Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.4-Quinolones: QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Aza CompoundsNorfloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.DNA Topoisomerase IV: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Topoisomerase IV binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting 2 parC and 2 parE subunits. Topoisomerase IV is a decatenating enzyme that resolves interlinked daughter chromosomes following DNA replication.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.NaphthyridinesAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Pefloxacin: A synthetic broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent active against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.QuinolinesEnoxacin: A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Topoisomerase II Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Dermatitis, Phototoxic: A nonimmunologic, chemically induced type of photosensitivity producing a sometimes vesiculating dermatitis. It results in hyperpigmentation and desquamation of the light-exposed areas of the skin.Fleroxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone. The drug strongly inhibits the DNA-supercoiling activity of DNA GYRASE.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mycobacterium fortuitum: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.Bartonella bacilliformis: The type species of the genus BARTONELLA, a gram-negative bacteria found in humans. It is found in the mountain valleys of Peru, Ecuador, and Southwest Columbia where the sandfly (see PHLEBOTOMUS) vector is present. It causes OROYA FEVER and VERRUGA PERUANA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacteria, AnaerobicTyphoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Mycoplasma hominis: A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Oxolinic Acid: Synthetic antimicrobial related to NALIDIXIC ACID and used in URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Nitrofurantoin: A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.Salmonella paratyphi A: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Novobiocin: An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis: Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.Capreomycin: Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: A species of STENOTROPHOMONAS, formerly called Xanthomonas maltophilia, which reduces nitrate. It is a cause of hospital-acquired ocular and lung infections, especially in those patients with cystic fibrosis and those who are immunosuppressed.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Ketolides: Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Paratyphoid Fever: A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary: Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.Bacteria, AerobicLaurus: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. Laurus nobilis L. leaves are known for use in SPICES, having a similar flavor as UMBELLULARIA.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.SOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Otitis Externa: Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Mycobacterium smegmatis: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Clopidol: A very effective anticoccidial agent used in poultry.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.PiperazinesMycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Serum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Evodia: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE which is used in Chinese medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). Evodiamine and other quinazoline alkaloids (QUINAZOLINES) are obtained from the fruit of E. ruticarpa.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.DioxolanesOutpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Virginiamycin: A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Ornidazole: A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Dermatitis, Photoallergic: A delayed hypersensitivity involving the reaction between sunlight or other radiant energy source and a chemical substance to which the individual has been previously exposed and sensitized. It manifests as a papulovesicular, eczematous, or exudative dermatitis occurring chiefly on the light-exposed areas of the skin.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.DNA Topoisomerases: Enzymes that regulate the topology of DNA by actions such as breaking, relaxing, passing, and rejoining strands of DNA in cells. These enzymes are important components of the DNA replication system. They are classified by their substrate specificities. DNA TOPOISOMERASE I enzymes act on a single strand of DNA. DNA TOPOISOMERASE II enzymes act on double strands of DNA.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Streptogramin B: A specific streptogramin group B antibiotic produced by Streptomyces graminofaciens and other bacteria.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
The first quinolone used was nalidixic acid (was marketed in many countries as Negram) followed by the fluoroquinolone ... "Fluoroquinolones and Quinolones". The American Academy of Optometry (British Chapter). Retrieved 29 January 2009. Al-Soud, ... Allergy to quinolones Eight cases of quinolone allergy F. F. Arboit 1 , JC Bessot 2 , F. Arboit 1, JC Bessot 2, F. De Blay 2 , ... "Quinolones and fluoroquinolones". Pharmacorama. Retrieved 2010-04-04. Francis, Philip G.; Robert J. Wells (1998). "Flumequine ...
Apr 2007). "Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: a ... Some quinolones exert an inhibitory effect on the cytochrome P-450 system, thereby reducing theophylline clearance and ... Fluoroquinolones are not licensed by the FDA for use in children due to the risk of fatalities as well as permanent injury to ... The fluoroquinolones have also been reported as being present in the mother's milk and are passed on to the nursing child, ...
Floxacin and other fluoroquinolones had become the most commonly prescribed class of antibiotics to adults in 2002. Nearly half ... quinolones for community-acquired pneumonia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 19 (4): ... Tendon damage may manifest during, as well as up to a year after fluoroquinolone therapy has been completed. FQs prolong the QT ... The fluoroquinolones have been shown to increase the anticoagulant effect of Acenocoumarol, Anisindione, and Dicumarol. ...
... is a quinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. Pefloxacin has not been approved for use in the United ... Tendinitis and rupture, usually of the Achilles tendon, are a class-effects of the fluoroquinolones, most frequently reported ... Casparian JM, Luchi M, Moffat RE, Hinthorn D (May 2000). "Quinolones and tendon ruptures". South. Med. J. 93 (5): 488-91. doi: ... Khaliq Y, Zhanel GG (October 2005). "Musculoskeletal injury associated with fluoroquinolone antibiotics". Clin Plast Surg. 32 ( ...
... , like other quinolones and fluoroquinolones, are bactericidal drugs, actively killing bacteria. Quinolones inhibit ... Quinolones can enter cells easily and therefore are often used to treat intracellular pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila ... Quinolones Psaty, BM. (Dec 2008). "Clinical trial design and selected drug safety issues for antibiotics used to treat ... Sparfloxacin (spar FLOX a sin), trade names Spacin in Bangladesh, Zagam and Zagam Respipac, is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic ...
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are bactericidal drugs, eradicating bacteria by interfering with DNA replication. Like other ... Enoxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, is known to trigger seizures or lower the seizure threshold. The compound should not be ... The quinolone is also active against Gram-negative bacteria After oral administration enoxacin is rapidly and well absorbed ... Enoxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, can cause degenerative changes in weightbearing joints of young animals. The compound ...
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are bactericidal drugs, eradicating bacteria by interfering with DNA replication. Quinolones ... Quinolone Nelson JM, Chiller TM, Powers JH, Angulo FJ (2007). "Food Safety: Fluoroquinolone‐Resistant Campylobacter Species and ... Fluoroquinolones are not licensed by the U.S. FDA for use in children due to the risk of permanent injury to the ... The fluoroquinolones have also been reported as being present in the mother's milk and are passed on to the nursing child. ...
Like other quinolones and fluoroquinolones the compound eradicates bacteria by interfering with DNA replication (bacterial DNA ... As quinolones are known to induce arthropathy in juvenile animals, administration of the drug to breast-feeding women cannot be ... Fleroxacin is a quinolone antibiotic. It is sold under the brand names Quinodis and Megalocin. Fleroxacin is a bactericidal ... Yoshida H, Nakamura M, Bogaki M, Ito H, Kojima T, Hattori H, Nakamura S (April 1993). "Mechanism of action of quinolones ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Glycopeptides, cephalosporins, and, in particular, quinolones are associated with an increased risk of colonisation of MRSA. ... Reducing use of antibiotic classes that promote MRSA colonisation, especially fluoroquinolones, is recommended in current ... Diabetics Intravenous drug users Users of quinolone antibiotics The elderly School children sharing sports and other equipment ...
Fluoroquinolones have been reported as present in a mother's milk and thus passed on to the nursing child. The U.S. FDA ... "Respiratory quinolones" such as levofloxacin, having greater activity against this pathogen, are recommended as first line ... Fluoroquinolones had become the class of antibiotics most commonly prescribed to adults in 2002. Nearly half (42%) of those ... It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone with a broad spectrum of activity that usually results in the death of the bacteria. ...
Antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea
If there is a mutation in the DNA gyrase, then the quinolone will not be able to bind to it resulting in the activity of DNA ... Fluoroquinolones were a useful next-line treatment until resistance was achieved through efflux pumps and mutations to the gyrA ... Low-level quinolone resistance has been linked to changes in cell permeability and efflux pumps. The NorM efflux pump is ... Second generation quinolones like ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin have been widely used to treat N. gonorrhoeae infections. ...
