Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.
Fluoride poisoning, also known as fluoride toxicity, is a condition characterized by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and seizures that result from ingesting excessive amounts of fluoride, typically through contaminated water or industrial exposure.
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Inorganic fluorides of tin. They include both stannic fluoride (tin tetrafluoride) and stannous fluoride (tin difluoride). The latter is used in the prevention of dental caries.
Calcium fluoride. Occurring in nature as the mineral fluorite or fluorspar. It is the primary source of fluorine and its compounds. Pure calcium fluoride is used as a catalyst in dehydration and dehydrogenation and is used to fluoridate drinking water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
A sodium fluoride solution, paste or powder, which has been acidulated to pH 3 to 4 and buffered with a phosphate. It is used in the prevention of dental caries.
An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.
Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.
Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.
A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.
Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.
Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
Composite materials composed of an ion-leachable glass embedded in a polymeric matrix. They differ from GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS in that partially silanized glass particles are used to provide a direct bond to the resin matrix and the matrix is primarily formed by a light-activated, radical polymerization reaction.
Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
Dentin sensitivity is a short, sharp pain originating from exposed dentin in response to stimuli, typically thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic, or chemical changes in the oral environment.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Water that is intended to be ingested.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Substances which reduce or eliminate dentinal sensitivity or the pain associated with a source of stimulus (such as touch, heat, or cold) at the orifice of exposed dentinal tubules causing the movement of tubular fluid that in turn stimulates tooth nerve receptors.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.

Methoxyflurane nephropathy. (1/1729)

Investigations of methoxyflurane-induced nephrotoxicity in man have been extensively aided by the use of an animal model. To be of value the animal model must share similar metabolic pathways with man and have the same clinical manifestations of the diseases process. The Fischer 344 rat appears to meet these criteria. The predominant factors in the production of methoxyflurane nephrotoxicity appear to be high methoxyflurane dosage and serum inorganic fluoride concentration. It is likely that secondary factors include: (1) a high rate of methoxyflurane metabolism and sepsitivity of the kidney to inorganic fluoride toxicity: (2) concurrent treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs; (3) preexisting renal disease; (4) surgery of the urogenital tract, aorta, or renal vasculative; (5) repeat administration of methoxyflurane due to accumulation of inorganic fluoride and, perhaps, methoxyflurane induction of its own metabolism: and (6) concurrent treatment with enzyme-inducing drugs such as phenobarbital.  (+info)

Inhibition of myosin ATPase by metal fluoride complexes. (2/1729)

Magnesium (Mg2+) is the physiological divalent cation stabilizing nucleotide or nucleotide analog in the active site of myosin subfragment 1 (S1). In the presence of fluoride, Mg2+ and MgADP form a complex that traps the active site of S1 and inhibits myosin ATPase. The ATPase inactivation rate of the magnesium trapped S1 is comparable but smaller than the other known gamma-phosphate analogs at 1.2 M-1 s-1 with 1 mM MgCl2. The observed molar ratio of Mg/S1 in this complex of 1.58 suggests that magnesium occupies the gamma-phosphate position in the ATP binding site of S1 (S1-MgADP-MgFx). The stability of S1-MgADP-MgFx at 4 degrees C was studied by EDTA chase experiments but decomposition was not observed. However, removal of excess fluoride causes full recovery of the K+-EDTA ATPase activity indicating that free fluoride is necessary for maintaining a stable trap and suggesting that the magnesium fluoride complex is bonded to the bridging oxygen of beta-phosphate more loosely than the other known phosphate analogs. The structure of S1 in S1-MgADP-MgFx was studied with near ultraviolet circular dichroism, total tryptophan fluorescence, and tryptophan residue 510 quenching measurements. These data suggest that S1-MgADP-MgFx resembles the M**.ADP.Pi steady-state intermediate of myosin ATPase. Gallium fluoride was found to compete with MgFx for the gamma-phosphate site in S1-MgADP-MgFx. The ionic radius and coordination geometry of magnesium, gallium and other known gamma-phosphate analogs were compared and identified as important in determining which myosin ATPase intermediate the analog mimics.  (+info)

The thrombospondin receptor integrin-associated protein (CD47) functionally couples to heterotrimeric Gi. (3/1729)

Integrin-associated protein (IAP; CD47) is a thrombospondin receptor that forms a signaling complex with beta3 integrins resulting in enhanced alphavbeta3-dependent cell spreading and chemotaxis and, in platelets, alphaIIbbeta3-dependent spreading and aggregation. These actions of CD47 are all specifically abrogated by pertussis toxin treatment of cells. Here we report that CD47, its beta3 integrin partner, and Gi proteins form a stable, detergent-soluble complex that can be recovered by immunoprecipitation and affinity chromatography. Gialpha is released from this complex by treatment with GTP or AlF4. GTP and AlF4 also reduce the binding of CD47 to its agonist peptide (4N1K) derived from thrombospondin, indicating a direct association of CD47 with Gi. 4N1K peptide causes a rapid decrease in intraplatelet cyclic AMP levels, a Gi-dependent event necessary for aggregation. Finally, 4N1K stimulates the binding of GTPgamma35S to membranes from cells expressing IAP and alphavbeta3. This functional coupling of CD47 to heterotrimeric G proteins provides a mechanistic explanation for the biological effects of CD47 in a wide variety of systems.  (+info)

Human liver glycogen phosphorylase. Kinetic properties and assay in biopsy specimens. (4/1729)

1. The two forms of glycogen phosphorylase were purified from human liver, and some kinetic properties were examined in the direction of glycogen synthesis. The b form has a limited catalytic capacity, resembling that of the rabbit liver enzyme. It is characterized by a low affinity for glucose 1-phosphate, which is unaffected by AMP, and a low V, which becomes equal to that of the a form in the presence of the nucleotide. Lyotropic anions stimulate phosphorylase b and inhibit phosphorylase a by modifying the affinity for glucose 1-phosphate. Both enzyme forms are easily saturated with glycogen. 2. These kinetic properties have allowed us to design a simple assay method for total (a + b) phosphorylase in human liver. It requires only 0.5 mg of tissue, and its average efficiency is 90% when the enzyme is predominantly in the b form. 3. The assay of total phosphorylase allows the unequivocal diagnosis of hepatic glycogen-storage disease caused by phosphorylase deficiency. One patient with a complete deficiency is reported. 4. The assay of human liver phosphorylase a is based on the preferential inhibition of the b form by caffeine. The a form displays the same activity when measured by either of the two assays.  (+info)

