Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Sensitivity and Specificity
Predictive Value of Tests
Whole Body Imaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
Solitary Pulmonary Nodule
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Reproducibility of Results
Soft Tissue Neoplasms
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
False Positive Reactions
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. (1/3939)OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans. (+info)
Enhanced myocardial glucose use in patients with a deficiency in long-chain fatty acid transport (CD36 deficiency). (2/3939)CD36 is a multifunctional, 88 kDa glycoprotein that is expressed on platelets and monocytes/macrophages. CD36 also has high homology with the long-chain fatty acid (LFA) transporter in the myocardium. Although platelet and monocyte CD36 levels can indicate a CD36 deficiency, they cannot predict specific clinical manifestations in the myocardium of a given person. We examined the hypothesis that a deficiency in LFA transport augments myocardial glucose uptake in patients with a type I CD36 deficiency. METHODS: Seven fasting patients with a type I CD36 deficiency and 9 controls were assessed by cardiac radionuclide imaging using beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) as a LFA tracer and by PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: None of the patients with a CD36 deficiency showed myocardial uptake of BMIPP. The percentage dose uptake of BMIPP in these subjects was significantly lower than that in normal controls (1.31+/-0.24 versus 2.90+/-0.2; P < 0.005). PET studies revealed that myocardial FDG accumulation was substantially increased in patients with a CD36 deficiency. Quantitative analysis showed that the percentage dose uptake of FDG in patients with a CD36 deficiency was significantly higher than that in normal controls (1.28+/-0.35 versus 0.43+/-0.22; P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: CD36 functions as a major myocardial LFA transporter and its absence may cause a compensatory upregulation of myocardial glucose uptake. (+info)
Detection of liver metastases from pancreatic cancer using FDG PET. (3/3939)We evaluated the potential of the glucose analog [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a PET tracer for the hepatic staging in 168 patients designated for resective pancreatic surgery. METHODS: Metastatic liver disease was confirmed or excluded during surgery or with CT follow-up for at least 6 mo. Proven metastases were then retrospectively identified on preoperative CT (gold standard). Hepatic PET scans of all patients were interpreted blindly. Any focal FDG uptake was considered malignant. Both proven hepatic metastases and suspicious hepatic PET lesions were then compared, lesion by lesion, with CT. Standardized uptake values (SUV) and tumor-to-liver ratios (T/L) were determined for the most intense lesion of each patient. RESULTS: Sensitivity of FDG PET was 68% (15 of 22 patients). The lesion detection rate was 97% (28 of 29 metastases) for lesions >1 cm and 43% (16 of 37 metastases) for lesions < or = 1 cm. Specificity was 95% (138 of 146 patients). Six of eight patients with false-positive results had marked intrahepatic cholestasis (versus 3 of 15 patients with true-positive lesions), one had an infrahepatic abscess and one had a right basal pulmonary metastasis. The SUV and T/L were 4.6+/-1.4 and 2.3+/-1.1, respectively, for malignant lesions and 4.1+/-1.5 and 1.9+/-0.3, respectively, for false-positive lesions and therefore are of limited value. CONCLUSION: FDG PET provides reliable hepatic staging for lesions >1 cm. False-positive results are associated with the presence of marked intrahepatic cholestasis. For lesions < or = 1 cm, FDG PET can define malignancy in 43% of suspicious CT lesions in the absence of dilated bile ducts. (+info)
Synthesis and evaluation of [18F]1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid to image brain tumors. (4/3939)We have developed a new tumor-avid amino acid, 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), labeled with 18F for nuclear medicine imaging. METHODS: [18F]FACBC was prepared with high specific activity (no carrier added [NCA]) and was evaluated for its potential in tumor localization. A comparative study was performed for [18F]FACBC and [18F]2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in which the uptake of each agent in 9L gliosarcoma (implanted intracerebrally in Fisher 344 rats) was measured. In addition, the first human PET study of [18F]FACBC was performed on a patient with residual glioblastoma multiforme. Quantitative brain images of the patient were obtained by using a Siemens 921 47-slice PET imaging system. RESULTS: In the rat brain, the initial level of radioactivity accumulation after injection of [18F]FACBC was low (0.11 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]) at 5 min and increased slightly to 