Fluoroquinolones have been reported as present in a mother's milk and thus passed on to the nursing child. The U.S. FDA ... Ball, P. (2000). "Quinolone generations: Natural history or natural selection?". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 46: 17- ... Fluoroquinolones are known to block neuromuscular transmission.. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a serious ... The fluoroquinolone program at Bayer focused on examining the effects of very minor changes to the norfloxacin structure.[ ...
Quinolone antibiotics are associated with increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture. A 2013 review found the incidence of ... FDA May 12, 2016 FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA advises restricting fluoroquinolone antibiotic use for certain ... tendon injury among those taking fluoroquinolones to be between 0.08 and 0.2%. Fluoroquinolones most frequently affect large ... "Tendon Injury and Fluoroquinolone Use: A Systematic Review". Drug safety. 36 (9): 709-21. doi:10.1007/s40264-013-0089-8. PMID ...
Kim EJ, Shin WH, Kim KS, Han SS (Nov 2004). "Safety pharmacology of DW-224a, a novel fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent". Drug ... It also has activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae including strains that are resistant to other quinolone antibiotics. ... Zabofloxacin is an investigational fluoroquinolone antibiotic for multidrug-resistant infections due to Gram-positive bacteria ... activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae including quinolone-resistant strains". Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 62 (1): 110-112. doi ...
The fluoroquinolone has a 7-8 hour half-life. The penetration into the central nervous system (CNS)is less pronounced. The ... Quinolones "Recalling the Omniflox (Temafloxacin) Tablets" (pdf). Food and Drug Administration. 1992-06-05. Retrieved 2014-10- ... Gentry LO (December 1991). "Review of quinolones in the treatment of infections of the skin and skin structure". J. Antimicrob ... Temafloxacin (marketed by Abbott Laboratories as Omniflox) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic drug which was withdrawn from sale ...
... is active against some bacteria that have developed resistance to currently used quinolone and fluoroquinolone ... "In vitro activity of Ozenoxacin against quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant gram-positive bacteria". Antimicrob ... Ozenoxacin (INN; trade names Ozaenex and Xepi) is a quinolone antibiotic being approved for the treatment of impetigo. A 1% ...
Quinolone Chidiac, C.; Mouton, Y. (1991). "Quinolones in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by ... Unlike other fluoroquinolones difloxacin has not been approved by the FDA for use in cats. It is also contraindicated for use ... Like other fluoroquinolones, difloxacin causes arthropathy in immature growing animals, particularly dogs. Otherwise, it is ... Individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to quinolones should avoid this product. In humans, there is a risk of user ...
... is a fluoroquinolone, structurally related to other fluoroquinolones like ciprofloxacin. It is soluble in ... Appelbaum, PC (1999). "Quinolone activity against anaerobes". Drugs. 58 Suppl 2: 60-4. PMID 10553708. Retrieved 13 September ... Adverse effects of fluoroquinolones Grayson, ML; Crowe, SM; McCarthy, JS; Mills, J; Mouton, JW; Norrby, SR; Paterson, DL; ... Nord, C. E. (1999). "Use of newer quinolones for the treatment of intraabdominal infections: Focus on clinafloxacin". Infection ...
Chronic bacterial prostatitis
... and later generation fluoroquinolones are collectively referred to as "respiratory quinolones" to distinguish them ... For this reason, it is considered a "respiratory fluoroquinolone" along with more recently developed fluoroquinolones such as ... Other fluoroquinolones have also been reported as being present in the mother's milk and are passed on to the nursing child. It ... Like all quinolones, it functions by inhibiting the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Topoisomerase IV is necessary to separate ...
This warning applies to fluoroquinolones taken by mouth and injection, but does not apply to fluoroquinolones taken topically. ... The currently marketed quinolones have safety profiles similar to that of other antimicrobial classes. The serious events may ... Tendon damage may manifest during, as well as up to a year after fluoroquinolone therapy. The FDA ordered a black box warnings ... Some of the serious adverse effects which occur more commonly with fluoroquinolones than with other antibiotic drug classes ...
Urinary tract infection
... or a fluoroquinolone may also be used. However, resistance to fluoroquinolones among the bacteria that cause urinary ... The increased resistance of urinary pathogens to quinolone antibiotics has been reported worldwide and might be the consequence ... "FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA updates warnings for oral and injectable fluoroquinolone antibiotics due to disabling side ... or a fluoroquinolone is usually sufficient, whereas nitrofurantoin requires 5-7 days. Fosfomycin may be used as a single ...
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, may no longer be effective in some cases due to resistance. ... The number of known quinolone-resistant strains is growing. Evidence suggests this is caused by an overuse of this class of ... quinolones, and tetracycline are sometimes used to treat gastrointestinal Campylobacter infections in adults. In case of ...
Nearly all quinolone antibiotics in use are fluoroquinolones, which contain a fluorine atom in their chemical structure and are ... "FDA updates warnings for fluoroquinolone antibiotics". FDA. 26 July 2016.. *^ "Fluoroquinolone Safety Labeling Changes" (PDF). ... Andriole, VT The Quinolones. Academic Press, 1989. *^ Andersson MI, MacGowan AP (2003). "Development of the quinolones". ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are chemotherapeutic bactericidal drugs, eradicating bacteria by interfering with DNA ...
Quinolone resistance genes are frequently located on the same plasmid as the ESBL genes. Examples of resistance mechanisms ... fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. It is very common for the resistance genes or entire resistance cassettes to be re- ... Strahilevitz J, Jacoby GA, Hooper DC, Robicsek A (October 2009). "Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance: a multifaceted threat ... Nordmann P, Poirel L (September 2005). "Emergence of plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones in Enterobacteriaceae". J. ...
Hinolon - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Andriole, VT The Quinolones. Academic Press, 1989.. *↑ Andersson, MI, MacGowan, AP. Development of the quinolones. J. ... 2001). „Emerging mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance" (PDF). Emerg Infect Dis. 7 (2): 337-41. PMC 2631735 . PMID 11294736 ... Wentland MP: In memoriam: George Y. Lesher, Ph.D., in Hooper DC, Wolfson JS (eds): Quinolone antimicrobial agents, ed 2., ...
... the quinolones, and the oxazolidinones-are produced solely by chemical synthesis. Many antibacterial compounds are ... "Fluoroquinolones and tendinopathy: a guide for athletes and sports clinicians and a systematic review of the literature" ... such as the possibility of tendon damage from the administration of a quinolone antibiotic with a systemic corticosteroid. ... quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Protein synthesis inhibitors (macrolides, lincosamides, and ...
Ciprofflocsacin - Wicipedia
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1
This is a racemate, ie a 1: 1 mixture of ( R ) - and the ( S ) - form: Quinolones "Glaxo Wellcome voluntary withdrawn Raxar ( ... Grepafloxacin hydrochloride (trade name Raxar, Glaxo Wellcome) was an oral broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent ... 2003). "Safety and tolerability of fluoroquinolones". Clin Cornerstone. Suppl 3: S29-36. PMID 14992418. Chodosh S, ... The preparation of quinolones bearing a substituent at position 5 is complicated by the greater electrophilic character of the ...
List of MeSH codes (D03)
Antimicrobials in aquaculture
... fluoroquinolones, nitrofurans, and quinolones, as well as antimicrobial compounds like malachite green that are not approved ... Fluoroquinolones have been prohibited from extra-label use in the U.S. and many other parts of the world in aquaculture because ... Because of concerns about the presence of fluoroquinolones in the food supply, not only in aquaculture, but also in foods like ... 2011). He, X, et al., "Residues of fluoroquinolones in marine aquaculture environment of the Pearl River Delta, South China", ...
