Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
Radiation protection, also known as radiation safety, is the science and practice of protecting people and the environment from harmful ionizing radiation exposure while allowing for the safe medical, industrial, and research uses of such radiation.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Injection of air or a more slowly absorbed gas such as nitrogen, into the PLEURAL CAVITY to collapse the lung.
A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
A photoelectric method of recording an X-ray image on a coated metal plate, using low-energy photon beams, long exposure time and dry chemical developers.
Subspecialty of radiology that combines organ system radiography, catheter techniques and sectional imaging.
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Intraoperative computer-assisted 3D navigation and guidance system generally used in neurosurgery for tracking surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy. The pre-operative diagnostic scan is used as a reference and is transferred onto the operative field during surgery.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
The use of freezing as a special surgical technique to destroy or excise tissue.
The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
Injection of BONE CEMENTS into bone to treat bone lesions.
Ethyl ester of iodinated fatty acid of poppyseed oil. It contains 37% organically bound iodine and has been used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium) and as an antineoplastic agent when part of the iodine is 131-I. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
The course of learning of an individual or a group. It is a measure of performance plotted over time.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.
The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.
Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
The period during a surgical operation.
A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.
Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).
Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.

Chronic radiodermatitis following cardiac catheterisation: a report of two cases and a brief review of the literature. (1/1172)

Cardiac angiography produces one of the highest radiation exposures of any commonly used diagnostic x ray procedure. Recently, serious radiation induced skin injuries have been reported after repeated therapeutic interventional procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic imaging. Two male patients, aged 62 and 71 years, in whom chronic radiodermatitis developed one to two years after two consecutive cardiac catheterisation procedures are reported. Both patients had undergone lengthy procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic guidance in a limited number of projections. The resulting skin lesions were preceded, in one case, by an acute erythema and took the form of a delayed pigmented telangiectatic, indurated, or ulcerated plaque in the upper back or below the axilla whose site corresponded to the location of the x ray tube during cardiac catheterisation. Cutaneous side effects of radiation exposure result from direct damage to the irradiated tissue and have known thresholds. The diagnosis of radiation induced skin injury relies essentially on clinical and histopathological findings, location of skin lesions, and careful medical history. Interventional cardiologists should be aware of this complication, because chronic radiodermatitis may result in painful and resistant ulceration and eventually in squamous cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Radiolucent lines and component stability in knee arthroplasty. Standard versus fluoroscopically-assisted radiographs. (2/1172)

The radiolucent lines and the stability of the components of 66 knee arthroplasties were assessed by six orthopaedic surgeons on conventional anteroposterior and lateral radiographs and on fluoroscopic views which had been taken on the same day. The examiners were blinded as to the patients and clinical results. The interpretation of the radiographs was repeated after five months. On fluoroscopically-assisted radiographs four of the six examiners identified significantly more radiolucent lines for the femoral component (p < 0.05) and one significantly more for the tibial implant. Five examiners rated more femoral components as radiologically loose on fluoroscopically-assisted radiographs (p = 0.0008 to 0.0154), but none did so for the tibial components. The mean intra- and interobserver kappa values were higher for fluoroscopically-assisted radiographs for both components. We have shown that fluoroscopically-assisted radiographs allow more reproducible, and therefore reliable, detection of radiolucent lines in total knee arthroplasty. Assessment of the stability of the components is significantly influenced by the radiological technique used. Conventional radiographs are not adequate for evaluation of the stability of total knee arthroplasty and should be replaced by fluoroscopically-assisted films.  (+info)

Non-operative management of acetabular fractures. The use of dynamic stress views. (3/1172)

To assess the stability of the hip after acetabular fracture, dynamic fluoroscopic stress views were taken of 41 acetabular fractures that met the criteria for non-operative management. These included roof arcs of 45 degrees, a subchondral CT arc of 10 mm, displacement of less than 50% of the posterior wall, and congruence on the AP and Judet views of the hip. There were three unstable hips which were treated by open reduction and internal fixation. The remaining 38 fractures were treated non-operatively with early mobilisation and delayed weight-bearing. At a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, the results were good or excellent in 91% of the cases. Three fair results were ascribed to the patients' other injuries. Dynamic stress views can identify subtle instability in patients who would normally be considered for non-operative treatment.  (+info)

Retrograde esophageal balloon dilatation for caustic stricture in an outpatient clinic setting. (4/1172)

Caustic injury to the esophagus, with resultant esophageal stricture, is a challenge for the surgeon. These strictures require multiple esophageal dilatations, which are usually performed under general anesthesia and frequently under fluoroscopic control. Because of the risks of multiple general anesthetics and frequent radiation, a technique is described for retrograde esophageal balloon dilatation in an outpatient clinic setting without a general anesthetic or fluoroscopic control.  (+info)

Intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography as an adjuvant to fluoroscopy during endovascular thoracic aortic repair. (5/1172)

OBJECTIVES: To define the utility of intraoperative transeophageal echocardiography (TEE) during endovascular thoracic aortic repair. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIALS: Five patients underwent six transluminal endovascular stent-graft procedures for repair of thoracic aortic disease. METHODS: After induction of anaesthesia, a multiplane or biplane TEE probe was placed to obtain views of the diseased aorta. Both transverse and longitudinal planes of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic segments were imaged. The aortic pathology was confirmed by TEE and the proximal and distal extents of the intrathoracic lesion were defined. Doppler and colour-flow imaging was used to identify flow patterns through the aorta before and after stent-graft deployment. RESULTS: Visualisation and confirmation of the aortic pathology by ultrasonography was accomplished in all patients. TEE was able to confirm proper placement of the endograft relative to the aortic lesion after deployment and was able to confirm exclusion of blood flow into the aneurysm sacs. CONCLUSIONS: TEE may facilitate repair by confirming aortic pathology, identifying endograft placement, assessment of the adequacy of aneurysm sack isolation, as well as dynamic intraoperative cardiac assessment.  (+info)

The effect of hiatus hernia on gastro-oesophageal junction pressure. (6/1172)

BACKGROUND: Hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension are often viewed as opposing hypotheses for gastro-oesophageal junction incompetence. AIMS: To examine the interaction between hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension. METHODS: In seven normal subjects and seven patients with hiatus hernia, the squamocolumnar junction and intragastric margin of the gastro-oesophageal junction were marked with endoscopically placed clips. Axial and radial characteristics of the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone were mapped relative to the hiatus and clips during concurrent fluoroscopy and manometry. Responses to inspiration and abdominal compression were also analysed. RESULTS: In normal individuals the squamocolumnar junction was 0.5 cm below the hiatus and the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone extended 1.1 cm distal to that. In those with hiatus hernia, the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone had two discrete segments, one proximal to the squamocolumnar junction and one distal, attributable to the extrinsic compression within the hiatal canal. Inspiration and abdominal compression mainly augmented the distal one. Simulation of hernia reduction by algebraically summing the proximal segment pressures with the hiatal canal pressures restored normal maximal pressure, radial asymmetry, and dynamic responses of the gastro-oesophageal junction. CONCLUSIONS: Hiatus hernia reduces lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and alters its dynamic responsiveness by spatially separating pressure components derived from the intrinsic lower oesophageal sphincter and the extrinsic compression of the oesophagus within the hiatal canal.  (+info)

Radiation dose to patients and personnel during intraoperative digital subtraction angiography. (7/1172)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of intraoperative angiography to assess the results of neurovascular surgery is increasing. The purpose of this study was to measure the radiation dose to patients and personnel during intraoperative angiography and to determine the effect of experience. METHODS: Fifty consecutive intraoperative angiographic studies were performed during aneurysmal clipping or arteriovenous malformation resection from June 1993 to December 1993 and another 50 from December 1994 to June 1995. Data collected prospectively included fluoroscopy time, digital angiography time, number of views, and amount of time the radiologist spent in the room. Student's t-test was used to assess statistical significance. Effective doses were calculated from radiation exposure measurements using adult thoracic and head phantoms. RESULTS: The overall median examination required 5.2 minutes of fluoroscopy, 55 minutes of operating room use, 40 seconds of digital angiographic series time, and four views and runs. The mean room time and the number of views and runs increased in the second group of patients. A trend toward reduced fluoroscopy time was noted. Calculated effective doses for median values were as follows: patient, 76.7 millirems (mrems); radiologist, 0.028 mrems; radiology technologist, 0.044 mrems; and anesthesiologist, 0.016 mrems. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative angiography is performed with a reasonable radiation dose to the patient and personnel. The number of angiographic views and the radiologist's time in the room increase with experience.  (+info)

Swallowing function after stroke: prognosis and prognostic factors at 6 months. (8/1172)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Swallowing dysfunction (dysphagia) is common and disabling after acute stroke, but its impact on long-term prognosis for potential complications and the recovery from swallowing dysfunction remain uncertain. We aimed to prospectively study the prognosis of swallowing function over the first 6 months after acute stroke and to identify the important independent clinical and videofluoroscopic prognostic factors at baseline that are associated with an increased risk of swallowing dysfunction and complications. METHODS: We prospectively assembled an inception cohort of 128 hospital-referred patients with acute first stroke. We assessed swallowing function clinically and videofluoroscopically, within a median of 3 and 10 days, respectively, of stroke onset, using standardized methods and diagnostic criteria. All patients were followed up prospectively for 6 months for the occurrence of death, recurrent stroke, chest infection, recovery of swallowing function, and return to normal diet. RESULTS: At presentation, a swallowing abnormality was detected clinically in 65 patients (51%; 95% CI, 42% to 60%) and videofluoroscopically in 82 patients (64%; 95% CI, 55% to 72%). During the subsequent 6 months, 26 patients (20%; 95% CI, 14% to 28%) suffered a chest infection. At 6 months after stroke, 97 of the 112 survivors (87%; 95% CI, 79% to 92%) had returned to their prestroke diet. Clinical evidence of a swallowing abnormality was present in 56 patients (50%; 95% CI, 40% to 60%). Videofluoroscopy was performed at 6 months in 67 patients who had a swallowing abnormality at baseline; it showed penetration of the false cords in 34 patients and aspiration in another 17. The single independent baseline predictor of chest infection during the 6-month follow-up period was a delayed or absent swallowing reflex (detected by videofluoroscopy). The single independent predictor of failure to return to normal diet was delayed oral transit (detected by videofluoroscopy). Independent predictors of the combined outcome event of swallowing impairment, chest infection, or aspiration at 6 months were videofluoroscopic evidence of delayed oral transit and penetration of contrast into the laryngeal vestibule, age >70 years, and male sex. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing function should be assessed in all acute stroke patients because swallowing dysfunction is common, it persists in many patients, and complications frequently arise. The assessment of swallowing function should be both clinical and videofluoroscopic. The clinical and videofluoroscopic features at presentation that are important predictors of subsequent swallowing abnormalities and complications are videofluoroscopic evidence of delayed oral transit, a delayed or absent swallow reflex, and penetration. These findings require validation in other studies.  (+info)

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

Interventional radiography is a subspecialty of radiology that uses imaging guidance (such as X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures typically involve the insertion of needles, catheters, or other small instruments through the skin or a natural body opening, allowing for targeted treatment with reduced risk, trauma, and recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries.