0.26 %ID/g at 60 min. The tumor uptake exhibited a maximum at 60 min (1.72 %ID/g), resulting in a tumor-to-brain ratio increase of 5.58 at 5 min to 6.61 at 60 min. In the patient, the uptake of [18F]FACBC in the tumor exhibited a maximum concentration of 146 nCi/mL at 35 min after injection. The uptake of radioactivity in the normal brain tissue was low, 21 nCi/mL at 15 min after injection, and gradually increased to 29 nCi/mL at 60 min after injection. The ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 6 at 20 min after injection. The [18F]FACBC PET scan showed intense uptake in the left frontal region of the brain. CONCLUSION: The amino acid FACBC can be radiofluorinated for clinical use. [18F]FACBC is a potential PET tracer for tumor imaging. (+info)
Mechanisms related to [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake of human colon cancers transplanted in nude mice. (5/3939)[18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG), a glucose analogue, has been widely used for tumor imaging. To investigate the mechanisms related to [18F]FDG uptake by tumors, an experiment involving nude mice was performed. METHODS: Human colon cancer cell lines SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 were transplanted to nude mice. Using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot, the expression of glucose transporter (Glut) isoforms (Glut-1 through -5) in xenografted tumors was analyzed. For the analysis of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot were used and the enzyme activity of hexokinase in cancer tissues was measured by continuous spectrophotometric rate determination. RESULTS: [18F]FDG uptake in SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 cells was higher than in normal colon cells. Among these cells and xenografted tumors, SNU-C5 showed the highest level of [18F]FDG uptake, followed by SNU-C4 and SNU-C2A. An immunostaining experiment showed intense staining of Glut-1 in SNU-C5 tumors but somewhat faint staining in SNU-C4. SNU-C5 tumors also showed positive staining with Glut-3, although this was not the case with SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. Western blot analysis showed the expression of Glut-1 and Glut-3 in all tumors. Experiments involving Northern blot analysis and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the overexpression of Glut-1 mRNA in all tumors, with the highest level in SNU-C5. The level of Glut-3 mRNA was also elevated in SNU-C5 tumors but not in SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. The enzyme activity of hexokinase did not vary among different tumors. CONCLUSION: Gluts, especially Glut-1, are responsible for [18F]FDG uptake in a nude mouse model of colon cancer rather than hexokinase activity. Increased numbers of glucose transporters at the plasma membrane of cancer cells is attributed to an increased level of transcripts of glucose transporter genes and may be a cause of increased [18F]FDG uptake, at least in colon cancer tumors. (+info)
Use of positron emission tomography in evaluation of brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients. (6/3939)18-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has previously been used successfully to image primary and metastatic breast cancer. In this pilot study, 19 breast cancer patients with symptoms/signs referrable to the brachial plexus were evaluated with 18FDG-PET. In 11 cases computerized tomography (CT) scanning was also performed. Of the 19 patients referred for PET study, 14 had abnormal uptake of 18FDG in the region of the symptomatic plexus. Four patients had normal PET studies and one had increased FDG uptake in the chest wall that accounted for her axillary pain. CT scans were performed in 9 of the 14 patients who had positive brachial plexus PET studies; six of these were either normal or showed no clear evidence of recurrent disease, while three CTs demonstrated clear brachial plexus involvement. Of two of the four patients with normal PET studies, one has had complete resolution of symptoms untreated while the other was found to have cervical disc herniation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The remaining two patients almost certainly had radiation-induced plexopathy and had normal CT, MRI and PET study. These data suggest that 18FDG-PET scanning is a useful tool in evaluation of patients with suspected metastatic plexopathy, particularly if other imaging studies are normal. It may also be useful in distinguishing between radiation-induced and metastatic plexopathy. (+info)
