A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.
Use for articles concerning dental education in general.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.
Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.
Insurance providing coverage for dental care.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.
The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.
Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.
Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.
A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.
Diseases of BONES.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.
The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Hospital department providing dental care.
Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.
Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
The granting of a license to practice dentistry.
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.
Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.
The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.
The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.
Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.
The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.
Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.
The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.
Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)
The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.
A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.
The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.
An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).
The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.
The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.

Systematic review of water fluoridation. (1/130)

OBJECTIVE: To review the safety and efficacy of fluoridation of drinking water. DESIGN: Search of 25 electronic databases and world wide web. Relevant journals hand searched; further information requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Decayed, missing, and filled primary/permanent teeth. Proportion of children without caries. Measure of effect was the difference in change in prevalence of caries from baseline to final examination in fluoridated compared with control areas. For potential adverse effects, all outcomes reported were used. RESULTS: 214 studies were included. The quality of studies was low to moderate. Water fluoridation was associated with an increased proportion of children without caries and a reduction in the number of teeth affected by caries. The range (median) of mean differences in the proportion of children without caries was -5.0% to 64% (14.6%). The range (median) of mean change in decayed, missing, and filled primary/permanent teeth was 0.5 to 4.4 (2.25) teeth. A dose-dependent increase in dental fluorosis was found. At a fluoride level of 1 ppm an estimated 12.5% (95% confidence interval 7.0% to 21.5%) of exposed people would have fluorosis that they would find aesthetically concerning. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence of a beneficial reduction in caries should be considered together with the increased prevalence of dental fluorosis. There was no clear evidence of other potential adverse effects.  (+info)

Tooth discolouration and staining: a review of the literature. (2/130)

OBJECTIVE: To carry out an extensive review of the literature on tooth staining with particular regard to some of the more recent literature on the mechanisms of tooth staining involving mouthrinses. DESIGN: Comprehensive review of the literature over four decades. CONCLUSIONS: A knowledge of the aetiology of tooth staining is of importance to dental surgeons in order to enable a correct diagnosis to be made when examining a discoloured dentition and allows the dental practitioner to explain to the patient the exact nature of the condition. In some instances, the mechanism of staining may have an effect on the outcome of treatment and influence the treatment options the dentist will be able to offer to patients.  (+info)

Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (3/130)

Widespread use of fluoride has been a major factor in the decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries (i.e., tooth decay) in the United States and other economically developed countries. When used appropriately, fluoride is both safe and effective in preventing and controlling dental caries. All U.S. residents are likely exposed to some degree to fluoride, which is available from multiple sources. Both health-care professionals and the public have sought guidance on selecting the best way to provide and receive fluoride. During the late 1990s, CDC convened a work group to develop recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. This report includes these recommendations, as well as a) critical analysis of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of fluoride modalities in preventing and controlling dental caries, b) ordinal grading of the quality of the evidence, and c) assessment of the strength of each recommendation. Because frequent exposure to small amounts of fluoride each day will best reduce the risk for dental caries in all age groups, the work group recommends that all persons drink water with an optimal fluoride concentration and brush their teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste. For persons at high risk for dental caries, additional fluoride measures might be needed. Measured use of fluoride modalities is particularly appropriate during the time of anterior tooth enamel development (i.e., age <6 years). The recommendations in this report guide dental and other health-care providers, public health officials, policy makers, and the public in the use of fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while using resources efficiently and reducing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis. The recommendations address public health and professional practice, self-care, consumer product industries and health agencies, and further research. Adoption of these recommendations could further reduce dental caries in the United States and save public and private resources.  (+info)

Has the level of dental fluorosis among Toronto children changed? (4/130)

We conducted a survey during the 1999 2000 school year to obtain valid estimates of the oral health status of a probability sample of children in the 4 regions of the newly amalgamated city of Toronto. The results will be used in developing recommendations for programs to address the oral health problems identified. The Dental Indices System is the Ontario protocol whereby information on the oral health status and treatment needs of children can be obtained by direct assessment of the children. One of 2 specially trained dental hygienists examined each child's teeth and periodontal tissues using sterilized mouth mirrors and blunt probes with a standard light source. Overall, there were 3657 participants in the survey, of whom 2435 were aged 7 or 13 years; these 2 age groups formed the basis for the analysis. Forty percent of those aged 7 or 13 had had one or more decayed teeth. Approximately 7% of children in the younger age group had at least one condition requiring urgent care. Dental fluorosis of moderate severity (Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis 2) was found among 14.0% of 7-year-olds, 12.3% of 13-year-olds and 13.2% of the 2 age groups combined. The prevalence of fluorosis was of the same order as all but one of the more recent studies performed in Toronto. The prevalence may fall as the recently imposed reduction in concentration of fluorides in city water takes effect. On the basis of these findings of fluorosis, Toronto Public Health should continue to monitor levels of dental fluorosis and caries and should continue its efforts to inform parents of very young children about the safe use of fluoridated dentifrice.  (+info)

Dental fluorosis: chemistry and biology. (5/130)

This review aims at discussing the pathogenesis of enamel fluorosis in relation to a putative linkage among ameloblastic activities, secreted enamel matrix proteins and multiple proteases, growing enamel crystals, and fluid composition, including calcium and fluoride ions. Fluoride is the most important caries-preventive agent in dentistry. In the last two decades, increasing fluoride exposure in various forms and vehicles is most likely the explanation for an increase in the prevalence of mild-to-moderate forms of dental fluorosis in many communities, not the least in those in which controlled water fluoridation has been established. The effects of fluoride on enamel formation causing dental fluorosis in man are cumulative, rather than requiring a specific threshold dose, depending on the total fluoride intake from all sources and the duration of fluoride exposure. Enamel mineralization is highly sensitive to free fluoride ions, which uniquely promote the hydrolysis of acidic precursors such as octacalcium phosphate and precipitation of fluoridated apatite crystals. Once fluoride is incorporated into enamel crystals, the ion likely affects the subsequent mineralization process by reducing the solubility of the mineral and thereby modulating the ionic composition in the fluid surrounding the mineral. In the light of evidence obtained in human and animal studies, it is now most likely that enamel hypomineralization in fluorotic teeth is due predominantly to the aberrant effects of excess fluoride on the rates at which matrix proteins break down and/or the rates at which the by-products from this degradation are withdrawn from the maturing enamel. Any interference with enamel matrix removal could yield retarding effects on the accompanying crystal growth through the maturation stages, resulting in different magnitudes of enamel porosity at the time of tooth eruption. Currently, there is no direct proof that fluoride at micromolar levels affects proliferation and differentiation of enamel organ cells. Fluoride does not seem to affect the production and secretion of enamel matrix proteins and proteases within the dose range causing dental fluorosis in man. Most likely, the fluoride uptake interferes, indirectly, with the protease activities by decreasing free Ca(2+) concentration in the mineralizing milieu. The Ca(2+)-mediated regulation of protease activities is consistent with the in situ observations that (a) enzymatic cleavages of the amelogenins take place only at slow rates through the secretory phase with the limited calcium transport and that, (b) under normal amelogenesis, the amelogenin degradation appears to be accelerated during the transitional and early maturation stages with the increased calcium transport. Since the predominant cariostatic effect of fluoride is not due to its uptake by the enamel during tooth development, it is possible to obtain extensive caries reduction without a concomitant risk of dental fluorosis. Further efforts and research are needed to settle the currently uncertain issues, e.g., the incidence, prevalence, and causes of dental or skeletal fluorosis in relation to all sources of fluoride and the appropriate dose levels and timing of fluoride exposure for prevention and control of dental fluorosis and caries.  (+info)

An update on fluorides and fluorosis. (6/130)

Decisions concerning use of fluoride in its many forms for caries prevention are more complicated now than in the past because of the need to balance these benefits with the risks of dental fluorosis. This article reviews pertinent literature concerning dental fluorosis (definition, appearance, prevalence), pre- and post-eruptive use of fluoride, esthetic perceptions of dental fluorosis, fluoride levels of beverages and foods, the Iowa Fluoride Study, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States." Water fluoridation and use of fluoride dentifrice are the most efficient and cost-effective ways to prevent dental caries; other modalities should be targeted toward high-risk individuals.  (+info)

The biochemistry and physiology of metallic fluoride: action, mechanism, and implications. (7/130)

Fluoride is a well-known G protein activator. Activation of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins by fluoride requires trace amounts of Al3+ or Be2+ ions. AlFx mimics a gamma-phosphate at its transition state in a Galpha protein and is therefore able to inhibit its GTPase activity. AlFx also forms complexes with small GTP-binding proteins in the presence of their GTPase-activating proteins (GAP). As phosphate analogs, AlFx or BeFx affect the activity of a variety of phosphoryl transfer enzymes. Most of these enzymes are fundamentally important in cell signal transduction or energy metabolism. Al3+ and F- tend to form stable complexes in aqueous solution. The exact structure and concentration of AlFx depend on the pH and the amount of F- and Al3+ in the solution. Humans are exposed to both F and Al. It is possible that Al-F complexes may be formed in vivo, or formed in vitro prior to their intake by humans. Al-F complexes may play physiological or pathological roles in bone biology, fluorosis, neurotoxicity, and oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the basic chemical, biochemical, and toxicological properties of metallic fluoride, to explore its potential physiological and clinical implications.  (+info)

Baseline survey of oral health of primary and secondary school pupils in Uganda. (8/130)