Examples of interventional radiography procedures include:

1. Angiography: Imaging of blood vessels to diagnose and treat conditions like blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms.
2. Biopsy: The removal of tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.
3. Drainage: The removal of fluid accumulations (e.g., abscesses, cysts) or the placement of catheters to drain fluids continuously.
4. Embolization: The blocking of blood vessels to control bleeding, tumor growth, or reduce the size of an aneurysm.
5. Stenting and angioplasty: The widening of narrowed or blocked vessels using stents (small mesh tubes) or balloon catheters.
6. Radiofrequency ablation: The use of heat to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.
7. Cryoablation: The use of extreme cold to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.

Interventional radiologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in both diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for patients requiring image-guided treatments.

Radiation protection, also known as radiation safety, is a field of study and practice that aims to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It involves various measures and techniques used to minimize or eliminate exposure to ionizing radiation, such as:

1. Time: Reducing the amount of time spent near a radiation source.
2. Distance: Increasing the distance between oneself and a radiation source.
3. Shielding: Using materials that can absorb or block radiation to reduce exposure.
4. Containment: Preventing the release of radiation into the environment.
5. Training and education: Providing information and training to individuals who work with radiation sources.
6. Dosimetry and monitoring: Measuring and monitoring radiation doses received by individuals and populations.
7. Emergency planning and response: Developing plans and procedures for responding to radiation emergencies or accidents.

Radiation protection is an important consideration in various fields, including medicine, nuclear energy, research, and manufacturing, where ionizing radiation sources are used or produced.

Radiation dosage, in the context of medical physics, refers to the amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by a material or tissue, usually measured in units of Gray (Gy), where 1 Gy equals an absorption of 1 Joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter. In the clinical setting, radiation dosage is used to plan and assess the amount of radiation delivered to a patient during treatments such as radiotherapy. It's important to note that the biological impact of radiation also depends on other factors, including the type and energy level of the radiation, as well as the sensitivity of the irradiated tissues or organs.

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) refers to the use of computer systems and technologies to assist and enhance surgical procedures. These systems can include a variety of tools such as imaging software, robotic systems, and navigation devices that help surgeons plan, guide, and perform surgeries with greater precision and accuracy.

In CAS, preoperative images such as CT scans or MRI images are used to create a three-dimensional model of the surgical site. This model can be used to plan the surgery, identify potential challenges, and determine the optimal approach. During the surgery, the surgeon can use the computer system to navigate and guide instruments with real-time feedback, allowing for more precise movements and reduced risk of complications.

Robotic systems can also be used in CAS to perform minimally invasive procedures with smaller incisions and faster recovery times. The surgeon controls the robotic arms from a console, allowing for greater range of motion and accuracy than traditional hand-held instruments.

Overall, computer-assisted surgery provides a number of benefits over traditional surgical techniques, including improved precision, reduced risk of complications, and faster recovery times for patients.

Radiation monitoring is the systematic and continuous measurement, assessment, and tracking of ionizing radiation levels in the environment or within the body to ensure safety and to take appropriate actions when limits are exceeded. It involves the use of specialized instruments and techniques to detect and quantify different types of radiation, such as alpha, beta, gamma, neutron, and x-rays. The data collected from radiation monitoring is used to evaluate radiation exposure, contamination levels, and potential health risks for individuals or communities. This process is crucial in various fields, including nuclear energy production, medical imaging and treatment, radiation therapy, and environmental protection.

Catheter ablation is a medical procedure in which specific areas of heart tissue that are causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) are destroyed or ablated using heat energy (radiofrequency ablation), cold energy (cryoablation), or other methods. The procedure involves threading one or more catheters through the blood vessels to the heart, where the tip of the catheter can be used to selectively destroy the problematic tissue. Catheter ablation is often used to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and other types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's upper chambers (atria). It may also be used to treat certain types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's lower chambers (ventricles), such as ventricular tachycardia.

The goal of catheter ablation is to eliminate or reduce the frequency and severity of arrhythmias, thereby improving symptoms and quality of life. In some cases, it may also help to reduce the risk of stroke and other complications associated with arrhythmias. Catheter ablation is typically performed by a specialist in heart rhythm disorders (electrophysiologist) in a hospital or outpatient setting under local anesthesia and sedation. The procedure can take several hours to complete, depending on the complexity of the arrhythmia being treated.

It's important to note that while catheter ablation is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures, and the possibility of recurrent arrhythmias. Patients should discuss the potential benefits and risks of the procedure with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

Artificial pneumothorax is a medical condition that is intentionally induced for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. It involves the introduction of air or another gas into the pleural space, which is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. This results in the collapse of the lung on the side where the air was introduced, creating negative pressure that can help to relieve certain medical conditions.

Artificial pneumothorax is typically used as a treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis, although its use has become less common with the advent of more effective antibiotics and other treatments. It may also be used in rare cases to help collapse a lung that has been damaged or injured, making it easier to remove or repair.

The procedure for creating an artificial pneumothorax involves inserting a needle or catheter into the pleural space and introducing air or another gas. This can be done through the chest wall or through a tube that has been inserted into the lung. The amount of air introduced is carefully controlled to avoid over-inflation of the pleural space, which can cause complications such as tension pneumothorax.

While artificial pneumothorax is a useful medical procedure in certain circumstances, it carries risks and should only be performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled setting.

A catheter is a flexible tube that can be inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or to perform certain medical procedures. Catheters are used to drain fluids, deliver medications, or provide access to different parts of the body for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. They come in various sizes and materials, depending on their intended use.

In a general sense, catheters can be classified into two main categories:

1. **External catheters:** These are applied to the outside of the body and are commonly used for urinary drainage. For example, a condom catheter is an external collection device that fits over the penis to drain urine into a bag. Similarly, a Texas or Foley catheter can be used in females, where a small tube is inserted into the urethra and inflated with a balloon to keep it in place.
2. **Internal catheters:** These are inserted into the body through various openings or surgical incisions. They have different applications based on their placement:
* **Urinary catheters:** Used for bladder drainage, similar to external catheters but inserted through the urethra.
* **Vascular catheters:** Inserted into veins or arteries to administer medication, fluids, or to perform diagnostic tests like angiography.
* **Cardiovascular catheters:** Used in procedures such as cardiac catheterization to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
* **Neurological catheters:** Placed in the cerebrospinal fluid spaces of the brain or spinal cord for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, like draining excess fluid or delivering medication.
* **Gastrointestinal catheters:** Used to provide enteral nutrition, drain fluids, or perform procedures within the gastrointestinal tract.

Proper care and maintenance of catheters are crucial to prevent infection and other complications. Patients with indwelling catheters should follow their healthcare provider's instructions for cleaning, handling, and monitoring the catheter site.

Bone screws are medical devices used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to affix bone fracture fragments or to attach bones to other bones or to metal implants such as plates, rods, or artificial joints. They are typically made of stainless steel or titanium alloys and have a threaded shaft that allows for purchase in the bone when tightened. The head of the screw may have a hexagonal or star-shaped design to allow for precise tightening with a screwdriver. Bone screws come in various shapes, sizes, and designs, including fully threaded, partially threaded, cannulated (hollow), and headless types, depending on their intended use and location in the body.

Xeroradiography is not a commonly used medical imaging modality today, but it was once widely used in the past. It's a form of diagnostic radiography that uses x-rays to produce images on a special type of electrically charged, light-sensitive paper, similar to a photocopier or xerographic machine.

The xeroradiography process involves several steps:

1. The patient is positioned between the x-ray source and an imaging plate, which is coated with a layer of selenium.
2. X-rays pass through the patient and strike the selenium layer, causing it to release electrons that are attracted to and collected by a positively charged wire grid on the backside of the plate.
3. The charged areas of the plate are then dusted with a fine powder called "toner," which adheres to the charged areas.
4. A high-voltage electrical charge is applied to the plate, causing the toner to become electrically attracted to and fused to a sheet of paper that is pressed against the plate.
5. The resulting image on the paper shows areas of increased x-ray absorption (such as bones) as white or light gray, while areas of lower x-ray absorption (such as soft tissues) appear darker.

Xeroradiography was known for its high-resolution images and ability to detect subtle differences in tissue density. However, it has largely been replaced by digital radiography and other imaging modalities that offer similar or better image quality with lower radiation doses and greater convenience.

Interventional radiology (IR) is a subspecialty of radiology that uses minimally invasive image-guided procedures to diagnose and treat various medical conditions. The main goal of interventional radiology is to offer patients less invasive options for treatment, which can result in smaller incisions, reduced recovery time, and fewer complications compared to traditional open surgeries.

Interventional radiologists use a variety of imaging techniques, such as X-rays, fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound, to guide catheters, wires, needles, and other small instruments through the body to target specific areas. These targeted interventions can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, including:

1. Biopsies: Obtaining tissue samples from organs or tumors to determine a diagnosis.
2. Drainage procedures: Removing fluid from abscesses, cysts, or blocked areas to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.
3. Stent placements: Opening narrowed or obstructed blood vessels, bile ducts, or airways using small mesh tubes called stents.
4. Embolization: Blocking abnormal blood vessels or reducing blood flow to tumors, aneurysms, or other problematic areas.
5. Tumor ablation: Destroying tumors using heat (radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation), cold (cryoablation), or other energy sources.
6. Pain management: Treating chronic pain by targeting specific nerves and blocking their transmission of pain signals.
7. Vascular access: Creating secure pathways to blood vessels for dialysis, chemotherapy, or other long-term treatments.
8. Aneurysm repair: Reinforcing weakened or bulging blood vessel walls using coils, stents, or flow diverters.
9. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: Stabilizing fractured vertebrae in the spine to alleviate pain and improve mobility.
10. Uterine fibroid embolization: Reducing the size and symptoms of uterine fibroids by blocking their blood supply.

These are just a few examples of interventional radiology procedures. The field is constantly evolving, with new techniques and technologies being developed to improve patient care and outcomes. Interventional radiologists work closely with other medical specialists to provide minimally invasive treatment options for a wide range of conditions.

Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) is a passive dosimetry technique used to measure ionizing radiation exposure. It utilizes the property of certain materials, known as thermoluminescent materials or TLDs, to emit light when they are heated after being exposed to radiation.

The process involves exposing a TLD material, such as lithium fluoride (LiF) or calcium sulfate (CaSO4), to ionizing radiation. The radiation causes electrons in the material to become trapped in metastable energy levels. When the TLD material is subsequently heated, these trapped electrons are released and return to their ground state, emitting light in the process. The intensity of this thermoluminescent glow is proportional to the amount of radiation exposure the material has received.