Imaging adenoviral-directed reporter gene expression in living animals with positron emission tomography. (7/3939)We are developing quantitative assays to repeatedly and noninvasively image expression of reporter genes in living animals, using positron emission tomography (PET). We synthesized positron-emitting 8-[18F]fluoroganciclovir (FGCV) and demonstrated that this compound is a substrate for the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase enzyme (HSV1-TK). Using positron-emitting FGCV as a PET reporter probe, we imaged adenovirus-directed hepatic expression of the HSV1-tk reporter gene in living mice. There is a significant positive correlation between the percent injected dose of FGCV retained per gram of liver and the levels of hepatic HSV1-tk reporter gene expression (r2 > 0.80). Over a similar range of HSV1-tk expression in vivo, the percent injected dose retained per gram of liver was 0-23% for ganciclovir and 0-3% for FGCV. Repeated, noninvasive, and quantitative imaging of PET reporter gene expression should be a valuable tool for studies of human gene therapy, of organ/cell transplantation, and of both environmental and behavioral modulation of gene expression in transgenic mice. (+info)
Reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation indicates residual viability after myocardial infarction. (8/3939)OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical significance of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation for detecting residual viability within the infarcted area. BACKGROUND: Although the relation between residual viability and exercise-induced ST-segment elevation has been described, there are no reports focusing on the relation between myocardial viability and reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation. METHODS: We evaluated regional blood flow and glucose utilization using N-13 ammonia (NH3) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 30 patients with a previous Q-wave myocardial infarction (anterior in 15, inferior in 15). All subjects had single-vessel disease and had exercise-induced ST-segment elevations (> or =1 mm) in electrocardiographic leads. RESULTS: Reciprocal ST-segment depression (> or =1 mm) was present in 16 patients (Group A; anterior in 6, inferior in 10) but not in the remaining 14 patients (Group B). The degree of exercise-induced ST-segment elevation (1.8+/-0.2 vs. 2.0+/-0.2 mm) and the time from the onset of infarction to the study (75+/-49 vs. 74+/-52 days) did not differ between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in the severity of left ventricular dysfunction and the residual luminal narrowing in the infarct-related artery (45+/-21 vs. 48+/-25%). The presence and site of infarction were confirmed by NH3-PET in all patients. FDG-PET demonstrated residual tissue viability within infarct-related area in all patients in Group A and in 3 (21%) of 14 patients in Group B (p < 0.01). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation for detecting residual viability were 84%, 100% and 90%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST segment elevation in patients with a previous Q-wave infarction who had single-vessel disease indicates residual tissue viability within the infarct-related area. (+info)
There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:
1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:
1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.
Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.
Mediastinal neoplasms are tumors or abnormal growths that occur in the mediastinum, which is the area between the lungs in the chest cavity. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Types of Mediastinal Neoplasms
There are several types of mediastinal neoplasms, including:
1. Thymoma: A tumor that originates in the thymus gland.
2. Thymic carcinoma: A malignant tumor that originates in the thymus gland.
3. Lymphoma: Cancer of the immune system that can occur in the mediastinum.
4. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that originate from germ cells, which are cells that form eggs or sperm.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors: Tumors that originate from cells of the nervous system and produce hormones.
6. Mesothelioma: A type of cancer that occurs in the lining of the chest cavity.
7. Metastatic tumors: Tumors that have spread to the mediastinum from another part of the body, such as the breast, lung, or colon.
Symptoms of Mediastinal Neoplasms
The symptoms of mediastinal neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:
1. Chest pain or discomfort
2. Shortness of breath
5. Weight loss
6. Swelling in the neck or face
7. Pain in the shoulders or arms
8. Coughing up blood
9. Hoarseness or difficulty swallowing
Diagnosis and Treatment of Mediastinal Neoplasms
The diagnosis of mediastinal neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for mediastinal neoplasms depends on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options can include:
1. Surgery: Surgical removal of the tumor may be possible for some types of mediastinal neoplasms.
2. Radiation therapy: High-energy beams can be used to kill cancer cells.
3. Chemotherapy: Drugs can be used to kill cancer cells.
4. Targeted therapy: Drugs that target specific molecules involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells.
