Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.
Fluoride poisoning, also known as fluoride toxicity, is a condition characterized by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and seizures that result from ingesting excessive amounts of fluoride, typically through contaminated water or industrial exposure.
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Inorganic fluorides of tin. They include both stannic fluoride (tin tetrafluoride) and stannous fluoride (tin difluoride). The latter is used in the prevention of dental caries.
Calcium fluoride. Occurring in nature as the mineral fluorite or fluorspar. It is the primary source of fluorine and its compounds. Pure calcium fluoride is used as a catalyst in dehydration and dehydrogenation and is used to fluoridate drinking water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
A sodium fluoride solution, paste or powder, which has been acidulated to pH 3 to 4 and buffered with a phosphate. It is used in the prevention of dental caries.
An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.
Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.
Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.
A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.
Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.
Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
Composite materials composed of an ion-leachable glass embedded in a polymeric matrix. They differ from GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS in that partially silanized glass particles are used to provide a direct bond to the resin matrix and the matrix is primarily formed by a light-activated, radical polymerization reaction.
Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
Dentin sensitivity is a short, sharp pain originating from exposed dentin in response to stimuli, typically thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic, or chemical changes in the oral environment.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Water that is intended to be ingested.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Substances which reduce or eliminate dentinal sensitivity or the pain associated with a source of stimulus (such as touch, heat, or cold) at the orifice of exposed dentinal tubules causing the movement of tubular fluid that in turn stimulates tooth nerve receptors.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.

The effect of triclosan toothpaste on enamel demineralization in a bacterial demineralization model. (1/124)

Triclosan has been incorporated into toothpaste to enhance inhibitory effects on bacterial metabolism in dental plaque. Many studies have confirmed these effects by showing a reduction of accumulation of dental plaque, gingivitis and calculus. However, there is no evidence for triclosan having an inhibitory effect on the dental plaque-induced demineralization of the dental hard tissues. Therefore, the effect of 0.3% triclosan added to non-fluoride and fluoride toothpaste was tested in an in vitro model, in which bovine enamel specimens were to be demineralized by acids produced in overlaying Streptococcus mutans suspensions. In a first set of experiments the toothpastes were added to the S. mutans suspensions at 1:100, 1:1000 and 1:10,000 (w/v) dilutions. After 22 h incubation at 37 degrees C the suspensions were removed and assessed for calcium and lactate content, and pH. In this set of experiments, triclosan had no additive protective effect to the non-fluoride or fluoride toothpaste. In a second set of experiments, the enamel specimens were immersed daily for 3 min in 30% (w/v) slurries of the toothpastes before the 22 h incubation with the S. mutans suspensions. Under these conditions, triclosan showed an additional protective effect compared with non-fluoride toothpaste at a low concentration of S. mutans cells (0.07 mg cells dry weight per 600 microL suspension). It is concluded that the enamel surface may act as a reservoir for triclosan, which may protect the enamel surface against a mild acid attack. In combination with fluoride, however, as in toothpaste, triclosan has no additional protective effect against demineralization.  (+info)

A retentive system for intra-oral fluoride release during orthodontic treatment. (2/124)

The aim of this study was to test a particular type of intra-oral fluoride releasing device (IFRD), designed to release 0.04 mg/day of fluoride over a period of 6 months, using customized holders, in patients receiving orthodontic treatment. Discomfort, holder detachment, plaque accumulation near the device, and the presence of gingivitis, bleeding, white spot lesions, and/or decay was recorded in 76 orthodontic patients (53 experimental and 23 controls) before and after wearing the device for 12 months. The system proved to be easy and quick to use, and did not cause discomfort. There were no significant differences between the treated and the control groups for plaque index, bleeding, or the presence of gingivitis. In addition, no carious and/or white spot lesions occurred during the duration of this study in the test group.  (+info)

Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (3/124)

Widespread use of fluoride has been a major factor in the decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries (i.e., tooth decay) in the United States and other economically developed countries. When used appropriately, fluoride is both safe and effective in preventing and controlling dental caries. All U.S. residents are likely exposed to some degree to fluoride, which is available from multiple sources. Both health-care professionals and the public have sought guidance on selecting the best way to provide and receive fluoride. During the late 1990s, CDC convened a work group to develop recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. This report includes these recommendations, as well as a) critical analysis of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of fluoride modalities in preventing and controlling dental caries, b) ordinal grading of the quality of the evidence, and c) assessment of the strength of each recommendation. Because frequent exposure to small amounts of fluoride each day will best reduce the risk for dental caries in all age groups, the work group recommends that all persons drink water with an optimal fluoride concentration and brush their teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste. For persons at high risk for dental caries, additional fluoride measures might be needed. Measured use of fluoride modalities is particularly appropriate during the time of anterior tooth enamel development (i.e., age <6 years). The recommendations in this report guide dental and other health-care providers, public health officials, policy makers, and the public in the use of fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while using resources efficiently and reducing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis. The recommendations address public health and professional practice, self-care, consumer product industries and health agencies, and further research. Adoption of these recommendations could further reduce dental caries in the United States and save public and private resources.  (+info)

Effectiveness of methods used by dental professionals for the primary prevention of dental caries. (4/124)

This paper summarizes and rates the evidence for the effectiveness of methods available to dental professionals for their use in the primary prevention of dental caries. It reviews operator-applied therapeutic agents or materials and patient counseling. Evidence of effectiveness is extracted from published systematic reviews. A search for articles since publication of these reviews was done to provide updates, and a systematic review of the caries-inhibiting effects of fluoride varnish in primary teeth is provided. Good evidence is available for the effectiveness of fluoride gel and varnish, chlorhexidine gel, and sealant when used to prevent caries in permanent teeth of children and adolescents. The evidence for effectiveness of fluoride varnish use in primary teeth, chlorhexidine varnish, and patient counseling is judged to be insufficient. Use of fluoride, chlorhexidine and sealant according to tested protocols and for the populations in which evidence of effect is available can be recommended. However, they may need to be used selectively. Estimates for the number of patients or tooth surfaces needed to treat to prevent a carious event suggest that the effects of these professional treatments are low in patients who are at reduced risk for dental caries. The literature on use of these preventive methods in individuals other than school-aged children needs expansion.  (+info)

Topical fluorides in caries prevention and management: a North American perspective. (5/124)

A review of evidence-based literature indicates incomplete evidence for the efficacy of most measures currently used for caries prevention, with the exception of fluoride varnishes and the use of fluoride-based interventions for patients with hyposalivation. Not all fluoride agents and treatments are equal. Different fluoride compounds, different vehicles, and vastly different concentrations have been used with different frequencies and durations of application. These variables can influence the clinical outcome with respect to caries prevention and management. The efficacy of topical fluoride in caries prevention depends on a) the concentration of fluoride used, b) the frequency and duration of application, and to a certain extent, c) the specific fluoride compound used. The more concentrated the fluoride and the greater the frequency of application, the greater the caries reduction. Factors besides efficacy, such as practicality, cost, and compliance, influence the clinician's choice of preventive therapy. For noncavitated smooth surface carious lesions in a moderate caries-risk patient, the appropriate fluoride regimen would be semiannual professional topical application of a fluoride varnish containing 5 percent NaF (22,600 ppm of fluoride). In addition, the patient should use twice or thrice daily for at least one minute a fluoridated dentifrice containing NaF, MFP, or SnF2 (1,000-1,500 ppm of fluoride), and once daily for one minute a fluoride mouthrinse containing .05 percent NaF (230 ppm of fluoride). If the noncavitated carious lesion involves a pit or fissure, the application of an occlusal sealant would be the most appropriate preventive therapy. The management of the high caries-risk patient requires the use of several preventive interventions and behavioral modification, besides the use of topical fluorides. For children over six years of age and adults, both office and self-applied topical fluoride treatments are recommended. For office fluoride therapy at the initial visit, a high-concentration agent, either a 1.23 percent F APF gel (12,300 ppm of fluoride) for four minutes in a tray or a 5 percent NaF varnish (22,600 ppm of fluoride), should be applied directly to the teeth four times per year. Self-applied fluoride therapy should consist of the daily five-minute application of 1.1 percent NaF or APF gel (5,000 ppm of fluoride) in a custom-fitted tray. For those who cannot tolerate a tray delivery owing to gagging or nausea, a daily 0.05 percent NaF rinse (230 ppm of fluoride) for 1 minute is a less effective alternative. In addition, the patient should use twice or thrice daily for at least 1 minute a fluoridated dentifrice as described above for treatment of noncavitated carious lesions. In order to avoid unintentional ingestion and the risk of fluorosis in children under six years of age, fluoride rinses and gels should not be used at home. Furthermore, when using a fluoride dentifrice, such children should apply only a pea-size portion on the brush, should be instructed not to eat or swallow the paste, and should expectorate thoroughly after brushing. Toothbrushing should be done under parental supervision. To avoid etching of porcelain crowns and facings, neutral NaF is indicated in preference to APF gels for those patients who have such restorations and are applying the gel daily. The rationale for these recommendations is discussed. Important deficiencies in our knowledge that require further research on topical fluoride therapy in populations with specific needs are identified.  (+info)

The use of combinations of caries preventive procedures. (6/124)

There are now a number of different approaches to preventing dental caries available to the clinician. Caries preventive methods are frequently used in combination. This paper reviews the potential effectiveness of combinations of preventive methods. Three groups of studies are reviewed; combinations of fluoride procedures; fluoride and fissure sealants; chlorhexidine and other agents. The review indicates that there is considerable benefit to be derived from using more than one fluoride procedure. Further research is required in the effectiveness of combining chlorhexidine with other agents. The most promising combination programme currently appears to be the use of fluoride with fissure sealing. The relevance of combination therapy for adults needs to be investigated.  (+info)

Varnish or polymeric coating for the prevention of demineralization? An ex vivo study. (7/124)

OBJECTIVE: The ability of an experimental coating, Odyssey, to prevent demineralisation ex vivo was compared with that of a fluoride varnish, Duraphat and a chlorhexidine-containing varnish, Cervitec. DESIGN: an ex vivo single-blind study. SETTING: Hard tissue research laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: thirty bovine enamel blocks 0.5 cm x 1.5 cm were divided into 6 groups of 5 specimens. The enamel blocks were then allocated to one of 6 surface treatments. INTERVENTIONS: (1) surface left unprepared (control), (2) Duraphat application, (3) Cervitec application, (4) experimental polymer coating, (5) enamel conditioned with 10% citric acid and coated with the experimental polymer coating Odyssey (O + C), (6) enamel etched for 30 sec with 37% phosphoric acid and coated with the experimental coating (O + E). All specimens were cycled for 7 days through a daily procedure of demineralisation for 4 hours and remineralisation for 20 hours, and exposed to an equivalent of 2 months toothbrushing. A single operator blinded to the treatment allocation of each specimen carried artificial lesion depth assessment out using computer-assisted transverse microradiography. RESULTS: The control group had the greatest mean lesion depth (97.16 + 29.8 microm) with the Duraphat group exhibiting the lowest mean lesion depth (24.53 + 15.44 microm). The Duraphat, Odyssey, O + C and O + E groups all had significantly less lesion depth when compared with no surface preparation (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). There were no significant differences between any of the Odyssey groups. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of Duraphat application in preventing demineralisation ex vivo has been demonstrated in the present study, but clinical trials are required to assess its usefulness in orthodontic practice.  (+info)

Effect of experimental fluoride-releasing tooth separator on acid resistance of human enamel in vitro. (8/124)

This study aimed to investigate the fluoride-releasing ability of an experimental tooth separator consisting of polyurethane elastomer with tin fluoride and its effect on the acid resistance of human enamel. The tooth separator was set around an enamel slab and stored in de-ionized water for 10 days. The daily concentration of fluoride in the de-ionized water was measured. Then the enamel surface was artificially decalcified by a lactic acid buffer solution (pH 4.5) for 96 hours. The mineral density at the surface layer of the enamel was measured to evaluate the acid resistance. The fluoride release increased with the amount of fluoride in the separator, but decreased with the immersion time. Both the enamel area contacting with the separator and its surrounding area showed lower mineral loss and lesion depth compared with the controls (P < 0.05). It is suggested that the experimental tooth separator would release enough fluoride and improve the acid resistance of the enamel surface layer.  (+info)

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

Sodium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaF. Medically, it is commonly used as a dental treatment to prevent tooth decay, as it is absorbed into the structure of teeth and helps to harden the enamel, making it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria. It can also reduce the ability of bacteria to produce acid. Sodium fluoride is often found in toothpastes, mouth rinses, and various dental treatments. However, excessive consumption can lead to dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis, which cause changes in bone structure and might negatively affect health.