TLDs offer several advantages over other dosimetry techniques. They can be used to measure both acute and chronic radiation exposures, are relatively insensitive to environmental factors such as temperature and humidity, and can be read out multiple times for comparison or calibration purposes. Additionally, TLD materials can be made into small, lightweight badges that can be worn by individuals to monitor their personal radiation exposure.

Overall, thermoluminescent dosimetry is a valuable tool in radiation protection, providing an accurate and reliable means of measuring ionizing radiation exposure for medical, industrial, and research applications.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

Cineradiography is a medical imaging technique that combines fluoroscopy and cinematography to record moving images of the internal structures of a patient's body. It uses a special X-ray machine with a high-speed image intensifier and a movie camera or video recorder to capture real-time, dynamic visualizations of bodily functions such as swallowing, digestion, or muscle movements.

During cineradiography, a continuous X-ray beam is passed through the patient's body while the image intensifier converts the X-rays into visible light, which is then captured by the camera or video recorder. The resulting film or digital recordings can be played back in slow motion or frame by frame to analyze the movement and function of internal organs and structures.

Cineradiography has largely been replaced by newer imaging technologies such as CT and MRI, which offer higher resolution and more detailed images without the use of radiation. However, it is still used in some specialized applications where real-time, dynamic visualization is essential for diagnosis or treatment planning.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Radiation injuries refer to the damages that occur to living tissues as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. These injuries can be acute, occurring soon after exposure to high levels of radiation, or chronic, developing over a longer period after exposure to lower levels of radiation. The severity and type of injury depend on the dose and duration of exposure, as well as the specific tissues affected.

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness, is the most severe form of acute radiation injury. It can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and skin burns. In more severe cases, it can lead to neurological damage, hemorrhage, infection, and death.

Chronic radiation injuries, on the other hand, may not appear until months or even years after exposure. They can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, skin changes, cataracts, reduced fertility, and an increased risk of cancer.

Radiation injuries can be treated with supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes replacement, antibiotics, wound care, and blood transfusions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or control bleeding. Prevention is the best approach to radiation injuries, which includes limiting exposure through proper protective measures and monitoring radiation levels in the environment.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique that combines the diagnostic capabilities of MRI with minimally invasive image-guided procedures. It uses a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and computer software to produce detailed images of the body's internal structures and soft tissues.

In interventional MRI, the technology is used in real-time to guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other medical instruments for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. This can include biopsies, tumor ablations, or targeted drug deliveries. The primary advantage of interventional MRI over traditional interventional radiology techniques is its ability to provide high-resolution imaging without the use of radiation, making it a safer option for certain patients. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform these procedures.

In the context of medicine, "needles" are thin, sharp, and typically hollow instruments used in various medical procedures to introduce or remove fluids from the body, administer medications, or perform diagnostic tests. They consist of a small-gauge metal tube with a sharp point on one end and a hub on the other, where a syringe is attached.

There are different types of needles, including:

1. Hypodermic needles: These are used for injections, such as intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), or intravenous (IV) injections, to deliver medications directly into the body. They come in various sizes and lengths depending on the type of injection and the patient's age and weight.
2. Blood collection needles: These are used for drawing blood samples for diagnostic tests. They have a special vacuum-assisted design that allows them to easily penetrate veins and collect the required amount of blood.
3. Surgical needles: These are used in surgeries for suturing (stitching) wounds or tissues together. They are typically curved and made from stainless steel, with a triangular or reverse cutting point to facilitate easy penetration through tissues.
4. Acupuncture needles: These are thin, solid needles used in traditional Chinese medicine for acupuncture therapy. They are inserted into specific points on the body to stimulate energy flow and promote healing.

It is essential to follow proper infection control procedures when handling and disposing of needles to prevent the spread of bloodborne pathogens and infectious diseases.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Neuronavigation is a surgical technique that uses imaging technology, such as MRI or CT scans, to create a 3D map of the patient's brain in real-time during surgery. This allows surgeons to accurately locate and navigate to specific areas of the brain with greater precision and less invasiveness, improving surgical outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

The neuronavigation system typically consists of a computer workstation, tracking systems, and instruments that are equipped with sensors. The system is able to track the position and orientation of these instruments relative to the patient's brain, allowing the surgeon to visualize the location of the instruments on the 3D map in real-time.

Neuronavigation has become an essential tool in many neurosurgical procedures, including tumor resection, functional neurosurgery, and deep brain stimulation. It enables surgeons to perform more complex surgeries with increased safety and efficacy, ultimately improving the quality of care for patients undergoing these procedures.

Electrophysiologic techniques, cardiac, refer to medical procedures used to study the electrical activities and conduction systems of the heart. These techniques involve the insertion of electrode catheters into the heart through blood vessels under fluoroscopic guidance to record and stimulate electrical signals. The information obtained from these studies can help diagnose and evaluate various cardiac arrhythmias, determine the optimal treatment strategy, and assess the effectiveness of therapies such as ablation or implantable devices.

The electrophysiologic study (EPS) is a type of cardiac electrophysiologic technique that involves the measurement of electrical signals from different regions of the heart to evaluate its conduction system's function. The procedure can help identify the location of abnormal electrical pathways responsible for arrhythmias and determine the optimal treatment strategy, such as catheter ablation or medication therapy.

Cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are also used in device implantation procedures, such as pacemaker or defibrillator implantation, to ensure proper placement and function of the devices. These techniques can help program and test the devices to optimize their settings for each patient's needs.

In summary, cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are medical procedures used to study and manipulate the electrical activities of the heart, helping diagnose and treat various arrhythmias and other cardiac conditions.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

In the field of medical imaging, "phantoms" refer to physical objects that are specially designed and used for calibration, quality control, and evaluation of imaging systems. These phantoms contain materials with known properties, such as attenuation coefficients or spatial resolution, which allow for standardized measurement and comparison of imaging parameters across different machines and settings.

Imaging phantoms can take various forms depending on the modality of imaging. For example, in computed tomography (CT), a common type of phantom is the "water-equivalent phantom," which contains materials with similar X-ray attenuation properties as water. This allows for consistent measurement of CT dose and image quality. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), phantoms may contain materials with specific relaxation times or magnetic susceptibilities, enabling assessment of signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and other imaging parameters.

By using these standardized objects, healthcare professionals can ensure the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of medical images, ultimately contributing to improved patient care and safety.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

The thoracic vertebrae are the 12 vertebrae in the thoracic region of the spine, which is the portion between the cervical and lumbar regions. These vertebrae are numbered T1 to T12, with T1 being closest to the skull and T12 connecting to the lumbar region.

The main function of the thoracic vertebrae is to provide stability and support for the chest region, including protection for the vital organs within, such as the heart and lungs. Each thoracic vertebra has costal facets on its sides, which articulate with the heads of the ribs, forming the costovertebral joints. This connection between the spine and the ribcage allows for a range of movements while maintaining stability.

The thoracic vertebrae have a unique structure compared to other regions of the spine. They are characterized by having long, narrow bodies, small bony processes, and prominent spinous processes that point downwards. This particular shape and orientation of the thoracic vertebrae contribute to their role in limiting excessive spinal movement and providing overall trunk stability.

The sacrum is a triangular-shaped bone in the lower portion of the human vertebral column, located between the lumbar spine and the coccyx (tailbone). It forms through the fusion of several vertebrae during fetal development. The sacrum's base articulates with the fifth lumbar vertebra, while its apex connects with the coccyx.

The sacrum plays an essential role in supporting the spine and transmitting weight from the upper body to the pelvis and lower limbs. It also serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments. The sacral region is often a focus in medical and chiropractic treatments due to its importance in spinal stability, posture, and overall health.

Radiologic technology is a medical term that refers to the use of imaging technologies to diagnose and treat diseases. It involves the application of various forms of radiation, such as X-rays, magnetic fields, sound waves, and radioactive substances, to create detailed images of the internal structures of the body.

Radiologic technologists are healthcare professionals who operate the imaging equipment and work closely with radiologists, who are medical doctors specializing in interpreting medical images. Radiologic technology includes various imaging modalities such as:

1. X-ray radiography: produces images of internal structures by passing X-rays through the body onto a detector.
2. Computed tomography (CT): uses X-rays to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of internal structures without using radiation.
4. Ultrasound: uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of internal structures, such as fetuses during pregnancy or organs like the heart and liver.
5. Nuclear medicine: uses small amounts of radioactive substances to diagnose and treat diseases by creating detailed images of the body's internal structures and functions.

Radiologic technology plays a crucial role in modern medicine, enabling healthcare providers to make accurate diagnoses, plan treatments, and monitor patient progress.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), which is a rapid heart rhythm originating at or above the atrioventricular node. In AVNRT, an abnormal electrical circuit in or near the AV node creates a reentry pathway that allows for rapid heart rates, typically greater than 150-250 beats per minute.

In normal conduction, the electrical impulse travels from the atria to the ventricles through the AV node and then continues down the bundle branches to the Purkinje fibers, resulting in a coordinated contraction of the heart. In AVNRT, an extra electrical pathway exists that allows for the reentry of the electrical impulse back into the atria, creating a rapid and abnormal circuit.

AVNRT is classified based on the direction of the reentry circuit:

1. Typical or common AVNRT: The most common form, accounting for 90% of cases. In this type, the reentry circuit involves an "anterior" and a "posterior" loop in or near the AV node. The anterior loop has slower conduction velocity than the posterior loop, creating a "short" reentry circuit that is responsible for the rapid heart rate.
2. Atypical AVNRT: Less common, accounting for 10% of cases. In this type, the reentry circuit involves an "outer" and an "inner" loop around the AV node. The outer loop has slower conduction velocity than the inner loop, creating a "long" reentry circuit that is responsible for the rapid heart rate.

AVNRT can present with symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, or syncope (fainting). Treatment options include observation, vagal maneuvers, medications, and catheter ablation. Catheter ablation is a curative treatment that involves the destruction of the abnormal electrical pathway using radiofrequency energy or cryotherapy.

Interventional ultrasonography is a medical procedure that involves the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to guide minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This technique combines the advantages of ultrasound, such as its non-ionizing nature (no radiation exposure), relatively low cost, and portability, with the ability to perform precise and targeted procedures.

In interventional ultrasonography, a specialized physician called an interventional radiologist or an interventional sonographer uses high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of internal organs and tissues. These images help guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other instruments used during the procedure. Common interventions include biopsies (tissue sampling), fluid drainage, tumor ablation, and targeted drug delivery.

The real-time visualization provided by ultrasonography allows for increased accuracy and safety during these procedures, minimizing complications and reducing recovery time compared to traditional surgical approaches. Additionally, interventional ultrasonography can be performed on an outpatient basis, further contributing to its appeal as a less invasive alternative in many clinical scenarios.

Anatomic landmarks are specific, identifiable structures or features on the body that are used as references in medicine and surgery. These landmarks can include bones, muscles, joints, or other visible or palpable features that help healthcare professionals identify specific locations, orient themselves during procedures, or measure changes in the body.