As fluoroquinolone is one of the few antibiotics widely effective against P. aeruginosa, in some hospitals, its use is severely ... or topoisomerase to protect it from the action of quinolones. P. aeruginosa has also been reported to possess multidrug efflux ... quinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, but not moxifloxacin) cephalosporins (ceftazidime, cefepime, cefoperazone, cefpirome, ...
Quinolone antibiotics may bind to metallic cations such as bismuth, and should not be taken concurrently with bismuth ... Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are the drugs of choice. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline are no longer recommended ... Options for prophylactic treatment include the quinolone antibiotics (such as ciprofloxacin), azithromycin, and trimethoprim/ ... nor concurrently with certain antibiotics such as the quinolones, and should not be taken continuously for more than three ...
1992). "Cytotoxicity of quinolones toward eukaryotic cells. Identification of topoisomerase II as the primary cellular target ... The majority of drugs in clinical use are actually quinoline derivatives that belong to the subset fluoroquinolones, which have ... Although the reaction product is often shown as a hydroxyquinoline (the enol form), it is believed that the quinolone (keto ... The synthesis of 4-hydroxyquinolines and 4-quinolones is of great importance to a variety of fields, but most notably to the ...
Rifampicin can be used in combination with a quinolone or macrolide. It is uncertain whether rifampicin is an effective ... Recommended agents include fluoroquinolones, azithromycin, or doxycycline. Hospitalization is often required. About 10% of ... Effective antibiotics include most macrolides, tetracyclines, ketolides, and quinolones. Legionella multiply within the cell, ... Current treatments of choice are the respiratory tract quinolones (levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin) or newer ...
Enrofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic, has been used to great effect in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis), ... bass and successful therapeutic intervention with the fluoroquinolone antibacterial enrofloxacin". Journal of the World ... quinolones, and vancomycin. Pier GB, Madin SH (1976). "Streptococcus iniae sp. nov., a beta-hemolytic streptococcus isolated ...
Quinolones, including Fluoroquinolones - Pharmacology - Merck Veterinary Manual
... including Fluoroquinolones. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual. ... Quinolones, including Fluoroquinolones By Dawn Merton Boothe , DVM, PhD, Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology, ... The fluoroquinolones are active against intracellular pathogens, including, eg, Brucella spp. Quinolones also have significant ... Examples of the quinolone carboxylic acids and species in which they are approved are presented in Quinolones and Species ...
Fluoroquinolone and quinolone antibiotics: PRAC recommends restrictions on use - Bulgarian Drug Agency
Investigations into quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica - Enlighten: Theses
Murray, Angela (2009) Investigations into quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica. MSc(R) thesis, ... all other isolates examined were resistant to the quinolone nalidixic acid. Resistance to fluoroquinolones was rare during this ... Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance has recently been identified in isolates of S. enterica in a number of countries at low ... Fluoroquinolone resistance is rare and is mostly detected in strains associated with foreign travel. Nevertheless, reports from ...
METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION OF NOVEL DES-FLUORO QUINOLONE GARENOXACIN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND AN INTERSPECIES SCALING OF ... METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION OF NOVEL DES-FLUORO QUINOLONE GARENOXACIN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND AN INTERSPECIES SCALING OF ... METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION OF NOVEL DES-FLUORO QUINOLONE GARENOXACIN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND AN INTERSPECIES SCALING OF ... METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION OF NOVEL DES-FLUORO QUINOLONE GARENOXACIN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND AN INTERSPECIES SCALING OF ...
Urinary tract infection | University of Maryland Medical Center
Fluoroquinolones (Quinolones). Fluoroquinolones (also simply called quinolones) were used as alternatives to TMP-SMX but they ... Fluoroquinolone antibiotics, also called quinolones, are only recommended for UTIs when other antibiotics cannot be used. ... Fluoroquinolones are effective for treating acute kidney infections (pyelonephritis). Examples of quinolones include ofloxacin ... Ciprofloxacin (Cipro, generic) is the quinolone antibiotic most commonly prescribed. Quinolones are usually given over a 3-day ...
Fluoroquinolones in the Military - Quinolone Vigilance Foundation
Fluoroquinolones in the Military Rachel Brummert 2016-02-22T16:51:01+00:00 Fluoroquinolones in the Military. The rise in the ... Fluoroquinolone antibiotics- Cipro (ciprofloxacin), Levaquin (levofloxacin), and Avelox (moxifloxacin)- cause the same symptoms ... fluoroquinolones cannot be overlooked as a cause of Gulf War Syndrome. ... as Gulf War Syndrome and because fluoroquinolones are often prescribed to military personnel as a preventative measure, ...
Fluoroquinolones and Mental Health - Quinolone Vigilance Foundation
Fluoroquinolones and Mental Health Rachel Brummert 2016-05-30T18:54:19+00:00 Fluoroquinolones and Mental Health. One of many ... Since there is no diagnosis code for fluoroquinolone toxicity, aka fluoroquinolone-associated disability, and there isnt ... The pain fluoroquinolone toxicity causes is immense. There is physical pain of inflamed joints, tendon tears/ruptures, nerve ... In some people fluoroquinolones exacerbate existing mental health issues; in others, it causes mental health issues such as ...
Urinary tract infection | In-Depth Reports | St. Luke's Hospital
Fluoroquinolones (Quinolones). Fluoroquinolones (also simply called quinolones) were formerly used as alternatives to TMP-SMX ... Fluoroquinolone antibiotics, also called quinolones, are only recommended for UTIs when other antibiotics cannot be used. ... Fluoroquinolones are effective for treating acute kidney infections (pyelonephritis). Examples of quinolones include ofloxacin ... Ciprofloxacin (Cipro, generic) is the quinolone antibiotic most commonly prescribed. Quinolones are usually given over a 3-day ...
Microbiological indoor air quality in an office building in Gliwice, Poland: analysis of the case study | SpringerLink
Safety Considerations of Fluoroquinolones in the Elderly | SpringerLink
The fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin are widely used for the treatment of various ... are among the most often registered adverse drug reactions during therapy with fluoroquinolones. Treatment with a quinolone ... Safety profile of the respiratory fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin: comparison with other fluoroquinolones and other antibacterial ... Quinolones should be used with caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorders that predispose to seizures (e.g. ...
Antibiotic Classes and Mechanisms of Resistance | Springer for Research & Development
Chromosomally encoded efflux pumps are associated with quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance. Three additional quinolone ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones stabilize the cleavage intermediate, which results in arrest of cell growth and cell death ( ... Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones. Growing bacteria need to replicate and segregate their genetic material. They achieve these ... 2009). Although the quinolones and fluoroquinolones block DNA synthesis, this is a by-product of the mechanism. ...
Comparative in vitro antimicrobial activity of a novel quinolone, garenoxacin, against aerobic and anaerobic microbial isolates...
All fluoroquinolones tested were effective against most gram-negative facultative anaerobes including Escherichia coli. ... Overall, the in vitro activity of the advanced spectrum quinolones against anaerobic surgical isolates compared favourably with ... Comparative in vitro antimicrobial activity of a novel quinolone, garenoxacin, against aerobic and anaerobic microbial isolates ... Results: Garenoxacin exhibited greater antimicrobial activity than comparator quinolones such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin ...