The receptor recycling pathway contains two distinct populations of early endosomes with different sorting functions. (5/1729)

Receptor recycling involves two endosome populations, peripheral early endosomes and perinuclear recycling endosomes. In polarized epithelial cells, either or both populations must be able to sort apical from basolateral proteins, returning each to its appropriate plasma membrane domain. However, neither the roles of early versus recycling endosomes in polarity nor their relationship to each other has been quantitatively evaluated. Using a combined morphological, biochemical, and kinetic approach, we found these two endosome populations to represent physically and functionally distinct compartments. Early and recycling endosomes were resolved on Optiprep gradients and shown to be differentially associated with rab4, rab11, and transferrin receptor; rab4 was enriched on early endosomes and at least partially depleted from recycling endosomes, with the opposite being true for rab11 and transferrin receptor. The two populations were also pharmacologically distinct, with AlF4 selectively blocking export of transferrin receptor from recycling endosomes to the basolateral plasma membrane. We applied these observations to a detailed kinetic analysis of transferrin and dimeric IgA recycling and transcytosis. The data from these experiments permitted the construction of a testable, mathematical model which enabled a dissection of the roles of early and recycling endosomes in polarized receptor transport. Contrary to expectations, the majority (>65%) of recycling to the basolateral surface is likely to occur from early endosomes, but with relatively little sorting of apical from basolateral proteins. Instead, more complete segregation of basolateral receptors from receptors intended for transcytosis occurred upon delivery to recycling endosomes.  (+info)

Agonist-induced translocation of Gq/11alpha immunoreactivity directly from plasma membrane in MDCK cells. (6/1729)

Both Gsalpha and Gqalpha are palmitoylated and both can move from a crude membrane fraction to a soluble fraction in response to stimulation with agonists. This response may be mediated through depalmitoylation. Previous studies have not demonstrated that endogenous guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein) alpha-subunits are released directly from the plasma membrane. We have examined the effect of agonist stimulation on the location of Gq/11alpha immunoreactivity in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Bradykinin (BK; 0.1 microM) caused Gq/11alpha, but not Gialpha, to rapidly translocate from purified plasma membranes to the supernatant. AlF and GTP also caused translocation of Gq/11alpha immunoreactivity from purified plasma membranes. BK caused translocation of Gq/11alpha immunoreactivity in intact cells from the basal and lateral plasma membranes to an intracellular compartment as assessed by confocal microscopy. Thus Gq/11alpha is released directly from the plasma membrane to an intracellular location in response to activation by an agonist and direct activation of G proteins. G protein translocation may be a mechanism for desensitization or for signaling specificity.  (+info)

A mutation in the heterotrimeric stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha-subunit with impaired receptor-mediated activation because of elevated GTPase activity. (7/1729)

It has been reported that substitution of Arg258, a residue within the GTPase domain of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) alpha-subunit (alphas), to alanine (alphas-R258A) results in decreased activation by receptor or aluminum fluoride (AlF4-) and increased basal GDP release. Arg258 interacts with Gln170 in the helical domain, and, presumably, loss of this interaction between the GTPase and helical domain leads to more rapid GDP release, resulting in decreased activation by AlF4- and increased thermolability. In this study, we mutate Gln170 to alanine (alphas-Q170A) and demonstrate that this mutant, like alphas-R258A, has decreased activation by AlF4-, increased thermolability (both reversed in the presence of excess guanine nucleotide), and an increased rate of GDP release. However, unlike alphas-R258A, alphas-Q170A does not have impaired receptor-mediated activation. Therefore, this interdomain interaction is critical to maintain normal guanine nucleotide binding (and hence normal activation by AlF4-) but is not important for receptor-mediated activation. In single turnover GTPase assays, the catalytic rate for GTP hydrolysis of alphas-R258A was 14-fold higher than normal whereas that of alphas-Q170A was unaffected. Examination of the alphas crystal structure suggests that Arg258, through interactions with Glu50, might constrain the position of Arg201, a residue critical for catalyzing the GTPase reaction. This is an example of a mutation in a heterotrimeric G protein that results in an increased intrinsic GTPase activity and provides another mechanism by which G protein mutations can impair signal transduction.  (+info)

De novo expression of the class-A macrophage scavenger receptor conferring resistance to apoptosis in differentiated human THP-1 monocytic cells. (8/1729)

The class-A macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR) is a trimeric multifunctional protein expressed selectively in differentiated monomyeloid phagocytes which mediates uptake of chemically modified lipoproteins and bacterial products. This study investigated whether MSR plays a role in the regulation of apoptosis, a model of genetically programmed cell death. De novo expression of MSR occurred in human THP-1 monocytic cells differentiated with phorbol esters, which activated a nuclear transcription factor binding to the Ap1/ets-like domain of the MSR promoter. The phorbol ester-stimulated THP-1 cells also expressed increased levels of the pro-apoptotic gene products, caspase-3 and Fas ligand, but the cells exhibited no change in apoptosis. Global activation of GTP-binding proteins with fluoride anions triggered apoptosis of THP-1 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, demonstrated by nuclear shrinkage and fragmentation and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. However, the MSR-expressing THP-1 macrophage-like cells showed a significant reduction in apoptosis compared to undifferentiated control THP-1 cells, which produce MSR at undetectable levels. Fluoride stimulation also triggered apoptosis of human Jurkat T cells. Stimulation with phorbol ester made no difference in apoptosis between treated and untreated Jurkat cells. Finally, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing the class-A MSR type I by cDNA transfection showed markedly increased resistance to G-protein-coupled apoptosis. Thus, de novo expression of MSR associated with monocyte maturation into macrophages appears to confer the resistance of macrophages to apoptotic stimulation by G-protein activation.  (+info)

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

Sodium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaF. Medically, it is commonly used as a dental treatment to prevent tooth decay, as it is absorbed into the structure of teeth and helps to harden the enamel, making it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria. It can also reduce the ability of bacteria to produce acid. Sodium fluoride is often found in toothpastes, mouth rinses, and various dental treatments. However, excessive consumption can lead to dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis, which cause changes in bone structure and might negatively affect health.

Topical fluorides are a form of fluoride that are applied directly to the teeth to prevent dental caries (cavities). They are available in various forms such as toothpastes, gels, foams, and varnishes. Topical fluorides work by strengthening the enamel of the teeth, making them more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth. They can also help to reverse early signs of decay. Regular use of topical fluorides, especially in children during the years of tooth development, can provide significant protection against dental caries.