5. Immunotherapy: A type of treatment that uses the body's immune system to fight cancer.
Prognosis for Mediastinal Neoplasms
The prognosis for mediastinal neoplasms depends on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is good for benign tumors, while the prognosis is guarded for malignant tumors. Factors that can affect the prognosis include:
1. Tumor size and location
2. Type of tumor
3. Extent of cancer spread
4. Patient's age and overall health
5. Response to treatment
Lifestyle Changes for Patients with Mediastinal Neoplasms
Patients with mediastinal neoplasms may need to make lifestyle changes to help manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. These can include:
1. Eating a healthy diet
2. Getting regular exercise
3. Avoiding smoking and alcohol
4. Managing stress
5. Getting enough rest and sleep
6. Attending follow-up appointments with the doctor
Mediastinal neoplasms are tumors that occur in the mediastinum, a region of the chest between the lungs. They can be benign or malignant, and their symptoms and treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the tumor. If you have been diagnosed with a mediastinal neoplasm, it is important to work closely with your healthcare team to determine the best course of treatment and manage any symptoms you may be experiencing. With appropriate treatment and lifestyle changes, many patients with mediastinal neoplasms can achieve long-term survival and a good quality of life.
Arteritis can lead to a range of symptoms including fever, fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes, and difficulty speaking or swallowing. In severe cases, it can also cause cardiovascular complications such as heart attack, stroke, or organ failure.
There are several types of arteritis, each with different causes and symptoms. Some common forms of arteritis include:
1. Giant cell arteritis (GCA): This is the most common form of arteritis and primarily affects older adults. It is caused by inflammation of the medium-sized arteries, particularly those in the head and neck. Symptoms may include headaches, vision loss, and pain in the face and jaw.
2. Takayasu arteritis (TA): This is a rare form of arteritis that affects the aorta and its branches. It is more common in women than men and typically affects young adults. Symptoms may include high blood pressure, chest pain, and weakness or numbness in the limbs.
3. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN): This is a rare form of arteritis that affects multiple arteries throughout the body. It can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, joint pain, and skin rashes.
4. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare inflammatory disease that primarily affects children under the age of 5. It causes inflammation in the blood vessels, particularly those in the heart and can lead to cardiovascular complications if left untreated.
Arteritis can be diagnosed through various tests such as blood tests, imaging studies like CT or MRI scans, and biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the type of arteritis and its severity but may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antibiotics. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.
Lymphatic metastasis occurs when cancer cells enter the lymphatic vessels and are carried through the lymphatic system to other parts of the body. This can happen through several mechanisms, including:
1. Direct invasion: Cancer cells can invade the nearby lymphatic vessels and spread through them.
2. Lymphatic vessel embolization: Cancer cells can block the flow of lymphatic fluid and cause the formation of a clot-like structure, which can trap cancer cells and allow them to grow.
3. Lymphatic vessel invasion: Cancer cells can infiltrate the walls of lymphatic vessels and spread through them.
Lymphatic metastasis is a common mechanism for the spread of cancer, particularly in the breast, melanoma, and other cancers that have a high risk of lymphatic invasion. The presence of lymphatic metastasis in a patient's body can indicate a more aggressive cancer and a poorer prognosis.
Treatment for lymphatic metastasis typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Surgery may be used to remove any affected lymph nodes or other tumors that have spread through the lymphatic system. Chemotherapy may be used to kill any remaining cancer cells, while radiation therapy may be used to shrink the tumors and relieve symptoms.
In summary, lymphatic metastasis is a common mechanism for the spread of cancer through the body, particularly in cancers that originate in organs with a high lymphatic drainage. Treatment typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy to remove or shrink the tumors and relieve symptoms.
Symptoms of Sturge-Weber Syndrome can vary in severity and may include:
* Port-wine stain (nevus flammeus) on one side of the face and/or neck
* Seizures, including epilepsy
* Developmental delays and intellectual disability
* Vision problems, including glaucoma, cataracts, and visual field defects
* Hearing loss
* Scoliosis or other spinal abnormalities
* Weakened muscles (hypotonia)
There is no cure for Sturge-Weber Syndrome, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:
* Anticonvulsant medications to control seizures
* Surgery to remove the port-wine stain or repair related eye problems
* Physical therapy to improve muscle strength and coordination
* Speech and language therapy to address communication difficulties
* Occupational therapy to help with daily living skills
The prognosis for Sturge-Weber Syndrome varies depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of other health problems. Some individuals with the condition may have a relatively mild course, while others may experience more significant challenges. With appropriate medical care and support, many individuals with Sturge-Weber Syndrome can lead fulfilling lives.