Overview of Quinolones (Example) - MindMeister
Overview of Quinolones, General information, Mechanism of action, Pharmacokinetics, Classification, Therapeutic use, Adverse ... Long half-life of new fluoroquinolones. 3.1.1. once or twice a day dosing. 3.2. absorption and distribution. 3.2.1. Well ... Overview of Quinolones. by Mohammed Haneef 1. General information. 1.1. Synthetic antimicrobial agents. 1.2. First quinolone ... treated by quinolones. 5.4. Respiratory tract infections. 5.4.1. treated by respiratory fluroquinolones. 188.8.131.52. gemifloxacin ...
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets, Volume 16 - Number 3
Flumequine - Wikipedia
The first quinolone used was nalidixic acid (was marketed in many countries as Negram) followed by the fluoroquinolone ... "Fluoroquinolones and Quinolones". The American Academy of Optometry (British Chapter). Retrieved 29 January 2009. Al-Soud, ... Allergy to quinolones Eight cases of quinolone allergy F. F. Arboit 1 , JC Bessot 2 , F. Arboit 1, JC Bessot 2, F. De Blay 2 , ... "Quinolones and fluoroquinolones". Pharmacorama. Retrieved 2010-04-04. Francis, Philip G.; Robert J. Wells (1998). "Flumequine ...
Table 2 - Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli O26, O103, O111, O128, and O145 from Animals and Humans - Volume 8,...
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones. Ciprofloxacin. 0.004-8. 4. Nalidixic acid. 2-256. 32. ... Presence of fluoroquinolone-resistant coliforms in poultry litter. Avian Dis. 2000;44:963-7. DOIPubMed ... Characterization of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli O78:K80 isolated from turkeys. J Antimicrob ...
Lipid-based compositions of antiinfectives for treating pulmonary infections and methods of use thereof - Weers, Jeff
Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones Non-limiting examples of quinolones and fluoroquinolones include Cinoxacin, Ciprofloxacin, ... quinolones and fluoroquinolones, penicillins, and beta lactamase inhibitors, carbepenems, monobactams, macrolides and ... quinolones, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, beta lactamase inhibitors, carbepenems, monobactams, macrolides, lincosamines, ... quinolones, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, beta lactamase inhibitors, carbepenems, monobactams, macrolides, lincosamines, ...
Compound Report Card
Compound Report Card
Norfloxacin - Wikipedia
Apr 2007). "Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: a ... Some quinolones exert an inhibitory effect on the cytochrome P-450 system, thereby reducing theophylline clearance and ... Fluoroquinolones are not licensed by the FDA for use in children due to the risk of fatalities as well as permanent injury to ... The fluoroquinolones have also been reported as being present in the mothers milk and are passed on to the nursing child, ...
Fluoroquinolones and risk of Achilles tendon disorders: case-control study | The BMJ
None of these consultancies related to quinolones. MCJMS is responsible for research conducted with the integrated primary care ... Fluoroquinolones have been associated with tendon disorders, usually during the first month of treatment,1-5 but the ... Fluoroquinolones and risk of Achilles tendon disorders: case-control study BMJ 2002; 324 :1306 ... Current exposure to fluoroquinolones increases the risk of Achilles tendon disorders. This finding is in agreement with a ...
Alertes de seguretat de fàrmacs | Scoop.it
Pathogens | Free Full-Text | Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Cattle and Sheep in Northern Spain...
The increase in fluoroquinolone resistance is worrisome but susceptibility to macrolides is reassuring. ... Presence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated to quinolone and macrolide resistance was confirmed in all ... Compared to results obtained 10-years earlier (2003-2005) in a similar survey, an increase in fluoroquinolone-resistance was ... Fluoro)Quinolone. Ciprofloxacin. C. jejuni. 60.6. 61.9. 67.6. 50.0. 43. 1. 41. 24. ...
Drug Classes Flashcards by Tiffany Cattey | Brainscape
In-vitro activity of clinafloxacin, trovafloxacin, and ciprofloxacin
Clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin are two new fluoroquinolones for which few comparative data are available. When MICs of ... Clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin are two new fluoroquinolones for which few comparative data are available. When MICs of ... Quinolones / chemistry * Quinolones / pharmacology* Substances * Anti-Infective Agents * Fluoroquinolones * Naphthyridines * ...
The Quinolones, Book by Vincent T. Andriole (Hardcover) | chapters.indigo.ca
Buy the Hardcover Book The Quinolones by Vincent T. Andriole at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on ... Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of the Fluoroquinolones. Use of Quinolones in Urinary Tract Infection and Prostatitis. ... Use of the Quinolones in Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Treatment of Respiratory Infections with Quinolones. Use of Quinolones ... Use of the Quinolones in Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis. Use of the Quinolones in Immunocompromised Patients. Use of the ...
Appendix C: Glossary | Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary | The National Academies Press
XDR-TB is defined an M. tuberculosis isolate that is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin plus any fluoroquinolone and at least ... Quinolones: Class of purely synthetic antibiotics that inhibit the replication of bacterial DNA; includes ciprofloxacin and ... fluoroquinolone.. Radiological Agents: Materials that emit radiation that can harm living organisms (http://books.google.com/ ...
Lsy-20004 Antibiotic Residues Test Kit In Eggs Chloramphenicol Rapid Test Strips - Buy Antibiotic Residues Test Kit In Eggs...
CiprofloxacinAntibioticsNalidixicMoxifloxacinAminoglycosidesMacrolidesLevofloxacinAntibacterialsSusceptibility to fluoroquinolonesSecond-generation fluoroquinoloneCiproInfectionsMutationsPlasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genesSystemicIsolatesTopoisomeraseCampylobacterStrainsOrganismsTendonOfloxacinGenesGyraseVitroEmergenceResistantInfectious diseasesFluorine atomCarboxylic acid derivativesAntibacterial drugsPatients following fluorTetracyclinesAntibiotic resistanceAvoidance of fluoroquinolonesSusceptible to fluoroquinolonesMacrolideGyrAToxicityAntimicrobialsClinicalInhibitMechanismsAntimicrobial ResistanceAdverse effectsMutationBacterial resistanceGram-negative
- In adults the therapeutic agents of choice are the fluoroquinolones, especially ciprofloxacin, which is also used in addition to third generation cephalosporins in children. (gla.ac.uk)
- Fluoroquinolone antibiotics- Cipro (ciprofloxacin), Levaquin (levofloxacin), and Avelox (moxifloxacin)- cause the same symptoms as Gulf War Syndrome and because fluoroquinolones are often prescribed to military personnel as a preventative measure, fluoroquinolones cannot be overlooked as a cause of Gulf War Syndrome. (saferpills.org)
- Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin) are now only recommended when other antibiotics are not appropriate. (umm.edu)
- The fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin are widely used for the treatment of various types of bacterial infections. (springer.com)
- Garenoxacin exhibited greater antimicrobial activity than comparator quinolones such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and other antimicrobials when tested against selected gram-positive organisms. (nih.gov)
- Ciprofloxacin, a second-generation fluoroquinolone, is an effective single-dose oral chemoprophylaxis agent. (cdc.gov)
- Broth microdilution testing at the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) laboratory indicated an MIC of 0.25 µ g/mL for ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, indicating fluoroquinolone resistance ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend the use of ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone (FQ), for the treatment of shigellosis 6 . (nature.com)
- The second generation fluoroquinolone, ciprofloxacin. (wikipedia.org)
- Decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones could be partly explained by decreased expression of the outer membrane porin genes ompA and ompF with a concomitant increase in the expression of the ciprofloxacin resistance efflux pump gene acrB in Δ crp cells. (asm.org)
- Surprisingly, the Δ crp mutation had the unanticipated effect of enhancing fitness in the presence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, which can be explained by the observation that exposure of Δ crp cells to ciprofloxacin had the counterintuitive effect of restoring wild-type levels of DNA supercoiling. (asm.org)
- Therefore, understanding the genetic changes in Salmonella that decrease susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones is of paramount importance. (asm.org)
- Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin have the best activity against gram-negative bacilli and should generally be selected over the newer fluoroquinolones if clinically indicated. (medscape.com)
- The fluoroquinolone antibiotics are important drugs indeed - ciprofloxacin is probably the most famous of the bunch, but there's a whole series of them, and they're widely used for serious bacterial infections. (sciencemag.org)