Fluoride poisoning, also known as fluoride toxicity, is a condition that occurs when someone ingests too much fluoride. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, excessive saliva, and weakness. In severe cases, it can cause more serious problems, such as seizures, coma, or even death.

Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral that is often added to drinking water and toothpaste in order to help prevent tooth decay. However, consuming too much fluoride can be harmful. The amount of fluoride that is considered safe for human consumption depends on a number of factors, including age, weight, and overall health.

Fluoride poisoning is usually caused by accidental ingestion of large amounts of fluoride-containing products, such as toothpaste or mouthwash. It can also occur if someone drinks water that has been contaminated with high levels of fluoride. In some cases, fluoride poisoning may be the result of industrial accidents or intentional poisoning.

If you suspect that you or someone else has ingested too much fluoride, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment for fluoride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as administering fluids to help flush the fluoride out of the body. In severe cases, more invasive treatments may be necessary.

Cariostatic agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent or inhibit the development and progression of dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. These agents work by reducing the ability of bacteria in the mouth to produce acid, which can erode the enamel and dentin of the teeth and lead to cavities.

There are several types of cariostatic agents that are commonly used in dental care, including:

1. Fluorides: These are the most widely used and well-studied cariostatic agents. They work by promoting the remineralization of tooth enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks. Fluoride can be found in toothpaste, mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, and fluoridated water supplies.
2. Antimicrobial agents: These substances work by reducing the population of bacteria in the mouth that contribute to tooth decay. Examples include chlorhexidine, triclosan, and xylitol.
3. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP): This is a complex protein that has been shown to help remineralize tooth enamel and reduce the risk of dental caries. It can be found in some toothpastes and mouthwashes.
4. Silver diamine fluoride: This is a topical fluoride compound that contains silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties. It has been shown to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations such as young children and older adults with dry mouth.

It's important to note that while cariostatic agents can help reduce the risk of tooth decay, they are not a substitute for good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and visiting the dentist regularly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tin Fluorides" is not a widely recognized medical term or concept. Tin (Sn) and Fluoride (F-) are both chemical elements that can form various compounds together, such as tin(II) fluoride (SnF2) and tin(IV) fluoride (SnF4). These compounds have uses in industrial applications, but they are not typically associated with medical definitions.

Tin(II) fluoride, for example, is used in some toothpastes and dental products as a fluoride source to help prevent tooth decay. However, it's important to note that the medical definition of a substance like this would be more focused on its clinical use or effect, rather than its chemical composition alone.

If you have any questions about specific tin-fluoride compounds and their potential uses or effects in a medical context, I would recommend consulting a healthcare professional or a reliable source of information on pharmaceuticals or medical treatments.

Calcium fluoride is an inorganic compound that is represented by the chemical formula CaF2. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is insoluble in water. Calcium fluoride is commonly found in nature as the mineral fluorite.

In the medical field, calcium fluoride is not used as a therapeutic agent. However, fluoride, which is a component of calcium fluoride, has been added to community water supplies and toothpaste to help prevent dental caries or tooth decay. Fluoride works by strengthening the enamel of teeth, making them more resistant to acid attacks that can lead to cavities.

It's worth noting that excessive exposure to fluoride can lead to a condition called fluorosis, which can cause mottling and discoloration of tooth enamel. Therefore, it's important to consume fluoride in moderation and follow recommended guidelines for its use.

Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to fluoride during tooth development. It is characterized by hypomineralization of the enamel, resulting in various appearances ranging from barely noticeable white spots to brown staining and pitting of the teeth. The severity depends on the amount, duration, and timing of fluoride intake, as well as individual susceptibility. Mild dental fluorosis is typically asymptomatic but can affect the appearance of teeth, while severe cases may cause tooth sensitivity and increased susceptibility to tooth decay.

APF, or Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride, is a dental product that contains fluoride ion in the form of sodium fluoride. It is used as a topical agent to prevent tooth decay by promoting remineralization and inhibiting demineralization of tooth enamel. The acidulated phosphate component helps to maintain a stable pH level and enhance fluoride absorption. It is typically applied in a dental office as a part of professional dental care.

Phenylmethylsulfonyl Fluoride (PMSF) is not a medication or a treatment, but it is a chemical compound with the formula C8H9FO3S. It is commonly used in biochemistry and molecular biology research as a serine protease inhibitor.

Proteases are enzymes that break down other proteins by cleaving specific peptide bonds. Serine proteases are a class of proteases that use a serine residue in their active site to carry out the hydrolysis reaction. PMSF works by irreversibly modifying this serine residue, inhibiting the enzyme's activity.

PMSF is used in laboratory settings to prevent protein degradation during experiments such as protein purification or Western blotting. It is important to note that PMSF is highly toxic and must be handled with care, using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and safety measures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "toothpastes" is the plural form of "toothpaste," which is not a medical condition or procedure that requires a definition. However, I can provide you with some information about toothpaste.

Toothpaste is a dental hygiene product used to clean and maintain the health of teeth and gums. It generally contains mild abrasives, flavoring, and fluoride to help remove plaque, prevent tooth decay, and freshen breath. There are various types of toothpastes available on the market, including those formulated for sensitive teeth, whitening, gum health, and tartar control. It is essential to choose a toothpaste that meets your specific dental needs and has the American Dental Association (ADA) Seal of Acceptance, ensuring its safety and effectiveness.

Fluoridation is the process of adding fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay. The level of fluoride that is typically added to the water is regulated and maintained at around 0.7-1.2 parts per million (ppm), which has been shown to be effective in reducing dental caries while minimizing the risk of fluorosis, a cosmetic condition caused by excessive fluoride intake during tooth development.

Fluoridation can also refer to the process of applying fluoride to the teeth through other means, such as topical fluoride applications in dental offices or the use of fluoride toothpaste. However, community water fluoridation is the most common and cost-effective method of delivering fluoride to a large population.

The practice of water fluoridation has been endorsed by numerous public health organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the American Dental Association (ADA). Despite some controversy surrounding the practice, extensive research has consistently shown that community water fluoridation is a safe and effective way to prevent tooth decay and improve oral health.

Ion-Selective Electrodes (ISEs) are a type of chemical sensor that measure the activity of specific ions in a solution. They work by converting the chemical response into an electrical signal, which can then be measured and analyzed. The electrode is coated with a membrane that is selectively permeable to a particular ion, allowing for the detection and measurement of that specific ion in the presence of other ions.