BACKGROUND: Among the issues that determine the performance of a child at school is health. In recognition of this, the Uganda government has embarked on a school health program for the success of universal primary education. Although dental health is an important component of school health there is little information on it. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at collecting information on dental health of pupils in school for evaluation and planning. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 685 children attending schools in 5 districts. Children were clinically examined for common illnesses/conditions. The oral examinations were done using simplified versions of Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth (DMFT) index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Oral examinations also assessed presence of fluorosis. RESULTS: The pupils attending school were aged from 5 to 22 years. Sixty six percent (456) were found to be caries free with a group DMFT of 0.7. The D-component (decay) accounted for approximately 70% of the cases. Fifty nine percent of the pupils were found to have a healthy periodontium. Sixteen percent of the pupils were found to have some degree of fluorosis of whom the majority were from the highland districts of Kabale and Mbale. Urban school pupils were more likely to have caries (OR 1,69; 95% CI 1.21-2.37) than the rural. CONCLUSION: There is an upward trend in the caries prevalence when compared to studies done earlier. This study revealed a need to develop preventive programs alongside improvement of dental health services.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Dental Fluorosis over Time. T2 - A comparison of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2001-2002 and 2011-2012. AU - Wiener, R. Constance. AU - Shen, Chan. AU - Findley, Patricia. AU - Tan, Xi. AU - Sambamoorthi, Usha. N1 - Publisher Copyright: Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists Association.. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Purpose: Excessive fluoride ingestion has been associated with dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in dental fluorosis prevalence comparing National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) trend data for adolescents, aged 16 and 17 years, when compared to data collected in 2001-2002 to data from 2011-2012.Methods: The sample included 875 participants. Data analyses included Chi square tests and logistic regressions. The data were from a nationally representative survey by calibrated dental examiners using the modified Deans fluorosis classification system. The ...
OBJECTIVES: This study has three aims: 1) to determine the trends and prevalence of dental fluorosis and caries among persons aged 6-19; 2) to examine the association between dental fluorosis and caries among persons of the same age group; and 3) to investigate the influence of dental fluorosis and caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among people aged 16-49 in the United States. METHODS: The data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 and 2011-2012 were analyzed. For aims 1) and 2), individuals aged 6-19 years, who completed the home interview and oral health examination were included (n=9,493, n=2,411, respectively). For aim 3, the data from NHANES 2003-2004 were analyzed including only people aged 16-49, who completed the home interview and both conditions examination (n=3,035). The reason behind age restriction is that people aged 16-49 were targeted to answer OHRQoL questions. Dental fluorosis was measured by Deans Index (6-categories ...
Dental Fluorosis is also called as mottling of tooth enamel. This is a condition which generally happens at a stage when the tooth starts to develop and is seen among the younger generations. The primary cause of this condition is over exposure to fluoride. In case you happen to see tiny spots or streaks on the enamel of your teeth you need not fear as this is considered as the mildest form of the condition. However you need to worry and seek dentist appointment if you notice tooth discoloration and brown marks on your teeth.. Details about the causes of Fluorosis. To understand why fluorosis occurs we need to know that our tooth is made out of hydroxyapatite and carbonated hydroxyapatite. When the usage of fluoride increases the composition of Fluor apatite also increases which leads to the marks and spots on teeth.. Risks involved in Dental Fluorosis. The most important concern of patients suffering from Dental Fluorosis is the cosmetic changes that happen in their teeth. The change is more ...
There are no studies of oral health and esophageal cancer in Africa, or of this areas endemic dental fluorosis, an irreversible enamel hypo-mineralization due to early-life excessive fluoride. During 2014-18, we conducted a case-control study of squamous cell esophageal cancer in Eldoret, western Kenya. Odds ratios (AORs (95% confidence intervals)) were adjusted for design factors, tobacco, alcohol, ethnicity, education, oral hygiene and missing/decayed teeth. Esophageal cancer cases (N=430) had poorer oral health and hygiene than controls (N=440). Compared to no dental fluorosis, moderate/severe fluorosis, which affected 44% of cases, had a crude OR of 20.8 (11.6, 37.4) and on full adjustment was associated with 9.4-fold (4.6, 19.1) increased risk, whilst mild fluorosis (43% of cases) had an AOR of 2.3 (1.3, 4.0). The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and tooth loss/decay increased with fluorosis severity, and increased cancer risks associated with moderate/severe fluorosis were particularly ...
Using these eight standards, we assessed the publications that we had located. With publications that met those criteria, we recorded the information from them on a data extraction sheet. Differences among studies, such as which index of dental fluorosis was used, population selection criteria, and retrospective information, were also assessed.. RESULTS. The literature search yielded 24 papers. Of those 24, 14 of them met our inclusion criteria. We divided those 14 papers into three groups. The first group dealt with studies conducted in naturally fluoridated areas where water fluoride was above optimal (those studies will be shown in Table 1). The second group (which will be shown in Table 2) included studies conducted in areas where water had negligible, unknown, or optimal amounts of fluoride and fluoridated salt was used. The third group (which will be shown in Table 3) dealt with studies where the altitude of residence was reported to be related to a higher prevalence of dental fluorosis, ...
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and severity of fluorosis in permanent incisor teeth in young children in a fluoridated and a fluoride-deficient community and to establish what relationship, if any, there was between the occurrence of dental fluorosis and the reported use of fluoride toothpaste in childhood.. DESIGN: A prevalence study of children aged 8-9 years who had been continuous residents in fluoridated Newcastle or fluoride-deficient Northumberland.. METHOD: The permanent maxillary central incisor teeth were examined clinically and photographically by one examiner using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index; the photographs were read blind to child identity and clinical score. A closed-response questionnaire enquired into the childs early experiences of toothbrushing and use of fluoride toothpastes. Social deprivation was measured by a Jarman score. The study took place in 1998.. OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of dental fluorosis measured by the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index. RESULTS: Complete ...
John Spottiswode reminds the panel that the World Health Organization advises communities considering fluoridation that they should first check to see what the communitys current exposure to fluoride is from other sources. While promoters often cite the WHOs support for this practice they never acknowledge this important caveat. With so many children now impacted with dental fluorosis such an omission is utterly irresponsible. Children could either have their urine tested for fluoride or examined for the signs of dental fluorosis. The early promoters of fluoridation believed that at optimal levels of fluoride (1 ppm) approximately 10% of children would develop dental fluorosis in its mildest form. Running this logic backwards: if one found that over 10% of children had dental fluorosis in a community (before fluoridation) then we can assume that they are getting the optimal fluoride exposure and they dont need any more. Today over 10% of children living in communities with fluoride levels ...
Common causes of fluorosis include inhalation of fluoride dusts/fumes by workers in industry, consumption of fluoride from drinking water (levels of fluoride in excess of levels that are considered safe[4]), and consumption of fluoride from drinking tea,[5] particularly brick tea. Skeletal fluorosis can be caused by cryolite (Na3AlF6, sodium hexafluoroaluminate), and the disease was first recognized among workers processing cryolite.[6]. In India, most in Nalgonda (Telangana), the most common cause of fluorosis is fluoride-laden drinking water which is sourced as groundwater from deep-bore wells. Over half of groundwater sources in India have fluoride above recommended levels.[7]. Fluorosis can also occur as a result of volcanic activity.[8] The 1783 eruption of the Laki volcano in Iceland is estimated to have killed about 22% of the Icelandic population, and 60% of livestock, as a result of fluorosis and sulfur dioxide gases.[9] The 1693 eruption of Hekla also led to fatalities of livestock ...
Chronic fluoride over-exposure during pre-eruptive enamel development can cause dental fluorosis. Severe dental fluorosis is characterized by porous, soft enamel that is vulnerable to erosion and decay. The prevalence of dental fluorosis among the population in the USA, India and China is increasing. Other than avoiding excessive intake, treatments to prevent dental fluorosis remain unknown. We previously reported that high-dose fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress in ameloblasts. Cell stress induces gene repression, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. An aromatic fatty acid, 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) is a chemical chaperone that interacts with misfolded proteins to prevent ER stress. We hypothesized that 4PBA ameliorates fluoride-induced ER stress in ameloblasts. To determine whether 4PBA protects ameloblasts from fluoride toxicity, we analyzed gene expression of Tgf-β1, Bcl2/Bax ratio and cytochrome-c release in vitro. In vivo, we measured fluorosis levels, enamel
Last May I raised the possibility that the much touted relationship of small IQ declines for children living in areas with naturally high fluoride in drinking water could be associated with severe dental fluorosis and not a chemical neurotoxicant (see Confirmation blindness on the fluoride-IQ issue). In November I repeated this argument because the recently published work by Choi…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalencia de fluorosis dental en ocho cohorts de mexicanos nacidos durante la instauración del programa nacional de fluoruración de la sal doméstica. AU - Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José. AU - Medina-Soĺs, Carlo Eduardo. AU - Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando. AU - Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia. AU - de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén. AU - Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha. AU - Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José. AU - Maupomé, Gerardo. PY - 2013/3/25. Y1 - 2013/3/25. N2 - Objective: to determine the effect of birth cohort on dental fluorosis in Mexican schoolchildren during the implementation of the national program to fluoridate domestic salt. Material and methods: in a cross-sectional study we examined 1,644 schoolchildren 6-13 years old born between 1985-1992 in Campeche, México a community where there is negligible naturally available fluoride in water supplies. Dental fluorosis was assessed with the Deans index in the permanent dentition. Questionnaires were used to identify diverse ...
A new study finds cognitive function defects, like IQ, in children are not significantly related to fluoride in drinking water. But they are associated with medium and severe dental fluorosis. This interests me for two reasons: The report is by Choi and Grandjean who had also authored the 2012 meta-review often used by anti-fluoride activists to claim that…
The details of bibliography - Occurrence of dental fluorosis in Australian Aboriginal children resident in Carnarvon, Western Australia
fluoride exposure are dental fluorosis, teeth mottling, skeletal fluorosis and deformation of bones in children as well as in adults. An estimated 62 million people in India residing in 17 states are affected with fluorosis. According to a recent report, 3555 habitations have been identified as fluoride affected settlements spreading over the Vellore, Dharmapuri, Trichy, Karur, Salem, Namakkal, Erode, Coimbatore and Virudhunagar Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Dental fluorosis occurs during tooth formation and becomes apparent upon eruption of the teeth. It ranges from very mild symmetrical whitish areas on the teeth to pitting of the enamel, frequently associated with brownish discoloration. Skeletal fluorosis, in turn, is caused by a complex dose-related action of fluoride on bone. Fluoride increases bone formation and simultaneously decreases bone resorption. As a result of these effects, bone changes observed in people heavily exposed to fluoride ranges from osteosclerosis to exostosis ...
Fluoridation IS possibly the greatest fraud perpetrated on the largest number of people ever. The compounds used to fluoridate water supplies are NOT natural products: they are highly toxic waste products of industry that are expensive to dispose of in any other way than through public water supplies. These fluoride compounds are contributing to millions of children being chronically fluoride poisoned: the visible evidence of this is the high percentage of children [and now adults] with dental fluorosis [mottled teeth]. Dental fluorosis is universally acknowledged as being an indication that the person has been chronically fluoride poisoned during the developmental stage of their teeth. Fluoride toothpaste is also adding to the heavy burden of fluoride that people are now subjected to. There are even children/people in non-fluoridated areas who have developed dental fluorosis.. Fluoride is known to inhibit thyroid function: correct thyroid function is imperative to good health. In earlier days, ...
Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries and dental fluorosis among Mexican preschoolers and school-aged children in a non-endemic zone for fluorosis and to measure its biological indicators. Methods. DMFT, DMFS, dmft, dmfs, and CDI indexes were applied. Fluoride urinary excretion and fluoride concentrations in home water, table salt, bottled water, bottled drinks, and toothpaste were determined. Results. Schoolchildren presented fluorosis (CDI = 0.96) and dental caries (DMFT = 2.64 and DMFS = 3.97). Preschoolers presented dmft = 4.85 and dmfs = 8.80. DMFT and DMFS were lower in children with mild to moderate dental fluorosis (DF). Variable fluoride concentrations were found in the analyzed products (home water = 0.18-0.44 ppm F, table salt = 0-485 ppm F, bottled water = 0.18-0.47 ppm F, juices = 0.08-1.42 ppm F, nectars = 0.07-1.30 ppm F, bottled drinks = 0.10-1.70 ppm F, toothpaste = 0-2,053 ppm F). Mean daily fluoride excretion was 422 ± 176 µg/24 h for schoolchildren and 367 ±
A key concern of those attending the hearing was the overexposure of their populations to fluoride. In Ireland there is an epidemic of dental fluorosis in children as confirmed by the North South Survey of Childrens Oral Health in Ireland 2002, two of whose authors were present at the hearing. This survey revealed a seven-fold increase in dental fluorosis in Irish 15-year-olds from 1984 to 2002. Dental fluorosis, which manifests as mottling or pitting of tooth enamel, is a sign of bodily overload of fluoride.. The committee was also alerted to the fundamental contradictions between the advice from another EU scientific committee, monitoring the safety of cosmetics including toothpaste, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). While fluoride toothpastes must carry labels warning children under six-years not to swallow it as it contains sodium monofluorophosphate, EFSA recently approved the same substance as a permitted food supplement under the Food Supplements Directive. This was cited as ...
Fluorosis as an adverse effect of fluoridation is commoner in water fluoridation than fluoride toothpaste. In measuring fluorosis in Mexican children, Molina-Frechero et al. (2015) evaluated 239 students. Mean age was 11 ± 0.82 and 51% were male. More than half of the population had a type of fluorosis. 29.3% had very mild fluorosis, 20.9% had mild fluorosis, 6.7% had moderate fluorosis while 2.1% had severe type of fluorosis. The mean fluorosis score was 0.887 ± 0.956. The study concluded that the association between frequent brushing using toothpaste high in fluoride concentration and lack of parental supervision during toothbrushing may be a contributing factor to the severity of fluorosis. However, one limitation of the study is that the data used to determine frequency of brushing, type of toothpaste and supervision during study was obtained from a questionnaire filled by the parent. The data collected is prone to self-report bias. Additionally, the study was conducted for a small ...
INTRODUCTION. The effectiveness of fluoridated dentifrices for dental caries reduction is well established in the literature. It is known that the main cariostatic effect of fluoride (F) occurs by its topical action, reducing demineralization and enhancing remineralization of the enamel18.. Recent investigations have confirmed the safety of F in relation to human health, when used as recommended for caries control23. However, it is known that the earliest clinical sign of chronic excessive ingestion of F by young children is dental fluorosis, the prevalence of which has been increasing in the last half of the twentieth century6. The critical period of exposure for all permanent teeth is between 11 months and 7 years of age10. Excessive F intake by persons older than 7 years will not cause dental fluorosis. Some studies have shown the importance of knowing the amount of F present in foods ingested by children because dental fluorosis is a systemic effect caused by excessive F ingestion. It is ...
The situation in certain parts of Andhra such as Nalgonda is very grim. When Daver first recorded cases of skeletal fluorosis from this region in 1945 AD and by Siddique in 1955 AD, there were no children with deformed limbs. These cases with deformed limbs were recorded in 1970s. Rural nutrition in the past few decades has gotten worse in many parts of state and in other parts of the country. National institute of nutrition conducted surveys of status of rural nutrition in 715 villages of seven states in 2002 and 2003. Eighty villages in AP were studied and AP has the distinction of having highest incidence of dental fluorosis among seven states. The results of nutrition study are contained in National nutrition monitoring bureau reports 21 and 22, which reveal the appalling state of nutrition of rural population in the country. Sixty percent of the children below 6 years of age are malnourished and a third of them suffer from severe under weight problem. Only a third of the children studied ...