Topical fluorides are a form of fluoride that are applied directly to the teeth to prevent dental caries (cavities). They are available in various forms such as toothpastes, gels, foams, and varnishes. Topical fluorides work by strengthening the enamel of the teeth, making them more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth. They can also help to reverse early signs of decay. Regular use of topical fluorides, especially in children during the years of tooth development, can provide significant protection against dental caries.

Fluoride poisoning, also known as fluoride toxicity, is a condition that occurs when someone ingests too much fluoride. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, excessive saliva, and weakness. In severe cases, it can cause more serious problems, such as seizures, coma, or even death.

Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral that is often added to drinking water and toothpaste in order to help prevent tooth decay. However, consuming too much fluoride can be harmful. The amount of fluoride that is considered safe for human consumption depends on a number of factors, including age, weight, and overall health.

Fluoride poisoning is usually caused by accidental ingestion of large amounts of fluoride-containing products, such as toothpaste or mouthwash. It can also occur if someone drinks water that has been contaminated with high levels of fluoride. In some cases, fluoride poisoning may be the result of industrial accidents or intentional poisoning.

If you suspect that you or someone else has ingested too much fluoride, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment for fluoride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as administering fluids to help flush the fluoride out of the body. In severe cases, more invasive treatments may be necessary.

Cariostatic agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent or inhibit the development and progression of dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. These agents work by reducing the ability of bacteria in the mouth to produce acid, which can erode the enamel and dentin of the teeth and lead to cavities.

There are several types of cariostatic agents that are commonly used in dental care, including:

1. Fluorides: These are the most widely used and well-studied cariostatic agents. They work by promoting the remineralization of tooth enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks. Fluoride can be found in toothpaste, mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, and fluoridated water supplies.
2. Antimicrobial agents: These substances work by reducing the population of bacteria in the mouth that contribute to tooth decay. Examples include chlorhexidine, triclosan, and xylitol.
3. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP): This is a complex protein that has been shown to help remineralize tooth enamel and reduce the risk of dental caries. It can be found in some toothpastes and mouthwashes.
4. Silver diamine fluoride: This is a topical fluoride compound that contains silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties. It has been shown to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations such as young children and older adults with dry mouth.

It's important to note that while cariostatic agents can help reduce the risk of tooth decay, they are not a substitute for good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and visiting the dentist regularly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tin Fluorides" is not a widely recognized medical term or concept. Tin (Sn) and Fluoride (F-) are both chemical elements that can form various compounds together, such as tin(II) fluoride (SnF2) and tin(IV) fluoride (SnF4). These compounds have uses in industrial applications, but they are not typically associated with medical definitions.

Tin(II) fluoride, for example, is used in some toothpastes and dental products as a fluoride source to help prevent tooth decay. However, it's important to note that the medical definition of a substance like this would be more focused on its clinical use or effect, rather than its chemical composition alone.

If you have any questions about specific tin-fluoride compounds and their potential uses or effects in a medical context, I would recommend consulting a healthcare professional or a reliable source of information on pharmaceuticals or medical treatments.

Calcium fluoride is an inorganic compound that is represented by the chemical formula CaF2. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is insoluble in water. Calcium fluoride is commonly found in nature as the mineral fluorite.

In the medical field, calcium fluoride is not used as a therapeutic agent. However, fluoride, which is a component of calcium fluoride, has been added to community water supplies and toothpaste to help prevent dental caries or tooth decay. Fluoride works by strengthening the enamel of teeth, making them more resistant to acid attacks that can lead to cavities.

It's worth noting that excessive exposure to fluoride can lead to a condition called fluorosis, which can cause mottling and discoloration of tooth enamel. Therefore, it's important to consume fluoride in moderation and follow recommended guidelines for its use.

Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to fluoride during tooth development. It is characterized by hypomineralization of the enamel, resulting in various appearances ranging from barely noticeable white spots to brown staining and pitting of the teeth. The severity depends on the amount, duration, and timing of fluoride intake, as well as individual susceptibility. Mild dental fluorosis is typically asymptomatic but can affect the appearance of teeth, while severe cases may cause tooth sensitivity and increased susceptibility to tooth decay.

APF, or Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride, is a dental product that contains fluoride ion in the form of sodium fluoride. It is used as a topical agent to prevent tooth decay by promoting remineralization and inhibiting demineralization of tooth enamel. The acidulated phosphate component helps to maintain a stable pH level and enhance fluoride absorption. It is typically applied in a dental office as a part of professional dental care.

Phenylmethylsulfonyl Fluoride (PMSF) is not a medication or a treatment, but it is a chemical compound with the formula C8H9FO3S. It is commonly used in biochemistry and molecular biology research as a serine protease inhibitor.

Proteases are enzymes that break down other proteins by cleaving specific peptide bonds. Serine proteases are a class of proteases that use a serine residue in their active site to carry out the hydrolysis reaction. PMSF works by irreversibly modifying this serine residue, inhibiting the enzyme's activity.

PMSF is used in laboratory settings to prevent protein degradation during experiments such as protein purification or Western blotting. It is important to note that PMSF is highly toxic and must be handled with care, using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and safety measures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "toothpastes" is the plural form of "toothpaste," which is not a medical condition or procedure that requires a definition. However, I can provide you with some information about toothpaste.

Toothpaste is a dental hygiene product used to clean and maintain the health of teeth and gums. It generally contains mild abrasives, flavoring, and fluoride to help remove plaque, prevent tooth decay, and freshen breath. There are various types of toothpastes available on the market, including those formulated for sensitive teeth, whitening, gum health, and tartar control. It is essential to choose a toothpaste that meets your specific dental needs and has the American Dental Association (ADA) Seal of Acceptance, ensuring its safety and effectiveness.

Fluoridation is the process of adding fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay. The level of fluoride that is typically added to the water is regulated and maintained at around 0.7-1.2 parts per million (ppm), which has been shown to be effective in reducing dental caries while minimizing the risk of fluorosis, a cosmetic condition caused by excessive fluoride intake during tooth development.

Fluoridation can also refer to the process of applying fluoride to the teeth through other means, such as topical fluoride applications in dental offices or the use of fluoride toothpaste. However, community water fluoridation is the most common and cost-effective method of delivering fluoride to a large population.

The practice of water fluoridation has been endorsed by numerous public health organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the American Dental Association (ADA). Despite some controversy surrounding the practice, extensive research has consistently shown that community water fluoridation is a safe and effective way to prevent tooth decay and improve oral health.

Ion-Selective Electrodes (ISEs) are a type of chemical sensor that measure the activity of specific ions in a solution. They work by converting the chemical response into an electrical signal, which can then be measured and analyzed. The electrode is coated with a membrane that is selectively permeable to a particular ion, allowing for the detection and measurement of that specific ion in the presence of other ions.

ISEs are widely used in various fields such as clinical chemistry, biomedical research, environmental monitoring, and industrial process control. In medical diagnostics, ISEs are commonly used to measure the levels of ions such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium in biological samples like blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid.

The response of an ISE is based on Nernst's equation, which relates the electrical potential across the membrane to the activity of the ion being measured. The selectivity of the electrode for a particular ion is determined by the type of membrane used, and the choice of membrane depends on the application and the specific ions to be measured.

Overall, Ion-Selective Electrodes are important tools in medical diagnostics and research, providing accurate and reliable measurements of ion activity in biological systems.

Dentifrices are substances used in dental care for cleaning and polishing the teeth, and often include toothpastes, tooth powders, and gels. They typically contain a variety of ingredients such as abrasives, fluorides, humectants, detergents, flavorings, and sometimes medicaments like antimicrobial agents or desensitizing compounds. The primary purpose of dentifrices is to help remove dental plaque, food debris, and stains from the teeth, promoting oral hygiene and preventing dental diseases such as caries (cavities) and periodontal disease.

Tooth demineralization is a process that involves the loss of minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, from the hard tissues of the teeth. This process can lead to the development of dental caries or tooth decay. Demineralization occurs when acids produced by bacteria in the mouth attack the enamel of the tooth, dissolving its mineral content. Over time, these attacks can create holes or cavities in the teeth. Fluoride, found in many toothpastes and public water supplies, can help to remineralize teeth and prevent decay. Good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing regularly, can also help to prevent demineralization by removing plaque and bacteria from the mouth.

Tooth remineralization is a natural process by which minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, are redeposited into the microscopic pores (hydroxyapatite crystals) in the enamel of a tooth. This process can help to repair early decay and strengthen the teeth. It occurs when the mouth's pH is neutral or slightly alkaline, which allows the minerals in our saliva, fluoride from toothpaste or other sources, and calcium and phosphate ions from foods to be absorbed into the enamel. Remineralization can be promoted through good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing with a fluoride toothpaste, flossing, and eating a balanced diet that includes foods rich in calcium and phosphate.

A mouthwash is an antiseptic or therapeutic solution that is held in the mouth and then spit out, rather than swallowed. It is used to improve oral hygiene, to freshen breath, and to help prevent dental cavities, gingivitis, and other periodontal diseases.

Mouthwashes can contain a variety of ingredients, including water, alcohol, fluoride, chlorhexidine, essential oils, and other antimicrobial agents. Some mouthwashes are available over-the-counter, while others require a prescription. It is important to follow the instructions for use provided by the manufacturer or your dentist to ensure the safe and effective use of mouthwash.

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities, refers to the damage or breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) due to the activity of acid-producing bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars from food and drinks, producing acids that dissolve and weaken the tooth structure, leading to cavities.

The process of dental caries development involves several stages:

1. Demineralization: The acidic environment created by bacterial activity causes minerals (calcium and phosphate) to be lost from the tooth surface, making it weaker and more susceptible to decay.
2. Formation of a white spot lesion: As demineralization progresses, a chalky white area appears on the tooth surface, indicating early caries development.
3. Cavity formation: If left untreated, the demineralization process continues, leading to the breakdown and loss of tooth structure, resulting in a cavity or hole in the tooth.
4. Infection and pulp involvement: As the decay progresses deeper into the tooth, it can reach the dental pulp (the soft tissue containing nerves and blood vessels), causing infection, inflammation, and potentially leading to toothache, abscess, or even tooth loss.

Preventing dental caries involves maintaining good oral hygiene, reducing sugar intake, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and having regular dental check-ups and cleanings. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent further progression and more severe complications.

Aluminum compounds refer to chemical substances that are formed by the combination of aluminum with other elements. Aluminum is a naturally occurring metallic element, and it can combine with various non-metallic elements to form compounds with unique properties and uses. Some common aluminum compounds include:

1. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3): Also known as alumina, this compound is formed when aluminum combines with oxygen. It is a white, odorless powder that is highly resistant to heat and corrosion. Aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications, including ceramics, abrasives, and refractories.
2. Aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with sulfuric acid. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water. Aluminum sulfate is used as a flocculant in water treatment, as well as in the manufacture of paper and textiles.
3. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with chlorine. It is a white or yellowish-white solid that is highly deliquescent, meaning it readily absorbs moisture from the air. Aluminum chloride is used as a catalyst in chemical reactions, as well as in the production of various industrial chemicals.
4. Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with hydroxide ions. It is a white, powdery substance that is amphoteric, meaning it can react with both acids and bases. Aluminum hydroxide is used as an antacid and as a fire retardant.
5. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when zinc oxide is combined with aluminum hydroxide. It is a white, powdery substance that is used as a filler in rubber and plastics, as well as in the manufacture of paints and coatings.

It's important to note that some aluminum compounds have been linked to health concerns, particularly when they are inhaled or ingested in large quantities. For example, aluminum chloride has been shown to be toxic to animals at high doses, while aluminum hydroxide has been associated with neurological disorders in some studies. However, the risks associated with exposure to these compounds are generally low, and they are considered safe for most industrial and consumer uses when used as directed.

Dental enamel is the hard, white, outermost layer of a tooth. It is a highly mineralized and avascular tissue, meaning it contains no living cells or blood vessels. Enamel is primarily composed of calcium and phosphate minerals and serves as the protective covering for the crown of a tooth, which is the portion visible above the gum line.

Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, and its primary function is to provide structural support and protection to the underlying dentin and pulp tissues of the tooth. It also plays a crucial role in chewing and biting by helping to distribute forces evenly across the tooth surface during these activities.

Despite its hardness, dental enamel can still be susceptible to damage from factors such as tooth decay, erosion, and abrasion. Once damaged or lost, enamel cannot regenerate or repair itself, making it essential to maintain good oral hygiene practices and seek regular dental checkups to prevent enamel damage and protect overall oral health.

Hydrofluoric acid is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical one. However, it's important for medical professionals to be aware of its potential hazards and health effects.

Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a highly corrosive and toxic liquid, which is colorless or slightly yellowish. It is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is used in various industries for etching glass, cleaning metal surfaces, manufacturing semiconductors, and in chemical research.

In terms of health effects, exposure to HF can cause severe burns and tissue damage. Even at very low concentrations, it can cause pain and irritation to the skin and eyes. Inhalation can lead to respiratory irritation, coughing, and choking. If ingested, it can be fatal due to its ability to cause deep burns in the gastrointestinal tract and potentially lead to systemic fluoride toxicity. Delayed medical attention can result in serious complications, including damage to bones and nerves.

Toothbrushing is the act of cleaning teeth and gums using a toothbrush to remove plaque, food debris, and dental calculus (tartar) from the surfaces of the teeth and gums. It is typically performed using a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste, with gentle circular or back-and-forth motions along the gumline and on all surfaces of the teeth. Toothbrushing should be done at least twice a day, preferably after every meal and before bedtime, for two minutes each time, to maintain good oral hygiene and prevent dental diseases such as tooth decay and gum disease. It is also recommended to brush the tongue to remove bacteria and freshen breath.

Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are a type of dental restorative material that have the ability to chemically bond to tooth structure. They are composed of a mixture of silicate glass powder and an organic acid, such as polyacrylic acid. GICs have several clinical applications in dentistry, including as a filling material for small to moderate sized cavities, as a liner or base under other restorative materials, and as a cement for securing crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

GICs are known for their biocompatibility, caries inhibition, and adhesion to tooth structure. They also have the ability to release fluoride ions, which can help protect against future decay. However, they are not as strong or wear-resistant as some other dental restorative materials, such as amalgam or composite resin, so they may not be suitable for use in high-load bearing restorations.

GICs can be classified into two main types: conventional and resin-modified. Conventional GICs have a longer setting time and are more prone to moisture sensitivity during placement, while resin-modified GICs contain additional methacrylate monomers that improve their handling properties and shorten their setting time. However, the addition of these monomers may also reduce their fluoride release capacity.

Overall, glass ionomer cements are a valuable dental restorative material due to their unique combination of adhesion, biocompatibility, and caries inhibition properties.

Compomers are a type of dental restorative material that contain both glass ionomer and composite resin components. They are designed to combine the advantages of both materials, such as the fluoride release and adhesion to tooth structure of glass ionomers, and the strength and esthetics of composite resins. Compomers are often used for restoring primary teeth in children due to their ease of use and reduced sensitivity compared to traditional composite resins. However, they may not be as durable or wear-resistant as other restorative materials, so their use is generally limited to small to moderate-sized cavities.

Beryllium is a chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a steel-gray, hard, brittle alkaline earth metal that is difficult to fabricate because of its high reactivity and toxicity. Beryllium is primarily used as a hardening agent in alloys, such as beryllium copper, and as a moderator and reflector in nuclear reactors due to its ability to efficiently slow down neutrons.

In the medical field, beryllium is most well-known for its potential to cause a chronic allergic lung disease called berylliosis. This condition can occur after prolonged exposure to beryllium-containing dusts or fumes, and can lead to symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can cause scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, leading to respiratory failure.

Healthcare professionals should take appropriate precautions when handling beryllium-containing materials, including using protective equipment and following proper disposal procedures to minimize exposure.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

Dental enamel solubility refers to the degree to which the mineral crystals that make up dental enamel can be dissolved or eroded by acidic substances. Dental enamel is the hard, outermost layer of a tooth that helps protect it from damage. It is primarily made up of minerals, including hydroxyapatite, which can dissolve in an acidic environment.

When the pH in the mouth drops below 5.5, the oral environment becomes acidic and dental enamel begins to demineralize or lose its mineral content. This process is known as dental caries or tooth decay. Over time, if left untreated, dental caries can lead to cavities, tooth sensitivity, and even tooth loss.

Certain factors can increase the solubility of dental enamel, including a diet high in sugar and starch, poor oral hygiene, and the presence of certain bacteria in the mouth that produce acid as a byproduct of their metabolism. On the other hand, fluoride exposure can help to reduce dental enamel solubility by promoting remineralization and making the enamel more resistant to acid attack.

Fluorine is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element that is often discussed in the context of dental health. Here's a brief scientific/chemical definition:

Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the most reactive and electronegative of all elements. Fluorine is never found in its free state in nature, but it is abundant in minerals such as fluorspar (calcium fluoride).

In dental health, fluoride, which is a compound containing fluorine, is used to help prevent tooth decay. It can be found in many water supplies, some foods, and various dental products like toothpaste and mouthwash. Fluoride works by strengthening the enamel on teeth, making them more resistant to acid attacks that can lead to cavities.

Artificial saliva is a synthetic solution that mimics the chemical composition and properties of natural saliva. It is often used for patients with dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by conditions such as Sjögren's syndrome, radiation therapy, or certain medications that reduce saliva production. Artificial saliva may contain ingredients like carboxymethylcellulose, mucin, and electrolytes to provide lubrication, moisture, and pH buffering capacity similar to natural saliva. It can help alleviate symptoms associated with dry mouth, such as difficulty speaking, swallowing, and chewing, as well as protect oral tissues from irritation and infection.

Synthetic resins are artificially produced substances that have properties similar to natural resins. They are typically created through polymerization, a process in which small molecules called monomers chemically bind together to form larger, more complex structures known as polymers.

Synthetic resins can be classified into several categories based on their chemical composition and properties, including:

1. Thermosetting resins: These resins undergo a chemical reaction when heated, resulting in a rigid and infusible material that cannot be melted or reformed once it has cured. Examples include epoxy, phenolic, and unsaturated polyester resins.

2. Thermoplastic resins: These resins can be repeatedly softened and hardened by heating and cooling without undergoing any significant chemical changes. Examples include polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene.

3. Elastomeric resins: These resins have the ability to stretch and return to their original shape when released, making them ideal for use in applications that require flexibility and durability. Examples include natural rubber, silicone rubber, and polyurethane.

Synthetic resins are widely used in various industries, including construction, automotive, electronics, and healthcare. In the medical field, they may be used to create dental restorations, medical devices, and drug delivery systems, among other applications.

Dentin sensitivity is a common dental condition characterized by the short, sharp pain or discomfort in response to external stimuli, such as cold air, hot or cold foods and drinks, sweet or sour substances, and physical touch. This pain is typically caused by the exposure of dentin, the hard tissue beneath the tooth's enamel, due to receding gums, tooth decay, or other factors that wear down or damage the protective enamel layer.

When the dentin is exposed, the microscopic tubules within it become sensitive to temperature and pressure changes, allowing external stimuli to reach the nerve endings inside the tooth. This results in the characteristic pain or discomfort associated with dentin sensitivity. Dentin sensitivity can be managed through various treatments, including desensitizing toothpaste, fluoride applications, and dental restorations, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

Potassium compounds refer to substances that contain the element potassium (chemical symbol: K) combined with one or more other elements. Potassium is an alkali metal that has the atomic number 19 and is highly reactive, so it is never found in its free form in nature. Instead, it is always found combined with other elements in the form of potassium compounds.

Potassium compounds can be ionic or covalent, depending on the properties of the other element(s) with which it is combined. In general, potassium forms ionic compounds with nonmetals and covalent compounds with other metals. Ionic potassium compounds are formed when potassium donates one electron to a nonmetal, forming a positively charged potassium ion (K+) and a negatively charged nonmetal ion.

Potassium compounds have many important uses in medicine, industry, and agriculture. For example, potassium chloride is used as a salt substitute and to treat or prevent low potassium levels in the blood. Potassium citrate is used to treat kidney stones and to alkalinize urine. Potassium iodide is used to treat thyroid disorders and to protect the thyroid gland from radioactive iodine during medical imaging procedures.

It's important to note that some potassium compounds can be toxic or even fatal if ingested in large quantities, so they should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Pit and fissure sealants are a preventive dental treatment that involves the application of a thin, plastic coating to the chewing surfaces of teeth, usually the molars and premolars. The goal of this treatment is to protect the pits and fissures, which are the grooves and depressions on the chewing surfaces of teeth, from decay.

The sealant material flows into the pits and fissures, creating a smooth, protective barrier that prevents food and bacteria from becoming trapped in these areas and causing cavities. The procedure is typically quick, painless, and non-invasive, and can be performed during a routine dental checkup. Sealants are most commonly recommended for children and adolescents, but they may also be appropriate for adults who are at high risk of tooth decay.

Tooth calcification, also known as dental calculus or tartar formation, refers to the hardening of plaque on the surface of teeth. This process occurs when minerals from saliva combine with bacterial deposits and dental plaque, resulting in a hard, calcified substance that adheres to the tooth surface. Calcification can occur both above and below the gum line, and if not removed through professional dental cleanings, it can lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay, and other oral health issues.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to consume and meets the health-based standards established by regulatory agencies for human consumption. It is free from harmful levels of contaminants, including microorganisms, chemicals, radiological elements, and aesthetic factors such as taste, odor, and appearance.

Drinking water can come from various sources, including surface water (e.g., rivers, lakes), groundwater (e.g., wells), and treated wastewater that has undergone advanced purification processes. The treatment of drinking water typically involves several steps, such as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection, to remove or inactivate pathogens and other contaminants.

Access to safe drinking water is essential for human health, as it helps prevent various waterborne diseases and ensures proper hydration. Regular monitoring and testing of drinking water sources and distribution systems are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of the water supply.

Methoxyflurane is a sweet-smelling, volatile liquid that is used as an inhalational general anesthetic agent. It is chemically described as 2,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoro-1-methoxyethane. Methoxyflurane is a fluorinated hydrocarbon with low blood/gas solubility, which allows for rapid induction and emergence from anesthesia. It has been used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in both adults and children. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about nephrotoxicity associated with high concentrations or prolonged exposure.

Dentin desensitizing agents are chemical substances or materials applied to the teeth to reduce sensitivity in the dental tissues, specifically in the dentin. Dentin is a calcified tissue that lies beneath the tooth's enamel and cementum. It has numerous microscopic tubules that, when exposed due to various factors like gum recession, tooth wear, or dental procedures, can lead to hypersensitivity.

Dentin desensitizing agents work by occluding these dentinal tubules, thus preventing the stimuli (like cold, heat, or touch) from reaching the nerve endings inside the pulp chamber. These agents may contain various active ingredients like fluorides, strontium salts, calcium sodium phosphosilicate, potassium nitrate, arginine, and oxalates. They can be found in different forms, such as toothpaste, gels, varnishes, or bonding agents, and are often used in dental treatments and at-home oral care to alleviate dentinal hypersensitivity.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Tooth erosion is defined as the progressive, irreversible loss of dental hard tissue, primarily caused by chemical dissolution from acids, rather than mechanical forces such as abrasion or attrition. These acids can originate from extrinsic sources like acidic foods and beverages, or intrinsic sources like gastric reflux or vomiting. The erosion process leads to a reduction in tooth structure, altering the shape and function of teeth, and potentially causing sensitivity, pain, and aesthetical concerns. Early detection and management of tooth erosion are crucial to prevent further progression and preserve dental health.

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, primarily consisting of fluorapatite, chlorapatite, and hydroxylapatite. They are important constituents of rocks and bones, and they have a wide range of applications in various industries. In the context of medicine, apatites are most notable for their presence in human teeth and bones.

Hydroxylapatite is the primary mineral component of tooth enamel, making up about 97% of its weight. It provides strength and hardness to the enamel, enabling it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. Fluorapatite, a related mineral that contains fluoride ions instead of hydroxyl ions, is also present in tooth enamel and helps to protect it from acid erosion caused by bacteria and dietary acids.

Chlorapatite has limited medical relevance but can be found in some pathological calcifications in the body.

In addition to their natural occurrence in teeth and bones, apatites have been synthesized for various medical applications, such as bone graft substitutes, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering scaffolds. These synthetic apatites are biocompatible and can promote bone growth and regeneration, making them useful in dental and orthopedic procedures.