ISEs are widely used in various fields such as clinical chemistry, biomedical research, environmental monitoring, and industrial process control. In medical diagnostics, ISEs are commonly used to measure the levels of ions such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium in biological samples like blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid.

The response of an ISE is based on Nernst's equation, which relates the electrical potential across the membrane to the activity of the ion being measured. The selectivity of the electrode for a particular ion is determined by the type of membrane used, and the choice of membrane depends on the application and the specific ions to be measured.

Overall, Ion-Selective Electrodes are important tools in medical diagnostics and research, providing accurate and reliable measurements of ion activity in biological systems.

Dentifrices are substances used in dental care for cleaning and polishing the teeth, and often include toothpastes, tooth powders, and gels. They typically contain a variety of ingredients such as abrasives, fluorides, humectants, detergents, flavorings, and sometimes medicaments like antimicrobial agents or desensitizing compounds. The primary purpose of dentifrices is to help remove dental plaque, food debris, and stains from the teeth, promoting oral hygiene and preventing dental diseases such as caries (cavities) and periodontal disease.

Tooth demineralization is a process that involves the loss of minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, from the hard tissues of the teeth. This process can lead to the development of dental caries or tooth decay. Demineralization occurs when acids produced by bacteria in the mouth attack the enamel of the tooth, dissolving its mineral content. Over time, these attacks can create holes or cavities in the teeth. Fluoride, found in many toothpastes and public water supplies, can help to remineralize teeth and prevent decay. Good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing regularly, can also help to prevent demineralization by removing plaque and bacteria from the mouth.

Tooth remineralization is a natural process by which minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, are redeposited into the microscopic pores (hydroxyapatite crystals) in the enamel of a tooth. This process can help to repair early decay and strengthen the teeth. It occurs when the mouth's pH is neutral or slightly alkaline, which allows the minerals in our saliva, fluoride from toothpaste or other sources, and calcium and phosphate ions from foods to be absorbed into the enamel. Remineralization can be promoted through good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing with a fluoride toothpaste, flossing, and eating a balanced diet that includes foods rich in calcium and phosphate.

A mouthwash is an antiseptic or therapeutic solution that is held in the mouth and then spit out, rather than swallowed. It is used to improve oral hygiene, to freshen breath, and to help prevent dental cavities, gingivitis, and other periodontal diseases.

Mouthwashes can contain a variety of ingredients, including water, alcohol, fluoride, chlorhexidine, essential oils, and other antimicrobial agents. Some mouthwashes are available over-the-counter, while others require a prescription. It is important to follow the instructions for use provided by the manufacturer or your dentist to ensure the safe and effective use of mouthwash.

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities, refers to the damage or breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) due to the activity of acid-producing bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars from food and drinks, producing acids that dissolve and weaken the tooth structure, leading to cavities.

The process of dental caries development involves several stages:

1. Demineralization: The acidic environment created by bacterial activity causes minerals (calcium and phosphate) to be lost from the tooth surface, making it weaker and more susceptible to decay.
2. Formation of a white spot lesion: As demineralization progresses, a chalky white area appears on the tooth surface, indicating early caries development.
3. Cavity formation: If left untreated, the demineralization process continues, leading to the breakdown and loss of tooth structure, resulting in a cavity or hole in the tooth.
4. Infection and pulp involvement: As the decay progresses deeper into the tooth, it can reach the dental pulp (the soft tissue containing nerves and blood vessels), causing infection, inflammation, and potentially leading to toothache, abscess, or even tooth loss.

Preventing dental caries involves maintaining good oral hygiene, reducing sugar intake, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and having regular dental check-ups and cleanings. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent further progression and more severe complications.

Aluminum compounds refer to chemical substances that are formed by the combination of aluminum with other elements. Aluminum is a naturally occurring metallic element, and it can combine with various non-metallic elements to form compounds with unique properties and uses. Some common aluminum compounds include:

1. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3): Also known as alumina, this compound is formed when aluminum combines with oxygen. It is a white, odorless powder that is highly resistant to heat and corrosion. Aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications, including ceramics, abrasives, and refractories.
2. Aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with sulfuric acid. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water. Aluminum sulfate is used as a flocculant in water treatment, as well as in the manufacture of paper and textiles.
3. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with chlorine. It is a white or yellowish-white solid that is highly deliquescent, meaning it readily absorbs moisture from the air. Aluminum chloride is used as a catalyst in chemical reactions, as well as in the production of various industrial chemicals.
4. Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with hydroxide ions. It is a white, powdery substance that is amphoteric, meaning it can react with both acids and bases. Aluminum hydroxide is used as an antacid and as a fire retardant.
5. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when zinc oxide is combined with aluminum hydroxide. It is a white, powdery substance that is used as a filler in rubber and plastics, as well as in the manufacture of paints and coatings.

It's important to note that some aluminum compounds have been linked to health concerns, particularly when they are inhaled or ingested in large quantities. For example, aluminum chloride has been shown to be toxic to animals at high doses, while aluminum hydroxide has been associated with neurological disorders in some studies. However, the risks associated with exposure to these compounds are generally low, and they are considered safe for most industrial and consumer uses when used as directed.

Dental enamel is the hard, white, outermost layer of a tooth. It is a highly mineralized and avascular tissue, meaning it contains no living cells or blood vessels. Enamel is primarily composed of calcium and phosphate minerals and serves as the protective covering for the crown of a tooth, which is the portion visible above the gum line.

Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, and its primary function is to provide structural support and protection to the underlying dentin and pulp tissues of the tooth. It also plays a crucial role in chewing and biting by helping to distribute forces evenly across the tooth surface during these activities.

Despite its hardness, dental enamel can still be susceptible to damage from factors such as tooth decay, erosion, and abrasion. Once damaged or lost, enamel cannot regenerate or repair itself, making it essential to maintain good oral hygiene practices and seek regular dental checkups to prevent enamel damage and protect overall oral health.

Hydrofluoric acid is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical one. However, it's important for medical professionals to be aware of its potential hazards and health effects.

Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a highly corrosive and toxic liquid, which is colorless or slightly yellowish. It is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is used in various industries for etching glass, cleaning metal surfaces, manufacturing semiconductors, and in chemical research.

In terms of health effects, exposure to HF can cause severe burns and tissue damage. Even at very low concentrations, it can cause pain and irritation to the skin and eyes. Inhalation can lead to respiratory irritation, coughing, and choking. If ingested, it can be fatal due to its ability to cause deep burns in the gastrointestinal tract and potentially lead to systemic fluoride toxicity. Delayed medical attention can result in serious complications, including damage to bones and nerves.