So youve looked at the research and then disregard it all saying its a wash/tie. Then the argument you present is that other countries water is not as clean as the USAs, therefor fluoride is good? Other countries having polluted water is a cause for their dental problems. Americans have less dental problems because we have cleaner water. Fluoride causes dental fluorosis which is a dental problem. Americans would have less dental fluorosis if we didnt have fluoride in our water, other countries would have more dental fluorosis if it was added to their water. Your argument doesnt make any sense ...
104830. Pupils of public and private elementary and secondary schools, except pupils of community colleges, shall be provided the opportunity to receive within the school year the topical application of fluoride or other decay-inhibiting agent to the teeth in the manner approved by the department. The program of topical application shall be under the general direction of a dentist licensed in the state and may include self-application…. and,. WHEREAS according to evidence from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 41% of American children have dental fluorosis, a disfiguring mottling, including white spotted, brown-stained, or brittle broken teeth caused by excess fluoride; Dental fluorosis is not simply a cosmetic effect; Dental fluorosis is the first visible sign of whole body fluoride poisoning; These children will have to live with this disfigurement for the rest of their lives or undergo expensive treatment for it, and. WHEREAS before you fluoridate you should use the ...
Ranjit Nags Fluorosis is in such an advanced state that he is now unable to move around. The constant ache in his joints is debilitating. He describes himself as a tree that has been eaten up by worms. Flourosis slowly and painfully eats away at the body that it attacks. Saroj Kumar Suna reports form Dangabhal village in Odisha where a high fluoride level in the ground water has resulted in many residents developing Fluorosis. Weve been drinking the water for the past 35 years and we never knew that it was bad for us. The doctor recently told us that the levels are higher than normal. The Ministers and MLAs know. They promised us clean water but nothing has been done yet says one resident. A recent visit from the Public Work Department confirmed this when they tested the water from the village schools hand pump. They found that the Fluoride level was 2.69 mg per litre while the permissible level is 0.5 to 1 mg per litre. The residents of Danghabhal have been drinking water form the ...
An entire generation of a village in North Gujarat is suffering from fluorosis caused by fluoride pollution in the water sources. Inspite of it being a common and widespread disease with hundreds of people suffering its debilitating effects, the patients receive no care at the village health centers. The health workers shirk duties and the centers, shamefully, do not even have the equipment and resources to deal with this common ailment. People continue to suffer.. I am resident of North Gujarat and a Video Volunteers correspondent. Watch my video which shows the crippling effects of fluorosis in the village of Kashipura.. Fluorosis is a painful and scarring disease. Your teeth turn brown, brittle and fall out. If it not treated on time, the pain in your bones turns chronic. Your joints dont stop hurting. You can barely move. Bones become prone to fractures. Crippling deformities develop over time and even nerves running down your spine can be affected. The afflicted are unable to do even daily ...
Enamel fluorosis is a defect in enamel development that occurs after exposure to excess fluoride. Fluorotic enamel is more porous, and contains more proteins th...
Research and study of fluoride ingestion by children relating to the causes and risks of enamel fluorosis. Read our research and article summaries.
One of our faculty was deputed to Japan for training in the management of Dental Flurosis as part of Hoggenakkal Water Supply & Fluorosis Mitigation Progect. With upgradation of infrastructure to treat Dental Fluorosis cases by TWAD/JICCA, this department is going to be the tertiary care referral centre in management of Dental Fluorosis in Dharmapuri District ...
In general, safety concerns about dental fluoride and fluoridation relate to a number of factors, including toxicity of fluoride, total fluoride intake, fluoride absorption, the impact on human health, the effect on the environment, water quality, and the engineering aspects.. Anti-fluoridation groups frequently and inappropriately exhibit photographs of children and/or adults having severe fluorosis in which pitting or mottling of the enamel and brown stains are evident and put the blame on water fluoridation, often describing dental fluorosis as a major risk factor for people of all ages. In making dental-health decisions, the risk of developing very mild fluorosis versus the benefit of decreased tooth cavities and dental treatment costs should be considered. Continue reading →. ...
To reduce the risk of development of dental fluorosis, total fluoride intake in infancy and early childhood should be monitored and examined for signs of excessive fluoride exposure. The urinary fluoride/creatinine ratio (UF/Cr) in a spot urine sample could be a useful systemic fluoride exposure monitoring tool; replacing 24h urine collection. However, there are no reference value for UF/Cr corresponding to excessive systemic fluoride exposure in children. In this study, we took 158 simultaneously collected total daily fluoride intake and excretion data in children ,7 years from UK studies conducted by our team from 2002-2014. This study showed a strong positive linear relationship between total daily fluoride intake and UF/Cr, which suggests value in the use of a UF/Cr for estimation of fluoride intake in young children. This study has also established, for the first time, an upper reference value of a UF/Cr of 1.69 corresponding to excessive fluoride intake currently suggested as being ,0.07 ...
Researchers recruited mothers of newborn infants from eight Iowa hospital postpartum wards between 1992 and 1995 for their childrens participation in what would become known as the Iowa Fluoride Study, an investigation of dietary and non-dietary fluoride exposures, dental fluorosis and dental cavities. Researchers sent questionnaires to the parents at regular intervals and 630 children underwent visual dental examinations using standardized techniques and portable equipment. The leader of the research team was Steven M. Levy, D.D.S., M.P.H., the Wright-Bush-Shreves Endowed Professor of Research in the Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry at the University of Iowas College of Dentistry and Professor of Epidemiology at the College of Public Health. Note: Although this study appears in The Journal of the American Dental Association, it does not necessarily reflect the policies or opinions of the American Dental Association.. About the American Dental Association The not-for-profit ADA ...
damage, in children drinking water with over 2mg fluoride per liter.. -- liver function can be damaged without dental fluorosis. Dose-effect relationship between water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in animals has been reported, the authors write. However, this is one of the few to do so in humans. The liver and kidneys are especially susceptible to fluoride toxicity, they write.. Paul Beeber, NYSCOF President says, 2 mg fluoride daily is very often exceeded from food, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and dental products. Clearly this is more evidence showing fluoridation is not only harmful, but unethical and immoral, says Beeber.. To prevent crippling skeletal fluorosis, the Environmental Protection Agency set 4 mg/L as the maximum fluoride contamination of drinking water. But this doesnt protect all Americans from all of fluorides adverse effects, according to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) fluoride panel(2). After reviewing hundreds of studies over ...
There are 2 comments on the hsionline.com story from Sep 24, 2012, titled Public water fluoridation is a hot issue in two large U.S. communities. In it, hsionline.com reports that: A few days ago, I told you about the Portland, Oregon, fluoride controversy. City officials claim that public water fluoridation is the only solution to the local dental crisis. So when it came time for a vote of the City Council last week, how do you suppose that went? Mayor Sam Adams said, The science is on the side of fluoridation. A recent Harvard study linked high levels of water fluoridation to lower IQ scores in children. And even the CDC admits that excess fluoride exposure causes dental discoloration or damage in about 40% of U.S. children. There s science for you. Join the discussion below, or Read more at hsionline.com.. ...
Chiang Mai University, Thailand (clearance number 4/ 2009) population had a Deans index score of 4 (severe dental fluorosis). In the United States, less than 1% of the general population is affected by severe dental fluorosis [31]. The ...
The AI is based on a mean fluoride intake from the diet (including drinking water with NHMRC Drinking Water Guideline of 1.0 mg F/L) that effectively minimises dental caries. The previous AI (0.05 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for infants and children up to 8 years old age group was maintained. A change was made in 2017 in that the AI is not considered applicable to infants aged 0-6 months, as breast feeding is assumed for most infants. A new UL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/day, which minimises dental fluorosis of concern, was based on the 95th percentile of fluoride dietary intake assuming fluoridation of water at 1.9 mg/L. Estimated fluoride intakes from all sources (i.e., diet including water and other beverages, fluoridated toothpaste and/or supplements) in Australia and New Zealand for infants and children up to 8 years old were distributed around the AI but less than this new UL. This supports the continued use of fluorides in Australia including the fluoride level for drinking water and widespread use ...
Fluoride chemicals are added to public water supplies in a failed effort to reduce tooth decay in tap water drinkers.. Recently, the US Department of Health and Human Services recommended lowering optimal water fluoride levels to 0.7 ppm to decrease the epidemic of fluoride-discolored teeth (dental fluorosis) afflicting over 41% of adolescents. Many cities are complying, some consider ending fluoridation.. Attorney Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation says water fluoride, along with fluoride-containing pesticide residues, is contaminating the food supply and harming our children. Clearly, artificial fluoridation must stop completely.. Fluoride is neither a nutrient nor required for healthy teeth. Studies show fluoride ingestion doesnt reduce tooth decay, says Beeber.. Earlier research shows all infant formulas, whether ready-to-feed, concentrated or organic, contains some fluoride, (October 2009 Journal of the American Dental ...
Babies fed infant formula mixed with New Yorks fluoridated tap water risk developing enamel fluorosis or discolored teeth, according to the New York State Department of Health (1).. Bureaucrats fail to effectively broadcast this vital information beyond their little-read websites which places babies at unnecessary risk of developing fluoride-damaged teeth.. Fluoride chemicals are added to tap water serving 12 million New Yorkers (8.4 million in NYC) in a failed effort to reduce tooth decay. Fluoridation costs NYC about $20 million yearly.(2). In 2006, the National Research Council (NRC) cautioned that infants can fluoride-overdose via reconstituted baby formula using optimally fluoridated water and risk growing white spotted, yellow, brown and/or pitted permanent teeth (enamel fluorosis). (3). Parents, who are concerned about the risk of enamel fluorosis, can mix liquid concentrate or powdered infant formula with water that is fluoride-free or contains low levels of fluoride. Examples are ...
12) Some infant foods/drinks, when reconstituted with fluoridated water, may result in a F intake in infants above the suggested optimum range (0.05-0.07 mg F/kg body weight) and therefore may put infants at risk of developing dental fluorosis, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, October 2012, Impact of water fluoride concentration on the fluoride content of infant foods and drinks requiring preparation with liquids before feeding ...
REFERENCES 1. Lima FG, Lund RG, Justino LM, Demarco FF, Del Pino FAB, Ferreira R. Vinte e quatro meses de heterocontrole da fluoretação das águas de abastecimento público de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Cad Saúde Pública. 2004;20(2):422-9. [ Links ] 2. Newbrun E. Effectiveness of water fluoridation. J Public Health Dent. 1989;49(5 Spec):279-89. [ Links ] 3. Ripa LW. A half-century of community water fluoridation in the United States: review and commentary. J Public Health Dent. 1993;53(1):17-44. [ Links ] 4. Horowitz HS. The effectiveness of community water fluoridation in the United States. J Public Health Dent. 1996;56(5 Spec):253-8. [ Links ] 5. Locker D. Benefits and risks of water fluoridation: an update of the 1996 Federal-Provincial Sub-Committee Report [Internet]. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; 1999 [acesso 6 abr 2010]. Disponível: http://bit.ly/2pmhE6p [ Links ] 6. Narvai PC. Cárie dentária e flúor: uma relação do século XX. Ciênc Saúde ...
With respect to current and historical perspectives, the NAS committee noted that, on average, fluoride exposure from drinking water in fluoridated communities is near or exceeds the level that raises health concerns.[15] That is, virtually no margin of safety exists between levels of fluoride intended to be beneficial and those that may be harmful. This is in sharp distinction from the margin of safety when essential nutrients such as iodine, vitamin D, or vitamin C are added to food. In those cases, maximum potential intake is orders of magnitude lower than exposures that may have toxic effects. Population-wide monitoring of fluoride exposures in the U.S. is surprisingly inadequate. This is particularly disturbing since, despite vigorously recommending putting fluoride into drinking water, the CDC has failed to monitor systematically the levels of fluoride in the population -- despite steadily increasingly sources of fluoride, increasing dental fluorosis, and their well-known and highly ...
Since community water supplies and toothpastes usually contain fluoride, it is essential that children do not ingest too much. For this reason, children under the age of two should use an ADA-approved, non-fluoridated brand of toothpaste. Children between the ages of two and five years old should use a pea-sized amount of ADA-approved fluoridated toothpaste, on a clean toothbrush, twice each day. They should be encouraged to spit out any extra fluid after brushing. This part might take time, encouragement, and practice.. The amount of fluoride children ingest between the ages of one and four years old determines whether or not fluorosis occurs later. The most common symptom of fluorosis is white specks on the permanent teeth. Children over the age of eight years old are not considered to be at-risk for fluorosis, but should still use an ADA-approved brand of toothpaste.. Does my child need fluoride supplements ...
Beyond Pesticides, August 21, 2019) A birth cohort study in Canada found elevated levels of fluoride exposure during pregnancy are associated with lower IQ scores in 3 to 4-year-old children. This new research, published in the journal JAMA Pediatrics, builds on previous analyses that suggest high fluoride exposure is related to adverse effects to childrens neurodevelopment. Researchers recommend that pregnant mothers should reduce fluoride intake during pregnancy. Noting the controversy of the study, JAMA Pediatrics editor Dr. Dimitri Christakis said it was subjected to additional scrutiny for its methods and the presentation of its findings.. The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) program recruited pregnant mothers to participate in the study from 2008-2011. A total of 601 mother-child pairs from 6 major cities participated; 41% of them lived in cities with fluoridated municipal water. Exposure was measured through urine samples as well as self-reported maternal ...
The prevalence of brick tea-type dental and skeletal fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region; the altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors, with herdsmen having the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis ...
Dental fluorosis (DF) cant be used as a proxy for current fluoride intake in children and adolescents of this age. DF can only occur from fluoride exposure during crucial times of development - in utero to about 30 months of age for deciduous teeth and permanent incisors - esthetically the most important teeth. The dental defects seen in DF stem from thyroid hormone disturbances during that particular time period, when thyroid hormone levels are vastly different than in later years. The permanent incisors themselves dont erupt until about age 7. When thyroid hormones are measured they can only reflect the thyroid status at the time of the investigation. Likewise, when fluoride is measured in serum/urine, it reflects the current intake. The children in the study by Hosur et al. are between 10 and 18 years old ...
Fluoride intake in high doses has toxic effects on various organs. Chronic fluorosis results in tubular degenerations, inflammation, fibrosis, parenchymatous nephritis, cloudy swellings, and dilations of convoluted tubules. In addition to these effects, fluoride causes deteriorative effects on the skeleton, teeth, and soft tissues. The goal of this study was to examine the impacts of chronic fluorosis on the liver tissues of mice. Materials and methods: One control group and 3 experimental groups, each group consisting of 4 male and 4 female mice, were formed to conduct the experiment. A stock solution including 2000 ppm fluoride was prepared by solving 4.44 g of NaF in 1 L of distilled water. Water with 10, 20, and 40 ppm fluoride was obtained by diluting the stock solution to give to the animals. Animals in the control group had free access to tap water with 0.3 ppm fluoride. Animals in experimental group 1 were orally given distilled water with 10 ppm fluoride, water with 20 ppm fluoride was ...
NRC in 2006. It has been 10 years since the NRC concluded that the MCLG for fluoride be lowered, but EPA has yet to do so. Further, despite the voluminous post-2006 research on neurotoxicity, and despite the Safe Drinking Water Acts mandate that EPA protect against known or anticipated adverse effects,EPAs Office of Water (EPA OW) has indicated that it will not be considering neurotoxicity as an endpoint of concern when promulgating the new MCLG. Instead, in December 2010, EPA OW established a reference dose for fluoride based solely on severe dental fluorosis. EPA OW justified this decision on the grounds that NRCs 2006 review did not draw firm conclusions about the public health relevance of fluoride neurotoxicity. But nowhere in EPA OWs risk assessment did it account for the neurotoxicity research published subsequent to NRCs review, despite the many studies on neurotoxicity sent to them. ...
Response to North article of 10/3/2017 In a recent Lund Report, commenter Rick North stated a myriad of half-truths in regard to the public health initiative of water fluoridation. So, lets sort things out, and bring the issue back into reality
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Will the U.S. EPA ban water fluoridation after they have received a petition detailing the risks of water fluoridation to human health?
