerodynamics and aeromechanics design efforts. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • Initially an axial compressor is designed with counter-rotation at design point. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • The requirements of the different stages of an axial compressor are then discussed. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • Design challenges that are encountered when developing a high-pressure axial compressor. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • The working principle of an axial flow compressor is straightforward. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • Traditionally, axial compressors are coupled with a complimentary turbine at the exhaust that provides mechanical power to the compressor. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • 4. Construction of an Axial Flow Compressor Axial Flow Compressor parts : An axial-flow compressor consists of fixed and moving sets of blades in alternating sequence as shown in Fig. Axial compressors all undergo a thorough design and development phase in which performance testing is vital to their ultimate success as a product. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • SAVONIUS VERTICAL WIND TURBINE DESIGN SIMULATION AND PHYSICAL TESTING Honors Capstone Report I Eddahmani Aymane hereby affirm that I have applied ethics to the design process. (aplikacjebiznesowe.net.pl)
  • Based in Oxford, the company specializes in making axial-flux electric motors and controllers aimed at helping electrify automotive and aviation markets with both hybrid and pure electric powertrains. (magneticsmag.com)
  • Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed a powder magnetic core for the thin, axial gap motors that are becoming increasingly popular with electric vehicle manufacturers for their high performance, lighter weight and streamlined profile. (magneticsmag.com)
  • Due to the advancements in the motor design and lower iron losses from SMC's material properties, electric motors increase efficiency greater than conventional motor designs. (gknpm.com)
  • He has supervised over 16 graduate students in research areas related to solar energy, energy harvesting, magnetic levitation, computer aided design, design automation, virtual reality, intelligent systems, optimization, axial flux permanent magnet hub motors, health monitoring and diagnostics. (upr.edu)
  • Here's a no-brainer tip for you: space vectors are useful when designing electric motors. (anttilehikoinen.fi)
  • The company is known for its axial-flux motors which offer high-power and low-weight characteristics. (autosector.com)
  • Part two will cover design considerations for AC motors with variable speed drives and electronically communicated variable-speed direct-current (DC) motors (ECMs), followed by a comparison table of suggested advantages and disadvantages and design considerations for each type, and concluded with a case study comparing the use of AC motors with variable speed drives (VSDs) with ECMs. (esmagazine.com)
  • DC motors also have applications in the building and HVAC systems - in particular, many elevator designs employ DC motors. (esmagazine.com)
  • Compared to DC motors, AC motors are simpler in design, are more rugged, and have a longer life under normal operating conditions. (esmagazine.com)
  • This thesis presents a systematic scheme to determine the optimal propulsive/axial force ratio of a single-sided permanent magnet axial-flux motor (SPMAM) along with its operational constraints on both the winding currents and the speed induced voltages. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • 2]M. Aydin, S. Huang, and T. A. Lipo, "A new axial flux surface mounted permanent magnet machine capable of field control," Proceedings of the IEEE IAS 37th Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 2002. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • The machines are an axial flux ("pancake") design based on dual-halbach-array magnet rotors and ironless stators. (launchpnt.com)
  • 9]C.-T. Liu and N. Sheu, "Optimal pole arrangement design of a linear switched reluctance machine,'' IEEE Trans. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Yet high task uncertainty and complexity involved in this process makes it very difficult to design an optimal formal team structure (7-9). (ddw-online.com)
  • In the detailed design step, the preliminary com-pressor is used as the input and some of its spec-i cations are modi ed through Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and optimization tools [4,5]. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • Measure total flux in industrial and measurement system settings. (janis.com)