- The effect of 25 Mg, a magnetic magnesium isotope, on the sensitivity of Escherichia coli K12 TG1 to quinolone/fluoroquinolone (nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycoside antibiotics (amikacin and tobramycin) was found. (springer.com)
- Association between DDD/1000 bed days for each fluoroquinolone and the susceptibility of Gram negative bacteria to ciprofloxacin was assessed using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, r. (biomedcentral.com)
- Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin is the system's preferred marker for susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. (biomedcentral.com)
- Fluoroquinolone antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, among others) are an important class of antibiotics that are used in a variety of settings. (experts.com)
- The best known fluoroquinolone is ciprofloxacin (Cipro), first introduced in 1987. (forbes.com)
- Ciprofloxacin resistant isolates were characterized by mutation analysis of quinolone resistance determining. (ebscohost.com)
- Here, we use a bacterial small RNA (sRNA) screen to identify genes whose knockdown re-sensitizes DNA gyrase-mediated resistance to the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP). (g3journal.org)
- Since the introduction of ciprofloxacin in 1987, fluoroquinolones have expanded far beyond their early role in the treatment of urinary tract infections. (saxo.com)
- There is still a prevailing and false presumption that fluoroquinolone antibiotics are safe and do not cause the multitude of adverse reactions we know they cause. (saferpills.org)
- Norfloxacin is a synthetic antibacterial agent that belongs to the class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
- EMA's Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee ( PRAC ) has recommended restricting the use of fluoroquinolone and quinolone antibiotics (used by mouth, injection or inhalation) following a review of disabling and potentially long-lasting side effects reported with these medicines. (scoop.it)
- NEW HAVEN, Conn., Jan. 26 /PRNewswire/ -- Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ("Rib-X" or the "Company"), a development-stage company focused on the discovery and development of novel antibiotics for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections, today announced positive final results from a Phase 2 clinical trial of its novel fluoroquinolone antibiotic, delafloxacin (RX-3341), in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). (bio-medicine.org)
- Fluoroquinolones are highly effective broad-spectrum antibiotics usually used for the treatment of human and animal infections, including salmonellosis. (intechopen.com)
- Due to the high level resistance against fluoroquinolones that has been observed in Salmonella, care needs to be taken to avoid misuse and overuse of this important class of antibiotics to minimize the occurrence and dissemination of resistance. (intechopen.com)
- The quinolone and fluoroquinolone groups, which represent a synthetic class of antibiotics, inhibit DNA gyrase and have broad-spectrum activity. (musicaenlamochila.net)
- Fluoroquinolones (FQ) belong to the group of broad-spectrum antibiotics, effective for both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. (hindawi.com)
- FACT CHECK: Could Cipro and Other Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Cause Irreversible Tendon Damage? (snopes.com)
- The FDA has updated its warnings for - and recommended limitations on - prescribing a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones, citing potentially irreversible side-effects including tendon damage and rupture. (snopes.com)
- On 18 March 2017, the author of a blog called "Mountains and Mustard Seeds" published a post about her personal experience with serious medical complications caused by a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. (snopes.com)
- Fluoroquinolone (FQs) antibiotics were first approved by the FDA for marketing in the 1980s. (snopes.com)
- Over the last 20 years quinolone antibiotics have been prescribed to millions of Americans, often for relatively minor infections. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- But some antibiotics, like the fluoroquinolones, can cause serious, sometimes permanent damage for susceptible patients. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Nearly all quinolone antibiotics in use are fluoroquinolones , which contain a fluorine atom in their chemical structure and are effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
- Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment of Salmonella enterica infections, but resistance to this family of antibiotics is growing. (asm.org)
- Fluoroquinolones are an important class of antibiotics, and agents such as levofloxacin or moxifloxacin are incorporated in guidelines for the empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia ( 17 , 18 ). (asm.org)
- In the case of fluoroquinolones, determination of antibiotic sensitivity by the disc diffusion method revealed the 7‒14% larger growth inhibition zones on the medium with the magnetic magnesium isotope than for the same antibiotics in the variants with 24 Mg, 26 Mg, or the natural Mg isotope. (springer.com)
- But other antibiotics, like fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, don't work as well if you take them at the same time as calcium, iron, antacids like Tums or Maalox, or foods such as milk, cheese, or nuts. (everydayhealth.com)
- The quinolones are a family of synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotics . (princeton.edu)
- The FDA does not comment on the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics prior to outpatient procedures or the routine use perioperatively. (auanet.org)
- A recent study published in JAMA Surg found that patients who received fluoroquinolones had a higher risk for aneurysms, ruptures, or dissections than those who did not receive the antibiotics. (experts.com)
- This led the FDA to issue the following statement in December 2018: 'A U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review found that fluoroquinolone antibiotics can increase the occurrence of rare but serious events of ruptures or tears in the main aftery of the body, called the aorta. (experts.com)
- A 2018 study in Clinical Infectious Diseases found that approximately 5% of adult ambulatory fluoroquinolone prescriptions were for conditions that did not require antibiotics, and nearly 20% were for conditions where fluoroquinolones are not recommended first-line therapy. (experts.com)
- The basic chemical structure of fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as Avelox, Cipro and Levaquin. (forbes.com)
- I've been following fluoroquinolone antibiotics ever since I was a graduate student in the 1980s. (forbes.com)
- One of the bacterial forms of this enzyme (called DNA gyrase) is the target of quinolone and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. (forbes.com)
- Nalidixic acid was the first of these quinolone antibiotics, invented in the 1960s by researchers studying the antimalarial drug, chloroquine. (forbes.com)
- But fluoroquinolones are essential last-resort antibiotics for severe infections. (forbes.com)
- Known as fluoroquinolones, these antibiotics are commonly used to treat a variety of illnesses. (davidwolfe.com)
- DMS is an established combination of antibiotics especially fluoroquinolones, ideally with second, third and fourth generation. (scielo.org.za)
- Nalidixic acid, considered a first-generation drug, is the earliest of the quinolones. (merckvetmanual.com)
- The first quinolone used was nalidixic acid (was marketed in many countries as Negram) followed by the fluoroquinolone flumequine. (wikipedia.org)
- The first members of the quinolone antibacterial class were relatively low potency drugs such as nalidixic acid, used mainly in the treatment of urinary tract infections owing to their renal excretion and propensity to be concentrated in urine. (wikipedia.org)
- The first quinolone, nalidixic acid (NegGram), was introduced in 1962. (aafp.org)
- Quinolone (Nalidixic acid). (studystack.com)
- The first generation of the quinolones begins with the introduction of nalidixic acid in 1962 for treatment of urinary tract infections in humans. (princeton.edu)
- A growing body of clinical and microbiological evidence indicates that such nalidixic acid-resistant S. enterica infections also exhibit a decreased clinical response to fluoroquinolones. (ebscohost.com)
- In this article, we recommend that laboratories test extraintestinal Salmonella isolates for nalidixic acid resistance, we recommend that short-course fluoroquinolone therapy be avoided for infection with nalidixic acid-resistant extraintestinal salmonellae, and we summarize existing data and data needs that would contribute to reevaluation of the current NCCLS fluoroquinolone breakpoints for salmonellae. (ebscohost.com)
- However, MDR serotype Typhi isolates with additional chromosomally encoded resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal r ) and with reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones have been reported more and more in the Indian subcontinent since the early 1990s and have later been reported in various Asian countries ( 13 , 23 , 24 , 33 , 38 , 41 ). (asm.org)
- With the recent introduction of agents such as gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, the traditional gram-negative coverage of fluoroquinolones has been expanded to include specific gram-positive organisms. (aafp.org)