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A couple of weeks ago, the U.S. admitted there was too much fluoride in water, resulting in an increase in cases of mild dental fluorosis among children. Days later, an editorial in the Washington Post examined the risk of cavities from drinking filtered and bottled water that doesnt contain fluoride. With all of this confusion, its hard to determine the best way to ensure healthy teeth and bones for all. While reading the Washington Post article, I couldnt help but think it was a little biased. After all, the writer expresses that her concerns over drinking filtered water arrived while she was visiting her dentist who told her about the supposed dangers of not drinking fluoridated water. Well, of course your dentist is going to tell you that fluoride is necessary and good for you. One writer, in response to this article, suggested that it comes off as an ADA propaganda piece, and I would have to agree. But if fluoride is not the solution to cavities, then what is?. Two interesting ...
A couple of weeks ago, the U.S. admitted there was too much fluoride in water, resulting in an increase in cases of mild dental fluorosis among children. Days later, an editorial in the Washington Post examined the risk of cavities from drinking filtered and bottled water that doesnt contain fluoride. With all of this confusion, its hard to determine the best way to ensure healthy teeth and bones for all. While reading the Washington Post article, I couldnt help but think it was a little biased. After all, the writer expresses that her concerns over drinking filtered water arrived while she was visiting her dentist who told her about the supposed dangers of not drinking fluoridated water. Well, of course your dentist is going to tell you that fluoride is necessary and good for you. One writer, in response to this article, suggested that it comes off as an ADA propaganda piece, and I would have to agree. But if fluoride is not the solution to cavities, then what is?. Two interesting ...
Dental fluorosis is characterized by subsurface hypomineralization and retention of enamel matrix proteins. Fluoride (F(-)) exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress. We therefore screened oxidative stress arrays to identify genes regulated by …
Fluorosis:[20] Dental fluorosis causes enamel to become opaque, chalky white, and porous. The enamel can break down and cause ... Fejerskov, O.; Manji, F.; Baelum, V. (February 1990). "The Nature and Mechanisms of Dental Fluorosis in Man". Journal of Dental ... "Dental fluorosis: Exposure, prevention and management". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-05-13.. *^ a b Sánchez, AR; Rogers RS, 3rd ... Bleaching agents are only allowed to be given by dental practitioners, dental therapists, and dental hygienists. ...
Fluorosis:[20] Dental fluorosis causes enamel to become opaque, chalky white, and porous. The enamel can break down and cause ... Fejerskov, O.; Manji, F.; Baelum, V. (February 1990). "The Nature and Mechanisms of Dental Fluorosis in Man". Journal of Dental ... "Dental fluorosis: Exposure, prevention and management". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-05-13.. *^ a b Sánchez, AR; Rogers RS, 3rd ... doi:10.1016/j.dental.2004.04.002. ISSN 0109-5641. PMID 15451241.. *^ American Dental Association (November 2010) [September ...
Aoba T, Fejerskov O (2002). "Dental fluorosis: chemistry and biology". Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 13 (2): 155-70. doi:10.1177/ ... Fluoride or fluorine deficiency is a disorder[dubious - discuss] which may cause increased dental caries (or tooth decay, is ... Fluoride is considered essential in the development and maintenance of teeth by the American Dental Hygienists' Association. ... "Dental Caries". The Lancet. 369 (9555): 51-9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60031-2. PMID 17208642. S2CID 204616785. Kleerekoper, M ...
Especially in children, before the development of the permanent teeth, overdosage can lead to dental fluorosis. Haberfeld H, ed ... Abanto Alvarez J, Rezende KM, Marocho SM, Alves FB, Celiberti P, Ciamponi AL (February 2009). "Dental fluorosis: exposure, ... Dectaflur (INN) is a fluoride-containing substance used for the prevention and treatment of dental caries, sensitive teeth, and ...
Especially in children, before the development of the permanent teeth, overdosage can lead to dental fluorosis, a discolouring ... "Dental fluorosis: exposure, prevention and management". Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 14 (2): E103-7. PMID ... is a fluoride-containing substance that is an ingredient of toothpastes and solutions for the prevention of dental caries. It ...
Horowitz, HS; Maier, FJ; Law, FE (Nov 1967). "Partial defluoridation of a community water supply and dental fluorosis". Public ...
Dental fluorosis, pre post treatment comparison.jpg 937 × 272; 75 KB. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? ...
Although fluoridation can cause dental fluorosis, which can alter the appearance of developing teeth or enamel fluorosis, the ... to result in increased rates of dental decay.[citation needed] While fluoridation can result in mild dental fluorosis, this ... Due to naturally-occurring fluoride, both skeletal and dental fluorosis have been endemic in India in at least 20 states, ... The margin between the beneficial effects of fluoride and the occurrence of dental fluorosis is small and public health ...
Too much fluoride results in dental fluorosis and/or skeletal fluorosis. Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to ... National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. The story of fluoridation; 2008-12-20. Malusà, Marco G.; Fitzgerald, ... it was discovered that communities whose water supply naturally contained fluorine had lower rates of dental caries. ...
Another possible example of this sensitivity (stress response pathway activation) may be the development of dental fluorosis ... implications for amelogenesis and dental fluorosis". Cells. 1 (3): 631-45. doi:10.3390/cells1030631. PMC 3671616. PMID 23745169 ... Simmer JP, Papagerakis P, Smith CE, Fisher DC, Rountrey AN, Zheng L, Hu JC (October 2010). "Regulation of dental enamel shape ... Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, and Anatomy, Bath-Balogh and Fehrenbach, Elsevier, 2011, page 151 Sierant ML, ...
An excess of fluoride in drinking water causes dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. The World Health Organization has ... Fluorosis is endemic in more than 20 developed and developing nations. Fluorosis was not identified as a problem until ... Existing techniques are often too costly (because the geographic areas prone to fluorosis are among the poorest regions on the ... recommended a guideline value of 1.5 mg/L as the concentration above which dental fluorosis is likely. ...
It may superficially resemble dental fluorosis, and indeed "snow capping" may be used as a descriptive term in some incidents ... of dental fluorosis.[21][22] References[edit]. *^ Pieter J. Slootweg (2007). Dental pathology: a practical introduction. ... This condition is neither caused by nor the equivalent of dental fluorosis. A manifestation of amelogenesis imperfecta known as ... a b American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, Guideline on Dental Management of Heritable Dental Developmental Anomalies, 2013, ...
Among other applications, it can be used to remove mold stains, dental stains caused by fluorosis, and stains on crockery, ... sodium hypochlorite for removal of stains caused by dental fluorosis". The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 33 (3): 187 ... Published for the Dental Professional Community by the American Association of Endodontists. Winter 2011. Torabinejad M, Walton ...
Severe dental fluorosis in juvenile deer linked to a recent volcanic eruption in Patagonia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 49(2 ... Fluoride intoxication was first discovered in red deer (Cervus elaphus), with pronounced dental fluorosis. The result is ... These high levels of fluorosis likely affect the skeleton, and a first case in deer with severe osteological pathology has been ...
Fejerskov, Manji F, Baelum V, Moller IJ (1988): Dental Fluorosis: A Handbook for Health Workers. Copenhagen Munksgaard. Tiromwe ... Dental calculus and caries experience in 15-65-year-olds with no access to dental care. In: Ten Cate JM: Recent Advances in the ... He obtained MSc in Dental Public Health from the London Hospital Medical College, University of London; and a PhD from the ... Fejerskov O, Manji F (1990): Risk assessment in dental caries. In: Bader JD (ed): Risk Assessment in Dentistry. Chapel Hill, ...
... most commonly dental fluorosis). Dental fluorosis is the most common indication where it ranges in severity from mild to severe ... "PRĒMA Enamel Microabrasion Compound". Premier Dental. Premier Dental. Retrieved 15 June 2017. Celik EU, Yildiz G, Yazkan B ( ... "Clinical evaluation of enamel microabrasion for the aesthetic management of mild-to-severe dental fluorosis". J Esthet Restor ... McCloskey RJ (1984). "A technique for removal of fluorosis stains". J Am Dent Assoc. 109:63-64. Croll, TP; Cavanaugh, RR (Feb ...
Chronological, fine white bands of fluorosis may be seen that correspond to the times of high exposure to fluoride. Dental ... At the core of the tooth is soft connective tissue termed the dental pulp. The pulp is pink/red due to its vascularity, but is ... Dental caries (tooth decay) begins as an opaque white spot on the surface of the enamel. As demineralization progresses, the ... Fluorosis may occur when there is chronic and excessive exposure to fluoride during the years of tooth development. Fluoride is ...
... including the cause of dental fluorosis and ideal cavity preparations. One of his many inventions was a foot-driven dental ... Dentistry, Dental Practice, and the Community, 6th Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, 2005. VitalBook file. Page 4 Burt, Brian, ... Dentistry, Dental Practice, and the Community, 6th Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, 2005. VitalBook file. Pafe 307 Powers, John ... Craig's Restorative Dental Materials, 12th Edition. C.V. Mosby, 2006. VitalBook file. Page 9 Significant Events in the History ...
A major concern of dental fluorosis is for children under 12 months ingesting excessive fluoride through toothpaste. Nausea and ... Toothpastes are generally useful to maintain dental health and preventing dental disease like cavities. It also helps control ... 1950s Medicine portal Dental floss Mouthwash Fluoride therapy List of toothpaste brands American Dental Association Description ... Toothpaste is used to promote oral hygiene: it is an abrasive that aids in removing dental plaque and food from the teeth, ...
Fluorine content of the water is high, and there is a prevalence of dental fluorosis in the area. Supply of electricity is good ...
Alvarez, J. A.; Rezende, K. M.; Marocho, S. M.; Alves, F. B.; Celiberti, P.; Ciamponi, A. L. (2009). "Dental fluorosis: ...
... to balance reduction of dental caries (tooth decay) and occurrence of dental fluorosis (mottling of teeth). Moreover the public ... American Dental Association, 139(3). Hicks J, Garcia-Godoy F, Flaitz C. Biological factors in dental caries: role of saliva and ... Aoba, T.; Fejerskov, O. (2002). "Dental Fluorosis: Chemistry and Biology". Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine. 13 (2 ... Fejerskov O, Nyvad B, Kidd EA: Pathology of dental caries; in Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM (eds): Dental caries: The disease and its ...
November 2009). "The association between osteocalcin gene polymorphism and dental fluorosis among children exposed to fluoride ...
... comparable to the discolorations of dental fluorosis. Up to 50% by volume and 70% by weight of human bone is a modified form of ... This technique can also affect fluorosis reversal by providing calcium-enriched alkaline drinking water to fluorosis affected ... If left untreated this can lead to the exposure of dentin and subsequent exposure of the dental pulp. In various studies the ... Carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite is the main mineral of which dental enamel and dentin are composed. Hydroxyapatite ...
Cao, J.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, J. (1997). "Brick tea consumption as the cause of dental fluorosis among children from Mongol, Kazak ... Use of such teas has led to fluorosis, a form of fluoride poisoning that affects the bones and teeth, in areas of high brick ... "Brick tea fluoride as a main source of adult fluorosis". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 41 (4): 535-42. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915( ...
Cao, J; Zhao, Y; Liu, J (September 1997). "Brick tea consumption as the cause of dental fluorosis among children from Mongol, ... Its consumption has led to fluorosis (a form of fluoride poisoning that affects the bones and teeth) in areas of high brick tea ... "The Relationship of Fluorosis and Brick Tea Drinking in Chinese Tibetans". Environmental Health Perspectives. 104 (12): 1340- ...
White spot lesions are also uncommon on incisors, hence ruling out dental caries. Fluorosis, which can result from an intake of ... These conditions include: Dental caries, which is the most common cause of destruction of dental hard tissues. This is more ... Jälevik, B.; Klingberg, G. A. (January 2002). "Dental treatment, dental fear and behaviour management problems in children with ... Some dental treatment has been undertaken without local anaesthesia which could result in a child becoming more fearful and ...
In the US mild or very mild dental fluorosis has been reported in 20% of the population, moderate fluorosis in 2% and severe ... Although fluoridation can cause dental fluorosis, which can alter the appearance of developing teeth or enamel fluorosis, the ... including severe dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and weakened bones; water utilities in the developed world reduce ... It is not known how much is spent in industrial countries to treat dental fluorosis, which is mostly due to fluoride from ...
Cao, J; Zhao, Y; Liu, J (September 1997). "Brick tea consumption as the cause of dental fluorosis among children from Mongol, ... 40] Its consumption has led to fluorosis (a form of fluoride poisoning that affects the bones and teeth) in areas of high brick ... "The Relationship of Fluorosis and Brick Tea Drinking in Chinese Tibetans". Environmental Health Perspectives. 104 (12): 1340- ...
"Partial defluoridation of a community water supply and dental fluorosis". Public Health Reports. 82 (11): 965-72. doi:10.2307/ ...
History of dental restorations,[46] use of dental appliances, or oral exposure to substances that may cause oral lichenoid ... "IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 12: 61-69. doi:10.9790/0853-1216169.. ... dental composites, cobalt chromium based dentures etc). A full examination that includes the evaluation of the mucosal and ... Sometimes dental materials or certain medications can cause a lichenoid reaction.[4] They can also occur in association with ...
2009). „The association between osteocalcin gene polymorphism and dental fluorosis among children exposed to fluoride in ...
Trauma could occur during injections of local anesthetic in the mouth, or otherwise during dental treatments, frictional trauma ...
Mechanical-tactile - dental probe during dental examination,[8] periodontal scaling and root planing,[8] toothbrushing.[7] ... Evaporation - air blast from a dental instrument.[8]. *Chemical - acids,[8] e.g. dietary, gastric, acid etch during dental ... Inflammation of the dental pulp, termed pulpitis, produces true hypersensitivity of the nerves in the dental pulp.[5] Pulpitis ... www.unitedconcordia.com/dental-insurance/dental/conditions/sensitive-teeth/[full citation needed] ...
American Dental Association. 2005. p. 29.. *^ "Table 23, Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, ... Dental caries: Fluorosis-resembling enamel defects are often misdiagnosed as dental caries.[10] ... Buzalaf MAR, Levy SM (2011): Fluoride intake of children: considerations for dental caries and dental fluorosis in Fluoride and ... "Dental Fluorosis" (PDF).. *^ Abanto Alvarez J, Rezende KM, Marocho SM, Alves FB, Celiberti P, Ciamponi AL (February 2009). " ...
Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease caused by an excessive accumulation of fluoride in the bones. In advanced cases, skeletal ... Salentijn, L. Biology of Mineralized Tissues: Cartilage and Bone, Columbia University College of Dental Medicine post-graduate ... dental lecture series, 2007 *^ Bertazzo, S.; Bertran, C. A. (2006). "Morphological and dimensional characteristics of bone ...
Cutaneous sinus of dental origin. *Cystic hygroma. *Gnathophyma. *Ludwig's angina. *Macrostomia. *Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome ...
Oral ulceration is a common reason for people to seek medical or dental advice.[19]:52 A breach of the oral mucosa probably ... Gottfried Schmalz; Dorthe Arenholt Bindslev (2008). Biocompatibility of Dental Materials. Springer. Retrieved March 5, 2014.. ... Some dentists apply a protective layer of petroleum jelly to the lips before carrying out dental work to minimize the number of ... Phenol is used during dental treatment as a cavity sterilizing agent and cauterizing material, and it is also present in some ...
... dental stains caused by fluorosis,[40] and stains on crockery, especially those caused by the tannins in tea. It has also been ... sodium hypochlorite for removal of stains caused by dental fluorosis". The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 33 (3): 187 ... Published for the Dental Professional Community by the American Association of Endodontists. Winter 2011. ...
a b c Pathology of the Hard Dental Tissues *^ a b c d R. S. Omer, R. P. Anthonappa, and N. M. King, "Determination of the ... They can appear in any area of the dental arch and can affect any dental organ. The opposite of hyperdontia is hypodontia, ... Dental X-rays are often used to diagnose hyperdontia. It is suggested that supernumerary teeth develop from a third tooth bud ... Complex odontoma (a disorganized mass of dental tissue)[8]. When classified by position, a supernumerary tooth may be referred ...
2009). „The association between osteocalcin gene polymorphism and dental fluorosis among children exposed to fluoride in ...
Prolonged consumption of fluoride above concentrations of 1.5 mg/L is associated with a risk of dental fluorosis, an aesthetic ... Current recommended levels in water fluoridation, a way to prevent dental caries, range from 0.7 to 1.2 mg/L to avoid the ... People with levels between normal levels and those required for skeletal fluorosis tend to have symptoms similar to arthritis.[ ... condition of the teeth.[31] At concentrations above 4 mg/L, there is an increased risk of developing skeletal fluorosis, a ...
A dental hygienist or dentist will also look for signs of periodontitis using X-rays or periodontal probing as well as other ... A dental hygienist or dentist will check for the symptoms of gingivitis, and may also examine the amount of plaque in the oral ... Dental Hygiene - E-Book: Theory and Practice, by Michele Leonardi Darby, Margaret Walsh, page 318 ... American Dental Hygienists' Association Position Paper on the Oral Prophylaxis Archived 2012-06-26 at the Wayback Machine., ...
Balasubramaniam, R; Kuperstein, AS; Stoopler, ET (April 2014). "Update on oral herpes virus infections". Dental Clinics of ... The use of condoms or dental dams also limits the transmission of herpes from the genitals of one partner to the mouth of the ...
Cutaneous sinus of dental origin. *Cystic hygroma. *Gnathophyma. *Ludwig's angina. *Macrostomia. *Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome ...
"Indian Journal of Dental Research. 26 (2): 214-19. doi:10.4103/0970-9290.159175. PMID 26096121. Archived from the original on ... Sometimes this leads to unnecessary dental treatment.[26] Post herpetic neuralgia uncommonly is associated with shingles in the ... "Dental complications of herpes zoster: Two case reports and review of literature" ...