  • This combination of design features allows for an extremely high efficiency UAV motor, generator, or starter/alternator with excellent specific power. (launchpnt.com)
  • However, most HTS generator designs are based on a radial topology, which requires an excessive amount of HTS material and suffers from cooling and reliability issues. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The Halbach array generator consists of both axial magnetized permanent magnets and radial magnets. (jvejournals.com)
  • If you are feeling a bit daredevil and want to design something that will truly reveal your wild side, go for this DIY EMP generator. (segninuovialcamo.it)
  • Gears for the transmission from the Barrel, and the reduction from Seconds to Minutes and Hours are placed behind the Tourbillon in order to keep the design circular. (laimer.ch)
  • This case fan package comes with three high-airflow fans that offer great ventilation of every case inside and, thanks to its design and self-lubricating hydraulic bearing, an almost completely silent performance. (bclnadvogados.com.br)
  • It uses a custom-built axial flux electric motor that operates up to 6,000 rpm. (thedetroitbureau.com)
  • Saietta (Ticker: SED.L) is a UK Company that has developed an innovative AFT electric motor (adesign of axial flux motor), designed to deliver class-leading performance for its target markets whilstbeing low cost and built for mass market production. (canaccordgenuity.com)
  • This multiphysics approach allows to design an electric motor solution that meets the requirements and the NVH specifics imposed by an initial project. (spinmag.eu)
  • Competition is fierce for electric motor designs that meet specific performance and size requirements. (gknpm.com)
  • To develop robust electric motor designs, manufacturers can leverage our powder metallurgy expertise and advanced technology in Soft Magnetic Composite (SMC) materials. (gknpm.com)
  • Conventional electric motor designs can meet performance requirements, but typically require additional space to do so. (gknpm.com)
  • New electric motor designs need to balance both performance and size specifications. (gknpm.com)
  • The proposed methodology through the power outage graphics enable a quick preliminary evaluation of the power outage based on the current design status and location for any electric power systems in the Marmara region. (journaltocs.ac.uk)
  • Check out EMDtool - Electric Motor Design toolbox for Matlab . (anttilehikoinen.fi)
  • Need help with electric motor design or design software? (anttilehikoinen.fi)
  • I'm into electric RC trucks and so far the only 2 I like are the hpi savage flux hp and the TT mt3 3G. (bigsquidrc.com)
  • It's due in 2024 and will be Mercedes' last platform designed for both electric vehicles and vehicles that still feature an internal-combustion engine. (autosector.com)
  • Where ∇T refers to the temperature gradient, q denotes the thermal flux or heat flux, and k refers to the thermal conductivity of the material in question. (pgvcollege.com)
  • There is basically no ferromagnetic material needed for the magnetic flux (experiments woth magnetic PLA from ProtoPasta show minor improvements). (laimer.ch)
  • Magnets were expensive in those days, and the ones I used were rather thin (6mm) ferrites so the flux was poor. (scoraigwind.co.uk)
  • But the axial flux alternators with ferrite (aka ceramic) magnets that I built around that time have proved to be pretty efficient and reliable. (scoraigwind.co.uk)
  • Tendeg is a 16 person (and growing) company that just moved into a new location with office space and high-bay shop space in Louisville, CO. We provide high quality and innovative aerospace engineering services, including design, analysis, prototyping, and flight unit build. (miniswimmers.co.uk)
  • The Laimer Tourbillon is an innovative design with the heart beating highly visible in the core. (laimer.ch)
  • Designing and creating innovative software, interacting with customers, and managing a small team of software developers was my big pleasure. (laimer.ch)
  • Automotive manufacturers continue to target reduced size and weight of applications, so engineers must pack the highest efficiency in the smallest functional design. (gknpm.com)
  • Made from high quality materials and components the CTX is designed to produce greater efficiency and reduce noise levels. (candrsa.com.au)
  • Higher capital cost, necessitating better design and manufacturing for creating visibility in better service in addition to efficiency. (copperindia.org)
  • How to compute flux linkages of a coil, using the results of 2D finite element analysis. (anttilehikoinen.fi)
  • Swift Electromagnet can be used joint with Flux , for a deep electromagnetic analysis and Activate , a software used for electromagnetic, thermal and dynamics analysis. (spinmag.eu)