Examples of anatomic landmarks include:

* The anterior iliac spine, a bony prominence on the front of the pelvis that can be used to locate the hip joint.
* The cubital fossa, a depression at the elbow where the median nerve and brachial artery can be palpated.
* The navel (umbilicus), which serves as a reference point for measuring distances in the abdomen.
* The xiphoid process, a small piece of cartilage at the bottom of the breastbone that can be used to locate the heart and other structures in the chest.

Anatomic landmarks are important for accurate diagnosis, treatment planning, and surgical procedures, as they provide reliable and consistent reference points that can help ensure safe and effective care.

Radiometry is the measurement of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light. It quantifies the amount and characteristics of radiant energy in terms of power or intensity, wavelength, direction, and polarization. In medical physics, radiometry is often used to measure therapeutic and diagnostic radiation beams used in various imaging techniques and cancer treatments such as X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet or infrared light. Radiometric measurements are essential for ensuring the safe and effective use of these medical technologies.

Cryosurgery is a medical procedure that uses extreme cold, such as liquid nitrogen or argon gas, to destroy abnormal or unwanted tissue. The intense cold causes the water inside the cells to freeze and form ice crystals, which can rupture the cell membrane and cause the cells to die. Cryosurgery is often used to treat a variety of conditions including skin growths such as warts and tumors, precancerous lesions, and some types of cancer. The procedure is typically performed in a doctor's office or outpatient setting and may require local anesthesia.

A percutaneous nephrostomy is a medical procedure in which a tube (catheter) is inserted through the skin into the kidney to drain urine. "Percutaneous" means that the procedure is performed through the skin. The term "nephrostomy" refers specifically to the creation of an opening into the kidney.

This procedure is typically performed under local anesthesia and imaging guidance, such as ultrasound or fluoroscopy, to ensure accurate placement of the catheter. It may be used in cases where there is a blockage in the urinary tract that prevents the normal flow of urine, such as a kidney stone or tumor. By creating a nephrostomy, urine can be drained from the kidney, helping to alleviate pressure and prevent further complications.

Percutaneous nephrostomy is generally a safe procedure, but like any medical intervention, it carries some risks. These may include bleeding, infection, injury to surrounding organs, or failure to properly place the catheter. Patients who undergo this procedure will typically require follow-up care to manage the catheter and monitor their kidney function.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

Cementoplasty is a medical procedure that involves the injection of bone cement into the damaged or weakened bones to provide stability and pain relief. The cement used in this procedure is typically a type of acrylic material that hardens quickly once it is mixed and introduced into the bone. This procedure is often used to treat spinal compression fractures, vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty being the most common types of cementoplasty performed on the spine. It can also be used in other parts of the body, such as the pelvis or long bones, to treat tumors, fractures, or joint diseases.

Ethiodized oil is a type of poppy seed oil that has been chemically treated with iodine. It is a highly dense form of iodine, which is used as a radiocontrast medium for imaging studies, such as X-rays and CT scans. The iodine in the ethiodized oil absorbs the X-rays and makes certain structures in the body more visible on the images. It is typically used to help diagnose conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract, such as ulcers or tumors.

It's important to note that the use of ethiodized oil as a radiocontrast medium has declined in recent years due to the development of newer, safer contrast agents. Additionally, there are potential risks associated with its use, including allergic reactions and kidney damage, so it is typically used only when other options are not available or have been determined to be inappropriate.

Body Surface Potential Mapping (BSPM) is a non-invasive medical technique used to record and analyze the electrical activity of the heart from the surface of the body. It involves placing multiple electrodes on the skin of the chest, back, and limbs to measure the potential differences between these points during each heartbeat. This information is then used to create a detailed, visual representation of the electrical activation pattern of the heart, which can help in the diagnosis and evaluation of various cardiac disorders such as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and ventricular hypertrophy.

The BSPM technique provides high-resolution spatial and temporal information about the cardiac electrical activity, making it a valuable tool for both clinical and research purposes. It can help identify the origin and spread of abnormal electrical signals in the heart, which is crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies. Overall, Body Surface Potential Mapping is an important diagnostic modality that offers unique insights into the electrical functioning of the heart.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Radiodermatitis is a cutaneous adverse reaction that occurs as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. It is characterized by inflammation, erythema, dryness, and desquamation of the skin, which can progress to moist desquamation, ulceration, and necrosis in severe cases. Radiodermatitis typically affects areas of the skin that have received high doses of radiation therapy during cancer treatment. The severity and duration of radiodermatitis depend on factors such as the total dose, fraction size, dose rate, and volume of radiation administered, as well as individual patient characteristics.

A "learning curve" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general concept that is used in various fields including medicine. It refers to the process of acquiring new skills or knowledge in a specific task or activity, and the improvement in performance that comes with experience and practice over time.

In a medical context, a learning curve may refer to the rate at which healthcare professionals acquire proficiency in a new procedure, technique, or technology. It can also describe how quickly patients learn to manage their own health conditions or treatments. The term is often used to evaluate the effectiveness of training programs and to identify areas where additional education or practice may be necessary.

It's important to note that individuals may have different learning curves depending on factors such as prior experience, innate abilities, motivation, and access to resources. Therefore, it's essential to tailor training and support to the needs of each learner to ensure optimal outcomes.

Atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fi-bru-la'shun) is a type of abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. In this condition, the electrical signals that coordinate heartbeats don't function properly, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles, which can lead to blood clots, stroke, and other complications. Atrial fibrillation is a common type of arrhythmia and can cause symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness. It can be caused by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, age, and genetics. Treatment options include medications, electrical cardioversion, and surgical procedures to restore normal heart rhythm.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The cervical vertebrae are the seven vertebrae that make up the upper part of the spine, also known as the neck region. They are labeled C1 to C7, with C1 being closest to the skull and C7 connecting to the thoracic vertebrae in the chest region. The cervical vertebrae have unique structures to allow for a wide range of motion in the neck while also protecting the spinal cord and providing attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a type of congenital heart defect that involves the septum, which is the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart (atria). An ASD is a hole or abnormal opening in the atrial septum, allowing oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart. This leads to an overload of blood in the right side of the heart, which can cause enlargement of the heart and increased work for the right ventricle.

ASDs can vary in size, and small defects may not cause any symptoms or require treatment. Larger defects, however, can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart rhythm abnormalities. Over time, if left untreated, ASDs can lead to complications like pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.

Treatment for ASD typically involves surgical closure of the defect or catheter-based procedures using devices to close the hole. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the size and location of the defect, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any coexisting conditions.

Intramedullary fracture fixation is a surgical technique used to stabilize and align bone fractures. In this procedure, a metal rod or nail is inserted into the marrow cavity (intramedullary canal) of the affected bone, spanning the length of the fracture. The rod is then secured to the bone using screws or other fixation devices on either side of the fracture. This provides stability and helps maintain proper alignment during the healing process.

The benefits of intramedullary fixation include:

1. Load sharing: The intramedullary rod shares some of the load bearing capacity with the bone, which can help reduce stress on the healing bone.
2. Minimal soft tissue dissection: Since the implant is inserted through the medullary canal, there is less disruption to the surrounding muscles, tendons, and ligaments compared to other fixation methods.
3. Biomechanical stability: Intramedullary fixation provides rotational and bending stiffness, which helps maintain proper alignment of the fracture fragments during healing.
4. Early mobilization: Patients with intramedullary fixation can often begin weight bearing and rehabilitation exercises earlier than those with other types of fixation, leading to faster recovery times.

Common indications for intramedullary fracture fixation include long bone fractures in the femur, tibia, humerus, and fibula, as well as certain pelvic and spinal fractures. However, the choice of fixation method depends on various factors such as patient age, fracture pattern, location, and associated injuries.

A bronchoscope is a medical device that is used to examine the airways and lungs. It is a long, thin, flexible tube that is equipped with a light and a camera at its tip. The bronchoscope is inserted through the nose or mouth and down the throat, allowing the doctor to visualize the trachea, bronchi, and smaller branches of the airway system.

Bronchoscopes can be used for diagnostic purposes, such as to take tissue samples (biopsies) or to investigate the cause of symptoms like coughing up blood or difficulty breathing. They can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as to remove foreign objects from the airways or to place stents to keep them open.

There are several types of bronchoscopes, including flexible bronchoscopes and rigid bronchoscopes. Flexible bronchoscopes are more commonly used because they are less invasive and can be used to examine smaller airways. Rigid bronchoscopes, on the other hand, are larger and stiffer, and are typically used for more complex procedures or in emergency situations.

It is important to note that the use of bronchoscopes requires specialized training and should only be performed by healthcare professionals with the appropriate expertise.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is the practice of using specialized techniques to monitor physiological functions or neural structures in real-time during surgical procedures. The primary goal of IOM is to provide continuous information about the patient's status and the effects of surgery on neurological function, allowing surgeons to make informed decisions and minimize potential risks.

IOM can involve various methods such as:

1. Electrophysiological monitoring: This includes techniques like somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the integrity of neural pathways and brain function during surgery.
2. Neuromonitoring: Direct electrical stimulation of nerves or spinal cord structures can help identify critical neuroanatomical structures, evaluate their functional status, and guide surgical interventions.
3. Hemodynamic monitoring: Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen saturation helps assess the patient's overall physiological status during surgery.
4. Imaging modalities: Intraoperative imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide real-time visualization of anatomical structures and surgical progress.

The specific IOM methods employed depend on the type of surgery, patient characteristics, and potential risks involved. Intraoperative monitoring is particularly crucial in procedures where there is a risk of neurological injury, such as spinal cord or brain surgeries, vascular interventions, or tumor resections near critical neural structures.

A puncture, in medical terms, refers to a small hole or wound that is caused by a sharp object penetrating the skin or other body tissues. This can result in damage to underlying structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or organs, and may lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, or inflammation.

Punctures can occur accidentally, such as from stepping on a nail or getting pricked by a needle, or they can be inflicted intentionally, such as during medical procedures like injections or blood draws. In some cases, puncture wounds may require medical attention to clean and close the wound, prevent infection, and promote healing.

A spinal fracture, also known as a vertebral compression fracture, is a break in one or more bones (vertebrae) of the spine. This type of fracture often occurs due to weakened bones caused by osteoporosis, but it can also result from trauma such as a car accident or a fall.

In a spinal fracture, the front part of the vertebra collapses, causing the height of the vertebra to decrease, while the back part of the vertebra remains intact. This results in a wedge-shaped deformity of the vertebra. Multiple fractures can lead to a hunched forward posture known as kyphosis or dowager's hump.

Spinal fractures can cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms, depending on the location and severity of the fracture. In some cases, spinal cord compression may occur, leading to more severe symptoms such as paralysis or loss of bladder and bowel control.