... including severe dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and weakened bones.[48] In 1984 the World Health Organization ... The margin between the beneficial effects of fluoride and the occurrence of dental fluorosis is small and public health ... a b c d e The British Fluoridation Society; The UK Public Health Association; The British Dental Association; The Faculty of ... and the national dental associations of Australia,[29] Canada,[30] and the U.S.[31] The American Dental Association calls water ...
Excessive amounts of fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental fluorosis, prevalent bone fractures, and skeletal fluorosis ... MacDonald, L. "Water and Health:An effective, sustainable treatment strategy to halt the fluorosis endemic in rural villages of ... "Severe bone deformities in young children from vitamin D deficiency and fluorosis in Bihar-India". Calcified tissue ... an irreversible disabling condition.[88] Some work has focused on combating fluorosis through increased calcium intake by ...
... dental fluorosis, birth injury, preterm birth, infection or trauma from a deciduous tooth.[59] Dental fluorosis is a condition ... American Dental Association. *^ Introduction to Dental Plaque Archived 2011-08-27 at the Wayback Machine. Leeds Dental ... Dental pulp[edit]. Main article: Pulp (tooth). The dental pulp is the central part of the tooth filled with soft connective ... "Dental caries", from the Disease Control Priorities Project. *^ Touger-Decker R, van Loveren C (2003). "Sugars and dental ...
For older children and adults, who are no longer at risk for dental fluorosis, the upper limit of fluoride is set at 10 mg/day ... The study indicates that tea drinking communities are at an increased risk of dental and skeletal fluorosis, in the case where ... the only clear adverse effect is dental fluorosis, which can alter the appearance of children's teeth during tooth development ... "Effect of fluoride concentration and pH on corrosion behavior of titanium for dental use". Journal of Dental Research. 78 (9): ...
To provide the best treatment option the dental clinician must determine the level of activity and predict possible progression ... If there are concerns around aesthetics or clinical consequences such as dentinal hypersensitivity, a dental restoration (white ... Australian Dental Journal. 54 (1): 2-8. doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.2008.01080.x.. ... are some of the reasons why many dental clinicians are looking at the lesion with some scepticism. More research is needed to ...
Research into the effects of fluoride on teeth began due to the concern about the presence of dental fluorosis.[16] ... Dental public health looks beyond the role of a dental practitioner in treating dental disease, and seeks to reduce demand on ... The most common form of dental clinicians are either general dentists, oral health therapists, dental therapists and dental ... "Public Health Dental Program". Florida Department of Health. 2017.. *^ a b c d e f g Daly B, Batchelor P, Treasure E, Watt R ( ...
Hong Kong Dental Journal. 4: 113-21.. *^ Kinirons MJ. (June 1983). "Candidal invasion of dentine complicating hypodontia". ... "Journal of the American Dental Association. 139 (2): 163-9. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2008.0132. PMID 18245684.. ... "NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES ILL by Keene, Harris J. Retrieved 2010-05-22.. ... De Coster PJ, Marks LA, Martens LC, Huysseune A (January 2009). "Dental agenesis: genetic and clinical perspectives". Journal ...
Galen describes what is thought to be dental fluorosis. However, it was not until the early 20th century that dental fluorosis ... Buzalaf MAR, Levy SM (2011): Fluoride intake of children: considerations for dental caries and dental fluorosis in Fluoride and ... August 26, 2005). "Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis - United ... "Table 23, Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis --- United States ...
American Dental Association. 2005. p. 29.. *^ "Table 23, Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, ... Dental caries: Fluorosis-resembling enamel defects are often misdiagnosed as dental caries.[10] ... Buzalaf MAR, Levy SM (2011): Fluoride intake of children: considerations for dental caries and dental fluorosis in Fluoride and ... "Dental Fluorosis" (PDF).. *^ Abanto Alvarez J, Rezende KM, Marocho SM, Alves FB, Celiberti P, Ciamponi AL (February 2009). " ...
Understand the symptoms of fluorosis, its treatment and prevention. ... Fluorosis occurs when too much fluoride is ingested in childhood, causing teeth to discolor. ...
Dental Fluorosis Impacts Dentin in Addition to Enamel. Dental fluorosis is a mineralization defect of tooth enamel marked by ... Decline in Dental Fluorosis Severity during Adolescence: A Cohort Study.. Dental fluorosis occurs from overingestion of ... The aesthetic management of severe dental fluorosis in the young patient. The prevalence of dental fluorosis appears to be on ... Dental Fluorosis Is a "Hypo-mineralization" of Enamel. Teeth with fluorosis have an increase in porosity in the subsurface ...
Consuming too much fluoride while the teeth are being formed lead to fluorosis, resulting in discoloration or enamel spots. ... Teeth affected by fluorosis are not diseased. Fluorosis will not result in cavities or other dental problems. Concerns about ... Fluorosis is a cosmetic condition, not a disease. Often, it is so mild that only a dental professional can detect it. Most ... Teeth affected by mild fluorosis may show no changes or changes visible only to a dental professional. Mild to moderate ...
Dental Fluorosis Impacts Dentin in Addition to Enamel. Dental fluorosis is a mineralization defect of tooth enamel marked by ... Dental Fluorosis Is a "Hypo-mineralization" of Enamel. Teeth with fluorosis have an increase in porosity in the subsurface ... General Issues Surrounding Perception of Fluorosis. "The public is generally not aware of dental fluorosis. This is changing; ... Dental Fluorosis: The "Cosmetic" Factor. By Michael Connett , July 2012 Any condition that can cause children to be embarrassed ...
Excess exposure of fluoride during tooth development can lead to dental fluorosis.The damage that dental fluorosis causes to ... Dental fluorosis treatment for severe cases of fluorosis requires covering the affected teeth with restorations, such as : ... Treatment options depend on the severity of dental fluorosis. Tooth Whitening(only for mild cases) The whitening is achieved by ... In cases of severe dental fluorosis the tooth enamel usually becomes porous, and tooth whitening methods are not recommended as ...
Dental Fluorosis Explained by the The Fluoride Action Network. References. *↑ Fluoridation Facts (PDF). American Dental ... Prevalence of dental fluorosis. As of 2005 surveys conducted by the National Institute of Dental Research in the USA between ... American Dental Association. 2005. p. 29.. *↑ "Table 23, Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, ... Dental fluorosis occurs because of the excessive intake of fluoride either through naturally occurring fluoride in the water, ...
Dental fluorosis. See enamel fluorosis. Dental sealants. Also called pit-and-fissure sealants, these are thin plastic coatings ... selected elements of the dental component (i.e., dental caries, dental sealants, enamel fluorosis, tooth retention, and ... Kappa values ranged from 0.56 to 0.73 for enamel fluorosis and from 0.64 to 1.00 for dental caries and presence of dental ... Dental Sealants Dental sealants are highly effective in preventing dental caries that occur on the surfaces of teeth that have ...
Worlds most prestigious medical journal has put fluoride in the same category as mercury, lead and arsenic; officially classifying it as a neurotoxin. This post from Waking Science discusses the summary of the report that was published in Lancet. The movement to remove industrial sodium fluoride from the worlds water supply has been growing in recent years, with evidence ... Continue Reading ...
... dental implants, oral pathology, as well as oral and maxillofacial surgery. ... P. K. Den Bestan, "Dental fluorosis: its use as a biomarker," Advances in Dental Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 105-110, 1994. ... E. S. Akpata, "Occurrence and management of dental fluorosis," International Dental Journal, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 325-333, 2001. ... Aesthetic Rehabilitation of a Severe Dental Fluorosis Case with Ceramic Veneers: A Step-by-Step Guide. Aminah M. El Mourad ...
Dental Fluorosis. What is dental fluorosis?. * Dental fluorosis is a change in enamel appearance that occurs only when the ... For more information on dental fluorosis, please visit the following websites:. * American Dental Association-Oral Health ... but risk of dental fluorosis is kept low.. * Furthermore, other than fluoride toothpaste for all with teeth, exposure to other ... of higher concentration fluoride products for cavity prevention should be limited to individuals who are at risk of dental ...
... the incidence of dental fluorosis is increasing.. Scientists at the Dental Research Unit, Health Research Council, Wellington ... Velu H. Dental dystrophy in mammals of the phosphate zone and chronic fluorosis. C R Seances Soc Biol Ses Fil. 1931; 108: 750-2 ... If you believe you or a member of your family has been affected by dental fluorosis and you would like to talk to someone in ... Dental fluorosis was first reported by two dentists in 1916 (1). By 1931 there was extreme concern about what was called ...
The mechanisms leading to Dental Fluorosis remain unknown... Last post by admin « Fri Sep 03, 2021 8:03 am. ...
The obtained data allowed the assessment of the risk of dental fluorosis for the Estonian population. Control of drinking water ... The association between the fluoride level in drinking water and the degree of dental fluorosis has been documented worldwide. ... Association between prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12-year old schoolchildren and fluoride content in drinking water was ... The Contribution Of Drinking Water Fluoride To The Risk Of Dental Fluorosis In Estonia ...
Knowledge and public perception towards dental fluorosis is important factor in public health interven.. ... Rare knowledge of dental fluorosis increases the risk of having it. ... Dental fluorosis; Palestine; Public perception. Introduction. Dental fluorosis is an enamel defect caused by excessive fluoride ... Rare knowledge of dental fluorosis increases the risk of having it. Knowledge and public perception towards dental fluorosis is ...
They present the issue as if the figures for the incidence of dental fluorosis relate to the severe forms when they dont. Most ... Anti-fluoride propagandists often use the incidence of dental fluorosis as an argument against community water fluoridation. ... Yet the anti-fluoride people will present images of severe dental fluorosis which is never caused by CWF (see Dental fluorosis ... If you have been accurately diagnosed, by a qualified dental professional, as having dental fluorosis, and if it is noticeable ...
But they are associated with medium and severe dental fluorosis. This interests me for two reasons: The report is by Choi and ... Fluorosis is endemic in many parts of China and the high prevalence of medium/severe dental fluorosis (60%) among the children ... "Many studies on fluorosis confirm that, in optimally fluoridated areas, dental fluorosis is usually only mild or very mild. A ... The high proportion of children with moderate/sever dental fluorosis indicates the study involved an area of endemic fluorosis. ...
... ão sistemática e metanálise para estimar e comparar as prevalências de fluorose dental em localidades brasileiras abastecidas ... Prevalence of dental fluorosis in regions supplied with non-fluoridated water in the Brazilian territory: a systematic review ... Resumo Trata-se de uma revis ão sistemática e metanálise para estimar e comparar as prevalências de fluorose dental em ... O modelo metanalítico estimou em 8,92% (IC95%:5,41% até 14,36%) a prevalência de fluorose dental em municípios com água tratada ...
Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. According to the TFI scores, 273 children had signs of dental fluorosis, giving a ... The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis was determined using the Thyllstrup-Fejerskov index (TFI) of dental fluorosis [ ... Journal of Dental Research, 2004, Special Issue B:1438.. *Chen YC et al. Nutrition survey in dental fluorosis-afflicted areas. ... and severity of dental fluorosis and to examine the potential associations between prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis ...
How to Prevent Dental Fluorosis. You can reduce the risk that your child will get dental fluorosis by doing the following:. * ... Causes of Dental Fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is caused by swallowing too much fluoride. This can happen in a number of ways, ... Dental fluorosis can range in severity from mild to severe. The mild form appears as white specks on the teeth, as seen in the ... Dental and skeletal fluorosis. Symptomatically, she is about in stage two of the skeletal form (plus she has Hepatitis C). Her ...
1. Luengas-Aguirre I, Irigoyen ME, Molina-Frechero N. Fluorosis dental. Estudio de fluorosis dental en una zona sur del Estado ... reported a high prevalence of dental fluorosis (Table 1). Severe to moderate dental fluorosis was found in 17% of this sample, ... Most of the calculations of dental fluorosis were obtained through the use of convenience samples. Dental fluorosis was ... This condition was then named dental fluorosis. The conclusive piece of epidemiological evidence that linked dental fluorosis ...
Dental Fluorosis Treatment: How Dental Fluorosis Is Treated. Dental Fluorosis Treatment: How Dental Fluorosis Is Treated. *Oral ... Dental Fluorosis Treatment: Four Ways Dental Fluorosis Is Treated. There are a few different ways that dental fluorosis can be ... Dental fluorosis is caused by ingesting too much fluoride while the teeth are developing. Dental fluorosis discolors the teeth ... If youre interested in how dental fluorosis occurs and want to see a couple different pictures to see what dental fluorosis ...
... moderate and sever dental fluorosis respectively. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis is 28% (95% CI, 24, 32%, p , 0.001 ... The mean fluoride level in ground water and the prevalence of dental fluorosis were pooled from eleven and nine primary studies ... and the pooled prevalence of dental fluorosis among residents in Ethiopian rift valley was 32% (95% CI: 25, 39%, p , 0.001), 29 ... Relatively high-level pooled prevalence of dental fluorosis was also seen in Ethiopian rift valley. Therefore, further studies ...
Occurrence of dental fluorosis in Australian Aboriginal children resident in Carnarvon, Western Australia ... Occurrence of dental fluorosis in Australian Aboriginal children resident in Carnarvon, Western Australia. by Kailis DG, Silva ... Occurrence of dental fluorosis in Australian Aboriginal children resident in Carnarvon, Western Australia ...
Prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis among a sample of adolescents living in a fluoridated and a non-fluoridated water ... Veiga N, Amaral O, Pereira C, Ribeiro C, Arrimar A, Coelho I. Prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis among a sample of ...
... Depending on the development state of fluorosis it can manifest itself in three forms of coloration:. *yellow ... Color changes caused by fluorosis occurs if, as a child, within his first 7 years, the patient ingests a quantity of fluoride ... The first two manifestations of fluorosis can be dealt with by repeated whitening treatments until the color is uniform. In the ... more severe form however, after the whitening treatment, dental facets are required. ...
Dental fluorosis (mottling and pitting of teeth). 4.0 - 10.0. Dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis (pain in neck bones and back ... 1. Dental fluorosis. This form of fluorosis affects the teeth and mainly occurs in children. The natural shine or lustre of the ... It plays an important role on the formation of dental enamel and normal mineralization in bones but can cause dental fluorosis ... It is well known that the excess fluoride intake is responsible for dental and skeletal fluorosis. The problem of fluorosis has ...
  • When fluorosis is moderate, all of the surfaces of the teeth are mottled and teeth may be ground down and brown stains frequently "disfigure" the teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In moderate to severe fluorosis, teeth are weakened and suffer permanent physical damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical manifestation of mild dental fluorosis is mostly characterised a snow flaking appearance that lack a clear border, opaque, white spots, narrow white lines following the perikymata or patches as the opacities may coalesce with an intact, hard and smooth enamel surface on most of the teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorosis does not cause discolouration to the enamel directly, as upon eruption into the mouth, affected permanent teeth are not discoloured yet. (wikipedia.org)
  • In dental enamel, fluorosis causes subsurface porosity or hypomineralizations, which extend toward the dentinal-enamel junction as the condition progresses and the affected teeth become more susceptible to staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • An individual's fluorosis score is based on the most severe form of fluorosis found on two or more teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental fluorosis is caused by a higher than normal amount of fluoride ingestion whilst teeth are forming. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most superficial concern in dental fluorosis is aesthetic changes in the permanent dentition (the adult teeth). (wikipedia.org)
  • The period when these teeth are at highest risk of developing fluorosis is between when the child is born up to 6 years old, though there has been some research which proposes that the most crucial course is during the first 2 years of the child's life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the present study was to gather the opinions of lay groups concerning the appearance of the teeth of children with various degrees of fluorosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Fluorosis in these teeth ranged from TF score 0 (no fluorosis) to TF score 3. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Consuming too much fluoride while the teeth are being formed can lead to fluorosis. (colgate.com)
  • Fluorosis does not develop after teeth have erupted into the mouth. (colgate.com)
  • Teeth affected by mild fluorosis may show no changes or changes visible only to a dental professional. (colgate.com)
  • In more severe fluorosis, the teeth can become pitted and have brown, gray or black spots. (colgate.com)
  • Young children can get cavities in their primary teeth, so any tooth discoloration should be checked at the dental office. (colgate.com)
  • Remember that fluorosis affects only the appearance of teeth. (colgate.com)
  • Sometimes fluorosis occurs only on the back teeth, where it can't be seen. (colgate.com)
  • If you notice white streaks or spots on your child's teeth or notice that one or more teeth are discolored, contact your dental office. (colgate.com)
  • Teeth affected by fluorosis are not diseased. (colgate.com)