  • This release of the multi-physics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software includes new features to help engineers model the complexity of today's products and explore design possibilities to engineer innovation faster than ever. (3dcadworld.com)
  • We analysed the data by doing an axial coding with NVivo 9 software (14). (ddw-online.com)
  • 2D and 3D CAD design using AutoCAD and Inventor software. (walkersubsea.com)
  • lvdt [GPa] E sg [GPa] SS3.1 13.68 13.86 SS4.1 17.71 19.20 data from lvdts (the axial lvdt measurements could be in-fluenced by the platens movement), but differences are not significant (less than 9%), which seems to indicate that data obtained by means of lvdts may be used to evaluate Young's modulus in specimens tested without strain gauges. (pgvcollege.com)
  • The in-line inspection (ILI) industry has responded to this threat with crack detection technologies that are specifically designed to detect and size axially oriented SCC and other crack features. (pipeline-conference.com)
  • Under these circumstances, the crack detection technologies specially designed for axially oriented cracking will not be able to accurately detect and size these features. (pipeline-conference.com)
  • Supply Voltage: 8 VDC at 7 Amps for 1 minute to deploy He has designed and developed numerous commercial products including Black Diamonds undersnow breathing device, The Avalung, and holds multiple patents. (miniswimmers.co.uk)
  • The design process starts with the generation of a suitable starting point. (jpier.org)
  • It's by no means the ultimate axial flux design - more like the start of a process of refinement. (scoraigwind.co.uk)
  • The Vulcan OmniPro 220 is a true multi-process welder with full color LCD display for professional results in MIG, Flux-core, DC TIG and DC Stick Welding. (echomasaz.pl)
  • Metallurgical Characteriation of API X65 Steel oint Welded by MIG Welding Process with Axial Magnetic 1175 ield Table 1: Chemical composition of API X65 steel and filler metal (wt. (echomasaz.pl)
  • Explosion proof dust collectors include an exclusive point of source dust/fume extraction swing arm attached to one of our certified explosion proof vacuum cleaners and are designed specifically to safely collect airborne combustive dust, gasses and smoke emitted directly from the point during the manufacturing process. (cleantekindia.com)
  • 3]N. Bernard, H. B. Ahmed, and B. Multon, "Axial-field synchronous machine with homopolar flux in the airgap for a flywheel accumulator," Proceedings of the IEEE IAS 37th Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 2002. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • His expertise is in Machine Design, Artificial Intelligence applications to Design, Computer Aided Engineering and Renewable Energy. (upr.edu)
  • Dr. Serrano is also the Director of the Special Projects Laboratory since 1991, where he supervises undergraduate design competition projects such as the Solar Powered Car, Solar Powered Boat, Formula SAE, AeroDesign, MiniBaja, Propane Challenge, SAE Walking Machine, and Human Powered Vehicles (HPV). (upr.edu)
  • GKN Powder Metallurgy leads the industry in advanced press technology that enables mass production of products with complex designs and geometries. (gknpm.com)
  • The reduced axial forces improve the structural stability and consequently simplify their structural design. (ed.ac.uk)
  • It's a demonstration that it is very important to consider forces and material properties already when designing a mechanical object. (laimer.ch)
  • The aim of the invention is to provide a linear rotation drive wherein the oscillating torques are reduced to a minimum and whose rotation drive is devoid of axial forces. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These advancements in SMCs eliminate the need for the laminate steel sheet structure in a conventional motor design. (gknpm.com)
  • Advancements in the design of hybrid steppers have allowed design engineers to reduce the overall package size of a pump. (techbriefs.com)
  • In this paper, a microstrip patch antenna designed for GSM (Global System for Mobile) applications at the frequency 0.9GHz (0.89 - 0.96 GHz), using an epoxy FR-4 substrate with an isolation constant of 4.3 and a thickness of 1.6mm and improving its radiate properties. (mosuljournals.com)
  • The design of the shaft assemblies and bearings ensure there is no single point failure mode and the CRPS system therefore provides full twin engine reliability. (contraelectric.com)
  • The propulsion system is designed as a direct replacement for piston driven systems in existing aircraft and as OME for new generation GA aircraft. (contraelectric.com)