Dental devices for home care are products designed for use by individuals or their caregivers in a home setting to maintain oral hygiene, manage dental health issues, and promote overall oral health. These devices can include:

1. Toothbrushes: Manual, electric, or battery-operated toothbrushes used to clean teeth and remove plaque and food debris.
2. Dental floss: A thin string used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
3. Interdental brushes: Small brushes designed to clean between the teeth and around dental appliances, such as braces or implants.
4. Water flossers/oral irrigators: Devices that use a stream of water to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
5. Tongue scrapers: Tools used to clean the tongue's surface, removing bacteria and reducing bad breath.
6. Rubber tips/gum stimulators: Devices used to massage and stimulate the gums, promoting blood circulation and helping to maintain gum health.
7. Dental picks/sticks: Pointed tools used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
8. Mouthguards: Protective devices worn over the teeth to prevent damage from grinding, clenching, or sports-related injuries.
9. Night guards: Similar to mouthguards, these are designed to protect the teeth from damage caused by nighttime teeth grinding (bruxism).
10. Dental retainers: Devices used to maintain the alignment of teeth after orthodontic treatment.
11. Whitening trays and strips: At-home products used to whiten teeth by applying a bleaching agent to the tooth surface.
12. Fluoride mouth rinses: Anticavity rinses containing fluoride, which help strengthen tooth enamel and prevent decay.
13. Oral pain relievers: Topical gels or creams used to alleviate oral pain, such as canker sores or denture irritation.

Proper use of these dental devices, along with regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings, can help maintain good oral health and prevent dental issues.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

Amelogenesis is the biological process of forming enamel, which is the hard and highly mineralized outer layer of teeth. Enamel is primarily made up of calcium and phosphate minerals and is the toughest substance in the human body. Amelogenesis involves the synthesis, secretion, and maturation of enamel proteins by specialized cells called ameloblasts.

The medical definition of 'Amelogenesis' refers to a genetic disorder that affects the development and formation of tooth enamel. This condition is also known as Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) and can result in teeth that are discolored, sensitive, and prone to decay. There are several types of Amelogenesis Imperfecta, each with its own set of symptoms and genetic causes.

In summary, 'Amelogenesis' is the biological process of enamel formation, while 'Amelogenesis Imperfecta' is a genetic disorder that affects this process, leading to abnormal tooth enamel development.

Microradiography is a radiographic technique that uses X-rays to produce detailed images of small specimens, such as microscopic slides or individual cells. In this process, the specimen is placed in close contact with a high-resolution photographic emulsion, and then exposed to X-rays. The resulting image shows the distribution of radiopaque materials within the specimen, providing information about its internal structure and composition at a microscopic level.

Microradiography can be used for various applications in medical research and diagnosis, including the study of bone and tooth microstructure, the analysis of tissue pathology, and the examination of mineralized tissues such as calcifications or osteogenic lesions. The technique offers high resolution and contrast, making it a valuable tool for researchers and clinicians seeking to understand the complex structures and processes that occur at the microscopic level in living organisms.

Aluminum silicates are a type of mineral compound that consist of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen in their chemical structure. They are often found in nature and can be categorized into several groups, including kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and bentonite. These minerals have various industrial and commercial uses, including as fillers and extenders in products like paper, paint, and rubber. In the medical field, certain types of aluminum silicates (like bentonite) have been used in some medicinal and therapeutic applications, such as detoxification and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that the use of these minerals in medical treatments is not widely accepted or supported by extensive scientific evidence.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate (BPAGM) is a type of chemical compound that belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glycidyl methacrylates. It is created by the reaction between bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate.

BPAGM is used in various industrial applications, including the production of coatings, adhesives, and resins. In the medical field, it has been used as a component in some dental materials, such as bonding agents and composite resins. However, due to concerns about its potential health effects, including its possible estrogenic activity and potential to cause reproductive toxicity, its use in dental materials has become more restricted in recent years.

It is important to note that exposure to BPAGM should be limited as much as possible, and appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling this chemical compound.

Corrosion is a process of deterioration or damage to a material, usually a metal, caused by chemical reactions with its environment. In the medical context, corrosion may refer to the breakdown and destruction of living tissue due to exposure to harsh substances or environmental conditions. This can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skin, mouth, or gastrointestinal tract, and can be caused by factors like acid reflux, infection, or exposure to chemicals.

In the case of medical devices made of metal, corrosion can also refer to the degradation of the device due to chemical reactions with bodily fluids or tissues. This can compromise the function and safety of the device, potentially leading to complications or failure. Therefore, understanding and preventing corrosion is an important consideration in the design and use of medical devices made of metal.

Osteosclerosis is a medical term that refers to an abnormal thickening and increased density of bone tissue. This condition can occur as a result of various diseases or conditions, such as certain types of bone cancer, Paget's disease of bone, fluoride poisoning, or chronic infection of the bone. Osteosclerosis can also be seen in some benign conditions, such as osteopetrosis, which is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an excessively hard and dense skeleton.

In some cases, osteosclerosis may not cause any symptoms and may only be discovered on X-rays or other imaging studies. However, in other cases, it can lead to complications such as bone pain, fractures, or deformities. Treatment for osteosclerosis depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications, surgery, or other therapies.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for "DMF Index." The abbreviation "DMF" could potentially stand for many things, as it is used in various contexts across different fields. In the field of dentistry, DMF stands for Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth/surfaces, which is a method for measuring dental caries or tooth decay. However, there is no standard medical definition for "DMF Index." If you could provide more context or specify the field of study or practice, I would be happy to help further!

A hardness test is a quantitative measure of a material's resistance to deformation, typically defined as the penetration of an indenter with a specific shape and load into the surface of the material being tested. There are several types of hardness tests, including Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell, and Knoop, each with their own specific methods and applications. The resulting hardness value is used to evaluate the material's properties, such as wear resistance, durability, and suitability for various industrial or manufacturing processes. Hardness tests are widely used in materials science, engineering, and quality control to ensure the consistency and reliability of materials and components.

Periostitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the periosteum, which is the highly vascularized tissue that covers the outer surface of bones. The periosteum contains nerves and blood vessels that supply the bone and assist in bone repair and remodeling. Periostitis can occur as a result of various factors such as repetitive trauma, infection, or inflammatory diseases, leading to pain, swelling, and tenderness in the affected area. In some cases, periostitis may also lead to the formation of new bone tissue, resulting in bony outgrowths known as exostoses.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

In the context of medical terminology, "hardness" is not a term that has a specific or standardized definition. It may be used in various ways to describe the firmness or consistency of a tissue, such as the hardness of an artery or tumor, but it does not have a single authoritative medical definition.

In some cases, healthcare professionals may use subjective terms like "hard," "firm," or "soft" to describe their tactile perception during a physical examination. For example, they might describe the hardness of an enlarged liver or spleen by comparing it to the feel of their knuckles when gently pressed against the abdomen.

However, in other contexts, healthcare professionals may use more objective measures of tissue stiffness or elasticity, such as palpation durometry or shear wave elastography, which provide quantitative assessments of tissue hardness. These techniques can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect the mechanical properties of tissues, such as liver fibrosis or cancer.

Therefore, while "hardness" may be a term used in medical contexts to describe certain physical characteristics of tissues, it does not have a single, universally accepted definition.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

Fluorine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the chemical element Fluorine (F, atomic number 9). These radioisotopes have an unstable nucleus that emits radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. Examples of Fluorine radioisotopes include Fluorine-18 and Fluorine-19.

Fluorine-18 is a positron-emitting radionuclide with a half-life of approximately 110 minutes, making it useful for medical imaging techniques such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans. It is commonly used in the production of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a radiopharmaceutical that can be used to detect cancer and other metabolic disorders.

Fluorine-19, on the other hand, is a stable isotope of Fluorine and does not emit radiation. However, it can be enriched and used as a non-radioactive tracer in medical research and diagnostic applications.