  • Dental fluorosis, a condition caused by too much fluoride exposure during childhood, can cause significant discoloration of teeth. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In the last 20 years, however, research has repeatedly shown that the general public views teeth with "mild" fluorosis (TF score 3) as a significant blemish of the teeth, one that is likely to embarrass the affected child to a degree that cosmetic treatment would be warranted. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control now concedes, therefore, that mild fluorosis is "cosmetically objectionable" when present on the front teeth. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Although the survey found that 30% of children in the fluoridated areas had some form of definitive fluorosis, the CDC focused only on the fluorosis that was visible on the children's front teeth which the CDC could attribute to fluoridated water. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Cosmetic issues related to teeth matter, witness the increasing proportion of dentists' time devoted to aesthetic care and the many articles in clinical journals about techniques to improve the appearance of moderate and severe fluorosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The damage that dental fluorosis causes to the teeth enamel is permanent and not reversible. (identalhub.com)
  • Dental fluorosis treatment is targeting in hiding the discoloration of the teeth. (identalhub.com)
  • Dental sealants are effective in preventing dental caries in the occlusal (chewing) and other pitted and fissured surfaces of the teeth. (cdc.gov)
  • Enamel fluorosis is a hypomineralization of enamel related to fluoride exposure during tooth formation (first 6 years for most permanent teeth). (cdc.gov)
  • During 1999--2002, among children aged 2--11 years, 41% had dental caries in their primary teeth. (cdc.gov)
  • Forty-two percent of children and adolescents aged 6--19 years and approximately 90% of adults had dental caries in their permanent teeth. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings of this report indicate that the dental caries status of permanent teeth has improved since the 1988--1994 survey. (cdc.gov)
  • These data provide information for public health professionals in designing interventions to improve oral health and to reduce disparities in oral health, for researchers in assessing factors associated with disparities and dental caries in primary teeth, and in designing timely surveillance tools to monitor total fluoride exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Y. H. Aljazairy, "Management of fluorosed teeth using porcelain veneers: a six-year recall case report," Saudi Dental Journal , vol. 13, pp. 106-113, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, other than fluoride toothpaste for all with teeth, exposure to other sources of higher concentration fluoride products for cavity prevention should be limited to individuals who are at risk of dental cavities. (uiowa.edu)
  • Table 2 and Figure 1 demonstrate the inci- and lower teeth, show similar severity of dence and class of fluorosis in each age fluorosis [ 11,12 ]. (who.int)
  • Reports from China(5), Argentina(6), Britain(7), Italy(8) and Japan(9) have shown significant levels of mottling of teeth (fluorosis) in children drinking fluoride-contaminated water. (npwa.org.uk)
  • Concerning the public perception of dental fluorosis, 87.7% of the children and 88.6% of mothers did not have a problem with fluorosed teeth colour. (omicsonline.org)
  • Suffering from unrest political circumstances and having high prevalence of dental fluorosis for decades could diminish the negative impact of having coloured teeth on children's perception and personality. (omicsonline.org)
  • Dental fluorosis happens when children swallow too much fluoride before their teeth have finished forming (usually before age 8. (oralanswers.com)
  • It was actually dental fluorosis that led researchers to eventually find that small amounts of fluoride can be beneficial for the teeth . (oralanswers.com)
  • they both have mild fluorosis on their baby teeth. (oralanswers.com)
  • In order for them to have fluorosis on their front baby teeth, I would imagine that they would have had to receive fluoride before they were born (if you took fluoride drops/pills or drank highly fluoridated water) or ingest lots of fluoride before they turned 2 months old. (oralanswers.com)
  • Hi again Carrie - Here's an article from the American Dental Association about fluorosis in baby teeth and what it means for permanent teeth. (oralanswers.com)
  • Dental fluorosis is caused by ingesting too much fluoride while the teeth are developing. (oralanswers.com)
  • Dental fluorosis discolors the teeth. (oralanswers.com)
  • If you're interested in how dental fluorosis occurs and want to see a couple different pictures to see what dental fluorosis looks like, check out my previous article, Dental Fluorosis: Too Much Fluoride Stains Teeth . (oralanswers.com)
  • Although it would be possible to remove teeth affected by fluorosis and then place dental implants, I didn't include that here because it is not normally a treatment option. (oralanswers.com)
  • Most teeth affected by fluorosis are healthy and more resistant to cavities. (oralanswers.com)
  • The most important concern of patients suffering from Dental Fluorosis is the cosmetic changes that happen in their teeth. (smileup.info)
  • Despite the benefits of fluoride, overexposure to the mineral as a baby and child can result in fluorosis, which alters the look of the teeth, including causing white spots on teeth and/or mottled teeth. (dentalcare.co.uk)
  • However, in more severe cases there are several fluorosis treatment options aimed at improving the appearance of affected teeth. (dentalcare.co.uk)
  • Why does fluorosis of teeth happen? (thedentaire.com)
  • From roughly 7 years old thereafter, most children's permanent teeth would have undergone complete development (except their wisdom teeth), and therefore their susceptibility to fluorosis is greatly reduced, or even insignificant, despite the amount of intake of fluoride. (thedentaire.com)
  • Even fluoridation advocates agree that ingestion of fluoridated water when teeth are forming can cause dental fluorosis. (cleanwatersonomamarin.org)
  • The plaintiff's teeth in the 2013 Nemphos v. Nestle suit, an example of mild dental fluorosis. (cleanwatersonomamarin.org)
  • and the occurrence of dental fluorosis in most teeth, especially in the maxillary anterior teeth to see more. (kqxf.com)
  • Our team of dental specialists and staff strive to improve the overall health of our patients by focusing on preventing, diagnosing and treating conditions associated with your teeth and gums. (scharinedental.com)
  • Fluorosis causes a number of aesthetic problems, including abnormally darkened or stained teeth. (scharinedental.com)
  • There is a high prevalence of fluoride exposure in the fingernails of the children studied, presenting risk of developing dental fluorosis in permanent teeth. (bvsalud.org)
  • In Dentistry, the main clinical manifestation from chronic poisoning occurs because of the intake of excessive doses of fluoride during teeth formation, which may cause the appearance of an anomaly called dental fluorosis 2 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Tooth decay in toddlers, children and adults, also called dental caries, is a bacterial infection causing demineralization and destruction of the hard tissues of the teeth. (medindia.net)
  • Dentures, also known as false teeth, are dental prostheses that replace the natural teeth with artificial substitutes. (medindia.net)
  • The aim of the present study was to compare the values of the Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (TF index) for the determination of the prevalence of dental fluorosis using either all teeth (gold standard) or six upper anterior teeth (simplified TF index). (mdpi.com)
  • January 2011 - The U.S. Centers for Disease Control today issued a startling report that admits 2 in 5 children in America show signs of fluoride poisoning (streaking, spotting or pitting of teeth due to dental fluorosis). (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • We looked online to see what fluorosis looks like, and one of the photos looked exactly like my daughter's teeth. (metafilter.com)
  • Here at Pearl Dental Clinic, we offer Invisalign Teen to provide discreet teeth straightening for the younger generation. (pearldentalclinic.co.uk)
  • Dental veneers are a great way of changing the appearance of the teeth. (pearldentalclinic.co.uk)
  • If you are unhappy with stained, gappy, chipped, cracked, or tired looking teeth then dental veneers could be the answer. (pearldentalclinic.co.uk)
  • Pearly white teeth is a favorable trait for good personal appearance and proper dental hygiene. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Fluorosis looks unappealing, especially for people who value the appearance of their teeth. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Fluorosis usually attacks the back teeth, but some cases of fluorosis may affect the front teeth (particularly the canines and incisors). (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Over time, fluorosis weakens the enamel and the structure of the teeth, causing caries and decay. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • If you take care of your teeth well, you wouldn't have a problem with dental caries caused in part by fluorosis. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Fluorosis is often found in people with poor dental hygiene, because the fluoride can attack weakened teeth faster and accelerate the process of decay. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Brushing your teeth for two minutes after every meal is your best protection against dental caries and the damage caused by fluorosis. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Veneers are used to cover or restore the surface of damaged teeth, and are especially useful for severe cases of fluorosis. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • an NIHR-HTA funded multi-centre primary dental care based RCT, published in January 2020 which aimed to determine the best way of managing decay in childrens' primary teeth. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • El-Yousfi S, Innes NPT, Holmes RD, Freeman R, Cunningham KB, McColl E, Maguire A, Douglas GVA, Clarkson JE, Marshman Z. Children and parents' perspectives on the acceptability of three management strategies for dental caries in primary teeth within the 'Filling Children's Teeth: Indicated Or Not' Randomised Controlled Trial - a qualitative study . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Marshman Z, Kettle J, Holmes RD, Freeman R, Gibson BJ, McColl E, Maguire A, Douglas GVA, Clarkson JE, Innes N. Dental professionals' experiences of managing children with carious lesions in their primary teeth - a qualitative study within the FiCTION randomised controlled trial . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Dental fluorosis was measured by Dean's Index (6-categories of severity), where classification was based on the two teeth most affected by fluorosis. (bu.edu)
  • Other covariates were socio-demographic characteristics, self-perceived mouth/teeth condition (1-item), and previous dental visit (time and reason). (bu.edu)
  • For aim 3, the bivariate all teeth analysis showed that OHRQoL was significantly decreased with higher level of fluorosis severity (p-value=0.05). (bu.edu)
  • An in vitro study was performed to examine the effects of dental fluorosis on microleakage from Class-V ormocer resin restorations in permanent molar teeth. (sdu.edu.tr)
  • The Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI) was used to determine the severity of fluorosis of the teeth as TFI=0, TFI=1-3, and TFI=4-6. (sdu.edu.tr)
  • Thirty noncarious permanent molar teeth from young or middle-age adult patients were used in the study (ten teeth for each fluorosis level). (sdu.edu.tr)
  • Studies have also shown that children are typically the most affected by fluoride as their developing bones and teeth are more susceptible to the effects of fluorosis. (appropedia.org)
  • One community was located in an area with 0.75 mg F-/L in the water supply and the other in an area with 1.6 mg F-/L. Fluorosis was assessed using the Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (TFI) and the dental caries were assessed with the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. (scirp.org)
  • Dental caries and periodontal status were assessed using the Decayed Missing Filled Teeth Index (DMFT) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) respectively in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997).2 The data was recorded in a data collection form. (ac.ke)
  • Dental fluorosis was present in 50.7% of the sample population, of all the teeth examined 51.9% scored TFI score 0, while 40.4% scored TFI score1-4 and 8.7% scored TFI score ~5.The fluoride levels in surface water were O.2ppm and 3.6ppm in the borehole water. (ac.ke)
  • The children with fluorosis tended to have a higher prevalence of gingivitis and there was a statistical significant difference in the occurrence of gingivitis in all sextant except the upper right and lower anterior when the teeth with fluorosis and those without were compared. (ac.ke)
  • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental caries was 39.1% while the OMFT was 1.51± 2.2550 with a mean decayed component of 1.48 and there were no filled teeth. (ac.ke)
  • While fluoride is accepted as an effective method to prevent caries, the excessive consumption of fluoride can put bones and teeth at risk of developing fluorosis [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • chronic endemic fluorosis that due to unusually high concentrations of fluoride, usually in the natural drinking water supply, typically causing dental fluorosis characterized by a mottled appearance of the teeth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fluorosis, a condition caused by an excessive in-take of fluoride, manifests itself in the form of dental or skeletal fluorosis , when it attacks teeth or bone respec-tively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Excess fluoride intake has been reported to produce dental and skeletal fluorosis in animals affecting teeth and bones during development. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The thought is that teeth should be assessed in their natural state and that those opacities that are visible only after drying should not be included in the definition of fluorosis (Rozier, 1994). (phenxtoolkit.org)
  • Protective factors that help to remineralize enamel include exposing the teeth to fluoride, limiting the frequency of carbohydrate consumption, choosing less cariogenic foods, practicing good oral hygiene, receiving regular dental care, and delaying bacterial colonization. (aappublications.org)
  • Researchers found that infants who were given the antibiotic to treat bacterial infections had an increased risk of developing dental fluorosis, a condition that causes tooth enamel to become porous, staining teeth. (azcentral.com)
  • According to the American Dental Association, dental fluorosis affects the enamel of permanent teeth while they are developing. (azcentral.com)
  • Dental pertains to the teeth, including dentistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary dentine fluorosis and enamel fluorosis can only happen during tooth formation, so fluoride exposure occurs in childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enamel fluorosis has a white opaque appearance which is due to the surface of the enamel being hypomineralised. (wikipedia.org)
  • As noted by the CDC, "at present there are no data that define the number or cost of esthetic restorative procedures performed to change the appearance of enamel fluorosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Among persons aged 6--39 years, 23% had very mild or greater enamel fluorosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Primary dentin fluorosis and enamel fluorosis can only happen during tooth formation. (thedentaire.com)
  • It has been speculated that the use of amoxicillin during early childhood could be associated with dental enamel fluorosis, also described in literature with the term Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH), because they are generally situated in one or more 1st permanent molars and less frequently in the incisors. (pediatrmedchir.org)
  • Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The goals of this clinical report are to clarify the use of available fluoride modalities for caries prevention in the primary care setting and to assist pediatricians in using fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while minimizing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis. (aappublications.org)
  • To determine the association between social deprivation and the prevalence of caries (including caries lesions restricted to enamel) and enamel fluorosis in areas that are served by either fluoridated or non-fluoridated drinking water using clinical scoring, remote blinded, photographic scoring for caries and fluorosis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • It found no statistically significant association between dental fluorosis and oral-health related quality of life scores. (wordpress.com)
  • Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between dental fluorosis and the independent variables. (blogspot.com)
  • There is a paucity of information on association between dental fluorosis, osteoporosis and periodontitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Epidemiological studies have reported varied findings on the association between dental fluorosis and dental caries experience. (ac.ke)
  • Most cases of fluorosis result from young children taking fluoride supplements or swallowing fluoride toothpaste when the water they drink is already fluoridated. (colgate.com)
  • Many cases of fluorosis are minor enough not to need treatment. (colgate.com)
  • Severe cases of fluorosis can be covered with bonding, crowns or veneers. (colgate.com)
  • ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study is to draw attention to the presence and the severity of dental fluorosis in Doha (Qatar) through the high level of registered cases of fluorosis found among the groups examined. (who.int)
  • In mild cases of fluorosis, no treatment is required. (dentalcare.co.uk)
  • Regarding the prevalence of dental fluorosis, epidemiological data in Brazil indicate a tendency for increased prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis, presented in the Brazilian Research on Oral Health of 2010, which identified 16.7% of cases of fluorosis compared to 8.57% detected in 2003 7 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Minor cases of fluorosis can easily be stalled with proper and sustained dental hygiene. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Cosmetic whitening is a treatment often used for less-severe cases of fluorosis. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • In very severe cases of fluorosis, a dentist may need to clean out the damaged parts of the tooth and replace it with a ceramic or resin crown. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Mild dental fluorosis has long been accepted as a side-effect of water fluoridation and, more recently, has been recognized as a consequence of the use of other fluoride-based caries-preventive strategies. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Since it is undisputed that water fluoridation can cause dental fluorosis, several attempts have been made to estimate the prevalence of cosmetically objectionable fluorosis in fluoridated areas. (fluoridealert.org)