Chyle is a milky, slightly opaque fluid that is present in the lymphatic system. It is formed in the small intestine during the digestion of food, particularly fats. Chyle consists of emulsified fat droplets (chylomicrons), proteins, electrolytes, and lymphocytes suspended in a watery solution. It is transported through the lacteals in the villi of the small intestine into the cisterna chyli and then to the thoracic duct, where it empties into the left subclavian vein. From there, it mixes with blood and circulates throughout the body. Chyle formation plays a crucial role in fat absorption and transportation in the human body.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

Medical Definition:

Radiation is the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization, which can occur naturally (e.g., sunlight) or be produced artificially (e.g., x-rays, radioisotopes). In medicine, radiation is used diagnostically and therapeutically in various forms, such as X-rays, gamma rays, and radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat diseases like cancer. However, excessive exposure to radiation can pose health risks, including radiation sickness and increased risk of cancer.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

The coronary sinus is a large vein that receives blood from the heart's muscle tissue. It is located on the posterior side of the heart and is a part of the cardiovascular system. The coronary sinus collects oxygen-depleted blood from the myocardium (the heart muscle) and drains it into the right atrium, where it will then be pumped to the lungs for oxygenation.

The coronary sinus is an essential structure in medical procedures such as cardiac catheterization and electrophysiological studies. It is also a common site for the implantation of pacemakers and other cardiac devices.

Atrial flutter is a type of abnormal heart rhythm or arrhythmia that originates in the atria - the upper chambers of the heart. In atrial flutter, the atria beat too quickly, usually between 250 and 350 beats per minute, which is much faster than the normal resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.

This rapid beating causes the atria to quiver or "flutter" instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles - the lower chambers of the heart - which can lead to reduced cardiac output and symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, or chest discomfort.

Atrial flutter is often caused by underlying heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, or congenital heart defects. It can also be a complication of cardiac surgery or other medical procedures. In some cases, atrial flutter may occur without any apparent underlying cause, which is known as lone atrial flutter.

Treatment for atrial flutter typically involves medications to control the heart rate and rhythm, electrical cardioversion to restore a normal heart rhythm, or catheter ablation to destroy the abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that are causing the arrhythmia. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to treat atrial flutter.

Cineangiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood flow in the heart and cardiovascular system. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the bloodstream while X-ray images are taken in quick succession, creating a movie-like sequence that shows the movement of the contrast through the blood vessels and chambers of the heart. This technique is often used to diagnose and evaluate various heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, and congenital heart defects.

The procedure typically involves threading a catheter through a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guiding it to the heart. Once in place, the contrast agent is injected, and X-ray images are taken using a specialized X-ray machine called a fluoroscope. The images captured during cineangiography can help doctors identify areas of narrowing or blockage in the coronary arteries, abnormalities in heart valves, and other cardiovascular problems.

Cineangiography is an invasive procedure that carries some risks, such as bleeding, infection, and reactions to the contrast agent. However, it can provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating heart conditions, and may be recommended when other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive.

Computer-assisted radiographic image interpretation is the use of computer algorithms and software to assist and enhance the interpretation and analysis of medical images produced by radiography, such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans. The computer-assisted system can help identify and highlight certain features or anomalies in the image, such as tumors, fractures, or other abnormalities, which may be difficult for the human eye to detect. This technology can improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis, and may also reduce the risk of human error. It's important to note that the final interpretation and diagnosis is always made by a qualified healthcare professional, such as a radiologist, who takes into account the computer-assisted analysis in conjunction with their clinical expertise and knowledge.

The heart atria are the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and deliver it to the lower chambers, or ventricles. There are two atria in the heart: the right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the right ventricle, which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated; and the left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle, which then sends it out to the rest of the body. The atria contract before the ventricles during each heartbeat, helping to fill the ventricles with blood and prepare them for contraction.

Radiographic image enhancement refers to the process of improving the quality and clarity of radiographic images, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI images, through various digital techniques. These techniques may include adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that can interfere with image interpretation.

The goal of radiographic image enhancement is to provide medical professionals with clearer and more detailed images, which can help in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. This process may be performed using specialized software or hardware tools, and it requires a strong understanding of imaging techniques and the specific needs of medical professionals.

"Body burden" is a term used in the field of environmental health to describe the total amount of a chemical or toxic substance that an individual has accumulated in their body tissues and fluids. It refers to the overall load or concentration of a particular chemical or contaminant that an organism is carrying, which can come from various sources such as air, water, food, and consumer products.

The term "body burden" highlights the idea that people can be exposed to harmful substances unknowingly and unintentionally, leading to potential health risks over time. Some factors that may influence body burden include the frequency and duration of exposure, the toxicity of the substance, and individual differences in metabolism, elimination, and susceptibility.

It is important to note that not all chemicals or substances found in the body are necessarily harmful, as some are essential for normal bodily functions. However, high levels of certain environmental contaminants can have adverse health effects, making it crucial to monitor and regulate exposure to these substances.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Vertebroplasty is a medical procedure used to treat spinal fractures, particularly those resulting from osteoporosis or cancer. The procedure involves injecting a type of bone cement called polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the damaged vertebra. This helps to stabilize the bone, reduce pain, and improve function.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the skin, and a hollow needle is guided using fluoroscopy (a type of X-ray guidance) into the fractured vertebra. Once in place, the PMMA cement is injected into the bone, where it hardens quickly, providing stability to the fractured vertebra.

It's important to note that while vertebroplasty can be an effective treatment for some patients with spinal fractures, it's not always necessary or appropriate. The decision to undergo this procedure should be made in consultation with a healthcare provider and based on a thorough evaluation of the patient's individual needs and circumstances.

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure where two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together to create a solid bone. The purpose of this procedure is to restrict movement between the fused vertebrae, which can help reduce pain and stabilize the spine. This is typically done using bone grafts or bone graft substitutes, along with hardware such as rods, screws, or cages to hold the vertebrae in place while they heal together. The procedure may be recommended for various spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or fractures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "magnetics" is not a term that is commonly used in medical definitions. It is a term more frequently used in physics and engineering to refer to things related to magnets or magnetic fields. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try to help with those!