Ameloblasts are the specialized epithelial cells that are responsible for the formation of enamel, which is the hard, outermost layer of a tooth. These cells are a part of the dental lamina and are present in the developing tooth's crown region. They align themselves along the surface of the developing tooth and secrete enamel proteins and minerals to form the enamel rods and interrod enamel. Once the enamel formation is complete, ameloblasts undergo programmed cell death, leaving behind the hard, mineralized enamel matrix. Any damage or abnormality in the functioning of ameloblasts can lead to developmental defects in the enamel, such as hypoplasia or hypocalcification, which may affect the tooth's structure and function.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Fluoride-containing toothpaste can be classified into two types, namely low-fluoride and high-fluoride toothpaste. Low-fluoride ... Fluoride mouth rinse is usually used for adjunctive therapy with other topical fluoride products. It is generally prepared in ... In severe cases, fluoride overdose may lead to acute toxicity. While topical fluoride is effective in preventing dental caries ... Topical fluorides are fluoride-containing drugs indicated in prevention and treatment of dental caries, particularly in ...
Many brands of topical fluoride exist. They are not recommended if a person is drinking water that already contains sufficient ... Fluoride therapy typically uses the sodium fluoride form, though stannous fluoride may also be used. Fluoride decreases ... Fluoride can be delivered by many chemical methods (sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, amine fluoride, monofluorophosphate, ... The fluoride rinse with a 0.05% fluoride content is used for daily rinsing, while the rinse with 0.2% fluoride content is used ...
January 2018). "Topical silver diamine fluoride for dental caries arrest in preschool children: A randomized controlled trial ... SDF is also known as diammine silver fluoride, silver fluoride, and silver ammonium fluoride. It is frequently spelled "silver ... Chu CH, Lo EC (June 2008). "Microhardness of dentine in primary teeth after topical fluoride applications". primary. Journal of ... Silver diammine fluoride (SDF), also known as silver diamine fluoride in most of the dental literature, (although this is a ...
Use as a topical fluoride agent on moderate and high-risk patients, especially children aged 5 and younger Desensitizing agent ... For fluoride varnish treatment, the benefit to cost ratio 1.8:1, whereas fluoride mouth rinsing is 0.9:1. With fluoride varnish ... While most fluoride varnishes contain 5% sodium fluoride at least one brand of fluoride varnish contains 1% difluorsilane in a ... Donly, K (2003). "Fluoride varnishes". J Calif Dent Assoc. 31 (3): 217-9. PMID 12693820. Professionally applied topical ...
Promoting the use of topical fluoride for preventing and control of dental caries. Facilitating early access to preventative ... fortnightly fluoride mouth-rinse and daily fluoride tables with the collaboration of the school teachers. During this period a ... Fluoride is still yet to be completely implemented across the full population. Progress is slowly improving and access is ... Fluoride has the ability to interfere with the demineralisation and remineralisation process that occurs on the tooth surface ...
Topical fluoride, such as a fluoride toothpaste or mouthwash, is also recommended to protect teeth surfaces. Many dentists ... Fluoride helps prevent dental decay by binding to the hydroxyapatite crystals in enamel. The incorporated fluoride makes enamel ... Fluoride therapy is often recommended to protect against dental caries. Water fluoridation and fluoride supplements decrease ... include application of topical fluoride solutions as part of routine cleanings. Dental sealants are another preventive therapy ...
Alternatives to the practice exist - topical fluoride therapy (toothbrushing etc.) The role of consent - It gets priority when ... Fears about fluoride were likely exacerbated by the reputation of fluoride compounds as insect poisons and by early literature ... Fluoride therapy Fluoride toxicity Hexafluorosilicic acid Sodium monofluorophosphate Pizzo G, Piscopo MR, Pizzo I, Giuliana G ( ... "Questions and answers , Fluoride facts". www.fluoridefacts.govt.nz. Retrieved 22 April 2016. "Fluoride in Drinking Water". ...
Fluoroderma is a particular type of halogenoderma which is caused by fluoride. Fluoride is present in oral hygiene products ... Medications given for halogenoderma may include topical and systemic corticosteroids, diuretics, and cyclosporine. Halogen acne ... Acute fluoroderma has been observed in patients exposed to anaesthetics containing fluoride such as sevoflurane. ...
Patients with salivary gland aplasia typically require regular application of topical fluoride to prevent tooth decay. Taji, SS ...
Then, desensitizing agents such as topical fluoride varnishes can be applied, and at home desensitising toothpastes recommended ...
The treatment arm received 4 topical fluoride treatments plus Caphosol, while the control arm received a fluoride rinse (0.01% ... This trial demonstrated that Caphosol, used in conjunction with fluoride treatments, offers significant benefits over standard ...
Treatments include at-home topical fluoride application to strengthen tooth enamel and frequent teeth cleanings by a dental ... placebo-controlled clinical trial of fluoride varnish in preventing dental caries of Sjögren's syndrome patients". BMC Oral ...
Caries protective factors: Systemic and topical fluoride sources, adequate saliva flow, xylitol in the diet, use of calcium and ... fluoride regiment, and past oral health history. The CAMBRA system was developed as an evidence-based approach to the ...
... it has been employed as a fluorination and desilylation reagent in organic synthesis and in aqueous solution as a topical ... 1185 Like the alkali metal fluorides, it dissolves in hydrogen fluoride to give a conducting solution. Silver(I) fluoride finds ... Silver(I) fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula AgF. It is one of the three main fluorides of silver, the others ... "Silver Fluoride". American Elements. Retrieved 2018-09-07. Sigma-Aldrich Co., Silver(I) fluoride. Retrieved on 2014-05-08. ...
According to clinical trials, topical fluoride treatment in the form of gel or varnish is effective in preventing tooth decay ... Treatment with other topical agents, such as calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), may also be effective in the remineralization of ... Excessive fluoride exposure (dental fluorosis) Tetracycline Vitamin A, C, or D deficiency Enamel hypoplasia is a risk factor ...
It is used in trace amounts in the fluoridation of drinking water to prevent tooth decay, and in toothpastes and topical ... Like other fluorides, sodium fluoride finds use in desilylation in organic synthesis. Sodium fluoride can be used to produce ... Sodium fluoride is used as a cleaning agent (e.g., as a "laundry sour"). Sodium fluoride can be used in a nuclear molten salt ... A chronic fluoride ingestion of 1 ppm of fluoride in drinking water can cause mottling of the teeth (fluorosis) and an exposure ...
In addition to these procedures, hygienists may take intraoral radiographs, apply dental sealants, administer topical fluoride ... sealants and fluorides) teaching patients appropriate oral hygiene strategies to maintain oral health counseling patients about ...
... despite the effect is predominantly topical. Prior to 1981, the effect of fluorides was thought to be largely systemic and ... Fluoride is most commonly found as inorganic or organic fluorides such as naturally occurring calcium fluoride, or synthetic ... Fluoride salts, particularly sodium fluoride (NaF), are used in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Symptoms such as ... sodium fluoride.[citation needed] There are a number of sources of fluoride. Fluoride occurs naturally within water supplies. ...
Nausea and vomiting are also problems which might arise with topical fluoride ingestion. The inclusion of sweet-tasting but ... a sodium fluoride content of 0.312% w/w (1,450 ppm fluoride) or stannous fluoride content of 0.454% w/w (1,100 ppm fluoride) is ... Sodium fluoride (NaF) is the most common source of fluoride, but stannous fluoride (SnF2), and sodium monofluorophosphate ( ... Tao S, Zhu Y, Yuan H, Tao S, Cheng Y, Li J, He L (April 30, 2018). "Efficacy of fluorides and CPP-ACP vs fluorides monotherapy ...
Fluoride varnishes are a concentrated topical fluoride containing 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) except the Fluor protector which ... Furthermore, when compared to other existing topical fluoride the advantages of fluoride varnishes application are being a ... The types of fluoride added to toothpaste include: sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), and stannous fluoride. As ... Fluoride interferes with the process of tooth decay as fluoride intake during the period of enamel development for up to 7 ...
... -containing compounds, such as sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate are used in topical and systemic fluoride ... At physiological pHs, hydrogen fluoride is usually fully ionised to fluoride. In biochemistry, fluoride and hydrogen fluoride ... Fluoride is the simplest fluorine anion. In terms of charge and size, the fluoride ion resembles the hydroxide ion. Fluoride ... Fluorides include compounds that contain ionic fluoride and those in which fluoride does not dissociate. The nomenclature does ...
By 2000, however, the topical effects of fluoride (in both water and toothpaste) were well understood, and it had become known ... Fluoride's effects depend on the total daily intake of fluoride from all sources. About 70-90% of ingested fluoride is absorbed ... Fluoride mouthwash and gel are about as effective as fluoride toothpaste; fluoride varnish prevents about 45% of cavities. By ... of fluoride, and distillation removes all fluoride. Some bottled waters contain undeclared fluoride, which can be present ...
... topical fluoride application on the treated teeth or part-time wear of a thermoformed Fluoride varnish infused retainer. In a ... had lesser chances of developing caries on the tooth surfaces treated with IPR than the group who did not receive any fluoride ... study where participants received fluoride after IPR, it was determined that this group ...
In any case, it is only the fluoride that is directly present in the mouth (topical treatment) that prevents cavities; fluoride ... For sodium fluoride, the lethal dose for adults is 5-10 g, which is equivalent to 32-64 mg of elemental fluoride per kilogram ... Fluoride is excreted through urine. Fluoride exposure limits are based on urine testing, which is used to determine the human ... The fluoride ion is readily absorbed by the stomach and intestines. Ingested fluoride forms hydrofluoric acid in the stomach. ...
Population studies from the mid-20th century onwards show topical fluoride reduces dental caries. This was first attributed to ... Soluble fluorides are moderately toxic: 5-10 g sodium fluoride, or 32-64 mg fluoride ions per kilogram of body mass, represents ... Chemistry portal Argon fluoride laser Electrophilic fluorination Fluoride selective electrode, which measures fluoride ... via the electrolysis of a potassium fluoride/hydrogen fluoride mixture: hydrogen and fluoride ions are reduced and oxidized at ...
... fluorides, topical MeSH D25.223.716 - sodium fluoride MeSH D25.223.800 - tin fluorides MeSH D25.264.377 - dental porcelain MeSH ...
... and apply topical fluoride. Training for dental hygienists and dental therapists was combined in Queensland, Australia in 1998 ... applying fisssure sealants and topical fluoride, patient education, and oral hygiene instruction. Although dental hygienists ...
... brush and floss properly and undergo regular topical applications of fluoride gel to prevent caries and to promote enamel ...
Coronal polishing Sealant application Fluoride application Topical anesthetic application In some U.S. states, dental ... casting and trimming study models removing sutures after the wound has been checked by a clinician apply fluoride varnish as ...
... calcium fluoride MeSH D01.303.350.300.512 - fluorides, topical MeSH D01.303.350.300.875 - sodium fluoride MeSH D01.303.350.300. ... 875.050 - acidulated phosphate fluoride MeSH D01.303.350.300.900 - sulfur hexafluoride MeSH D01.303.350.300.950 - tin fluorides ... fluorides MeSH D01.248.497.158.459 - hydroxides MeSH D01.248.497.158.459.300 - hydroxyl radical MeSH D01.248.497.158.480 - ... acidulated phosphate fluoride MeSH D01.695.625.675.650.075 - calcium phosphates MeSH D01.695.625.675.650.075.025 - apatites ...
Fluoride-containing toothpaste can be classified into two types, namely low-fluoride and high-fluoride toothpaste. Low-fluoride ... Fluoride mouth rinse is usually used for adjunctive therapy with other topical fluoride products. It is generally prepared in ... In severe cases, fluoride overdose may lead to acute toxicity. While topical fluoride is effective in preventing dental caries ... Topical fluorides are fluoride-containing drugs indicated in prevention and treatment of dental caries, particularly in ...
An overview of the many ways fluoride is used topically and systemically for individual and public oral health. ... Self-applied topical fluorides include toothpastes, mouthrinses, and gels. Professionally applied topical fluorides include ... home-use topical fluorides for caries prevention in patients at elevated risk:. *2.26% fluoride varnish or 1.23% fluoride ( ... 3 Topical fluorides strengthen teeth already present in the mouth, making them more decay resistant.3, 5, 6 Topical fluorides ...
DENTI-CARE DENTI-FOAM TOPICAL SODIUM FLUORIDE BUBBLE GUM- sodium fluoride aerosol, foam. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs ... DENTI-CARE DENTI-FOAM TOPICAL SODIUM FLUORIDE BUBBLE GUM- sodium fluoride aerosol, foam. Number of versions: 5. ... Label: DENTI-CARE DENTI-FOAM TOPICAL SODIUM FLUORIDE BUBBLE GUM- sodium fluoride aerosol, foam. ... DENTI-CARE DENTI-FOAM TOPICAL SODIUM FLUORIDE BUBBLE GUM sodium fluoride aerosol, foam. ...
To identify and characterize socio-economic inequalities in professionally administered topical fluoride treatment to ... The dependent variable was at least one professional application of topical fluoride by a dentist in the previous year. ... Objective: To identify and characterize socio-economic inequalities in professionally administered topical fluoride treatment ... the odds of having a topical fluoride application was higher in children who reported brushing teeth more often (OR = 1.62, 95 ...
Butler Company announces a new line of clinically proven and easy-to-use topical fluoride foam products, available in both ... The John O. Butler Company announces a new line of clinically proven and easy-to-use topical fluoride foam products, available ... The John O. Butler Company announces a new line of clinically proven and easy-to-use topical fluoride foam products, available ... Butler PROTECT 1.23% APF Topical Foam and Butler PROTECT 0.9% Neutral Fluoride Foam provide the dental professional with a ...
Topical applications of fluoride solutions in dental caries control Cite CITE. Title : Topical applications of fluoride ... Title : Effect of topical fluorides on teeth matured on fluoride-bearing water Personal Author(s) : Galagan, Donald J.; ... Galagan, Donald J. and Vermillion, Jack R. "Effect of topical fluorides on teeth matured on fluoride-bearing water" vol. 70, no ... Galagan, Donald J. and Vermillion, Jack R. "Effect of topical fluorides on teeth matured on fluoride-bearing water" 70, no. 11 ...
cetylpyridinium/fluoride topical. Cetylpyridinium/fluoride topical is used in the treatment of:. *Gingivitis ... benzocaine/cetylpyridinium/menthol topical. Brand names: Orasep Solution, Orasep Spray. Drug class: mouth and throat products ... cetylpyridinium topical. Brand names: Crest Pro-Health Clean Mint, Crest Pro-Health Cool Wintergreen, Cepacol Antibacterial ... benzocaine/cetylpyridinium topical. Brand names: Cepacol Anesthetic, Protac, Bucalsep Solution, Orajel Mouth-Aid Liquid, Orajel ...
Here, our Comox dentists explain how topical fluoride treatment works. ... Fluoride is a naturally-occurring mineral that helps strengthen tooth enamel and prevent cavities. ... However, adults benefit from fluoride, too. Topical fluoride from toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride treatments are as ... What is fluoride?. Fluoride is a mineral that is found in all-natural water sources and is the ionic form of the trace element ...