  • 2002). Esthetically objectionable fluorosis attributable to water fluoridation. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Since more recent surveys of fluorosis in the United States have found that fluorosis rates have significantly increased since the 1980s, the CDC's conclusion under-states the rate of cosmetically objectionable fluorosis caused by fluoridation. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Despite this fact, the CDC's cost-benefit analyses of water fluoridation have never considered the increased costs associated with treating the effects of fluorosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • This has led some dental researchers, such as the former President of the Canadian Association of Dental Research, Dr. Hardy Limeback, to speculate that "we are now spending more money treating dental fluorosis than we would spend treating new decay if water fluoridation halted. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Dental fluorosis occurs because of the excessive intake of fluoride either through naturally occurring fluoride in the water, water fluoridation , toothpaste, or other sources. (wikidoc.org)
  • For this reason, community water fluoridation levels are set to a level where the community will benefit substantially for prevention of cavities, but risk of dental fluorosis is kept low. (uiowa.edu)
  • Addi- tionally, high fluoride content could be re- duced using granulated bone charcoal household de-fluoridation of water for Table 1 Jackson index of dental fluorosis drinking and cooking [ 13 ]. (who.int)
  • Although fluoride was known to be the cause, water fluoridation was instituted as a public health measure to help limit dental caries in 1945. (npwa.org.uk)
  • Dr L C Simko of the Duquesne University School of Nursing, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, pointing out the worrying increase in fluorosis, says that "health care professionals need to understand the history of water fluoridation, examine the benefits and complications of fluoride, and, if need be, take an informed political stance on an issue that is affecting large numbers among our pediatric population. (npwa.org.uk)
  • Anti-fluoride propagandists often use the incidence of dental fluorosis as an argument against community water fluoridation. (wordpress.com)
  • The mainly poor quality IQ studies anti-fluoridation activists like Paul Connett love to quote were made in areas of high natural fluoride where dental and skeletal fluorosis is endemic. (wordpress.com)
  • This entry was posted in Health and Medicine , SciBlogs , science , Science and Society and tagged Dental fluorosis , fluoridation , fluoride , SciBlogs , tooth decay . (wordpress.com)
  • I have as yet to see one, single case of dental fluorosis, in any manner attributable to water fluoridation, which would even be detectable outside of close examination in my dental chair. (wordpress.com)
  • However, some of those studies have shown that the prevalence of fluorosis was higher than what would be expected given the historical data from communities with optimal fluoridation in other countries. (scielosp.org)
  • Public water fluoridation is directly or indirectly responsible for 40% of all fluorosis, but the resulting effect due to water fluoridation is largely and typically aesthetic. (thedentaire.com)
  • Water fluoridation and the greater access to fluoridated dentifrices were major actions for significantly improving the reduction of the dental caries rate 1 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Documents released under the Freedom of Information Act show that since the 1970's, the dental health professionals in the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have completely controlled the agency's stance supporting water fluoridation. (mercola.com)
  • As it turns out, ever since the mid-1970's, when fluoridation activities transferred from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to the CDC under the directorship of William Bock, dental health professionals have been the sole body of experts directing the agency's stance on water fluoridation. (mercola.com)
  • In addition, data on mean dental health rank by state for US servicemen from three periods, 1918, 1934 and 1943, were used in regression analyses with respect to summertime solar UVB doses and an index for mottled enamel, a proxy for natural fluoridation of drinking water, for 1935. (nih.gov)
  • It is unfortunate that the UVB and vitamin D findings were not given more consideration in the 1950s as a way to reduce the risk of dental caries when water fluoridation was being proposed. (nih.gov)
  • The truth, now becoming increasingly evident, is that fluoridation and the proclaimed benefit of fluoride as a way of preventing dental decay is perhaps the greatest "scientific" fraud ever perpetrated upon an unsuspecting public. (westonaprice.org)
  • According to the UK Government's systematic scientific review on water fluoridation, carried out at York University, about forty eight per cent of people living in fluoridated areas are affected by dental fluorosis. (detailshere.com)
  • Thousands of official documents confirm that artificial fluoridation of drinking water can, and does produce the 'aesthetically objectionable' effect of moderate to severe dental fluorosis. (detailshere.com)
  • Moreover, in the persistent drive to extend fluoridation schemes across the country, dental and public health officials dismiss this distressing condition as an acceptable public health trade-off, insisting that 'the benefits outweigh the risks. (detailshere.com)
  • In the second half of the 20th Century the fluoridation of community water supplies was introduced in several countries around the world in order to address the high prevalence of dental caries. (beds.ac.uk)
  • For aim 2, the crude association between the severity of fluorosis and DMFS was significantly inversely proportional except for the moderate/severe categories of fluorosis where the relationship was linear. (bu.edu)
  • [8] Other factors that have affected the severity of fluorosis in individuals are altitude of residence, nutritional status, and use of dentifrice. (appropedia.org)
  • Objectives: 1) To identify the hydrogeological characteristics and fluoride (F-) concentration in drinking water in the southeast of the state of Morelos, Mexico, and 2) to estimate the association between the prevalence and severity of fluorosis, dental caries, and water F- concentration. (scirp.org)
  • and the fluorosis risk index (Pendrys 1990), which is intended to define the time at which fluoride exposure occurs, and relates fluorosis risk with tooth development stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental fluorosis is a change in enamel appearance that occurs only when the concentration of fluoride levels are too high during development of enamel. (uiowa.edu)
  • That dental fluorosis occurs is undisputed - and its occurence, therefore, is foreseeable. (npwa.org.uk)
  • Of course this may be true in countries where severe dental fluorosis occurs,* but not in countries like New Zealand where CWF is used. (wordpress.com)
  • Color changes caused by fluorosis occurs if, as a child, within his first 7 years, the patient ingests a quantity of fluoride than exceeds 1mg/L of water. (citydent.ro)
  • To understand why fluorosis occurs we need to know that our tooth is made out of hydroxyapatite and carbonated hydroxyapatite. (smileup.info)
  • But sometimes, fluorosis occurs when fluoride-containing toothpastes or rinses are swallowed, instead of expelled. (scharinedental.com)
  • However a new study published in the Journal of the American Dental Association brushing with fluoride toothpaste can provide significant protection against decay and cavities, though using pea-sized amounts of fluoride toothpaste can lead to a condition known as dental fluorosis, where staining or changes in the color of the tooth's enamel occurs in children younger than eight years old who consume large amounts of fluoride. (medindia.net)
  • In Kenya, dental fluorosis occurs predominantly due to early-life excessive intake of fluoride, which is naturally found in water originating from aquifers in the high-fluorine volcanic rocks of the African Rift Valley. (who.int)
  • Dental plaque is a clear biofilm of bacteria that naturally forms in the mouth, particularly along the gumline , and it occurs due to the normal development and defences of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • As noted, fluorosis occurs during tooth development prior to eruption. (metafilter.com)
  • They say that children's ingestion of fluoride from juices and juice-flavored drinks can be substantial and a factor in the development of fluorosis (11). (npwa.org.uk)
  • Fluoride ingested during dental development, until the age of six years, may promote the development of fluorosis. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of this paper is to assess human exposure to drinking water fluoride in Estonia and determine the contribution of drinking water fluoride content to the dental fluorosis risk. (witpress.com)
  • The data reported is consistent with my suggestion in Confirmation blindness on the fluoride-IQ issue that reported relationships between IQ and drinking water fluoride concentration could really indicate a relationship with severe dental fluorosis, and not drinking water fluoride itself. (wordpress.com)
  • Proposed by Thylstrup and Fejerskov in 1978, the TF index represents a logical extension of Dean's index, incorporating modern understanding of the underlying pathology of fluorosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abreu, M.H.N.G. Accuracy of the Simplified Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index in Rural Communities with Endemic Fluorosis. (mdpi.com)
  • se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo de corte transversal cuantitativo, en una población estimada de 350 niños y una muestra a conveniencia de 89, en edades entre 7 y 15 años, que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión establecidos aplicando Índice de Thylstrup y Fejerskov (TFI). (bvsalud.org)
  • Children aged 8-13 years were examined for fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Index. (cof-cof.ca)
  • The Thylstrup and Fejerskov (1978)1 Index(TFt) was used to score for dental fluorosis. (ac.ke)
  • There are a lot of harmed people out there that were not told the facts about fluorides, nor have they seen documentation of what dental leaders knew and admitted amongst themselves about fluorosis," says attorney Chris Nidel. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Initially as a Clinical Lecturer then Senior Clinical Lecturer in Child Dental Health and since 2013 as Professor (Clinical) of Preventive Dentistry as well as a Specialist in Paediatric Dentistry and now in retirement since January 2020, I maintain an active research interest in the prevention and management of dental caries and the use of fluorides, particularly in relation to fluoride exposure. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The findings also suggest that the benefit of fluorides outweighs the esthetic impact of fluorosis among the U.S children and adolescents. (bu.edu)
  • Why parents should be controlling it is because the intensity of fluorosis depends upon amount of fluoride. (smileup.info)
  • The severity of dental fluorosis depends on the amount of fluoride exposure, the age of the child, individual response, weight, degree of physical activity, nutrition, and bone growth. (thedentaire.com)
  • If there's a high incidence of fluorosis in your area, you may want to check with your local water supplier to see if they're adding more than the recommended amount of fluoride in your water supply. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Fluorosis will not result in cavities or other dental problems. (colgate.com)
  • We learned that when water is fluoridated above 1.2 PPM, then fluorosis dramatically increases without a substantial decrease in the number of cavities. (oralanswers.com)
  • While all fluoride types have been proven to help prevent and control cavities by strengthening tooth enamel and dentin, stannous fluoride has been shown to make dental surfaces more resistant to bacterial acids. (colgate.com)
  • For over 50 years, the U.S. government and media have trumpeted fluoride as a safe and effective means of reducing dental cavities. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Change in dental fluorosis prevalence among children aged 12-15 participating in two national surveys: United States, 1986-1987 and 1999-2004. (cleanwatersonomamarin.org)
  • RESULTS: For aim 1, dental fluorosis prevalence among persons aged 6-19 was increasing (37% vs. 57%) from 1999-2004 to 2011-2012. (bu.edu)
  • There was no significant difference in fluorosis prevalence among the formula users in fluoridated areas. (cof-cof.ca)
  • The association between the fluoride level in drinking water and the degree of dental fluorosis has been documented worldwide. (witpress.com)
  • In males, both skeletal and dental fluorosis was more common, and the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis increased with age. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, with the advent of fluoridated dentifrices, fluoridated infant formulas, and commercially prepared beverages with fluoridated water, the incidence of dental fluorosis is increasing. (npwa.org.uk)
  • The relationship between mild consumption and the incidence of dental fluorosis among children was stressed in this study. (npwa.org.uk)
  • Based on the diet and fluoride intake of the studied groups, the areas with a better nutritional status were found to have a lower incidence of dental fluorosis. (npwa.org.uk)
  • 1: They present the issue as if the figures for the incidence of dental fluorosis relate to the severe forms when they don't. (wordpress.com)
  • Probably what one would expect because the incidence of dental fluorosis was about 28% and most of this was questionable or very mild. (wordpress.com)
  • Your dentist and dental hygienist will ask about your child's fluoride intake. (colgate.com)
  • The fluoride intake, diet, and health status of children in two dental fluorosis-afflicted areas in the Province of Jiangxi, China were studied in an attempt to correlate nutritional status with dental fluorosis(13). (npwa.org.uk)
  • Dental fluorosis is an enamel defect caused by excessive fluoride intake during the period of enamel formation, leading to incomplete crystal growth and increased porosity [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Their confirmation bias and mental blockage on this meant they were considering dental fluorosis as just another indicator of dietary fluoride intake. (wordpress.com)
  • Both intake of animal proteins and plant proteins were negatively associated with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. (who.int)
  • It is well known that the excess fluoride intake is responsible for dental and skeletal fluorosis. (eco-web.com)
  • The effect of excessive intake of fluoride is obviously seen among people in endemic areas of fluorosis in Tanzania but people have not openly expressed what they feel about of dental fluorosis. (eprints.org)
  • Persons with chronic renal failures constitute a possible group at-risk with respect to the occurrence of skeletal fluorosis, because of an increased fluoride retention after oral intake. (fluoridealert.org)
  • dental fluorosis- prevalence studies in different populations, fluoride intake and excretion studies in different populations, strategies for prevention. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • [5] Though much intake of fluoride comes from food, it has been shown that the majority of occurrences of fluorosis come from the consumption of water with excessive amounts of fluoride. (appropedia.org)
  • Data from our study show that, despite values of excretion within an optimal fluoride intake range, the prevalence of caries was significant in both groups, and 60% of the 11- to 12-year-old children presented with dental fluorosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Although this value has been extensively used as a reference to estimate the risk of fluorosis from toothpaste or the relative contribution of fluoride intake from toothpaste compared with fluoride intake from drinking water, longitudinal studies have not found a strong association between this dose and the development of dental fluorosis [ 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Dental fluorosis results from fluoride intake by different sources. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • When relating the variables established in the survey and the presence of fluorosis, a relationship was found between the pathology and the consumption of bottled beverages , with the amount of toothpaste used and with accidental intake (p = 0.000). (bvsalud.org)
  • To evaluate the relationship between fluoride intake and dental fluorosis in permanent central incisors and first molars. (unicamp.br)
  • There was no difference between children with and without fluorosis in the permanent central incisors and first molars regarding fluoride intake. (unicamp.br)
  • The American Dental Association (ADA) is now recommending the use of fluoride toothpaste in babies as soon as their first tooth appears. (medindia.net)
  • Stannous fluoride is a common active ingredient in toothpaste and has been recognized by the American Dental Association (ADA) as an effective agent in reducing tooth decay. (colgate.com)
  • thanks to toothpaste and fluoridated water, instances of tooth decay and dental caries have dropped. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Fluorosis caused by excess fluoride may be a result of using big amounts of toothpaste, but not rinsing the stuff properly after washing. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Make sure to rinse your mouth properly to get rid of toothpaste and other products you used for dental cleaning. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • With these tips, you can get rid of those fluorosis spots and give everyone a shiny, pearly-white smile you thought just existed in toothpaste advertisements. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • The regular use of fluoridated toothpaste has been associated with a decline in dental caries in both developed and developing countries [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • While the benefits of the use of such toothpaste by children and adolescents are well established [ 3 ], fluoridated toothpaste is also considered a risk factor for dental fluorosis [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The purpose of the NHANES oral health component is to assess the prevalence of oral diseases and conditions, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, edentulism, denture use, sealants, fluorosis, and traumatic injury in a national sample. (cdc.gov)
  • Dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss are significant problems affecting the Nation's oral health. (cdc.gov)
  • There are few studies that have been conducted to associate periodontal disease and dental fluorosis. (ac.ke)
  • Made out of porcelain, veneers form a ceramic shell over the surface of the tooth, covering the stains and discoloration caused by the dental fluorosis. (identalhub.com)
  • Tooth bonding and porcelain veneers are relativly expensive dental fluorosis treatments but they can provide excellent cosmetic results. (identalhub.com)
  • Here at Pearl Dental Clinic, we offer high quality da Vinci Dental Veneers. (pearldentalclinic.co.uk)
  • Cosmetic veneers provide an extremely lucrative spin-off for the privatised dental profession. (detailshere.com)
  • People with fluorosis are relatively resistant to dental caries (tooth decay caused by bacteria), although there may be cosmetic concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do you prefer dental fluorosis or tooth decay? (wordpress.com)
  • Personally I think any disfiguring oral defect like bad tooth decay or severe dental fluorosis would effect a child's quality of life and potentially cause learning defects and so drop in IQ. (wordpress.com)
  • In countries like NZ such effects on quality of life and learning are much more likely to result from bad dental decay than severe dental fluorosis. (wordpress.com)