- Moxifloxacin is a respiratory fluoroquinolone with a community acquired pneumonia indication. (biomedcentral.com)
- Unlike other fluoroquinolones used in our healthcare system, moxifloxacin's urinary excretion is low and thus we hypothesized that increased use of moxifloxacin is associated with an increase in fluoroquinolone resistance amongst gram negative uropathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
- When the sensitivities of all Gram negative organisms were aggregated, all fluoroquinolones except moxifloxacin were associated with increased sensitivity (r = 0.486 to 1.000) while moxifloxacin was associated with decreased sensitivity (r = -0.464). (biomedcentral.com)
- We hypothesized that increased use of moxifloxacin is associated with an increase in fluoroquinolone resistance amongst Gram negative organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Like aminoglycosides, the quinolones exhibit concentration-dependent bacterial killing. (aafp.org)
- When used in combination with agents from other antibiotic classes, such as beta-lactams and aminoglycosides, the quinolones are not predictably synergistic. (aafp.org)
- The antimicrobials most commonly indicated in Enterobacter infections include carbapenems, fourth-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and TMP-SMZ. (medscape.com)
- Quinolones, aminoglycosides, 3rd generation cephalosporins & metronidazole alone or in combination are useful in these infections. (scribd.com)
- The increase in fluoroquinolone resistance is worrisome but susceptibility to macrolides is reassuring. (mdpi.com)
- A method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of different veterinary drug residues (macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamides) in honey. (org.in)
- Furthermore, the role of multiple drug resistance efflux in the susceptibility of vacT to fluoroquinolones and macrolides was investigated. (semanticscholar.org)
Susceptibility to fluoroquinolones3
- Probably, both human and veterinary uses have significantly contributed to the emergence of Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones [ 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Here we report that loss of the global regulatory protein cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) or its allosteric effector, cAMP, reduces susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. (asm.org)
- Such Salmonella isolates typically also have decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, although minimum inhibitory concentrations of the fluoroquinolones usually are within the susceptible range of the interpretive criteria of the NCCLS. (ebscohost.com)
- Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, may exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. (rxlist.com)
- Because fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, have been associated with serious adverse reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ] and for some patients uncomplicated UTI (acute cystitis ) is self-limiting, reserve CIPRO XR for treatment of uncomplicated UTIs (acute cystitis) in patients who have no alternative treatment options. (rxlist.com)
- Ciprofloxacine est la dénomination internationale d'un antibiotique de synthèse créé et commercialisé par les laboratoires Bayer sous le nom de Ciflox® en France, Ciproxine® en Belgique, Ciprinol® en Roumanie et Moldavie et Cipro® au Canada et aux États-Unis. (dbpedia.org)
- Overall, the specific adverse-effect profile of quinolones must be considered when they are chosen for treatment of bacterial infections. (springer.com)
- Flumequine is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
- Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae , which is currently low, will require close monitoring as fluoroquinolones are used more extensively for treating respiratory tract infections. (cdc.gov)
- The last six released fluoroquinolones are for treating patients with respiratory tract infections, the single most common group of infections ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of RX-3341 (delafloxacin), a fluoroquinolone, versus tigecycline, a glycylcycline antibacterial drug, in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Fluoroquinolones are often used for genitourinary infections and are widely used in the treatment of hospital-acquired infections associated with urinary catheters. (wikipedia.org)
- The DDDs for the fluoroquinolones are mainly based on the treatment of respiratory tract infections. (whocc.no)
- This follows a previous warning issued in May regarding limiting the use of fluoroquinolones in certain bacterial infections. (auanet.org)
- The FDA specifies that fluoroquinolones have serious side effects that outweigh the benefits in the use of conditions, such as uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), in patients for which other treatment options may be effective. (auanet.org)
- This past week, the FDA announced it is updating the labels of fluoroquinolones and warning doctors not to use fluoroquinolones in cases of acute bacterial sinusitis, bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, or uncomplicated urinary tract infections where drugs of other classes have not been tried first. (forbes.com)
- Fluoroquinolones are most commonly prescribed for treating sinus infections and urinary tract infections. (davidwolfe.com)
- 4-5 These fluoroquinolones have been used for various ailments such as urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, chronic bronchitis, lungs infection, pneumonia, eye infections, and abdominal infections, etc. (scielo.org.za)
- Broad use of fluoroquinolones has been followed by emergence of resistance, which has been due mainly to chromosomal mutations in genes encoding the subunits of the drugs' target enzymes, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, and in genes that affect the expression of diffusion channels in the outer membrane and multidrug-resistance efflux systems. (cdc.gov)
- DNA sequencing of the gyrA gene revealed none of the mutations previously associated with fluoroquinolone resistance, consistent with fluoroquinolone susceptibility ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- Here, the authors investigated the rate of resistance to fluoroquinolones of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from normal conjunctival microbes and mutations in the quinolone-resistance determining region (QRDR). (biomedcentral.com)
- The quinolone resistance rate of S. epidermidis increased in comparison with previous studies, and resistant S. epidermidis showed mostly QRDR mutations, which were mainly found in gyrA and parC , and showed strong resistance when mutated in both genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our results indicate that sequential accumulation of defining mutations ( gyrA -S83L, parC -S80I, and gyrA -D87G) led to the emergence of the fluoroquinolone-resistant S. sonnei population around 2007 in South Asia. (nature.com)
- Quinolone resistance in Gram-negative pathogens is usually acquired by chromosomal mutations, primarily in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the target genes, gyrA and gyrB, which encode DNA gyrase, and parC and parE, which encode topoisomerase IV. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Another issue concerns the finding that resistance to fluoroquinolones arises stepwise, usually through mutations accumulating in the genes encoding DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV (for reviews, see references 10 and 19 ). (asm.org)
- A rapid method, using PCR-restriction fragment length and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), was applied to screen for mutations of the fluoroquinolone resistance determinants in Streptococcus pneumoniae . (asm.org)
- This method provides a database of high resolution profiles on these mutations and allows rapid screening for new mutations of the fluoroquinolone resistance genes. (asm.org)
- Fluoroquinolone resistance in S. pneumoniae is primarily due to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the genes encoding the A and B subunits of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, in particular, the parC and gyrA genes ( 3 , 6 , 14 ). (asm.org)
- Screening for mutations in the QRDRs is performed by sequencing of the gyrA , gyrB , parC , and parE genes of the fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. (asm.org)
- Role of novel gyrA mutations in the suppression of the fluoroquinolone resistance genotype of vaccine strain Salmonella Typhimurium vacT (gyrA D87G). (semanticscholar.org)
- The role of intra- and extragenic compensatory mutations in the suppression of fluoroquinolone resistance in a Salmonella Typhimurium gyrA mutant (D87G). (semanticscholar.org)
- Topoisomerase IV mutations in quinolone-resistant salmonellae selected in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
- All trees revealed that the isolates were clustered according to the presence/absence of the gyr A mutations causing fluoroquinolone resistance and ST‐types. (europa.eu)
Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes2
- The resistance level is further increased with the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes which could horizontally transfer the resistance from strain to strain. (intechopen.com)