Toothbrushing is the act of cleaning teeth and gums using a toothbrush to remove plaque, food debris, and dental calculus (tartar) from the surfaces of the teeth and gums. It is typically performed using a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste, with gentle circular or back-and-forth motions along the gumline and on all surfaces of the teeth. Toothbrushing should be done at least twice a day, preferably after every meal and before bedtime, for two minutes each time, to maintain good oral hygiene and prevent dental diseases such as tooth decay and gum disease. It is also recommended to brush the tongue to remove bacteria and freshen breath.

Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are a type of dental restorative material that have the ability to chemically bond to tooth structure. They are composed of a mixture of silicate glass powder and an organic acid, such as polyacrylic acid. GICs have several clinical applications in dentistry, including as a filling material for small to moderate sized cavities, as a liner or base under other restorative materials, and as a cement for securing crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

GICs are known for their biocompatibility, caries inhibition, and adhesion to tooth structure. They also have the ability to release fluoride ions, which can help protect against future decay. However, they are not as strong or wear-resistant as some other dental restorative materials, such as amalgam or composite resin, so they may not be suitable for use in high-load bearing restorations.

GICs can be classified into two main types: conventional and resin-modified. Conventional GICs have a longer setting time and are more prone to moisture sensitivity during placement, while resin-modified GICs contain additional methacrylate monomers that improve their handling properties and shorten their setting time. However, the addition of these monomers may also reduce their fluoride release capacity.

Overall, glass ionomer cements are a valuable dental restorative material due to their unique combination of adhesion, biocompatibility, and caries inhibition properties.

Compomers are a type of dental restorative material that contain both glass ionomer and composite resin components. They are designed to combine the advantages of both materials, such as the fluoride release and adhesion to tooth structure of glass ionomers, and the strength and esthetics of composite resins. Compomers are often used for restoring primary teeth in children due to their ease of use and reduced sensitivity compared to traditional composite resins. However, they may not be as durable or wear-resistant as other restorative materials, so their use is generally limited to small to moderate-sized cavities.

Beryllium is a chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a steel-gray, hard, brittle alkaline earth metal that is difficult to fabricate because of its high reactivity and toxicity. Beryllium is primarily used as a hardening agent in alloys, such as beryllium copper, and as a moderator and reflector in nuclear reactors due to its ability to efficiently slow down neutrons.

In the medical field, beryllium is most well-known for its potential to cause a chronic allergic lung disease called berylliosis. This condition can occur after prolonged exposure to beryllium-containing dusts or fumes, and can lead to symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can cause scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, leading to respiratory failure.

Healthcare professionals should take appropriate precautions when handling beryllium-containing materials, including using protective equipment and following proper disposal procedures to minimize exposure.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

Dental enamel solubility refers to the degree to which the mineral crystals that make up dental enamel can be dissolved or eroded by acidic substances. Dental enamel is the hard, outermost layer of a tooth that helps protect it from damage. It is primarily made up of minerals, including hydroxyapatite, which can dissolve in an acidic environment.

When the pH in the mouth drops below 5.5, the oral environment becomes acidic and dental enamel begins to demineralize or lose its mineral content. This process is known as dental caries or tooth decay. Over time, if left untreated, dental caries can lead to cavities, tooth sensitivity, and even tooth loss.

Certain factors can increase the solubility of dental enamel, including a diet high in sugar and starch, poor oral hygiene, and the presence of certain bacteria in the mouth that produce acid as a byproduct of their metabolism. On the other hand, fluoride exposure can help to reduce dental enamel solubility by promoting remineralization and making the enamel more resistant to acid attack.

Fluorine is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element that is often discussed in the context of dental health. Here's a brief scientific/chemical definition:

Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the most reactive and electronegative of all elements. Fluorine is never found in its free state in nature, but it is abundant in minerals such as fluorspar (calcium fluoride).

In dental health, fluoride, which is a compound containing fluorine, is used to help prevent tooth decay. It can be found in many water supplies, some foods, and various dental products like toothpaste and mouthwash. Fluoride works by strengthening the enamel on teeth, making them more resistant to acid attacks that can lead to cavities.

Artificial saliva is a synthetic solution that mimics the chemical composition and properties of natural saliva. It is often used for patients with dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by conditions such as Sjögren's syndrome, radiation therapy, or certain medications that reduce saliva production. Artificial saliva may contain ingredients like carboxymethylcellulose, mucin, and electrolytes to provide lubrication, moisture, and pH buffering capacity similar to natural saliva. It can help alleviate symptoms associated with dry mouth, such as difficulty speaking, swallowing, and chewing, as well as protect oral tissues from irritation and infection.

Synthetic resins are artificially produced substances that have properties similar to natural resins. They are typically created through polymerization, a process in which small molecules called monomers chemically bind together to form larger, more complex structures known as polymers.

Synthetic resins can be classified into several categories based on their chemical composition and properties, including:

1. Thermosetting resins: These resins undergo a chemical reaction when heated, resulting in a rigid and infusible material that cannot be melted or reformed once it has cured. Examples include epoxy, phenolic, and unsaturated polyester resins.

2. Thermoplastic resins: These resins can be repeatedly softened and hardened by heating and cooling without undergoing any significant chemical changes. Examples include polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene.

3. Elastomeric resins: These resins have the ability to stretch and return to their original shape when released, making them ideal for use in applications that require flexibility and durability. Examples include natural rubber, silicone rubber, and polyurethane.

Synthetic resins are widely used in various industries, including construction, automotive, electronics, and healthcare. In the medical field, they may be used to create dental restorations, medical devices, and drug delivery systems, among other applications.

Dentin sensitivity is a common dental condition characterized by the short, sharp pain or discomfort in response to external stimuli, such as cold air, hot or cold foods and drinks, sweet or sour substances, and physical touch. This pain is typically caused by the exposure of dentin, the hard tissue beneath the tooth's enamel, due to receding gums, tooth decay, or other factors that wear down or damage the protective enamel layer.

When the dentin is exposed, the microscopic tubules within it become sensitive to temperature and pressure changes, allowing external stimuli to reach the nerve endings inside the tooth. This results in the characteristic pain or discomfort associated with dentin sensitivity. Dentin sensitivity can be managed through various treatments, including desensitizing toothpaste, fluoride applications, and dental restorations, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

Potassium compounds refer to substances that contain the element potassium (chemical symbol: K) combined with one or more other elements. Potassium is an alkali metal that has the atomic number 19 and is highly reactive, so it is never found in its free form in nature. Instead, it is always found combined with other elements in the form of potassium compounds.