  • Description The Antenna System for 6/12U CubeSats design is based on the hugely successful ISISPACE deployable antenna system for 1U up to 3U CubeSats. (miniswimmers.co.uk)
  • With illustrated examples throughout, the 'SAFETYBOOK' will prove to be a vital tool to assist you in the design and use of any machinery safety system. (drivesncontrols.com)
  • Our fourth topic in the series drills down into the necessities of good machinery safety control system design. (drivesncontrols.com)
  • CLEANTEK design and manufacturing explosion proof dust extraction system for aluminium and related explosion graded material. (cleantekindia.com)
  • Products >Vertical Blenders >Vertical Blender How the Vertical Blender Works Vertical Blenders are an excellent design alternative for applications that are shear sensitive or where space on the plant floor is at a minimum The gentle blending action of the slow turning blending screw is far gentler than that of a horizontal blender. (aplikacjebiznesowe.net.pl)
  • Designed with Blender. (laimer.ch)
  • With Surrogate Models in Design Manager, engineers can predict the performance of thousands of variants either locally around the design of interest to analyze probability of failure, or globally across the design space to quickly create a database of performance results that can be leveraged by the simulation team. (3dcadworld.com)
  • The Failure Rate of DTs varies widely - from 1% to 20% - depending upon maintenance, type of material used in manufacturing, manufacturing processes, design, and quality assurance plan. (copperindia.org)
  • The development of a new motor design comes with a wide range of engineering challenges. (magnax.com)
  • Each particle has an isolation coating, meaning the material is three dimensional and isotropic, providing full 3D motor design freedom. (gknpm.com)
  • You will complete prerequisites for your major as well as other design core, elective and breadth studies. (edu.au)
  • Axial flow fans and compressors : aerodynamic design and performance. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • Livraison rapide Produits de qualité à petits prix Aliexpress : Achetez malin, vivez mieux The Bifurcated Case Axial range of fans has been specifically developed to meet the need for an axial fan which can handle atmospheres normally detrimental to the life of the fan motor. (bclnadvogados.com.br)
  • SMCs are made up of pure iron particles with high electrical resistance and three-dimensional design capability. (gknpm.com)
  • In the de-tailed design, many of the preliminary design features are considered xed and this leads to high dependency of the nal design on the preliminary one. (madeinsilesia.pl)
  • Environmental XPRT ENERVAC SF6 Gas Servicing Cart is designed for the processing of Sulfur Hexafluoride used in high voltage metal-clad switch gear, bus ducts, accelerators, circuit breakers and transformers that are charged during normal operation with SF6 gas as a dielectric. (ifqu.de)
  • The invention relates to a combination drive with a short axial length and a high magnetic capacity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • For the above-mentioned reasons, in order to diminish the volume of the existing varying speed mechanism, some designs of the varying speed mechanism employs a push-moving structure. (justia.com)
  • Several numerical examples are presented to assess the effect of relevant parameters on the overall fire safety of the structure, emphasizing the effectiveness of the approach for design purposes. (scielo.br)
  • In February 2001 I published another axial flux design in my PMG construction manual that is available free of charge. (scoraigwind.co.uk)
  • However, the gear combination makes the volume of the existing gearbox relatively too large, and since the relatively larger volume of varying speed mechanism will cause the difficulty in the design of the vehicle in that it needs a relatively larger space to contain the existing varying speed mechanism. (justia.com)
  • With powder metallurgy and SMC materials, space and weight are significantly reduced with compact design possibilities. (gknpm.com)
  • Across industries and applications, CFD engineers can benefit from increased productivity through consistent use of best practices and speeding the exploration of design possibilities. (3dcadworld.com)
  • To further reduce force ripple of a linear motor, a primary part has a plurality of windings sequentially arranged in an axial direction and subdivided in the axial direction into groups having an. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The resulting simulations provide unique insight and design guidance for engineers advancing new technologies. (3dcadworld.com)

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