- Prevalence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Clinical Enterobacteria from Argentina. (semanticscholar.org)
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved changes to the labels of fluoroquinolone antibacterial drugs for systemic use (i.e., taken by mouth or by injection). (snopes.com)
- In July 2008, the FDA issued a notice that a boxed warning and a Medication Guide for patients are to be added to the prescribing information to strengthen the existing warnings about the increased risk of developing tendinitis and tendon rupture in patients taking fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs for systemic use. (auanet.org)
- To determine the levels of fluoroquinolone resistance in Scotland from 1990-2000, this study examined a collection of 180 isolates of Salmonella enterica isolated from human, veterinary and environmental sources. (gla.ac.uk)
- By exposing susceptible isolates to subinhibitory concentrations of fluoroquinolones, resistant mutants were selected. (gla.ac.uk)
- Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance has recently been identified in isolates of S. enterica in a number of countries at low prevalence. (gla.ac.uk)
- The aim of the study was to analyse the susceptibility of unique and non-duplicate aerobic and anaerobic isolates from surgical patients to a novel des-F(6)-quinolone (garenoxacin) and other selected antimicrobial agents. (nih.gov)
- Overall, the in vitro activity of the advanced spectrum quinolones against anaerobic surgical isolates compared favourably with selected comparator agents, metronidazole, imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. (nih.gov)
- Delafloxacin proved to be the more active compound compared to tigecycline when evaluated against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates from patients, including MRSA and quinolone-resistant MRSA and other organisms. (bio-medicine.org)
- Presence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated to quinolone and macrolide resistance was confirmed in all phenotypically resistant isolates. (mdpi.com)
- Contribution of different mechanisms to the resistance to fluoroquinolones in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica. (thefreelibrary.com)
- However, the number of quinolone-resistant isolates has increased in recent years and such resistance can counteract the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Clinical isolates that overexpress efflux pumps usually overproduce this pump and there is an association of MDR mediated by efflux with prior use of fluoroquinolones. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and to examine the mechanism of increasing quinolone resistance of S. typhi isolates in Kerala, South India. (ebscohost.com)
- The mechanism of Nal resistance in most of the isolates (94%) was a mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining chromosomal region of gyrA that led to the amino acid substitution Ser83Phe. (asm.org)
- The quinolones inhibit bacterial enzyme topoisomerases, including topoisomerase II (otherwise known as DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Quinolones rapidly inhibit DNA synthesis by promoting cleavage of bacterial DNA in the DNA-enzyme complexes of DNA gyrase and type IV topoisomerase, resulting in rapid bacterial death. (aafp.org)
- Fluoroquinolones elicit their bactericidal properties through interactions with two intercellular enzymes - DNA gyrase (DNA topoisomerase II) and DNA topoisomerase IV - which are essential for bacterial DNA transcription, synthesis and replication. (drugs.com)
- 8) Quinolones act by inhibiting the action of type II topoisomerases, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Expression of gyrAB , which encode the DNA supercoiling enzyme GyrAB, which is blocked by fluoroquinolones, and expression of topA , which encodes the dominant supercoiling-relaxing enzyme topoisomerase I, were unchanged in Δ crp cells. (asm.org)
- The drugs first trap gyrase or topoisomerase IV on the chromosome as fluoroquinolone-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken but constrained by protein. (asm.org)
- 1-3 In this regard fluoroquinolones have been very promising which work through topoisomerase II & IV and DNA gyrase inhibitions. (scielo.org.za)
- As noted before, the CDC/FoodNet case-control study of campylobacteriosis shows that persons infected with Campylobacter that is resistant to fluoroquinolones have a longer illness than do persons infected with susceptible strains of Campylobacter (1). (hhs.gov)
- You might face fluoroquinolones used to treat animals, a practice which has led to the emergence of quinolone resistance in organisms like E coli, Salmonella spp, and Campylobacter spp. (bmj.com)
- Fluoroquinolone resistance is rare and is mostly detected in strains associated with foreign travel. (gla.ac.uk)
- Delafloxacin's MIC90 values against all MRSA including the quinolone-resistant MRSA strains was also 0.06 micrograms/mL. (bio-medicine.org)
- In support of this request, Animal Health Institute (AHI) contends that CDC directly (e.g. )* and by quoting a study by Smith et al, published in the New England Journal of Medicine (2) attribute excess days of illness to the fluoroquinolone resistance of the infecting strains, that AHI contends actually occur because of foreign travel. (hhs.gov)
- 3,4) The global increase in the prevalence of Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility to quinolones constitutes a major concern, since these pathogens have been associated with a significant burden of hospitalization and mortality and with clinical failures of therapy. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Lethality is likely to be important for minimizing the mutagenic action of fluoroquinolones ( 20 , 21 ) and the appearance of resistant strains. (asm.org)
- It is thus important to identify and monitor the spread of fluoroquinolone resistance determinants among S. pneumoniae strains. (asm.org)
- Since then, structural modifications have resulted in second-, third-, and fourth-generation fluoroquinolones, which have improved coverage of gram-positive organisms. (aafp.org)
- Newer quinolones have increased their spectrum toward gram-positive organisms and, in some cases, toward anaerobes. (medscape.com)
- Tendinitis and tendon ruptures are recognized as quinolone-induced adverse effects that can occur during treatment or as late as several months after treatment. (springer.com)
- Fluoroquinolones have been associated with tendon disorders, usually during the first month of treatment, 1 - 5 but the epidemiological evidence is scanty. (bmj.com)
- We did a nested case-control study among users of fluoroquinolones in a large UK general practice database to study the association with Achilles tendon disorders. (bmj.com)
- We defined current use as when the tendon disorder occurred in the period between the start of the fluoroquinolone treatment and the calculated end date plus 30 days, recent use as when the calculated end date was between 30 and 90 days before the occurrence of the disorder, and past use as when the calculated end date was more than 90 days before the occurrence of the disorder. (bmj.com)
- The cohort included 46 776 users of fluoroquinolones between 1 July 1992 and 30 June 30 1998, of whom 704 had Achilles tendinitis and 38 had Achilles tendon rupture. (bmj.com)
- The adjusted relative risk of Achilles tendon disorders with current use of fluoroquinolones was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.6). (bmj.com)
- Current exposure to fluoroquinolones increases the risk of Achilles tendon disorders. (bmj.com)
- In 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requested that all quinolone/fluoroquinolone drugs package inserts include a Black Boxed Warning concerning the risk of spontaneous tendon ruptures, which would have included flumequine. (wikipedia.org)
- The mechanism by which [Fluoroquinolones or FQs] cause tendon injury is unclear. (snopes.com)
- In 2008 the FDA added black box warning on all fluoroquinolones, advising of the increased risk of tendon damage. (wikipedia.org)
- Fluoroquinolones are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture. (auanet.org)
- Physicians should advise patients, at the first sign of tendon pain, swelling, or inflammation, to stop taking the fluoroquinolone, to avoid exercise and use of the affected area and to promptly contact their doctor about changing to a nonfluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug. (auanet.org)
- The quinolones are associated with tendonitis and potential Achilles tendon rupture. (experts.com)
- In 2008, the FDA added its first black box warning to fluoroquinolones, indicating the risk for tendon injuries. (experts.com)
- In a large population-based case control analysis, patients treated with fluoroquinolones had a 4.1 fold increase in risk of Achilles tendon rupture and a 46 times higher risk if there was concomitant use of corticosteroids. (experts.com)
- The FDA is also notifying patients given a fluoroquinolone to alert their doctor at the first sign of any unusual joint or tendon pain, muscle weakness, tingling or "pins and needles" sensations, numbness in the arms or legs, confusion or hallucinations. (forbes.com)
- Various fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin, CFC and MFC have been simultaneously quantified through liquid chromatogra-phy with pharmacokinetics detail. (scielo.org.za)