  • Another study invesdtigatign the influence of tooth decay and dental fluorsis on quality of life is described in the paper by Do, L. G., & Spencer, A. (2007). (wordpress.com)
  • 13 responses to " Do you prefer dental fluorosis or tooth decay? (wordpress.com)
  • Dental Caries 1.1 - Describe a problem biologists are trying to solve Dental caries (tooth decay) is the destruction of the outer surface of a tooth. (studymode.com)
  • In particular, lack of regular tooth brushing, use of a mswaki (Arak tree stick) to brush, and, independently, the combination of moderate or severe dental fluorosis (mottled enamel) and tooth loss or decay were strong risk factors for oesophageal cancer. (who.int)
  • Many factors, however, can contribute to tooth decay or dental caries. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Dental caries experience was measured by DMFS score (overall caries experience and untreated decay). (bu.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings of this study suggest that the prevalence of dental fluorosis is increasing while untreated decay is decreasing among persons aged 6-19. (bu.edu)
  • Dental caries (ie, tooth decay) is an infectious disease in which acid produced by bacteria dissolves tooth enamel. (aappublications.org)
  • There are individual variations in clinical fluorosis manifestation which are highly dependent on the duration, timing, and dosage of fluoride exposure.There are different classifications to diagnose the severity based on the appearances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excess exposure of fluoride during tooth development can lead to dental fluorosis. (identalhub.com)
  • Exposure to fluoride throughout life is effective in preventing dental caries. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the enamel of the permanent central incisors takes over four years to form, I would imagine that if you are careful about fluoride exposure between the ages of 1 and 5 that your kids may not have noticeable fluorosis. (oralanswers.com)
  • Dental fluorosis is caused by the exposure of the tooth germ to high fluoride ion concentrations (F-1) during the mineralization process 3 . (bvsalud.org)
  • 2 mg/L), above the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value of 1.5 mg/L. Critical exposure ages for the development of dental fluorosis are between the ages of 1 and 7 years, during the development of permanent dentition, when excessive fluoride disrupts enamel mineralization. (who.int)
  • The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and to evaluate exposure to fluoridated products in students in the southwest part of the Federal District (Mexico City). (blogspot.com)
  • Studies have established that there is a linear relationship between fluoride exposure and dental fluorosis. (ac.ke)
  • Multiple mechanisms, including direct fluoride-related effects on ameloblasts (secretory and maturation phases), indirect fluoride-related effects on the forming matrix (nucleation and crystal growth in all stages of enamel formation), and calcium homeostasis, can result in dental fluorosis depending on the dose and duration of fluoride exposure [ 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This will help to determine if the discoloration seen is a result of fluorosis. (colgate.com)
  • Tooth discoloration or staining is caused commonly due to smoking, some medicines and poor dental hygiene. (medindia.net)
  • A total of 31(77.5%) didn't know how to prevent dental fluorosis while 9(22.5%) had knowledge on the effect of excess fluoride so they also knew how to prevent fluorosis. (eprints.org)
  • The treatment of Dental Fluorosis is accomplished by cosmetic dentistry. (smileup.info)
  • The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry criteria, Thysltrup and Fejerskov index, and World Health Organization index were used for diagnosis of MIH, dental fluorosis , and caries detection , respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • A community dental clinic lies in the heart of the area and provides excellent dentistry for all. (pearldentalclinic.co.uk)
  • Their overall conclusions - a child's caries experience negatively affects oral health-related quality of life, while fluorosis has little impact. (wordpress.com)
  • Fluorosis prevalence and primary caries experience were compared across formula user groups in multivariable regression models adjusting for other factors. (cof-cof.ca)
  • Children in fluoridated areas had higher prevalence of very mild to mild fluorosis, but lower caries experience than those in nonfluoridated areas. (cof-cof.ca)
  • There was no association between caries experience and dental fluorosis, the odds ratio was 1.080(95%CI 0.6-1.8). (ac.ke)
  • La prevalencia de fluorosis dental ha aumentado de forma alarmante en todo el mundo. (scielosp.org)
  • El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las investigaciones publicadas sobre la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en México, a fin de valorar si hay un aumento de esta prevalencia y si la fluorosis dental constituye un problema de salud pública en el país. (scielosp.org)
  • La prevalencia de fluorosis dental informada para México fue de 30 a 100% en zonas donde el agua era fluorada de manera natural y de 52 a 82% en zonas donde se consumía sal fluorada. (scielosp.org)
  • Debido a lo limitado de la información no es posible determinar si hay un aumento de la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en México o si esta afección constituye un problema de salud pública. (scielosp.org)
  • Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental y los factores asociados a su presencia, en escolares de 10 a 12 años del cantón Pimampiro, provincia de Imbabura, Ecuador . (bvsalud.org)
  • La prevalencia de fluorosis en la población de estudio se considera alta, el grado 2 según TF fue el más frecuente, y se encontró una relación con el consumo de bebidas envasadas, la cantidad de dentífrico usado y con la ingesta accidental. (bvsalud.org)
  • The study assessed longitudinal changes in the presentation of dental fluorosis and evaluated the impact of fluorosis on the perception of oral health among young adults. (blogspot.com)
  • Association between prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12-year old schoolchildren and fluoride content in drinking water was observed. (witpress.com)
  • Schoolchildren presented fluorosis (CDI = 0.96) and dental caries (DMFT = 2.64 and DMFS = 3.97). (mdpi.com)
  • High prevalence of dental fluorosis among schoolchildren in three villages in Sri Lanka. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The more severe the level of fluorosis the higher was the risk of gingivitis. (ac.ke)
  • Enamel shows staining in conjunction with any of the preceding levels of fluorosis. (cleanwatersonomamarin.org)
  • In the community with high F-concentration, a third of the children showed objectionable levels of fluorosis. (scirp.org)
  • [8] The 1783 eruption of the Laki volcano in Iceland is estimated to have killed about 22% of the Icelandic population, and 60% of livestock, as a result of fluorosis and sulfur dioxide gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you look at figure 2 (on the 5th page of the PDF), you can see the increase in fluorosis compared to the fluoride level in the water. (oralanswers.com)
  • Given this, it has been noted that those who live in hotter/humid climates and/or labor outdoors are far more likely to develop symptoms of fluorosis than those who do not. (appropedia.org)
  • An intervention with safe drinking water for 5 years in intervention group-mitigated clinical and subclinical symptoms of fluorosis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Enamel shows no evidence of fluorosis. (cleanwatersonomamarin.org)
  • Enamel shows definite evidence of fluorosis, namely areas with parchment-white color that total less than one-third of the visible enamel surface. (cleanwatersonomamarin.org)
  • If your dentist gave her a fluoride treatment then, unless he/she is grossly neglegent, he/she most likely did not find evidence of fluorosis upon examination, nor suspect that you live in a place where fluorosis is a common problem. (metafilter.com)
  • Individual susceptibility to fluorosis is the 15-24 and 25-50 age groups, while variable [ 13-17 ]. (who.int)
  • Individual susceptibility to fluorosis is also influenced by genetic factors. (thedentaire.com)
  • Twenty-eight children, born in 1978, who had earlier participated in a study of fluorosis in Perth (Western Australia), allowed 110 observers to look at their upper central incisors under good viewing conditions. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The Center of Disease Control found a 9% higher prevalence of dental fluorosis in American children than was found in a similar survey 20 years ago. (wikidoc.org)
  • Among children aged 6--19 years, 32% had received dental sealants. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the decrease in caries prevalence and severity in the permanent dentition and the increase in the proportion of children and adolescents who benefit from dental sealants, disparities remain. (cdc.gov)
  • The usually recommended level of 1 part per million produced fluorosis in 28 percent of children aged between 11 and 13 in a study carried out by the University of Rochester, USA(10). (npwa.org.uk)
  • To study the knowledge and the public perception of dental fluorosis among Palestinian children (aged 12-18 years old) and their mothers. (omicsonline.org)
  • Data of knowledge and public perception of dental fluorosis was collected through interview questionnaires with children and their mothers. (omicsonline.org)
  • Most children (99.4%) and all mothers did not know what dental fluorosis is and had not received information about it. (omicsonline.org)
  • Regarding public perception, previous studies showed that more than half the children who have dental fluorosis were avoiding smiling and not accepting their appearance [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • In addition, parents felt worried and embarrassed when their children who had dental fluorosis [ 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • In Gaza Strip, the Palestinian children have suffered from high prevalence of dental fluorosis (60 - 78%) for decades and many risk factors were found associated with severe dental fluorosis [ 7 , 8 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Dental fluorosis has negative effect on children appearance . (omicsonline.org)
  • The high proportion of children with moderate/sever dental fluorosis indicates the study involved an area of endemic fluorosis. (wordpress.com)
  • The digit span test results suggest a "deficit in working memory" for the children with moderate and severe dental fluorosis. (wordpress.com)
  • It seems entirely reasonable that a physical anomaly like severe dental fluorosis could lead to learning difficulties in children which could be seen as lower IQ values. (wordpress.com)
  • ABSTRACT A high prevalence of dental fluorosis has been identified among children in the Gaza Strip. (who.int)
  • This study aimed to determine the history of breastfeeding and dietary behaviours among children in the Gaza Strip and to examine potential associations with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. (who.int)
  • CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2004 and National Institute of Dental Research, National Survey of Oral Health in U.S. School Children, 1986-1987. (cleanwatersonomamarin.org)
  • Of the 62.5 percent of the White children [from Indianapolis, Indiana] who presented with dental fluorosis upon examination, 41.3 percent had a maximum score of 1 and only 21.2 percent of the children had a maximum score of 2. (cleanwatersonomamarin.org)
  • Of the 80.1 percent of African American children who had dental fluorosis, a maximum score of 1 was assigned to 50.5 percent of the children, 15.4 percent were assigned a maximum score of 2, 1.5 percent had a maximum score of 3, and 12.7 percent were assigned the highest score of 5. (cleanwatersonomamarin.org)
  • This study determined the prevalence of molar - incisor hypomineralization (MIH) and its association with dental fluorosis and caries in children living in rural areas in north-eastern Brazil who are exposed to residual fluoride (F) levels in the drinking water . (bvsalud.org)
  • Children with MIH had a higher DMFT, and severe MIH cases were most frequent in children with dental fluorosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • All 126 children surveyed by FMRRC-ABMRCP in two schools of Chitradurga Dt were affected by dental fluorosis. (countercurrents.org)
  • Not only do we offer a full spectrum of dental care for adults, but children can also receive top quality, child-friendly dental care. (pearldentalclinic.co.uk)
  • However, laboratory and epidemiologic research suggests that fluoride prevents dental caries predominately after eruption of the tooth into the mouth, and its actions primarily are topical for both adults and children. (westonaprice.org)
  • Over time, the Fluorosis is common among children, although mild cases of the problem may be found in adults as well. (howtogetridofstuff.com)
  • Returning to the University at Newcastle as a Clinical Research Associate I completed my PhD in 1992 with a study of the dental effects of the use of sugars-containing medication in chronically sick children. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Although average dental caries scores for school-aged children have declined, 50 percent of children still have caries. (cdc.gov)
  • Dental sealants, an effective means of preventing caries, are underutilized in the United States, with only 19 percent of children aged 5-17 having them. (cdc.gov)
  • The prevalence of dental fluorosis in four selected schools from different areas in Sri Lanka was investigated by dental examination of 377 school children aged 14 years. (who.int)
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between patterns of infant formula feeding and dental fluorosis and caries in a representative sample of Australian children. (cof-cof.ca)
  • Among children in nonfluoridated areas, formula users for 6+ months had significantly higher prevalence of fluorosis compared with nonusers. (cof-cof.ca)
  • Results: Oral examinations showed that 32.35% of the children had severe forms of fluorosis (TFI ≥ 4) in the community with 1.60 mg F-/L and 7.8% in the 0.75 mg F-/L community (p (scirp.org)
  • INTRODUCTION: Major oral diseases afflicting children and adolescents are dental caries and gingivitis. (ac.ke)
  • The mean DMFT of the children with fluorosis and those without fluorosis was 1.44 and 1.55 respectively. (ac.ke)
  • DISCUSSION: The prevalence of dental caries was 39.1% with none of the children having any filling done .The lack of any dental restorative treatment on any of the childten could be due to the low dental health awareness and inaccessibility to dental health facilities and unaffordability of restorative treatment due to the low income earned by the parents. (ac.ke)
  • The children in need of periodontal treatment were 76%, the high treatment need could be due to low dental health awareness and poor oral hygiene practice. (ac.ke)
  • The higher prevalence of gingivitis among the children with dental fluorosis could be hypothesized to be due to the pitting and rough surfaces, which are not easily cleansable. (ac.ke)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries and dental fluorosis among Mexican preschoolers and school-aged children in a non-endemic zone for fluorosis and to measure its biological indicators. (mdpi.com)
  • DMFT and DMFS were lower in children with mild to moderate dental fluorosis (DF). (mdpi.com)
  • 1 The prevalence of dental caries in very young children increased during the period between the last 2 national surveys, despite improvements for older children. (aappublications.org)
  • 4 Because many children do not receive dental care at young ages, and risk factors for dental caries are influenced by parenting practices, pediatricians have a unique opportunity to participate in the primary prevention of dental caries. (aappublications.org)
  • Certain American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) publications ( Oral Health Risk Assessment Timing and Establishment of the Dental Home 6 and Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children, and Adolescents 7 ) discuss these concepts in greater depth and provide targeted preventive anticipatory guidance. (aappublications.org)
  • We aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors, in children from 10 to 12 years old from Pimampiro, province of Imbabura, Ecuador . (bvsalud.org)
  • 1) and noncases (children without dental fluorosis, TFI = 0). (unicamp.br)
  • Results of multiple regression models show that moderate and severe fluorosis was significantly associated with lower total and backward digit span scores when compared to the reference combined categories of normal and questionable fluorosis (Table 4). (wordpress.com)
  • Motor coordination and dexterity were not significantly associated with fluoride in drinking water and fluorosis although higher levels were associated with poorer scores as well. (wordpress.com)
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at or above 30-40 ng/ml should significantly reduce the formation of dental caries. (nih.gov)
  • However, after controlling of DMFS and covariates in a multiple regression model, fluorosis severity was not significantly associated with lower OHRQoL score. (bu.edu)
  • Among 35 examined elements in groundwater, Ca, Al, Cu, and Rb were found to be significantly correlated with dental health outcomes among the residents exposed to water with excessive F- concentrations. (cgiar.org)
  • Conclusion: Infant formula use was associated with higher prevalence of fluorosis in nonfluoridated areas but not in fluoridated areas. (cof-cof.ca)
  • Mild to moderate fluorosis produces white lines, streaks or spots. (colgate.com)
  • 29.3% had very mild fluorosis, 20.9% had mild fluorosis, 6.7% had moderate fluorosis, and 2.1% had severe fluorosis. (blogspot.com)
  • 3, dental fluorosis patients can have life history in the high fluoride area. (kqxf.com)
  • The sample was made up of 396 individuals aged six to 22 years from three Brazilian cities with endemic fluorosis caused by the ingestion of water with high fluoride concentration. (mdpi.com)
  • The severity of MIH, however, was likely to be associated with dental fluorosis in areas with moderate to high fluoride levels in the drinking water . (bvsalud.org)
  • [1] Most patients suffering from skeletal fluorosis show side effects from the high fluoride dose such as ruptures of the stomach lining and nausea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Velu H. Dental dystrophy in mammals of the phosphate zone and chronic fluorosis. (npwa.org.uk)
  • Dental fluorosis is a typical endemic disease, which is the most common and prominent symptom in the early stage of chronic fluorosis. (kqxf.com)
  • Knowledge and public perception towards dental fluorosis is important factor in public health interventions and were not studied before in Palestine or Arabic countries. (omicsonline.org)
  • There are no information assess Palestinians' awareness about the risk of having excessive fluoride, the methods that minimize and prevent this problem and the public perception of dental fluorosis. (omicsonline.org)
  • This also concluded that caries and less acceptable appearance showed a negative impact, while mild fluorosis had a positive impact on child and parental perception of oral health-related quality of life. (wordpress.com)
  • To assess dental fluorosis perception among students of the health sciences at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS). (eprints.org)
  • The lower DMFS scores explain the better perception of oral health (lower OHRQoL scores) in higher fluorosis severity groups. (bu.edu)