ISBN 978-1-56670-223-2. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopy FDA Radiological Health Program "Were ... "Radiation-induced Skin Injuries from Fluoroscopy". FDA. Shope, T. B. (1996). "Radiation-induced skin injuries from fluoroscopy ... "Fluoroscopy", referencing US Patent 3277302 to Weighart and detailing the fluoroscopy procedure for nondestructing testing. U.S ... followed by an advisory to minimize further fluoroscopy-induced injuries. The problem of radiation injuries due to fluoroscopy ...
"Fluoroscopy". IAEA Radiation Protection of Patients. Archived from the original on 2011-02-18. (Articles with short description ... a software registration between the CT image and the life fluoroscopy is required. This takes some time and is not perfectly ...
While standard fluoroscopy is predominantly used to guide devices and to re-position the field of view, data acquisition is ... The ostia of the renal arteries can be circled on the 3D image and then overlaid on the live fluoroscopy. As the marking has ... The reduction from 30 p/s to 7.5 p/s results in a dose saving of 75%. When using pulsed fluoroscopy, radiation dose is only ... "Fluoroscopy". IAEA Radiation Protection of Patients. 3 July 2017. Archived from the original on 18 February 2011. Video of a ...
This should not be confused with fluoroscopy, where there is a continuous beam of radiation and the images appear on the screen ... "Fluoroscopy". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on October 19, 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2017. Dreyer, Keith ... X-ray image intensifier Radioluminescence Spinthariscope Fluoroscopy Digital radiography Benjamin S (2010). "Phosphor plate ...
Biplanar Fluoroscopy works the same as single plane fluoroscopy except displaying two planes at the same time. The ability to ... Fluoroscopy is mainly performed to view movement (of tissue or a contrast agent), or to guide a medical intervention, such as ... The last can often be carried out in the operating theatre, using a portable fluoroscopy machine called a C-arm. It can move ... Radiography's origins and fluoroscopy's origins can both be traced to 8 November 1895, when German physics professor Wilhelm ...
Chest fluoroscopy is a real-time X-ray image (sometimes referred to as an X-ray movie) to view breathing and coughing. ... "Chest Fluoroscopy". www.hopkinsmedicine.org. 2019-08-14. Retrieved 2022-09-16. Gibbons, Alexander T.; Casar Berazaluce, ... In cases where X-ray is inconclusive, fluoroscopy may be able to demonstrate radiolucent or smaller foreign bodies. ...
... neurologist or neurosurgeon and guided using fluoroscopy. Catheters are inserted through the jugular or femoral veins into both ...
Fluoroscopy guided angio-table. · Twenty machines for haemodialysis. . Blood bank and various laboratories Affiliated to the ...
Fluoroscopy, using an X-ray machine with an image intensifier, has applications in many areas of medicine. Fluoroscopy allows ... A mobile fluoroscopy unit generally consists of two units, the X-ray generator and image detector (II) on a moveable C-arm, and ... "C-arm" mobile fluoroscopy machines are often colloquially referred to as image intensifiers (or IIs), however strictly speaking ... High-speed digitalisation with analogue video signal came about in the mid-1970s, with pulsed fluoroscopy developed in the mid- ...
Chest photofluorography Photofluorography (Fluoroscopy). ...
"Fluoroscopy Equipment - Siemens Healthineers Global". Healthcare.siemens.com. Retrieved 2017-11-07. Siemens Hermatology ... Fluoroscopy etc. AXIOM Aristos AXIOM Artis AXIOM Iconos AXIOM Luminos dRF AXIOM Multix AXIOM Sensis Ysio multimobile 2.5 ...
They used fluoroscopy and x-rays; there was an autoclave that could sterilize four mattresses at a time. For many immigrants, ...
Modified barium swallow - videofluoroscopic swallow (fluoroscopy). A lateral video X-ray that provides objective information on ...
... followed by an advisory to minimize further fluoroscopy-induced injuries. The problem of radiation injuries due to fluoroscopy ... Fluoroscopy may cause burns if performed repeatedly or for too long. Similarly, X-ray computed tomography and traditional ... Isotope Safety Data Sheets Shope, T. B. (1995). "Radiation-induced Skin Injuries from Fluoroscopy". FDA / Center for Devices ... Wagner, LK; McNeese, MD; Marx, MV; Siegel, EL (December 1999). "Severe skin reactions from interventional fluoroscopy: case ...
The procedure involves x-rays (fluoroscopy). Images are taken to demonstrate the filling of endometrial cavity, which shows ...
This herniation could be indicated by fluoroscopy. With age increasing, the herniation progresses and ease its detection. ...
X-ray imaging Fluoroscopy Angiography Gyánó, Marcell; Góg, István; Óriás, Viktor I.; Ruzsa, Zoltán; Nemes, Balázs; Csobay-Novák ...
Prunskis, John V.; Dallas‐Prunskis, Terri (2019). "Trial SCS Leads Should Be Removed under Fluoroscopy". Neuromodulation: ...
Fluoroscopy monitoring should be continuous so that the sequence of calyces be filled can help to identify the position of ... The position of the needle is confirmed by fluoroscopy. A guide wire is passed through the needle into the pelvis. The needle ... "Fluoroscopy guided percutaneous renal access in prone position". World Journal of Clinical Cases. 3 (3): 245-64. doi:10.12998/ ...
Both fluoroscopy and MRI assess the pelvic floor at rest and during maximum strain using coronal and sagittal views. When ... Historically, fluoroscopy with defecography and cystography were used. More recently, MRI has been used to complement and ...
The positioning is verified by fluoroscopy and the balloon is inflated using water mixed with contrast dye to 75 to 500 times ... Fluoroscopic guidance uses magnetic resonance or X-ray fluoroscopy and radiopaque contrast dye to guide angled wires and ... Saeed, Maythem; Hetts, Steve W.; English, Joey; Wilson, Mark (January 2012). "MR fluoroscopy in vascular and cardiac ...
SEMS can also be inserted using fluoroscopy where the surgeon uses an X-ray image to guide insertion, or as an adjunct to ... They are inserted at the time of ERCP, a procedure that uses endoscopy and fluoroscopy to access the common bile duct. The bile ... The location of the SEMS is confirmed by fluoroscopy. The complications of SEMS are related to a number of factors. The first ... Hypaque or other water-soluble dye may be placed through the passage to ensure patency of the stent on fluoroscopy. Enteric and ...
Additional testing can be done to confirm the diagnoses including; flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy, airway fluoroscopy, direct ...
It is usually fluoroscopy using CT or x-ray guidance. CT fluoroscopy increases the precision of the needle placement. Others ... In 1979 fluoroscopy was used for guidance of the needle into the facet joints with steroids and local anesthetics. Facet joint ...
In this sense fluoroscopy is a continuous x-ray. Fluoroscopy is broadly similar to landmark-guided injections except that the ... Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving planar images of the interior of an object. ... Schmid G, Schmitz A, Borchardt D, Ewen K, von Rothenburg T, Koester O, Jergas M. Effective dose of CT- and fluoroscopy-guided ... The procedure can be performed with the help of ultrasound, fluoroscopy, CT, or MRI/MRN to guide the practitioner in the ...
Fluoroscopy is useful in guiding the insertion of ports. Right internal jugular vein (IJV) is frequently chosen as the site of ... February 2014). "Routine chest X-ray is not mandatory after fluoroscopy-guided totally implantable venous access device ...
Real-time fluoroscopy is used to assess bowel motility. The radiologist may press or palpate the abdomen during images to ... With fluoroscopy, it is also possible to visualize the functional movement of examined organs such as swallowing, peristalsis, ... Then several swallows of a thin barium mixture are taken and the passage is recorded by fluoroscopy and standard radiographs. ... The filling of the small intestines can be viewed continuously using fluoroscopy, or viewed as standard radiographs taken at ...
Dally made himself an enthusiastic human guinea pig for the fluoroscopy project and was exposed to a poisonous dose of ... Radiology Legacy, invention of fluoroscopy Baron, David (June 6, 2017). American Eclipse: A Nation's Epic Race to Catch the ... Until Edison discovered that calcium tungstate fluoroscopy screens produced brighter images than the barium platinocyanide ...
Cone-beam CT is commonly found in medical fluoroscopy equipment; by rotating the fluoroscope around the patient, a geometry ...
Guidance under fluoroscopy can also assist with syndesmotic screw fixation. Restoration of the anteromedial joint capsule of ...
ISBN 978-1-56670-223-2. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopy FDA Radiological Health Program "Were ... "Radiation-induced Skin Injuries from Fluoroscopy". FDA. Shope, T. B. (1996). "Radiation-induced skin injuries from fluoroscopy ... "Fluoroscopy", referencing US Patent 3277302 to Weighart and detailing the fluoroscopy procedure for nondestructing testing. U.S ... followed by an advisory to minimize further fluoroscopy-induced injuries. The problem of radiation injuries due to fluoroscopy ...
Includes safe procedures for operation of common types of fluoroscopy equipment. ... This course is for Operators of Fluoroscopy Equipment - Individuals (including physicians, non-physicians, and ancillary ...
Fluoroscopy is a form of diagnostic radiology enabling a radiologist, with the aid of a contrast agent, to visualize an organ ... Fluoroscopy is a form of diagnostic radiology enabling a radiologist, with the aid of a contrast agent, to visualize an organ ... How Fluoroscopy Works. Contrast agents enable imaging to be viewed clearly on a monitor or screen. Contrast agents (or " ...
Fluoroscopy is a type of x-ray that shows internal body systems moving in real time. It is used to check the function of a ... What is fluoroscopy?. Fluoroscopy is a type of x-ray that shows organs, tissues, or other internal structures moving in real ... Fluoroscopy is used in many types of imaging procedures. The most common uses of fluoroscopy include:. *Barium swallow or ... Fluoroscopy helps ensure proper placement of these devices.. *Guidance in orthopedic surgery. Fluoroscopy may be used by a ...
Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that shows movement of a body part or instrument as it passes through the body. ... Fluoroscopy is a real time x-ray like a video, which is used by physicians and staff to assist imaging throughout the body ... Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that shows movement of a body part or instrument as it passes through the body. ...
Doctors at have calculated radiation exposures for patients undergoing newer endoscopic fluoroscopy procedures and the results ... Radiation dose (ED) and fluoroscopy time in endoscopic procedures. Measure. Radiation doses (millisieverts). Fluoroscopy time ( ... Fluoroscopy is integral to many of these procedures, such as novel interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (I-EUS), which is ... "Using fluoroscopy during endoscopy procedures places patients and the endoscopy staff at risk of radiation-related adverse ...
Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that shows movement of a body part or instrument as it passes through the body. ... Fluoroscopy is a real time x-ray like a video, which is used by physicians and staff to assist imaging throughout the body ... Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that shows movement of a body part or instrument as it passes through the body. ...
Radiography and Fluoroscopy SC [Status]. TG355 - Characterization of Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) Optimized [Status] TG367 - ... Radiography and Fluoroscopy Subcommittee (SCRF). AAPM Members, Affiliates and Non-Member Affiliates - Login for access to ... The Radiography and Fluoroscopy Subcommittee has as its core mission the promotion, dissemination, and advancement of physical ... and computational principles as applied to the fields of radiography and fluoroscopy, including items relevant to technical and ...
Dentistry Today is The Nations Leading Clinical News Magazine for Dentists. Here you can get the latest dental news from the whole world quickly ...
Fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopy is an x-ray procedure that makes it possible to see internal organs in motion. There is a fluoroscopy ... A variety of different areas can be visualised using the fluoroscopy equipment. These include:. *Barium meals (x-ray ...
Digital x-ray fluoroscopy has FDA approval. Cardiac Mariners Inc. (Los Gatos, CA) has received clearance from the US Food and ... Unlike conventional fluoroscopy, which produces two-dimensional shadowgram images, the scanning-beam digital x-ray technology ... Unlike conventional fluoroscopy, which produces two-dimensional shadowgram images, the scanning-beam digital x-ray technology ...
The fluoroscopy camera. The fluoroscopy camera is pretty big, but it needs to be so it can take pictures of your whole body! ... The fluoroscopy leads. All the people in the fluoroscopy room with you will wear a special outfit - this stops the camera from ... The fluoroscopy bed. Theres also a bed to lie on. You might need to roll over while you have your pictures, taken but the ... In Fluoroscopy you will meet a nurse, who will look after you while you have your pictures. Theyll let you know everything ...
However, fluoroscopy is not available at some institutions. This study evaluated the feasibility of radial endobronchial ... This study provided some rationale for further studies examining the impact of fluoroscopy. ... cryobiopsy is a feasible technique to biopsy peripheral lung lesions in selected cases at institutions without fluoroscopy ... ultrasound-guided bronchoscopic cryobiopsy without fluoroscopy. ,i,Methods,/i,. This retrospective study was conducted at Chang ...
Fluoroscopy helps doctors diagnose and treat medical conditions. Find out more about what fluoroscopy involves. ... What will my child see during fluoroscopy?. Fluoroscopy camera A fluoroscopy camera is big - it needs to be so it can take ... fluoroscopy helps doctors diagnose and treat medical conditionscon. What is fluoroscopy?. Fluoroscopy is a medical procedure ... How does fluoroscopy work?. Your child will lie on a bed, and the fluoroscopy camera will move around your child. It may come ...
The global fluoroscopy equipment market is forecast to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 3.5% from 2017 to 2021, ... Global Fluoroscopy Equipment Market to See Growth. Nov 2, 2017 , Life-Support , 0 , ... The global fluoroscopy equipment market is forecast to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 3.5% from 2017 to 2021, ... After all, fluoroscopy is used for several surgeries such as orthopedic, podiatric, urological, and cardiovascular surgeries. ...