This additional fluoride can come from daily use of another fluoride product at home or from professionally applied, topical ... fluoride), gel or foam of sodium fluoride (0.9% [9,040 ppm] fluoride), and self-applied (i.e., home use) gel of sodium fluoride ... Topical fluorides in caries prevention. In: Fejerskov O, Ekstrand J, Burt BA, eds. Fluorides in dentistry. 2nd ed. Copenhagen: ... Fluoride concentrations in plaque, whole saliva, and ductal saliva after application of home-use topical fluorides. J Dent Res ...
A fluoride treatment is quick and painless. Your dentist will paint a thin layer of fluoride varnish on your childs teeth. ... Topical Fluoride Treatment For Your Child?. by Dr. Kochevar , May 5, 2020 , Dental ... Because of this, some dentists recommend topical fluoride treatments for kids beneath a certain age. So, whats the story on ... Toothpaste With Fluoride. Toothpaste that contains fluoride is another excellent source of the mineral and will help keep your ...
Fluorides. Fluoride Sealants. Fluoride Trays. Fluoride Varnishes. Paedo Crowns. Stainless Steel Crowns. Strip Crowns. Zirconia ... Fluorides. Fluoride Varnishes. Gingival Retraction Material. Hand Piece Oil Spray. Instrument Sterilization. Instruments. ... Prevest Fluorotop APF 200GM , Topical FluorideAPF Gel with 1.23% Fluoride lon-1. ...
To ensure that your mouth is fluoride-rich, you should take fluoride supplements and use fluoride mouth rinses. ... Lowering Tooth Decay Risk In Children With Topical Fluoride. July 10, 2022. by Catherine ... Fluoride. Fluoride, although you may not know it yet, is an essential part of good dental hygiene. It helps the tooth repair ... Fluoride is a naturally-occurring mineral found in water and in many foods. Fluoride strengthens enamel, and protects against ...
Topical Fluoride Treatment for Childrens Teeth. Topical fluoride treatments focus on existing teeth in the mouth and aid in ... Professionally-applied Topical Fluoride. Fluoride products that require a dental professional for application are highly ... Self-applied Topical Fluoride. Dentists recommend parents to start caring for a childs teeth starting right from emergence. ... Topical Fluoride Treatment for Children: Self and Professional Application. Posted by BELLFLOWER COSMETIC DENTISTRY on Oct 22 ...
Fluoride uptake by enamel in vitro following application of various topical fluoride preparations. J Clin Pediatr Dent 1993;17: ... Retief DH, Bradley EL, Holbrook M, Switzer P. Enamel fluoride uptake, distribution and retention from topical fluoride agents. ... PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of topical acidulated phosphate fluoride on the surface roughness of ... 7. Papagiannoulis L, Tzoutzas J, Eliades G. Effect of topical fluoride agents on the morphologic characteristics and ...
Systemic versus topical fluoride. Caries Res 38: 258-62.. Hoffman CS, Mendola P, Savitz DA, Herring AH, Loomis D, Hartmann KE, ... Analysis of Fluoride (SM 4500-F C). For each brand, a 4 mL sample was prepared and tested for fluoride in accordance with the ... Fluoride was found in five brands at concentrations between 0.15 and 1.07 ppm (parts per million, same as mg/L). Fluoride in ... The value of fluoride-containing toothpaste to dental health is clear; fluoride is a potent chemical that strengthens teeth and ...
Indications: Topical anti-carie solution. Neutral pH is safe for patients with crowns and restorations. ... SODIUM FLUORIDE (UNII: 8ZYQ1474W7) (FLUORIDE ION - UNII:Q80VPU408O) FLUORIDE ION. 0.02 g in 1 mL. ... DENTI-CARE DENTI-RINSE NEUTRAL SODIUM FLUORIDE ORAL RINSE- sodium fluoride liquid. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed ... DENTI-CARE DENTI-RINSE NEUTRAL SODIUM FLUORIDE ORAL RINSE- sodium fluoride liquid. Number of versions: 6. ...
topical fluoride gels or varnish. *quitting smoking, as smoke irritates the mouth and speeds up the evaporation of saliva ...
... from whitening kits to veneers and fluoride treatments. ... Topical Fluoride. Topical fluoride is a recommended treatment ... Depending on the severity, you may need to use another type of treatment, such as topical fluoride or a hybrid microabrasion ... This fluoride treatment can be done by your dentist and encourages enamel growth on the teeth, minimizing white spots, and also ... For example, dental fluorosis is a condition where someone consumed too much fluoride as a child before their teeth broke ...
Price List (Topical Fluoride Application (polishing included)- adult) *Price in Thai Baht. DR. AUBONRUTT DENTAL OFFICE DENTAL ... Topical Fluoride Application (polishing included) - child. 400. Topical Fluoride Application (polishing included)- adult. 500. ...
Since the purported benefit of fluoride is topical, and the risks are systemic, it makes more sense to deliver the fluoride ... Fluoride. 28: 125-127.. Xiang Q, et al. (2003a). Effect of fluoride in drinking water on childrens intelligence. Fluoride. 36 ... fluoride accumulates to a high level in bone. Second, fluoride stimulates bone growth. And, third, fluoride can interfere with ... Swallowing fluoride provides no (or very little) benefit. 11) Benefit is topical not systemic. The Centers for Disease Control ...
Three-year caries increments after fluoride rinses or topical applications with a fluoride varnish.. Bruun, C; Bille, J; Hansen ... NaF solution or received biannual topical applications with a fluoride varnish (Fluor-Protector). Clinically recorded mean DFS ... 251 9-12-yr-old children completed a 3-yr, double-blind, clinical trial of two caries preventive fluoride programs. Caries ... None of the fluoride programs had been able to change preestablished patterns of caries development among the children. ...
... fluoride vapor, health effects, sensitizing agents, skin burns, effects hydrogen fluoride, exposed hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen ... These effects are due to the fluoride ions aggressive, destructive penetration of tissues. Synonyms include hydrogen fluoride ... hydrogen fluoride, fluoric acid, hydrofluoride, hydrofluoric acid, fluorine monohydride, fluoride, hydrogen, skin, exposure, ... Hydrogen fluoride readily dissolves in water to form colorless hydrofluoric acid solutions; dilute solutions are visibly ...
Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Topical Fluoride on the Micro Hardness of Various Restorative Materials- an in Vitro ... To evaluate the effect of topical fluoride on the micro hardness of various restorative materials using universal testing ... Keywords: APF gel, Amalgomer CR, Cention N, micro hardness, topical fluoride, Zirconomer. ... Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Topical Fluoride on the Micro Hardness of Various Restorative Materials- an in Vitro ...
Only TOPICAL CONTACT will strengthen teeth for children. So Why not give FREE fluoride treatments to any child under 18, at any ... Fluoride levels in hard tissues are in equilibrium with blood plasma fluoride levels. As the blood level decreases, fluoride is ... If people want to ingest fluoride, they can buy toothpaste with fluoride. Dont poison the rest of us. Adding fluoride to our ... "The evidence that fluoride is more harmful than beneficial is now overwhelming… fluoride may be destroying our bones, our teeth ...
Acid Etching, Dental, Composite Resins, Dental Bonding, Dental Enamel, Fluorides, Topical, Humans, Phosphoric Acids, Tensile ... LR: 20121115; JID: 9107511; 0 (Composite Resins); 0 (Fluorides, Topical); 0 (Phosphoric Acids); E4GA8884NN (phosphoric acid); ...
Gelato®see Fluoride. *Gelnique®see Oxybutynin Topical. *Gelnique® 3%see Oxybutynin Topical ...
  • Topical fluoride is available in a variety of dose forms, for example, toothpaste, mouth rinses, varnish and silver diamine solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The daily use of fluoride-containing toothpaste is recognized as the key factor contributing to the global reduction in dental caries over recent decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride-containing toothpaste can be classified into two types, namely low-fluoride and high-fluoride toothpaste. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low-fluoride toothpaste, depending on brand, generally contains 0.22% to 0.31% fluoride. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-fluoride toothpaste typically contains 1.1% sodium fluoride, namely four times more concentrated than low-fluoride toothpaste. (wikipedia.org)
  • People using high-fluoride toothpaste should avoid eating or rinsing their mouth for at least 30 minutes after treatment for maximal therapeutic effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Some fluoride-containing toothpaste incorporates extra chemical ingredients for additional purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride Toothpaste. (ada.org)
  • Fluoride-containing toothpaste is the most commonly used form of self-applied fluoride worldwide. (ada.org)
  • 3 Fluoride in toothpaste is taken up directly by the dental plaque and demineralized enamel and also increases the concentration of fluoride in saliva. (ada.org)
  • 3 Fluoride toothpaste makes up more than 95% of toothpaste sales in the U.S. 2 The American Dental Association recommends use of a fluoride toothpaste displaying the ADA Seal of Acceptance. (ada.org)
  • Topical fluoride from toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride treatments are as important in fighting tooth decay as they are for strengthening developing teeth. (comoxdental.com)
  • While there are many over-the-counter fluoride toothpaste and mouthwashes, these contain relatively low levels of fluoride. (comoxdental.com)
  • Because frequent exposure to small amounts of fluoride each day will best reduce the risk for dental caries in all age groups, the work group recommends that all persons drink water with an optimal fluoride concentration and brush their teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste. (cdc.gov)
  • Toothpaste that contains fluoride is another excellent source of the mineral and will help keep your child's mouth healthy from infancy to toddlerhood and beyond. (hoverdental.com)
  • As the baby develops more teeth, you can use a child-sized toothbrush with soft bristles and a tiny smear of fluoride toothpaste. (hoverdental.com)
  • Pick a toothpaste containing fluoride and use about a rice grain-sized amount of it when brushing the teeth of children aged below three years. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • A majority of the time, fluoride dental procedures are conducted when the child does not have access to fluoride in the form of fluoridated community water or fluoride-containing everyday toothpaste. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • It is delivered through toothpaste, mouthwash, and professional fluoride applications. (dentistekirkland.com)
  • When choosing your own at-home fluoride product (such as toothpaste or mouthwash), always check for the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance. (dentistekirkland.com)
  • Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. (ewg.org)
  • Further, the researchers accounted for fluoride in toothpaste and water but did not address other fluoride sources. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Governments and industry must ensure availability of affordable fluoride toothpaste. (who.int)
  • Fluoride toothpaste should also be used to control periodontal diseases. (who.int)
  • The preventive approach includes thorough oral hygiene with fluoride toothpaste as well as the application of other topical fluoride varnishes. (fdiworldental.org)
  • Common active ingredients include sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, silver diamine fluoride. (wikipedia.org)
  • These fluorides are often manufactured in the form of sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, or sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a common dentifrice ingredient, the influence of this ion on plaque fluid and salivary fluid fluoride has not been examined. (karger.com)
  • Barkvoll P: Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on the uptake of fluoride from NaF and MFP by etched enamel in vitro. (karger.com)
  • Barkvoll P, Rølla G, Lagerlöf F: Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on the deposition of alkali-soluble fluoride on enamel in vitro. (karger.com)
  • The ADA Council on Scientific Affairs recommendations are based on a systematic review of the literature that includes two types of professionally applied fluorides: 5% neutral sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish and 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Self-topical neutral fluoride gel containing 1.1% sodium fluoride for use as a dental caries preventive in pediatric patients and adults. (drugs.com)
  • It is well established that 1.1% sodium fluoride is safe and extraordinarily effective as a caries preventive when applied frequently with mouthpiece applicators. (drugs.com)
  • To ensure that your mouth is fluoride-rich, you should take fluoride supplements and use fluoride mouth rinses. (thelollicakequeen.com)
  • Fluoride gels, foams, and rinses are used during dental visits on children who are at a high risk of dental caries. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • Three-year caries increments after fluoride rinses or topical applications with a fluoride varnish. (bvsalud.org)
  • Topical fluorides strengthen teeth already present in the mouth, making them more decay resistant, while systemic fluorides are those that are ingested and become incorporated into forming tooth structures. (ada.org)
  • Systemic fluorides also provide topical protection because fluoride is present in saliva, which continually bathes the teeth. (ada.org)
  • 1, 3 Topical fluorides strengthen teeth already present in the mouth, making them more decay resistant. (ada.org)
  • In the multivariate model, the odds of having a topical fluoride application was higher in children who reported brushing teeth more often (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.22, 2.15) and in children from families with better socio-economic position (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.50). (uwi.edu)
  • Title : Effect of topical fluorides on teeth matured on fluoride-bearing water Personal Author(s) : Galagan, Donald J.;Vermillion, Jack R. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, our Comox dentists explain how topical fluoride treatments work to protect your teeth. (comoxdental.com)
  • How is fluoride good for teeth? (comoxdental.com)
  • Fluoride, then, helps prevent tooth decay by making teeth more resistant to acid. (comoxdental.com)
  • For children under six years old, fluoride becomes incorporated into the developing permanent teeth, making it more difficult for acids to demineralize them. (comoxdental.com)
  • Sometimes, fluoride consumed via water and food is not sufficient to protect the teeth, and in these cases, additional fluoride application is advisable. (comoxdental.com)
  • A mineral found naturally in the bones and teeth, fluoride strengthens the teeth and works to prevent cavities. (hoverdental.com)
  • Fluoride protects teeth by making your teeth stronger and more resistant to acid. (hoverdental.com)
  • Fluoride treatments prevent cavities by strengthening the hard, outer shell of teeth, and they may even reverse very early cavities that have just started forming. (hoverdental.com)
  • Your dentist will paint a thin layer of fluoride varnish on your child's teeth. (hoverdental.com)
  • Fluoride has been and continues to be an important dental intervention that builds strong teeth and supports healthy tooth enamel. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • Topical fluoride treatments focus on existing teeth in the mouth and aid in making them more decay-resistant. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • Fluoride varnish is applied to the teeth of children who have a high incidence of teeth decay and cavities. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • For example, dental fluorosis is a condition where someone consumed too much fluoride as a child before their teeth broke through the gums. (gosmile.com)
  • This fluoride treatment can be done by your dentist and encourages enamel growth on the teeth, minimizing white spots, and also helps to prevent tooth decay overall. (gosmile.com)
  • You brush your teeth twice a day, floss regularly, and visit the dentist every six months, but did you know that rinsing with fluoride - a mineral that helps prevent cavities and tooth decay - also helps keep your teeth healthy and strong? (dentistekirkland.com)