Potassium compounds can be ionic or covalent, depending on the properties of the other element(s) with which it is combined. In general, potassium forms ionic compounds with nonmetals and covalent compounds with other metals. Ionic potassium compounds are formed when potassium donates one electron to a nonmetal, forming a positively charged potassium ion (K+) and a negatively charged nonmetal ion.

Potassium compounds have many important uses in medicine, industry, and agriculture. For example, potassium chloride is used as a salt substitute and to treat or prevent low potassium levels in the blood. Potassium citrate is used to treat kidney stones and to alkalinize urine. Potassium iodide is used to treat thyroid disorders and to protect the thyroid gland from radioactive iodine during medical imaging procedures.

It's important to note that some potassium compounds can be toxic or even fatal if ingested in large quantities, so they should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Pit and fissure sealants are a preventive dental treatment that involves the application of a thin, plastic coating to the chewing surfaces of teeth, usually the molars and premolars. The goal of this treatment is to protect the pits and fissures, which are the grooves and depressions on the chewing surfaces of teeth, from decay.

The sealant material flows into the pits and fissures, creating a smooth, protective barrier that prevents food and bacteria from becoming trapped in these areas and causing cavities. The procedure is typically quick, painless, and non-invasive, and can be performed during a routine dental checkup. Sealants are most commonly recommended for children and adolescents, but they may also be appropriate for adults who are at high risk of tooth decay.

Tooth calcification, also known as dental calculus or tartar formation, refers to the hardening of plaque on the surface of teeth. This process occurs when minerals from saliva combine with bacterial deposits and dental plaque, resulting in a hard, calcified substance that adheres to the tooth surface. Calcification can occur both above and below the gum line, and if not removed through professional dental cleanings, it can lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay, and other oral health issues.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to consume and meets the health-based standards established by regulatory agencies for human consumption. It is free from harmful levels of contaminants, including microorganisms, chemicals, radiological elements, and aesthetic factors such as taste, odor, and appearance.

Drinking water can come from various sources, including surface water (e.g., rivers, lakes), groundwater (e.g., wells), and treated wastewater that has undergone advanced purification processes. The treatment of drinking water typically involves several steps, such as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection, to remove or inactivate pathogens and other contaminants.

Access to safe drinking water is essential for human health, as it helps prevent various waterborne diseases and ensures proper hydration. Regular monitoring and testing of drinking water sources and distribution systems are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of the water supply.

Methoxyflurane is a sweet-smelling, volatile liquid that is used as an inhalational general anesthetic agent. It is chemically described as 2,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoro-1-methoxyethane. Methoxyflurane is a fluorinated hydrocarbon with low blood/gas solubility, which allows for rapid induction and emergence from anesthesia. It has been used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in both adults and children. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about nephrotoxicity associated with high concentrations or prolonged exposure.

Dentin desensitizing agents are chemical substances or materials applied to the teeth to reduce sensitivity in the dental tissues, specifically in the dentin. Dentin is a calcified tissue that lies beneath the tooth's enamel and cementum. It has numerous microscopic tubules that, when exposed due to various factors like gum recession, tooth wear, or dental procedures, can lead to hypersensitivity.

Dentin desensitizing agents work by occluding these dentinal tubules, thus preventing the stimuli (like cold, heat, or touch) from reaching the nerve endings inside the pulp chamber. These agents may contain various active ingredients like fluorides, strontium salts, calcium sodium phosphosilicate, potassium nitrate, arginine, and oxalates. They can be found in different forms, such as toothpaste, gels, varnishes, or bonding agents, and are often used in dental treatments and at-home oral care to alleviate dentinal hypersensitivity.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Tooth erosion is defined as the progressive, irreversible loss of dental hard tissue, primarily caused by chemical dissolution from acids, rather than mechanical forces such as abrasion or attrition. These acids can originate from extrinsic sources like acidic foods and beverages, or intrinsic sources like gastric reflux or vomiting. The erosion process leads to a reduction in tooth structure, altering the shape and function of teeth, and potentially causing sensitivity, pain, and aesthetical concerns. Early detection and management of tooth erosion are crucial to prevent further progression and preserve dental health.

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, primarily consisting of fluorapatite, chlorapatite, and hydroxylapatite. They are important constituents of rocks and bones, and they have a wide range of applications in various industries. In the context of medicine, apatites are most notable for their presence in human teeth and bones.

Hydroxylapatite is the primary mineral component of tooth enamel, making up about 97% of its weight. It provides strength and hardness to the enamel, enabling it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. Fluorapatite, a related mineral that contains fluoride ions instead of hydroxyl ions, is also present in tooth enamel and helps to protect it from acid erosion caused by bacteria and dietary acids.

Chlorapatite has limited medical relevance but can be found in some pathological calcifications in the body.

In addition to their natural occurrence in teeth and bones, apatites have been synthesized for various medical applications, such as bone graft substitutes, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering scaffolds. These synthetic apatites are biocompatible and can promote bone growth and regeneration, making them useful in dental and orthopedic procedures.

Dental devices for home care are products designed for use by individuals or their caregivers in a home setting to maintain oral hygiene, manage dental health issues, and promote overall oral health. These devices can include:

1. Toothbrushes: Manual, electric, or battery-operated toothbrushes used to clean teeth and remove plaque and food debris.
2. Dental floss: A thin string used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
3. Interdental brushes: Small brushes designed to clean between the teeth and around dental appliances, such as braces or implants.
4. Water flossers/oral irrigators: Devices that use a stream of water to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
5. Tongue scrapers: Tools used to clean the tongue's surface, removing bacteria and reducing bad breath.
6. Rubber tips/gum stimulators: Devices used to massage and stimulate the gums, promoting blood circulation and helping to maintain gum health.
7. Dental picks/sticks: Pointed tools used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
8. Mouthguards: Protective devices worn over the teeth to prevent damage from grinding, clenching, or sports-related injuries.
9. Night guards: Similar to mouthguards, these are designed to protect the teeth from damage caused by nighttime teeth grinding (bruxism).
10. Dental retainers: Devices used to maintain the alignment of teeth after orthodontic treatment.
11. Whitening trays and strips: At-home products used to whiten teeth by applying a bleaching agent to the tooth surface.
12. Fluoride mouth rinses: Anticavity rinses containing fluoride, which help strengthen tooth enamel and prevent decay.
13. Oral pain relievers: Topical gels or creams used to alleviate oral pain, such as canker sores or denture irritation.