Explore the global market for fluoroscopy products and gets an updated review including its types and its applications in ... "In the last decade, there have been several advancements in fluoroscopy equipment and C-arms such as the emergence of advanced ... "However, exposure to X-ray radiation has been the major hindering factor in the growth of the global fluoroscopy market. Other ... Fluoroscopy and C-arms: Technologies and Global Markets( HLC148B ). Publish Date: Mar 2018 ...
Read and find out more about fluoroscopy services at Badia Hand to Shoulder Center. ... By incorporating live fluoroscopy in the consultation setting, Dr. Badia gathers essential real-time information to inform ... The use of live fluoroscopy at Badia Hand to Shoulder Center ensures that patients receive the highest standard of orthopedic ... Alejandro Badia utilizes live fluoroscopy, a valuable imaging technique, during upper limb orthopedic consultations. With his ...
Chest Fluoroscopy. Chest Fluoroscopy. What is chest fluoroscopy?. Chest fluoroscopy is an imaging test that uses X-rays to look ... What happens during a chest fluoroscopy?. You may have chest fluoroscopy as an outpatient or as part of your stay in a hospital ... Why might I need a chest fluoroscopy?. You may need chest fluoroscopy if your healthcare provider needs to see how well your ... What happens after a chest fluoroscopy?. You dont need any special care after a chest fluoroscopy. Your healthcare provider ...
RadNet radiology centers offer fluoroscopy, a type of medical imaging exam that shows images of organs and bones in real time. ... What is fluoroscopy? Fluoroscopy uses a continuous low-dose X-ray beam to produce images of organs and bones in real time, on a ... Fluoroscopy may also be used during an angiogram. What happens during a fluoroscopy procedure? The technologist will position ... When is fluoroscopy used? Fluoroscopy is used for investigations of the gastrointestinal tract; (a barium enema for the colon ...
See how fluoroscopy provides excellent image quality at a dosage level lower than that of CT exams, and is less costly to ... FLUOROSCOPY AND RAD IN A SINGLE SYSTEM. The popularity of Fluoroscopy for diagnostic imaging is surging - and with good reason ... Fluoroscopy provides excellent image quality at a dosage level thats lower than that of CT exams. And its less costly to ... Carestreams fluoroscopy systems can be associated with a radiography image, in addition to specialized contrast procedures ...
Posts Tagged fluoroscopy. RSS. September 19th, 2013. A Novel Navigation System for CRT Device Implantation. Sergio Richter, ... Tags: cardiac resynchronization therapy, CRT, fluoroscopy, ICDs, pacemakers. August 11th, 2013. Radiation Exposure in the Cath ... Sergio Richter discusses his research groups study of a non-fluoroscopy-based tracking system that can be used when implanting ...
Learning more about your appointment with Fluoroscopy Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that shows a continuous x-ray ... Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that shows a continuous x-ray image on a monitor, much like an x-ray movie. During a ... fluoroscopy procedure, an X-ray beam is passed through the body. The image is transmitted to a monitor so the movement of a ...
The global fluoroscopy equipment market is projected to reach USD 7.1 billion by 2024 from USD 5.7 billion in 2019, at a CAGR ... On the basis of product, the fluoroscopy equipment market is segmented into fixed C-arms, fluoroscopy systems, and mobile C- ... The global fluoroscopy equipment market is projected to reach USD 7.1 billion by 2024 from USD 5.7 billion in 2019, at a CAGR ... The global fluoroscopy equipment market is projected to reach USD 7.1 billion by 2024 from USD 5.7 billion in 2019, at a CAGR ...
This program will review how patient size can influence, not only image quality, but also patient dose. The definition of SNR will be discussed, as well as the effect of pulse rate on image quality and patient dose. The importance of SSD and SID on patient skin dose will also be examined.Agenda:Patient Radiation Dose ManagementImage QualityQuantitativelyFactors that Affect DosePatient sizeTailoring DoseScatterDose OptimizationPersonal
On the basis of product, the market is bifurcated into fixed fluoroscopy equipment and C-arms. The fixed fluoroscopy equipment ... The "Global Fluoroscopy Systems Market Analysis to 2025" is a specialized and in-depth study of the healthcare industry with a ... The global fluoroscopy systems market is expected to witness high growth during the forecast period. The report provides key ... Fluoroscopy systems are used to visualize the movements of internal body fluids and structures. These procedures usually ...
... and Fluoroscopy X-ray systems with proven Gammex™ technology. ... and Fluoroscopy X-ray systems with ease. Comply with local, ...
A large portfolio of advanced remote-controlled fluoroscopy systems from Siemens Healthcare, learn more. ... Siemens remote-controlled fluoroscopy systems are designed with the X-ray tubes over the table and remote operation. These ...
Fluoroscopy is a procedure that uses X-rays to produce real-time imaging of the body; FGI use this imaging method to help guide ... In Ireland, HIQA found that the majority of equipment for fluoroscopy and FGIs was less than five years old. This has positive ... A coronary angiogram is a procedure where fluoroscopy is used to look at the blood vessels of the heart. ... Following a survey of facilitates, HIQA has updated national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for fluoroscopy and FGI, and ...
  • Fluoroscopy is similar to radiography and X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) in that it generates images using X-rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to compare computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography (US), and fluoroscopy modalities for guiding percutaneous injection into canine intervertebral discs. (avmi.net)
  • Background We describe our diagnostic sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection technique under the guidance of three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (3D-CBCT) fused with real-time fluoroscopy. (bmj.com)
  • Several location techniques are described in the literature, such as panoramic, computed tomography, metal detectors, conventional radiographs and intraoperative fluoroscopy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Radiographic Contrast Agents and Contrast Reactions Radiopaque contrast agents are often used in radiography and fluoroscopy to help delineate borders between tissues with similar radiodensity. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Fluoroscopy is used in many types of imaging procedures. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In these procedures, fluoroscopy is used to show the movement of the gastrointestinal (digestive) tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fluoroscopy may be used by a surgeon to help guide procedures such as joint replacement and fracture (broken bone) repair. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may also need fluoroscopy for certain medical procedures that require imaging. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although we all are exposed to ionizing radiation every day from the natural environment, added exposures like those from fluoroscopy procedures can slightly increase the risk of developing cancer later in life. (cdc.gov)
  • Your healthcare provider may recommend a fluoroscopy procedure to diagnose disease or guide treatment procedures for a particular health concern. (cdc.gov)
  • Some fluoroscopy procedures may use a contrast dye which allows medical provider to see specific organ(s). (cdc.gov)
  • Some fluoroscopy procedures are longer and use more radiation than others. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoroscopy is also used to check kidney function in angiography and venography procedures (placement of tubes in an artery or vein), in pain management procedures such as nerve root blocks, and in some imaging-guided biopsies. (montefiore.org)
  • The ProxiDiagnost N90 Essential bundle is designed for institutions wanting to perform exclusively high-quality fluoroscopy procedures in the room. (philips.com)
  • A major focus of this course is on the risks and average doses patients and clinicians incur when undergoing fluoroscopy procedures. (netce.com)
  • On Monday, May 13, Maryland House Bill 924 was signed into law, carving out an exemption in existing state law such that RCIS professionals can continue assisting in the performance of fluoroscopy procedures in Maryland cath labs. (acp-online.org)
  • The bill made significant inroads to ensuring multidisciplinary teams can deliver high quality care in Maryland cath labs, by vesting supervising physicians with the power to delegate duties to qualified RNs, RTs or RCIS professionals during the performance of procedures involving fluoroscopy. (acp-online.org)
  • MyMediTravel currently has no pricing information available for Fluoroscopy procedures in Vietnam. (mymeditravel.com)
  • Other examples of procedures which use fluoroscopy imaging are defecating proctogram, sniff test, etc. (wh.com.sg)
  • Fluoroscopy procedures provide detailed moving images of the body part being examined. (grandriverhealth.org)
  • Convenience is important so we offer Fluoroscopy procedures at our location so patients can choose the right appointment time and option that fits them the best. (amikokomo.com)
  • This AHRA® approved digital and fluoroscopy radiation safety course discusses fluoroscopy safety procedures, device operation, quality control, shielding, dosimetry, patient-type considerations and reporting issues. (scrubsce.com)
  • In interventional fluoroscopy procedures, the tissue of concern is the skin. (pacifichealthusa.com)
  • As medical imaging evolved and use of fluoroscopy increased, radiologists and specialists began working together to perform the procedures. (asra.com)
  • 1,6 Specifically, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) recommends that interventionalists who perform procedures with fluoroscopy need didactic training, hands-on training, and clinical operation under a preceptor physician. (asra.com)
  • 16. Small lung lesions invisible under fluoroscopy are located accurately by three-dimensional localization technique on chest wall surface and performed bronchoscopy procedures to increase diagnostic yields. (nih.gov)
  • Since the biggest risk of fluoroscopy is radiation exposure, the digital procedure, during which the length of the process is abbreviated, is safer than previously used fluoroscopic methods. (endovascularsurgery.com)
  • This new fluoroscopic c-arm is available with 21x21cm or 30x30cm amorphous Silicon (aSi) flat panel detector options for ultra-low dose fluoroscopy, and vascular imaging. (hmiixraysales.com)
  • Panchbhavi VK, Mays MM, Trevino S. Accuracy of intraoperative fluoroscopy with and without laser guidance in foot and ankle surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Fluoroscopy has become an important tool in medical imaging to render moving pictures during a surgery or any other procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoroscopy is used in various types of surgical procedure, such as orthopaedic surgery and podiatric surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this procedure, fluoroscopy shows blood flowing through the arteries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this procedure, fluoroscopy is used to provide images of a woman's reproductive organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Depending on the type of procedure, a fluoroscopy may be done at an outpatient radiology center or as part of your stay in a hospital. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your preparation will depend on the type of fluoroscopy procedure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should not have a fluoroscopy procedure if you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The dose of radiation depends on the procedure, but fluoroscopy is not considered harmful for most people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fluoroscopy is a medical procedure that makes a real-time video of the movements inside a part of the body by passing x-rays through the body over a period of time. (cdc.gov)
  • Coronary angiography is an example of a fluoroscopy procedure. (cdc.gov)
  • You will be positioned on the procedure table and, depending on the type of procedure, you may be asked to get in different positions, move a specific body part, or hold your breath at intervals while the fluoroscopy is being performed. (cdc.gov)
  • While fluoroscopy itself is not painful, the procedure being performed may be painful, such as the injection into a joint or accessing of an artery or vein for angiography. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 1 ] Despite a growing experience, data regarding the long-term outcome as well as procedure-related variables, particularly high fluoroscopy times, are still not satisfactory. (medscape.com)
  • Barium sulfate and Omnipaque are commonly used in fluoroscopy studies to highlight certain areas better in the X-ray images that are obtained during the procedure. (wh.com.sg)
  • As fluoroscopy studies are largely dependent on many factors, the procedure duration varies from patient to patient. (wh.com.sg)
  • The procedure will be maintained as sterile condition and the radiologist will inject MRI contrast under fluoroscopy guidance. (wh.com.sg)
  • What is a Fluoroscopy procedure? (grandriverhealth.org)
  • What are the reasons for a Fluoroscopy procedure? (grandriverhealth.org)
  • There are many reasons why your provider may order a fluoroscopy procedure some of which many include locating a foreign body, a lumbar puncture (remove small amounts of CSF for testing), myelogram (inject contrast to look for problems in the spinal canal), Upper GI (images the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract), barium enema (images the lower portion of the gastrointestinal tract), or an arthrogram (visualization of a joint). (grandriverhealth.org)
  • What are the risks of a Fluoroscopy procedure? (grandriverhealth.org)
  • What to expect during the Fluoroscopy procedure? (grandriverhealth.org)
  • Investigations of many parts of the body are aided by fluoroscopy since the procedure enables physicians to perceive body systems in motion and to detect foreign objects or abnormalities which may be interfering with normal functioning. (endovascularsurgery.com)
  • While fluoroscopy is generally a safe procedure, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should inform their doctor beforehand, as a different imaging exam may be safer for those situations. (endovascularsurgery.com)