  • Fluoride is effective in preventing cavities and tooth decay by coating your teeth and preventing plaque from building up and hardening on the tooth's surface. (dentistekirkland.com)
  • While teeth are forming under the gums, the fluoride strengthens tooth enamel, making it stronger and more resistant to cavities. (dentistekirkland.com)
  • Fluoride can also be applied topically to help prevent caries (cavities) on teeth present in the mouth. (dentistekirkland.com)
  • After the treatment, patients may be asked not to rinse, eat, or drink for at least 30 minutes in order to allow the teeth to absorb the fluoride. (dentistekirkland.com)
  • Take care of your teeth and smile bright with dental fluoride treatments! (dentistekirkland.com)
  • In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. (ewg.org)
  • They banned them from making claims that fluoride would benefit unborn babies' teeth due to a lack of clinical evidence to substantiate that claim. (oralanswers.com)
  • The answer is no - there is no evidence that taking fluoride supplements during pregnancy helps improve the baby's chances of having healthier teeth. (oralanswers.com)
  • Although 50 years ago many people thought that taking fluoride supplements during pregnancy was good for their baby's teeth, it turns out that modern science has debunked that myth. (oralanswers.com)
  • Frequent topical applications to the teeth with preparations having a relatively high fluoride content increase tooth resistance to acid dissolution and enhance penetration of the fluoride ion into tooth enamel. (drugs.com)
  • If we spot early lesions on the teeth or if a child is at high risk of decay we often recommend professional fluoride application 2-3 times per year. (intelligentdental.com)
  • Topical fluorides are directly applied to the erupted teeth. (intelligentdental.com)
  • Butler PROTECT 1.23% APF Topical Foam and Butler PROTECT 0.9% Neutral Fluoride Foam provide the dental professional with a convenient choice of foam types in a variety of flavors developed to satisfy individual patient needs and preferences. (rdhmag.com)
  • Acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF, 1.23%) was applied to half of the specimens (groups VF, TF, ZF and EF). (bvsalud.org)
  • The dental-protecting property of topical fluoride can be attributed to multiple mechanisms of action, including the promotion of remineralization of decalcified enamel, the inhibition of the cariogenic microbial metabolism in dental plaque and the increase of tooth resistance to acid dissolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical fluoride serves to prevent early dental caries primarily in three ways: promoting remineralization of decalcified enamel, inhibiting the cariogenic microbial processes in dental plaque and increasing tooth resistance to acid breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride has a high tendency to react with the calcium hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 in tooth enamel due to its high affinity to metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical fluoride can increase the resistance of enamel to acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluorapatite formed by topical fluorides has lower critical pH (pH 4.5) than normal enamel, it is therefore more acid resistant and not prone to degrade even in an acidic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3-5 Fluoride remineralizes the calcium hydroxyapatite structure in enamel by forming calcium fluorapatite, which is more resistant to acid attacks. (ada.org)
  • 3, 5, 6 Topical fluorides encourage remineralization of enamel, and also inhibit bacterial metabolism, reducing the growth of plaque bacteria. (ada.org)
  • Fluoride is a naturally-occurring mineral that helps strengthen tooth enamel and prevent cavities. (comoxdental.com)
  • During remineralization, minerals like calcium, phosphate, and fluoride are redeposited to the enamel when we drink water or eat certain mineral-rich foods. (comoxdental.com)
  • Fluoride strengthens enamel, and protects against acid attack by bacteria plaque. (thelollicakequeen.com)
  • It is an abrasive paste that contains a high concentration of fluoride that restores the surface layer of the tooth enamel removed during polishing. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • However, it is advised to moderate the use of fluoride treatments as excessive use of fluoride can lead to fluorosis - a condition that causes white striations or stained pitting of the tooth enamel. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • The mean surface roughness (Ra) of both the restorative materials and enamel, with and without fluoride, was evaluated with a profilometer. (bvsalud.org)
  • It was concluded that APF increased the surface roughness of enamel and decreased the surface roughness of both resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and microhybrid composite resin with fluoride. (bvsalud.org)
  • Topical fluoride is a recommended treatment of dental fluorosis and enamel hypoplasia. (gosmile.com)
  • Hydrogen fluoride is used in separating uranium isotopes, as a cracking catalyst in oil refineries, and for etching glass and enamel, removing rust, and cleaning brass and crystal. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoride helps prevent dental cavities by hardening over the tooth enamel. (sensoryresources.com)
  • Fluoride makes enamel harder to penetrate by strengthening it. (sensoryresources.com)
  • Many bottled waters on the market do not contain optimal levels of fluoride. (ada.org)
  • A potential risk of fluoride use is the development of fluorosis, which may occur when excess levels of fluoride are ingested during tooth development. (ada.org)
  • The findings suggest a relationship between kidney function, plasma fluoride levels, and the levels of fluoride in community drinking water. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Exposure to levels of fluoride found commonly in drinking water in the United States result in significantly higher levels of fluoride in blood in those with lower kidney function," wrote the authors, led by Dr. John Danziger of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center at Harvard Medical School in Boston. (drbicuspid.com)
  • But in August 2019, researchers published a study in JAMA Pediatrics that suggested maternal exposure to greater levels of fluoride during pregnancy was linked with lower IQ scores in children ages 3 to 4 in six major Canadian cities. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Fortunately, fluoride is one of the safest and most effective ways to prevent cavities in both kids and adults. (hoverdental.com)
  • Fluoride varnish significantly reduces dental cavities and can be used from the time of tooth eruption. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. (ewg.org)
  • If your child is at low risk of developing cavities, then fluoride supplements are inappropriate whether or not your family's drinking water is fluoridated. (oralanswers.com)
  • While fluoride can help prevent cavities in high-risk children, it's important to remember that cavities aren't caused by a deficiency in fluoride. (oralanswers.com)
  • Fluoride ions readily combine with hydrogen cations to produce hydrogen fluoride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen fluoride subsequently acidifies the bacterial cytoplasm, inactivating the essential enzymes for bacterial metabolism, including enolase and proton releasing adenosine triphosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, victims whose clothing or skin is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride liquid or solution can secondarily contaminate response personnel by direct contact or through off-gassing vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • Most hydrogen fluoride exposures occur by inhalation of the gas and dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride is a colorless, fuming liquid or gas with a strong, irritating odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation hazards result not only from exposure to hydrogen fluoride gas, but also from fumes arising from concentrated hydrogen fluoride liquid. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride gas is lighter than air. (cdc.gov)
  • Even fairly low airborne concentrations of hydrogen fluoride produce rapid onset of eye, nose, and throat irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride has a strong irritating odor that is discernable at concentrations of about 0.04 ppm, which is considerably less than the OSHA PEL of 3 ppm. (cdc.gov)
  • Children exposed to the same levels of hydrogen fluoride as adults may receive larger doses because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • Most hydrogen fluoride exposures occur by cutaneous contact with the aqueous solution. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride is irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride is primarily an industrial raw material. (cdc.gov)
  • Some consumer products that may contain hydrogen fluoride include automotive cleaning products (e.g., for aluminum and chrome), rust inhibitors, rust removers (e.g., for ceramic tubs, sinks, and fabrics), and water-spot removers. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride reacts with metals and water or steam. (cdc.gov)
  • The fluoride released from the dissociation of hydrogen fluoride binds avidly to calcium and magnesium. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This scholarly article from the journal Pediatric Dentistry states, "Although fluoride crosses the placenta, prescribing fluoride supplements to pregnant women is not recommended because there is little evidence that fluoride provided to the mother during pregnancy reduces caries prevalence in their offspring. (oralanswers.com)
  • It has been shown that fluoride crosses the placenta of rats, but only 0.01% of the amount administered is incorporated in fetal tissue. (drugs.com)
  • and silver diamine fluoride. (ada.org)
  • The dependent variable was at least one professional application of topical fluoride by a dentist in the previous year. (uwi.edu)
  • The experience of having fluoride administered by a dentist in the previous year was low overall in this sample of Mexican children. (uwi.edu)
  • Stronger concentrations are available by prescription, and your dentist can also apply fluoride treatment in stronger concentrations at your dental clinic. (comoxdental.com)
  • Your dentist has recommended a fluoride treatment for your child. (hoverdental.com)
  • Take your child to the dentist regularly and ask for advice on the usage of fluoride products. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • Performs routine prophylaxis and topical fluoride treatment assigned by the Dentist. (jobing.com)
  • At this time the dentist may begin to start the application of topical fluoride . (sensoryresources.com)
  • There are several solutions and gels used by the dentist in the clinics for topical fluoride applications. (intelligentdental.com)
  • 1 The remineralization effect of fluoride can both reverse the early decay process as well as create a tooth surface that is more resistant to decay. (ada.org)
  • The ADA recognizes the use of fluoride and community water fluoridation as safe and effective in preventing tooth decay for both children and adults. (ada.org)
  • Fluoride supplements can be prescribed for children ages 6 months to 16 years who are at high risk for tooth decay and whose primary drinking water has a low fluoride concentration. (ada.org)
  • Widespread use of fluoride has been a major factor in the decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries (i.e., tooth decay) in the United States and other economically developed countries. (cdc.gov)
  • As a matter of basic logic, adding fluoride to water for the sole purpose of preventing tooth decay (a non-water borne disease) is a form of medical treatment. (fluoridealert.org)
  • No disease, not even tooth decay, is caused by a " fluoride deficiency . (fluoridealert.org)
  • While it is believed that water fluoridation does reduce tooth decay, there are many areas of the United States that don't have fluoride added to their water. (oralanswers.com)
  • The American Dental Association states that fluoride supplements are intended for use by children "living in non-fluoridated areas and at high risk of developing tooth decay. (oralanswers.com)
  • Fluoride is proven to be excellent for preventing tooth decay. (intelligentdental.com)
  • Butler PROTECT fluoride foams are guaranteed to dispense just the right amount you need to save time and eliminate waste. (rdhmag.com)
  • Butler PROTECT fluoride foams are guaranteed to dispense uniformly, consistently, and accurately without rising in the applicator tray. (rdhmag.com)
  • 1 Modes of systemic fluoride delivery include water fluoridation or dietary fluoride supplements in the form of tablets, drops, or lozenges. (ada.org)
  • Trials were performed in which dietary fluoride supplements were administered to children in order to determine if they could receive fluoride's anti-cavity effects in pill form. (oralanswers.com)
  • These results suggest that the nonfluoride components of topical agents can be manipulated to improve the fluoride release characteristics from oral fluoride reservoirs and that statistically significant change may be observed in plaque fluid and salivary fluid fluoride concentrations that may not be observed in total plaque and total saliva fluoride concentrations. (karger.com)
  • The blood fluoride concentrations in the study fall below the 4.1umol/L threshold for excessive fluoride exposure. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Adverse effects on reproduction were reported for rats, mice, fox, and cattle exposed to 100 ppm or greater concentrations of fluoride in their diet or drinking water. (drugs.com)
  • Other studies conducted in rats demonstrated that lower concentrations of fluoride (5 mg/kg of body weight) did not result in impaired fertility and reproductive capabilities. (drugs.com)
  • Because of this, some dentists recommend topical fluoride treatments for kids beneath a certain age. (hoverdental.com)
  • When used as directed or within the context of community water fluoridation programs, fluoride is a safe and effective agent that can be used to prevent and control dental caries. (ada.org)
  • Community water fluoridation is the process of adjusting the fluoride content of fluoride-deficient water to the recommended level for optimal dental health, which is currently recommended at 0.7 parts fluoride per million parts water. (ada.org)
  • For decades, fluoride has been added to oral health products and drinking water to prevent caries, and community water fluoridation was named one of the major public health advances of the 21st century. (drbicuspid.com)
  • In fact, all natural water sources contain some level of fluoride - be it stream water, lake water, rain water, or the drinking water that comes from a well. (hoverdental.com)
  • Considering reason #6 it is perhaps not surprising that the level of fluoride in mother's milk is remarkably low (0.004 ppm, NRC, 2006). (fluoridealert.org)
  • There are no benefits (see reasons #11-19), only risks (see reasons #21-36), for infants ingesting this heightened level of fluoride at such an early age (an age where susceptibility to environmental toxins is particularly high). (fluoridealert.org)
  • Children younger than 6, however, should only receive the 5% NaF varnish application due to the risk of adverse effects-particularly nausea and vomiting-associated with swallowing excess amounts of fluoride gel. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Fluoridated water is inexpensive, convenient, and easily one of the best sources of fluoride for kids. (hoverdental.com)
  • It is now widely acknowledged that exposure to non-water sources of fluoride has significantly increased since the water fluoridation program first began (NRC 2006). (fluoridealert.org)
  • On the contrary there is extensive evidence that fluoride can interfere with many important biological processes. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Fluoride toothpastes available over the counter in the U.S. generally contain a fluoride concentration of 1,000 to 1,500 ppm. (ada.org)
  • Increasing the concentration of free fluoride in oral fluids is an important goal in the use of topical fluoride agents. (karger.com)