Proper use of these dental devices, along with regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings, can help maintain good oral health and prevent dental issues.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

Amelogenesis is the biological process of forming enamel, which is the hard and highly mineralized outer layer of teeth. Enamel is primarily made up of calcium and phosphate minerals and is the toughest substance in the human body. Amelogenesis involves the synthesis, secretion, and maturation of enamel proteins by specialized cells called ameloblasts.

The medical definition of 'Amelogenesis' refers to a genetic disorder that affects the development and formation of tooth enamel. This condition is also known as Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) and can result in teeth that are discolored, sensitive, and prone to decay. There are several types of Amelogenesis Imperfecta, each with its own set of symptoms and genetic causes.

In summary, 'Amelogenesis' is the biological process of enamel formation, while 'Amelogenesis Imperfecta' is a genetic disorder that affects this process, leading to abnormal tooth enamel development.

Microradiography is a radiographic technique that uses X-rays to produce detailed images of small specimens, such as microscopic slides or individual cells. In this process, the specimen is placed in close contact with a high-resolution photographic emulsion, and then exposed to X-rays. The resulting image shows the distribution of radiopaque materials within the specimen, providing information about its internal structure and composition at a microscopic level.

Microradiography can be used for various applications in medical research and diagnosis, including the study of bone and tooth microstructure, the analysis of tissue pathology, and the examination of mineralized tissues such as calcifications or osteogenic lesions. The technique offers high resolution and contrast, making it a valuable tool for researchers and clinicians seeking to understand the complex structures and processes that occur at the microscopic level in living organisms.

Aluminum silicates are a type of mineral compound that consist of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen in their chemical structure. They are often found in nature and can be categorized into several groups, including kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and bentonite. These minerals have various industrial and commercial uses, including as fillers and extenders in products like paper, paint, and rubber. In the medical field, certain types of aluminum silicates (like bentonite) have been used in some medicinal and therapeutic applications, such as detoxification and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that the use of these minerals in medical treatments is not widely accepted or supported by extensive scientific evidence.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate (BPAGM) is a type of chemical compound that belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glycidyl methacrylates. It is created by the reaction between bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate.

BPAGM is used in various industrial applications, including the production of coatings, adhesives, and resins. In the medical field, it has been used as a component in some dental materials, such as bonding agents and composite resins. However, due to concerns about its potential health effects, including its possible estrogenic activity and potential to cause reproductive toxicity, its use in dental materials has become more restricted in recent years.

It is important to note that exposure to BPAGM should be limited as much as possible, and appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling this chemical compound.

Corrosion is a process of deterioration or damage to a material, usually a metal, caused by chemical reactions with its environment. In the medical context, corrosion may refer to the breakdown and destruction of living tissue due to exposure to harsh substances or environmental conditions. This can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skin, mouth, or gastrointestinal tract, and can be caused by factors like acid reflux, infection, or exposure to chemicals.

In the case of medical devices made of metal, corrosion can also refer to the degradation of the device due to chemical reactions with bodily fluids or tissues. This can compromise the function and safety of the device, potentially leading to complications or failure. Therefore, understanding and preventing corrosion is an important consideration in the design and use of medical devices made of metal.

Osteosclerosis is a medical term that refers to an abnormal thickening and increased density of bone tissue. This condition can occur as a result of various diseases or conditions, such as certain types of bone cancer, Paget's disease of bone, fluoride poisoning, or chronic infection of the bone. Osteosclerosis can also be seen in some benign conditions, such as osteopetrosis, which is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an excessively hard and dense skeleton.

In some cases, osteosclerosis may not cause any symptoms and may only be discovered on X-rays or other imaging studies. However, in other cases, it can lead to complications such as bone pain, fractures, or deformities. Treatment for osteosclerosis depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications, surgery, or other therapies.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for "DMF Index." The abbreviation "DMF" could potentially stand for many things, as it is used in various contexts across different fields. In the field of dentistry, DMF stands for Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth/surfaces, which is a method for measuring dental caries or tooth decay. However, there is no standard medical definition for "DMF Index." If you could provide more context or specify the field of study or practice, I would be happy to help further!

A hardness test is a quantitative measure of a material's resistance to deformation, typically defined as the penetration of an indenter with a specific shape and load into the surface of the material being tested. There are several types of hardness tests, including Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell, and Knoop, each with their own specific methods and applications. The resulting hardness value is used to evaluate the material's properties, such as wear resistance, durability, and suitability for various industrial or manufacturing processes. Hardness tests are widely used in materials science, engineering, and quality control to ensure the consistency and reliability of materials and components.

Periostitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the periosteum, which is the highly vascularized tissue that covers the outer surface of bones. The periosteum contains nerves and blood vessels that supply the bone and assist in bone repair and remodeling. Periostitis can occur as a result of various factors such as repetitive trauma, infection, or inflammatory diseases, leading to pain, swelling, and tenderness in the affected area. In some cases, periostitis may also lead to the formation of new bone tissue, resulting in bony outgrowths known as exostoses.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

In the context of medical terminology, "hardness" is not a term that has a specific or standardized definition. It may be used in various ways to describe the firmness or consistency of a tissue, such as the hardness of an artery or tumor, but it does not have a single authoritative medical definition.

In some cases, healthcare professionals may use subjective terms like "hard," "firm," or "soft" to describe their tactile perception during a physical examination. For example, they might describe the hardness of an enlarged liver or spleen by comparing it to the feel of their knuckles when gently pressed against the abdomen.

However, in other contexts, healthcare professionals may use more objective measures of tissue stiffness or elasticity, such as palpation durometry or shear wave elastography, which provide quantitative assessments of tissue hardness. These techniques can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect the mechanical properties of tissues, such as liver fibrosis or cancer.

Therefore, while "hardness" may be a term used in medical contexts to describe certain physical characteristics of tissues, it does not have a single, universally accepted definition.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

Fluorine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the chemical element Fluorine (F, atomic number 9). These radioisotopes have an unstable nucleus that emits radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. Examples of Fluorine radioisotopes include Fluorine-18 and Fluorine-19.

Fluorine-18 is a positron-emitting radionuclide with a half-life of approximately 110 minutes, making it useful for medical imaging techniques such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans. It is commonly used in the production of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a radiopharmaceutical that can be used to detect cancer and other metabolic disorders.