Benign solitary pulmonary nodules are usually small (less than 1 cm in diameter) and do not grow or change over time. They may be caused by a variety of factors, such as inflammation, infection, or scarring.
Malignant solitary pulmonary nodules, on the other hand, can be early-stage lung cancer. These nodules are typically larger (greater than 1 cm in diameter) and may grow or change over time. They can also spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis.
The diagnosis of a solitary pulmonary nodule is based on a combination of clinical findings, imaging studies, and biopsy results. Imaging studies, such as chest X-rays or CT scans, are used to evaluate the size, shape, and location of the nodule. Biopsy may be performed to obtain a sample of tissue from the nodule for further examination under a microscope.
Treatment of solitary pulmonary nodules depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Benign nodules may not require treatment, while malignant nodules may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Early detection and treatment of malignant solitary pulmonary nodules can improve outcomes for patients.
This definition of 'Neoplasm Recurrence, Local' is from the Healthcare Professionals edition of the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, copyright © 2007 by Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Hodgkin Disease can spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system, and it can affect people of all ages, although it is most common in young adults and teenagers. The symptoms of Hodgkin Disease can vary depending on the stage of the disease, but they may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and itching.
There are several types of Hodgkin Disease, including:
* Classical Hodgkin Disease: This is the most common type of Hodgkin Disease and is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells.
* Nodular Lymphocytic predominant Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by the presence of nodules in the lymph nodes.
* Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by a mixture of Reed-Sternberg cells and other immune cells.
Hodgkin Disease is usually diagnosed with a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected lymph node or other area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells. Treatment for Hodgkin Disease typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be necessary.
The prognosis for Hodgkin Disease is generally good, especially if the disease is detected and treated early. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for people with Hodgkin Disease is about 85%. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
Hodgkin Disease is a rare form of cancer that affects the immune system. It is most commonly diagnosed in young adults and is usually treatable with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of treatment can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
The term "fever of unknown origin" was first used in the medical literature in the early 20th century to describe cases of fever that were unexplained after a careful physical examination, laboratory testing, and other diagnostic procedures. FUO is also sometimes referred to as "undifferentiated fever."
FUO can be caused by a wide range of underlying conditions, including infections, inflammatory disorders, malignancies, and other rare medical conditions. Some common causes of FUO include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, tuberculosis, and rheumatic fever.
The diagnosis of FUO is based on a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment of FUO typically involves supportive care, such as fluid replacement, pain management, and antipyretic medications, as well as empiric antibiotic therapy until the underlying cause is identified.
In summary, fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a type of fever that cannot be diagnosed or identified after a thorough medical evaluation, and it can be caused by a wide range of underlying conditions.
The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can vary from person to person and may progress slowly over time. Early symptoms may include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience language difficulties, visual hallucinations, and changes in mood and behavior.
There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but there are several medications and therapies that can help manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training and behavioral therapy.
Alzheimer's disease is a significant public health concern, affecting an estimated 5.8 million Americans in 2020. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is expected to continue to increase as the population ages.
There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease, including studies into the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Other areas of research include the development of biomarkers for early detection and the use of advanced imaging techniques to monitor progression of the disease.
Overall, Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial disorder that poses significant challenges for individuals, families, and healthcare systems. However, with ongoing research and advances in medical technology, there is hope for improving diagnosis and treatment options in the future.
A residual neoplasm is a remaining portion of a tumor that may persist after primary treatment. This can occur when the treatment does not completely remove all of the cancer cells or if some cancer cells are resistant to the treatment. Residual neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
It is important to note that a residual neoplasm does not necessarily mean that the cancer has come back. In some cases, a residual neoplasm may be present from the start and may not grow or change over time.