  • Measurements of surgeons' exposure to ionizing radiation dose during intraoperative use of C-arm fluoroscopy. (medscape.com)
  • GCF is an exclusive Philips technology of pulsed fluoroscopy, providing superb image quality at low dose. (philips.com)
  • In this roundtable discussion discussion hosted by ITN Editorial Director Melinda Taschetta-Millane, three medical experts will discuss the topic of assuring dose quality for interventional radiology (IR) and fluoroscopy . (dicardiology.com)
  • How to assure dose quality in interventional and fluoroscopy suites. (dicardiology.com)
  • Best practices for organizations looking to optimize their fluoroscopy dose management. (dicardiology.com)
  • 90% of interventional pain physicians), and medical staff, which adds to the concern that many users of fluoroscopy have inadequate training on radiation safety. (asra.com)
  • This course is designed for physicians, nurses, radiology technicians, surgical technicians, and all healthcare staff involved in ensuring safe clinical use of fluoroscopy. (netce.com)
  • We sent an online questionnaire to neuroradiologists and radiology trainees between May and June 2020 to survey their handling of fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture requests, preprocedural work-up, and the use of physician extenders/trainees to perform fluoroscopy-guided lumbar punctures, among other questions. (ajnr.org)
  • For answers to any additional fluoroscopy-related questions, contact Alabama Coastal Radiology, P.C. today at your preferred location. (alabamacoastalradiology.com)
  • In its early history, x-ray fluoroscopy was performed almost entirely in the radiology department by radiologists to visualize internal anatomy and contrast movement. (asra.com)
  • For several years, real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fluoroscopy has been the standard technique to guide right heart catheterization at the NIH clinical center. (nih.gov)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Accuracy of Pulmonary Nodule Sampling Using Robotic Assisted Bronchoscopy with Shape Sensing, Fluoroscopy, and Radial Endobronchial Ultrasound (The ACCURACY Study). (duke.edu)
  • 10 mm, 10-20 mm, 20-30 mm), bronchoscopist correction of divergence between the software virtual map and bronchoscopic view if observed, and impact of fluoroscopy and radial endobronchial ultrasound (rEBUS). (duke.edu)
  • 3. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation and endobronchial ultrasound with a guide sheath without fluoroscopy for diagnosing peripheral pulmonary lesions with a bronchus leading to or adjacent to the lesion: A randomized non-inferiority trial. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the influence of RN combined with intuitive 3-dimensional mapping on the fluoroscopy exposure to operator and patient during pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) in a prospective randomized trial. (medscape.com)
  • The use of RN for PVI seems to be effective and significantly reduces overall fluoroscopy time and operator's fluoroscopy exposure without affecting mid-term outcome after 6-month follow-up. (medscape.com)
  • Regardless of the use of these navigation systems, the fluoroscopy exposure to patient and particularly electrophysiologist remains high. (medscape.com)
  • The present prospective randomized trial intended to reveal whether the use of RN can be helpful to reduce (1) the overall fluoroscopy duration and (2) the fluoroscopy exposure to the operator compared to a conventional manually guided ablation approach. (medscape.com)
  • Reducing Radiation Exposure in Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injections with Pulsed Fluoroscopy: A Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Clinical Trial. (medscape.com)
  • Tharmviboonsri T, Riansuwan K, Nitising A, Mahaisavariya B. Radiation exposure during 3D fluoroscopy of the knee: an experimental study. (medscape.com)
  • Cervical spine imaging using mini--C-arm fluoroscopy: patient and surgeon exposure to direct and scatter radiation. (medscape.com)
  • 95% CI, 0.9-4.6) among mothers with potential occupational exposure to fluoroscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, fluoroscopy is used to view the movement of the beating heart, and, with the aid of radiographic contrast agents, to view blood flow to the heart muscle as well as through blood vessels and organs. (nih.gov)
  • A significant drawback of CA as it is performed today is the generous use of fluoroscopy to monitor current catheter position. (medscape.com)
  • However, fluoroscopy remains the mainstay of catheter visualization in the left atrium (LA) and can be reduced in combination with 3-dimensional (3D) mapping systems. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, a portable digital C-arm fluoroscopy device (C-ARM) is permanently installed in the operating rooms, to meet surgical needs (orthopedic, neurosurgery, vascular surgery). (iaso.gr)
  • Once the fluoroscopy is complete, our radiologists will analyze its results to provide insights that will aid in the patient's diagnosis and eventual treatment process. (alabamacoastalradiology.com)
  • The fluoroscopy shows how the blood moves through the vessels and allows the healthcare provider to locate any blockages. (cdc.gov)
  • Your healthcare provider will recommend fluoroscopy when the benefits to your health outweigh the risk. (cdc.gov)
  • For better assessment in the subsequent MRI examination, patient comes for fluoroscopy to inject the MRI contrast which will be highlighted in MRI images. (wh.com.sg)
  • The global fluoroscopy equipment market is forecast to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 3.5% from 2017 to 2021, according to a new Research and Markets report. (24x7mag.com)
  • Fomekong E, Safi SE, Raftopoulos C. Spine Navigation Based on 3-Dimensional Robotic Fluoroscopy for Accurate Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Placement: A Prospective Study of 66 Consecutive Cases. (medscape.com)
  • Findings indicated that CT, fluoroscopy, and US are feasible modalities for guiding percutaneous injection of a gelified ethanol therapeutic agent into the canine intervertebral disc, with moderate to high success rates for different regions of the spine. (avmi.net)
  • Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses a continuous x-ray beam to pass through the body part being examined. (grandriverhealth.org)
  • Obtain high-definition images and accurately capture lesions during fluoroscopy, avoiding missed diagnoses or misdiagnosis caused by blind shots. (perlove.net)
  • 18. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation without X-ray fluoroscopy to diagnose peripheral pulmonary lesions: a randomized trial. (nih.gov)
  • Fluoroscopy (/flʊəˈrɒskəpi/) is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, today radiography, CT, and fluoroscopy are all digital imaging modes with image analysis software and data storage and retrieval. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosense Webster , a J&J firm, has introduced its new CartoAlara Module for the company's Carto 3 System, which combines live fluoroscopy images with those from the minimally invasive imaging system into unified, easily controllable views. (medgadget.com)
  • Fluoroscopy is ​​​​​an imaging test that helps the radiologist see the surface of the gastrointestinal tract and check for any abnormalities. (wh.com.sg)
  • Fluoroscopy is the medical imaging that shows a real-time X-ray images on a monitor. (wh.com.sg)
  • Digital fluoroscopy is a special kind of X-ray that produces video imaging of the internal organs in motion. (endovascularsurgery.com)
  • Fluoroscopy is done in a special suite in the Diagnostic Imaging Department with equipment that allows a radiologist to see the organs and tissues in your body in motion. (canyonvistamedicalcenter.com)
  • Fluoroscopy imaging including has several internal structure of large cylindrical tapered tube, the incident X-ray distribution is converted to a have a limit of the brightness of the corresponding optical image.Image enhancement television systems achieve X - ray to - light amplification through several successive steps. (xrayimageintensifier.com)
  • Can replace Toshiba Newheek fluoroscopy imaging its function properties, thales, philips and other brands. (xrayimageintensifier.com)
  • If you need a fluoroscopy imaging, please contact us, and our team of professional engineers and scientists to further discuss your application. (xrayimageintensifier.com)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fluoroscopy shows continuous pictures of the heart chambers that doctors can watch while they work. (nih.gov)
  • Fluoroscopy-commonly used to evaluate the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon-uses X-rays to create a "video. (montefiore.org)
  • Barium fluoroscopy study is one type of gastrointestinal study that is able to identify gross abnormalities like growths of tumours, ulcers and other inflammatory conditions, such as strictures, hernias and polyps. (wh.com.sg)
  • Fluoroscopy helps ensure proper placement of these devices. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Injections guided using CT and fluoroscopy were significantly more successful than US-guided injections. (avmi.net)
  • Digital fluoroscopy, an improvement over conventional fluoroscopy, sends the X-ray images to a monitor where the radiologist can manipulate the data by zooming in and out and by rotating the images. (endovascularsurgery.com)
  • The original difference was that radiography fixed still images on film, whereas fluoroscopy provided live moving pictures that were not stored. (wikipedia.org)
  • We use digital Fluoroscopy which allows for clearer images, less radiation and shorter exam times. (diatoday.com)
  • Fluoroscopy, contrast agents and image-guided intervention. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Chaplin E and Culpan, G. (2008) Fluoroscopy, contrast agents and image-guided intervention. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Fluoroscopy is a type of x-ray that shows organs, tissues, or other internal structures moving in real time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Conclusion 3D-CBCT fused with real-time fluoroscopy for SIJ injection is accurate and safe. (bmj.com)
  • Fluoroscopy is a form of x-ray that allows the radiologist to see certain organs and structures in real time as they are functioning. (diatoday.com)
  • In this protocol we will use this new "low-energy" real-time MRI fluoroscopy technique to enable use of guidewires during otherwise standard MRI catheterization of the right side of the heart through veins, and of the left side of the heart through the aorta. (nih.gov)
  • Fluoroscopy can also be used in real time to detect motion of the diaphragm and of bones and joints (eg, to assess the stability of musculoskeletal injuries). (msdmanuals.com)
  • 41.5% of respondents stated that they would always comply with patients' requests for a fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture without a bedside lumbar puncture attempt, a 5.26 times higher likelihood (95% CI, 2.04-14.29) for private practice respondents. (ajnr.org)
  • An Evaluation of passive recumbent quantitative fluoroscopy to measure mid-lumber intervertebral motion in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain and healthy volunteers. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • To perform fluoroscopy-guided lumbar punctures, 32.0% of academic respondents and 47.8% of private practice respondents use physician extenders. (ajnr.org)
  • As we mentioned before, with timing, shorter fluoro times can be achieved when the physician uses intermittent fluoroscopy. (pacifichealthusa.com)
  • clarification needed] In urology, fluoroscopy is used in retrograde pyelography and micturating cystourethrography to detect various abnormalities related to the urinary system. (wikipedia.org)
  • You may need a fluoroscopy if your provider wants to check the function of a particular organ, system, or other internal part of your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Perlove medical has recently launched the new Dynamic Digital Radiography/Fluoroscopy System--PLD8000B.It is more flexible and efficient that provides larger image as well as more smart functions. (perlove.net)
  • The Persona C Mobile Fluoroscopy System from Fujifilm, is an advanced C-arm solution engineered for fast, precise positioning and advanced image quality. (hmiixraysales.com)
  • This survey demonstrates that many academic and private practice neuroradiologists engage in practices that may promote an increase in fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture referrals including not requiring a non-image-guided lumbar puncture attempt, complying with clinicians' requests for a fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture due to lack of competence in performing lumbar punctures, and fulfilling patient requests for fluoroscopy-guided lumbar punctures. (ajnr.org)
  • Pulsed fluoroscopy, single pulse fluoroscopy mode, manual mode, fluoroscopy timer warning, and last image hold ("freezing the screen") are also good safety practices. (pacifichealthusa.com)
  • Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) reduces variation and error and measures dynamic intervertebral motion in vivo. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • Fluoroscopy does use radiation to obtain the necessary information needed to diagnose or treat an abnormality. (grandriverhealth.org)
  • You will be given a lead shield or apron to wear over your pelvic area or another part of your body, depending on the type of fluoroscopy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The purpose of our study was to determine the management of fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture referrals in different practice settings. (ajnr.org)
  • Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures-similar to an X-ray "movie. (amikokomo.com)
  • A controlled study with fluoroscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Fluoroscopy is used to screen for ulcers, benign tumors (polyps, for example), cancer, or signs of certain other intestinal illnesses. (alabamacoastalradiology.com)
  • For many decades, fluoroscopy tended to produce live pictures that were not recorded, but since the 1960s, as technology improved, recording and playback became the norm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Time, distance, and shielding are the three basic guides that could and should be taken for fluoroscopy C-Arm safety. (pacifichealthusa.com)
  • Fluoroscopy machines are used to show a continuous X-Ray image through a body, providing a full video life view. (uk.com)
  • With the aid of a contrast agent , fluoroscopy enables an X-ray technologist to capture an image of an internal body organ while it is functioning. (alabamacoastalradiology.com)