- 6 Various fluoroquinolones such as CFC, ofloxacin, enoxacin and norfloxacin have been successfully quantified with HPLC. (scielo.org.za)
- For example, the quinolone nucleus contains a carboxylic acid group at position 3 and an exocyclic oxygen at position 4 (hence the term 4-quinolones), which are believed to be the active DNA-gyrase binding sites. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Fluoroquinolones trap gyrase on DNA as bacteriostatic complexes from which lethal DNA breaks are released. (asm.org)
- These data indicate that a C-8-methoxyl substituent, which facilitates attack of first-step gyrase mutants, may help make fluoroquinolones effective antituberculosis agents. (asm.org)
- Fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella sp. (cdc.gov)
- This report describes a cluster of three cases of fluoroquinolone-resistant meningococcal disease that occurred among residents of the border area of North Dakota and Minnesota during January 2007--January 2008. (cdc.gov)
- Here we analyse nearly 400 S. sonnei whole genome sequences from both endemic and non-endemic regions to delineate the evolutionary history of the recently emergent fluoroquinolone-resistant S. sonnei . (nature.com)
- You requested the correction or deletion of CDC's statements that a person with Campylobacterinfection that is resistant to fluoroquinolone will have an extended illness or two days of diarrhea more than a person that is infected withCampylobacter that is susceptible to fluoroquinolones. (hhs.gov)
- When cultures of M. smegmatis , M. bovis BCG, and M. tuberculosis were challenged with a C-8-methoxyl fluoroquinolone, no resistant mutant was recovered under conditions in which more than 1,000 mutants were obtained with a C-8-H control. (asm.org)
- The C-8-methoxyl compound was also found to be more effective than the C-8-bromo fluoroquinolone at reducing selection of resistant mutants when each was compared to a C-8-H control over a broad concentration range. (asm.org)
- Flumequine is the first quinolone compound with a fluorine atom at the C6-position of the related quinolone basic molecular structure. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1979 the publication of a patent filed by the pharmaceutical arm of Kyorin Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha disclosed the discovery of norfloxacin, and the demonstration that certain structural modifications including the attachment of a fluorine atom to the quinolone ring leads to dramatically enhanced antibacterial potency. (wikipedia.org)
Carboxylic acid derivatives2
Patients following fluor1
Avoidance of fluoroquinolones2
Susceptible to fluoroquinolones1
- Doxycycline, a fluoroquinolone with enhanced activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae , or a macrolide is appropriate for outpatient treatment of immunocompetent adult patients. (aafp.org)
- Hospitalized adults should be treated with cefotaxime or ceftriaxone plus a macrolide, or with a fluoroquinolone alone. (aafp.org)
- Sequencing of the gyrA gene revealed a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid 91, which had been associated previously with fluoroquinolone resistance in N. meningitidis ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- OBJECTIVES This study was aimed at characterizing the gyrA locus and determining its impact on fluoroquinolone susceptibility, DNA supercoiling degree and growth rate of Salmonella Typhimurium live vaccine strain vacT in comparison with its parent M415. (semanticscholar.org)
- We identified a number of sRNA sequences that reduce quinolone resistance on a gyrA S83L background. (g3journal.org)
- Significant others, friends, and family don't always understand Fluoroquinolone Toxicity and many people lose their support system. (saferpills.org)
- Since there is no diagnosis code for fluoroquinolone toxicity, aka fluoroquinolone-associated disability, and there isn't enough known about it for proper treatment, applying for- and getting- disability is very difficult. (saferpills.org)
- The pain fluoroquinolone toxicity causes is immense. (saferpills.org)
- FLUOROQUINOLONES: from structure to activity and toxicity F. Mar 23, 2020 · The mechanism of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine toxicity is not well understood. (musicaenlamochila.net)
- Fluoroquinolone-related neuropsychiatric and mitochondrial toxicity: a collaborative investigation by scientists and members of a social network," The Journal of Community and Supportive Oncology , vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 54-65, 2016. (hindawi.com)
- Fluoroquinolone toxicity has been like an atomic bomb exploding in their bodies damaging their muscles and scrambling their DNA to the point many are too sick to work, too weak to walk. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- These were characterised using the genotypic methods of Plasmid Profile Analysis and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and levels of resistance were determined for quinolone and fluoroquinolone antimicrobials by the agar dilution method. (gla.ac.uk)
- Treatment with a quinolone causes diarrhoea less frequently than treatment with other classes of antimicrobials. (springer.com)
- Treatment options for S. sonnei are dwindling due to resistance to several key antimicrobials, including the fluoroquinolones. (nature.com)
- In concentrated acidic urine, some quinolones form needle-shaped crystals, although this apparently has not been reported with clinical use. (merckvetmanual.com)
- It is a first-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial that has been removed from clinical use and is no longer being marketed. (wikipedia.org)
- As we approach the halfway point of the second decade of fluoroquinolone use, resistance has already emerged in some species of bacteria and some clinical settings. (cdc.gov)
- Fluoroquinolones (and earlier quinolones) are novel among antimicrobial agents in clinical use because they directly inhibit DNA synthesis. (cdc.gov)
- Though the fluoroquinolones are sometimes used to treat typhoid and paratyphoid fever, it should be noted here that norfloxacin had more clinical failures than the other fluoroquinolones (417 participants, 5 trials). (wikipedia.org)
- Edited by one of the world's foremost authorities on the subject, the third edition of this highly successful title will serve as a valuable tool for primary care physicians and researchers interested in a comprehensive, up-to-date reference on the chemistry, mechanisms of action, development of resistance, and clinical efficacy of both currently available and newer quinolone compounds under investigation. (indigo.ca)
- Presently, fluoroquinolones are the drug of choice for having the high level of clinical efficacy against most of the enteric pathogens including Salmonella [ 3 , 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
- 2) Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum antibacterial agents commonly used in both clinical and veterinary medicine. (thefreelibrary.com)
- It is believed that fluoroquinolones actively bind with DNA:ENZYME complexes and thereby inhibit the essential processes catalyzed by the enzymes (DNA supercoiling and chromosomal decatenation) 1 . (drugs.com)
- It is believed that fluoroquinolones actively bind with bacterial DNA:ENZYME complexes and thereby inhibit the essential processes catalyzed by the enzymes (DNA supercoiling and chromosomal decatenation). (drugs.com)
- In all species studied, mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance include one or two of the three main mechanistic categories, alterations in the drug target, and alterations in the permeation of the drug to reach its target. (cdc.gov)
- 9) Resistance can also be acquired by minimizing the accumulation of the antimicrobial agent in the cell by either one or both of the following mechanisms: altered expression of porins leading to decreased penetration of fluoroquinolones within bacteria or increased efflux of quinolones from the bacterial cell due to overexpression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump that acts synergistically with the outer membrane mutation. (thefreelibrary.com)
- These findings implicate the combined action of multiple drug resistance mechanisms in Δ crp cells: reduced permeability and elevated efflux of fluoroquinolones coupled with a relaxed DNA supercoiling state that buffers cells against GyrAB inhibition by fluoroquinolones. (asm.org)
- A Δ crp mutation was synergistic with the primary fluoroquinolone resistance allele gyrA83 , thus able to contribute to clinically relevant resistance. (asm.org)
- Role of TolC and parC mutation in high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT204. (semanticscholar.org)
- No specific quinolone-modifying or -degrading enzymes have been found as a mechanism of bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones, although some fungi can degrade quinolones by metabolic pathways ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
- All fluoroquinolones tested were effective against most gram-negative facultative anaerobes including Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
- Second-generation quinolones have expanded gram-negative activity and atypical pathogen coverage, but limited gram-positive activity. (aafp.org)
- Enrofloxacin, a 4-fluoroquinolone compound, is bactericidal with activity against a broad spectrum of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. (drugs.com)