Residual neoplasms can be managed with additional treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. The choice of treatment depends on the type of cancer, the size and location of the residual neoplasm, and other factors.
It is important to follow up with your healthcare provider regularly to monitor the residual neoplasm and ensure that it is not growing or causing any symptoms.
There are several types of lymphoma, including:
1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.
The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.
Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.
Examples of soft tissue neoplasms include:
1. Lipoma: a benign tumor composed of fat cells.
2. Fibroma: a benign tumor composed of fibrous tissue.
3. Leiomyoma: a benign tumor composed of smooth muscle tissue.
4. Synovial sarcoma: a malignant tumor that arises in the soft tissues surrounding joints.
5. Rhabdomyosarcoma: a malignant tumor that arises in the skeletal muscles.
6. Neurofibroma: a benign tumor that arises in the nerve tissue.
Soft tissue neoplasms can occur in various parts of the body, including the extremities (arms and legs), trunk, and head and neck. They can be diagnosed through a combination of imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and biopsy.
Treatment for soft tissue neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and aggressiveness of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Benign tumors may not require treatment, while malignant tumors may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
Adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of NSCLC and is characterized by malignant cells that have glandular or secretory properties. Squamous cell carcinoma is less common and is characterized by malignant cells that resemble squamous epithelium. Large cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and is characterized by large, poorly differentiated cells.
The main risk factor for developing NSCLC is tobacco smoking, which is responsible for approximately 80-90% of all cases. Other risk factors include exposure to secondhand smoke, radon gas, asbestos, and certain chemicals in the workplace or environment.
Symptoms of NSCLC can include coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. The diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging studies such as CT scans, PET scans, and biopsy. Treatment options for NSCLC can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. The prognosis for NSCLC depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and the effectiveness of treatment.
Overall, NSCLC is a common and aggressive form of lung cancer that can be treated with a variety of therapies. Early detection and treatment are critical for improving outcomes in patients with this diagnosis.
There are several subtypes of NHL, including:
1. B-cell lymphomas (such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma)
2. T-cell lymphomas (such as peripheral T-cell lymphoma and mycosis fungoides)
3. Natural killer cell lymphomas (such as nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma)
4. Histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma
5. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
6. Mantle cell lymphoma
7. Waldenström macroglobulinemia
8. Lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma
9. Myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) related lymphoma
These subtypes can be further divided into other categories based on the specific characteristics of the cancer cells.
Symptoms of NHL can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include:
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Abdominal pain
* Swollen spleen
Treatment for NHL typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, targeted therapy or immunotherapy. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of NHL, the stage of the cancer, and other individual factors.
Overall, NHL is a complex and diverse group of cancers that require specialized care from a team of medical professionals, including hematologists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and other support staff. With advances in technology and treatment options, many people with NHL can achieve long-term remission or a cure.
Some common types of bone neoplasms include:
* Osteochondromas: These are benign tumors that grow on the surface of a bone.
* Giant cell tumors: These are benign tumors that can occur in any bone of the body.
* Chondromyxoid fibromas: These are rare, benign tumors that develop in the cartilage of a bone.
* Ewing's sarcoma: This is a malignant tumor that usually occurs in the long bones of the arms and legs.
* Multiple myeloma: This is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
Symptoms of bone neoplasms can include pain, swelling, or deformity of the affected bone, as well as weakness or fatigue. Treatment options depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the severity of the symptoms. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.
Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:
1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)
The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:
1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)
The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:
1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.
The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Benign pleural neoplasms include:
1. Pleomorphic adenoma: A rare, slow-growing tumor that usually occurs in the soft tissues of the chest wall.
2. Pneumoschisis: A condition where there is a tear or separation in the membrane that lines the lung, which can cause air to leak into the pleural space and create a benign tumor.