  • Both renal function and household water fluoride levels were correlated with plasma fluoride concentration in the authors' weighted and adjusted analyses. (drbicuspid.com)
  • For those in the quartile with the lowest kidney function, a 1 mg/L higher drinking water fluoride concentration was associated with a 0.35 umol/L higher plasma fluoride level. (drbicuspid.com)
  • In comparison, water fluoridation concentration was linked with a 0.20 umol/L plasma fluoride level in those with the highest renal function, they wrote. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Prolonged daily ingestion may result in various degrees of dental fluorosis in pediatric patients under age 6 years, especially in the areas with high fluoride concentration in drinking water. (drugs.com)
  • Reduced milk production was reported in farm-raised fox when the animals were fed a diet containing a high concentration of fluoride (98-137 mg/kg of body weight). (drugs.com)
  • Do All Children Need Fluoride Supplements? (oralanswers.com)
  • Even if your water does not contain fluoride, your child may not need fluoride supplements. (oralanswers.com)
  • Do you have any questions about fluoride supplements? (oralanswers.com)
  • You may be wondering what we've figured out in the past 50 years about taking fluoride supplements during pregnancy. (oralanswers.com)
  • Since fluoride supplements taken by the mother can cross the placenta, there is a chance that the well-meaning mother-to-be could actually cause their baby to get dental fluorosis . (oralanswers.com)
  • Here's three different credible sources that all agree that there is no benefit derived from taking fluoride supplements during pregnancy. (oralanswers.com)
  • This guideline from the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry states, "The AAPD does not support the use of prenatal fluoride supplements to benefit the fetus. (oralanswers.com)
  • Do you have any questions or thoughts regarding fluoride supplements and pregnancy? (oralanswers.com)
  • Patients should also be prescribed topical fluoride supplements (TFS). (bris.ac.uk)
  • Fluoride can be delivered topically and systemically. (ada.org)
  • Topical fluorides are fluoride-containing drugs indicated in prevention and treatment of dental caries, particularly in children's primary dentitions. (wikipedia.org)
  • While topical fluoride is effective in preventing dental caries, it should be used with caution in specific situations to avoid undesired side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical fluoride formulations are effective measures for preventing and arresting the progression of dental caries, especially early childhood caries (ECC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical fluoride also serves as an antimicrobial agent to reduce demineralization by inhibiting the growth of tooth-erupting microorganisms in dental plaque. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride treatment at your dental clinic will typically be a one-time application of a gel, foam, or varnish solution. (comoxdental.com)
  • When used appropriately, fluoride is both safe and effective in preventing and controlling dental caries. (cdc.gov)
  • During the late 1990s, CDC convened a work group to develop recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • This report includes these recommendations, as well as a) critical analysis of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of fluoride modalities in preventing and controlling dental caries, b) ordinal grading of the quality of the evidence, and c) assessment of the strength of each recommendation. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoride: it's a hot topic in the dental industry. (hoverdental.com)
  • Fluoride is a critical aspect of excellent dental health, yes, but it's just one facet. (hoverdental.com)
  • Fluoride, although you may not know it yet, is an essential part of good dental hygiene. (thelollicakequeen.com)
  • If your child is over six years old and can rinse and spit, and are susceptible to dental caries, develop a habit to rinse the mouth with a fluoride-containing over-the-counter mouth rinse. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • Fluoride products that require a dental professional for application are highly concentrated and, therefore, do not need to be applied frequently. (bellflowercosmeticdentistry.com)
  • HONOLULU - A Hawaii lawmaker is pushing to add the mineral fluoride to the state's public water systems in an effort to promote better dental health. (westhawaiitoday.com)
  • Arends J, Christoffersen J: Nature and role of loosely bound fluoride in dental caries. (karger.com)
  • In 2013, the American Dental Association (ADA) updated its recommendations on the use of professional and at-home prescription topical fluorides. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • For example, for a patient at high caries risk who lives in another country where there is little access to dental care and the patient is only in the United States for 3 weeks, weekly fluoride applications may be indicated. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • After this trial period, the American Dental Association (ADA) came up with the very first fluoride dosage schedule in 1958 . (oralanswers.com)
  • Unfortunately, many children started getting dental fluorosis , and as a result, the amount of recommended fluoride was gradually reduced. (oralanswers.com)
  • A dental caries preventive, for once daily self-applied topical use. (drugs.com)
  • For biofilm control in patients at risk of caries, educational and therapeutic actions such as supervised brushing and topical application of fluoride are particularly encouraged in communities with limited access to health services, but there is little scientific evidence that these interventions may reduce dental caries in children [4,5]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fluoride is a mineral that is found in all natural water sources. (ada.org)
  • Fluoride is a pretty simple mineral. (hoverdental.com)
  • Again, fluoride is a naturally-occurring mineral. (hoverdental.com)
  • Fluoride is a naturally-occurring mineral found in water and in many foods. (thelollicakequeen.com)
  • Would applying varnish every 72 hours to 2 weeks be too much fluoride exposure? (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • I'm sure many oral health professionals have considered providing multiple fluoride varnish applications within a short period but are unsure if the additional exposure will provide further benefits. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • The study included data on fluoride exposure and IQ scores from 512 pairs of mothers and children in which about 40% lived in areas with a fluoridated water supply that was at or below the recommended fluoride level. (drbicuspid.com)
  • More research is needed on whether people with kidney disease have a greater susceptibility to fluoride from environmental exposure, Danziger and colleagues concluded. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Potential adverse reproductive effects of fluoride exposure in humans has not been adequately evaluated. (drugs.com)
  • Maternal exposure to 12.2 mg fluoride/kg of body weight (rats) or 13.1 mg/kg of body weight (rabbits) did not affect the litter size or fetal weight and did not increase the frequency of skeletal or visceral malformations. (drugs.com)
  • Heavy exposure to fluoride during in utero development may result in skeletal fluorosis which becomes evident in childhood. (drugs.com)
  • Indications: Topical anti-carie solution. (nih.gov)
  • Keep in mind that not all bottled water contains fluoride, so it's smart to check the label if you want to be sure that your child is getting enough fluoride in their daily diet. (hoverdental.com)
  • Both products are nonliquefying, and feature small bubbles that flow easily in and around each tooth, providing maximum coverage, and fast, effective fluoride uptake while avoiding ingestion. (rdhmag.com)
  • 3. Wiegand A, Buchalla W, Attin T. Review on fluoride-releasing restorative materials - fluoride release and uptake characteristics, antibacterial activity and influence on caries formation. (bvsalud.org)
  • 251 9-12-yr-old children completed a 3-yr, double-blind, clinical trial of two caries preventive fluoride programs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Systemic fluorides are those that are ingested and become incorporated into forming tooth structures. (ada.org)
  • For more information, please visit the ADA Fluoride in Water resource page . (ada.org)
  • As such, many communities around the US add small quantities of fluoride to county drinking water in a process known as fluoridation. (hoverdental.com)
  • If you happen to live in a community that adds fluoride to its public water supply, all that's happening is that your child is getting the exact right dose of fluoride, as determined by the EPA. (hoverdental.com)
  • Two of 10 brands tested, Walmart's and Giant's store brands, bore the chemical signature of standard municipal water treatment - a cocktail of chlorine disinfection byproducts, and for Giant water, even fluoride. (ewg.org)
  • Some countries have areas with high natural fluoride levels in the water. (fluoridealert.org)
  • All other water treatment chemicals are added to improve the water's quality or safety, which fluoride does not do. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Once fluoride is put in the water it is impossible to control the dose each individual receives because people drink different amounts of water. (fluoridealert.org)
  • 5) People now receive fluoride from many other sources besides water. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Fluoridated water is not the only way people are exposed to fluoride. (fluoridealert.org)
  • This means that a bottle-fed baby consuming fluoridated water (0.6 - 1.2 ppm) can get up to 300 times more fluoride than a breast-fed baby. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Systemic fluoride is ingested, usually through a public water supply. (dentistekirkland.com)
  • Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. (ewg.org)
  • Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. (ewg.org)
  • EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. (ewg.org)
  • In the same decade that water fluoridation commenced, people in non-fluoridated areas wondered how their children could reap the the benefits of fluoride if their water supply was not yet fluoridated. (oralanswers.com)
  • In the study, higher plasma fluoride in children ages 12 to 19 was associated with an increase in water fluoride levels and a decrease in renal function. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Their investigation was limited to NHANES participants with socioeconomic data, fluoride levels in blood samples, fluoride levels in household drinking water, and renal function measures. (drbicuspid.com)
  • A 1 mg/L increase in water fluoride levels was tied to a 0.23 increase in plasma fluoride levels. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Additionally, correlation between water and plasma fluoride levels was strongest among individuals with the lowest renal function. (drbicuspid.com)
  • People exposed to fluoride-treated water generally have blood plasma levels between 1 and 4 umol/L, according to Mayo Clinic Laboratories . (drbicuspid.com)
  • Epidemiological data provide no credible evidence for an association between fluoride, either naturally occurring or added to drinking water, and risk of human cancer. (drugs.com)
  • Although cost-effective, water and salt fluoridation are often unavailable and topical fluorides are recommended. (who.int)
  • To evaluate the effect of topical fluoride on the micro hardness of various restorative materials using universal testing machine as well as to compare the micro hardness of the restorative materials after the application of APF gel. (ijmsdr.com)
  • As topical fluoride lowers the pH, bacteria have to consume more energy to maintain a neutral environment, leaving less energy for reproduction, and further generation of polysaccharides and acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor may also prescribe an at-home fluoride product such as a mouthwash, gel, or antibacterial rinse. (dentistekirkland.com)
  • To identify and characterize socio-economic inequalities in professionally administered topical fluoride treatment to schoolchildren. (uwi.edu)
  • Topical Fluoride Treatment For Your Child? (hoverdental.com)
  • A fluoride treatment is quick and painless. (hoverdental.com)
  • As you can see, a fluoride treatment is a simple procedure. (hoverdental.com)
  • Depending on the severity, you may need to use another type of treatment, such as topical fluoride or a hybrid microabrasion treatment with composite resin. (gosmile.com)
  • Depending on your oral health or your doctor's recommendation, you may be required to have a fluoride treatment every three, six, or 12 months. (dentistekirkland.com)
  • While it's unlikely that increased application of fluoride varnish will cause harm, it should be discussed with patients to learn more about their treatment goals, ability to pay for additional applications, and feasibility of returning to the office for multiple appointments. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Homeopathy cures medicinal services issues through different orally expended products and the topical utilization of fluids or balms, however requires delayed treatment and recuperation time. (sbwire.com)
  • In a study conducted in rodents, no carcinogenesis was found in male and female mice and female rats treated with fluoride at dose levels ranging from 4.1 to 9.1 mg/kg of body weight. (drugs.com)
  • SLS had no statistically significant effect on total plaque and total saliva fluoride but significantly increased salivary fluid and plaque fluid fluoride (by 147 and 205%, respectively). (karger.com)
  • Bruun C, Qvist V, Thylstrup A: Effect of flavour and detergent on fluoride availability in whole saliva after use of NaF and MFP dentifrices. (karger.com)
  • The John O. Butler Company announces a new line of clinically proven and easy-to-use topical fluoride foam products, available in both acidulated phosphate and neutral fluoride formulations. (rdhmag.com)
  • The neutral fluoride foam maintains a neutral pH, specifically developed to be safe for use with patients who have composite resin or porcelain-type restorations. (rdhmag.com)
  • Self-applied topical fluorides include toothpastes, mouthrinses, and gels. (ada.org)
  • 1 Modes of topical fluoride delivery include toothpastes, gels, mouthrinses, and professionally applied fluoride therapies. (ada.org)
  • If you have questions about how fluoride works, please contact our Comox dentists today to book a consultation. (comoxdental.com)
  • However, adults benefit from fluoride, too. (comoxdental.com)
  • While adults generally get adequate fluoride levels in their daily lives, kids sometimes need some help. (hoverdental.com)
  • Because fluoride is excreted primarily through the kidneys, the authors wondered whether children with decreasing kidney function might in turn have more fluoride accumulation in their blood. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Fluoride mouth rinse is usually used for adjunctive therapy with other topical fluoride products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resin-modified glass ionomer (Vitremer - V), microhybrid composite resin with fluoride (Tetric Ceram - T), and nanofiller composite resin without fluoride (Z350 - Z) were evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • The prevalence of fluoride application was 11.5 % (95% CI = 9.9, 13.0). (uwi.edu)
  • The result of the microhardness test after the application of fluoride gel showed that the highest microhardess was shown by Group III Amalgomer CR with mean 52.62 ± 0.65. (ijmsdr.com)
  • Duckworth RM, Morgan SN: Oral fluoride retention after use of fluoride dentifrices. (karger.com)
  • Food and Drug Administration: Statements of general policy or interpretation, oral prenatal drugs containing fluorides for human use. (oralanswers.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SLS on these parameters and to examine the effect of this ion on total (or whole) plaque fluoride, an important source of plaque fluid fluoride after a sufficient interval following fluoride administration, and on total salivary fluoride, a parameter often used as a surrogate measure of salivary fluid fluoride. (karger.com)
  • However, some recent research has questioned whether fluoride might be tied to adverse effects in children. (drbicuspid.com)