3. Pleural plaques: Calcified deposits that form in the pleura as a result of inflammation or injury.
Malignant pleural neoplasms include:
1. Mesothelioma: A rare and aggressive cancer that originates in the pleura, usually caused by exposure to asbestos.
2. Lung cancer: Cancer that spreads to the pleura from another part of the body, such as the lungs.
3. Metastatic tumors: Tumors that have spread to the pleura from another part of the body, such as the breast or colon.
Pleural neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing, and fatigue. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans and PET scans, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancerous cells. Treatment options for pleural neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
SCC typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on the skin, and may be pink, red, or scaly. The cancer cells are usually well-differentiated, meaning they resemble normal squamous cells, but they can grow rapidly and invade surrounding tissues if left untreated.
SCC is more common in fair-skinned individuals and those who spend a lot of time in the sun, as UV radiation can damage the skin cells and increase the risk of cancer. The cancer can also spread to other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes or organs, and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and effectively.
Treatment for SCC usually involves surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, and may also include radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes for patients with SCC.
Positron emission tomography
List of MeSH codes (D09)
Standardized uptake value
Brain positron emission tomography
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Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 - PubChem Substance - NCBI
The Impact of the Amendment of the Health Insurance Coverage for F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on the...
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evaluation with positron emission tomography
Evaluating Sunitinib Therapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma Using F-18 FDG PET/CT and DCE MRI - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Lung Metastases Imaging: Practice Essentials, Radiography, Computed Tomography
Brain [F-18]FDG PET for Clinical Dementia Workup: Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Types of Dementing...
Clinical, fluorine-18 labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), MRI of the brain and biochemical...
Michael Henry, M.D. | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Biblio | Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Browse in Images in Clinical Tropical Medicine | AJTMH
Exploring the impact of metabolic imaging in head and neck cancer treatment.
Identification of early recurrence of primary central nervous system tumors by [<sup>18</sup>F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron...
Nuclear medicine, Malmö<...
Dermatofibroma Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination
A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers | Neurology
FLUDEOXYGLUCOSE F-18 - Books - NCBI
Ming Yang - Research output - Mayo Clinic
A comparison of the diagnostic value of MRI and 18F-FDG-PET/CT in suspected spondylodiscitis - Fingerprint - University of...
Intractable epilepsy and progressive cognitive decline in a young man<...
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease - Volume 49, issue 4 - Journals - IOS Press
Whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT is superior to CT as first line diagnostic imaging in patients referred with serious non-specific...
Marc Dweck - Research output - University of Edinburgh Research Explorer
Division of Cancer Biology - Research output - Research Profiles at Washington University School of Medicine
Prediction of MLH1 and MSH2 mutations in Lynch syndrome. Conversion analysis for mutation detection in MLH1 and MSH2 in...
- The Impact of the Amendment of the Health Insurance Coverage for F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on the Healthcare Behaviors for Breast Cancer: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis of the Korean National Data From 2013 to 2018. (bvsalud.org)
- F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET ), which can cover the body from the skull base to the thigh in one scan, is beneficial for evaluating distant metastasis . (bvsalud.org)
- Histopathologic findings were correlated to the pre-treatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) scan. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to systematically detect and quantify differential effects of chronic tobacco use in organs of the whole body.Twenty healthy male subjects (10 nonsmokers and 10 chronic heavy smokers) were enrolled. (nih.gov)
- 11. [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography: computed tomography in recurrent and metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. (nih.gov)
- 14. Effect of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography-guided management of suspected recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma: long-term follow-up with tumour marker responses. (nih.gov)
- Results of subsequent electroencephalography and brain imaging were unchanged, and a fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomographic scan was normal. (elsevier.com)
- It has been found that glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) are overexpressed in various malignancies and that they correlate with the maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and poor prognosis. (bvsalud.org)
- A study to decide if F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-position emission tomography/computed tomography screening proved useful to detect early malignancies in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) was conducted. (readabstracts.com)
- 16. [Fluorodeoxyglucose F18(FDG)-probe guided biopsy]. (nih.gov)
- Thus PET using [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose can contribute to the optimum management of patients with primary brain tumors. (elsevier.com)
- 1. Additional value of 16α-[18F]fluoro-17β-oestradiol PET for differential diagnosis between uterine sarcoma and leiomyoma in patients with positive or equivocal findings on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET. (nih.gov)