Fluorine-19, on the other hand, is a stable isotope of Fluorine and does not emit radiation. However, it can be enriched and used as a non-radioactive tracer in medical research and diagnostic applications.

Ameloblasts are the specialized epithelial cells that are responsible for the formation of enamel, which is the hard, outermost layer of a tooth. These cells are a part of the dental lamina and are present in the developing tooth's crown region. They align themselves along the surface of the developing tooth and secrete enamel proteins and minerals to form the enamel rods and interrod enamel. Once the enamel formation is complete, ameloblasts undergo programmed cell death, leaving behind the hard, mineralized enamel matrix. Any damage or abnormality in the functioning of ameloblasts can lead to developmental defects in the enamel, such as hypoplasia or hypocalcification, which may affect the tooth's structure and function.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Look up floride in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Floride may refer to: Floride is the French name for Florida and may be ... Floride française) Other uses: An uncommon female given name - see e.g. Floride Calhoun A misspelling for "fluoride" A typeface ... used in Francophone references to the state: Floride (film) Renault Floride, a sports car French Florida (French: ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Floride. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
At physiological pHs, hydrogen fluoride is usually fully ionised to fluoride. In biochemistry, fluoride and hydrogen fluoride ... Fluoride is the simplest fluorine anion. In terms of charge and size, the fluoride ion resembles the hydroxide ion. Fluoride ... Fluorides include compounds that contain ionic fluoride and those in which fluoride does not dissociate. The nomenclature does ... Fluoride is also used non-systematically, to describe compounds which release fluoride upon dissolving. Hydrogen fluoride is ...
Fluoride-containing toothpaste can be classified into two types, namely low-fluoride and high-fluoride toothpaste. Low-fluoride ... These fluorides are often manufactured in the form of sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, or sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP). ... Fluoride ions readily combine with hydrogen cations to produce hydrogen fluoride. Hydrogen fluoride subsequently acidifies the ... Common active ingredients include sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, silver diamine fluoride. These ingredients account for ...
... or when a person ingests both a fluoride source (e.g., fluoride in drinking water or residue of fluoride-based pesticides) and ... Together with zirconium fluoride, aluminium fluoride is an ingredient for the production of fluoroaluminate glasses. It is also ... Many of the neurotoxic effects of fluoride are due to the formation of aluminium fluoride complexes, which mimic the chemical ... ISBN 978-0-309-10128-8. TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR FLUORIDES, HYDROGEN FLUORIDE, AND FLUORINE (PDF). U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...
... mercurous fluoride), Hg2F2 Mercury(II) fluoride (mercury difluoride, mercuric fluoride), HgF2 Mercury(IV) fluoride (mercury ... fluoride. Crystal structure of mercury(II) fluoride. Molecular structure of mercury(IV) fluoride. This set index article lists ... Mercury fluoride can refer to: Mercury(I) fluoride (dimercury difluoride, mercury monofluoride, ... tetrafluoride, permercuric fluoride), HgF4 Mercury fluorides Molecular structure of mercury(I) ...
... is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring substituted with a fluoromethyl group. Benzyl chloride ...
... may refer to: Tungsten tetrafluoride (tungsten(IV) fluoride) Tungsten pentafluoride (tungsten(V) fluoride) ... Tungsten hexafluoride (tungsten(VI) fluoride) This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same ...
... may refer to either of the following: Arsenic trifluoride, AsF3, a colorless liquid Arsenic pentafluoride, ...
... is the name of a series of binary compounds of palladium and fluorine. These include: Palladium(II) fluoride ... fluoride, or palladium tetrafluoride, PdF4 Palladium(VI) fluoride, or palladium hexafluoride, PdF6, which is calculated to be ... Grushin, V. V. (2002). "Palladium Fluoride Complexes: One More Step toward Metal-Mediated C-F Bond Formation". Chem. Eur. J. 8 ... It is not palladium(III) fluoride (which is unknown), and is often described as palladium(II) hexafluoropalladate(IV), PdII[ ...
... s are mixed anion compounds that contain both fluoride ions and nitrate ions. Compounds are known for some ... a selenite fluoride nitrate with a breathing kagomé lattice". Chemical Communications. 56 (80): 11965-11968. doi:10.1039/ ... "Unveiling the Zirconium and Hafnium Speciation in Fluoride‐Nitric Acid Solutions by Paper Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry ... SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURE OF A NEW SILLéN-DERIVED FLUORIDE NITRATE, BAPB2F5NO3". Jouffret, Laurent J.; Hiltbrunner, Jean-Michel; ...
H2O Perbromyl fluoride forms a colorless gas that is stable in the absence of moisture. Perbromyl fluoride reacts with water: ... Perbromyl fluoride is an inorganic compound of bromine, fluorine, and oxygen with the chemical formula BrO3F. Synthesis if ... "Perbromyl fluoride". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 91 (16): 4561-4562. doi:10.1021/ja01044a049. ISSN 0002-7863. ... BrO3F + H2O → HBrO4 + HF Johnson, Gerald K.; O'Hare, P. A. G.; Appelman, Evan H. (1972). "Perbromyl fluoride". 11 (4). NIST: ...
A tellurite fluoride is a mixed anion compound containing tellurite and fluoride ions. They have also been called ... Comparable compounds are sulfite fluorides or selenite fluorides. Laval, J.P.; Guillet, L.; Frit, B. (April 2002). "KTe3O6F: a ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Fluorides, Tellurites, Mixed anion compounds). ...
... may refer to: Europium(II) fluoride (europium difluoride), EuF2 Europium(III) fluoride (europium trifluoride ...
... is an inorganic compound, a salt of technetium and hydrofluoric acid with the chemical formula TcO 3F. ... Schmidbaur, Hubert; Schwarz, W. H. Eugen (21 April 2021). "Permanganyl Fluoride: A Brief History of the Molecule MnO 3 F and of ... Selig, H.; Malm, J. G. (1 April 1963). "The preparation and properties of pertechnetyl fluoride, TcO3F". Journal of Inorganic ... Supeł, Joanna; Abram, Ulrich; Hagenbach, Adelheid; Seppelt, Konrad (1 July 2007). "Technetium Fluoride Trioxide, TcO 3 F, ...
This colorless liquid is prepared by reaction of sodium fluoride with oxalyl chloride. Oxalyl fluoride is being investigated ... "Synthesis of Fluorides by Metathesis with Sodium Fluoride". J. Org. Chem. 25 (11): 2016-2019. doi:10.1021/jo01081a050. Method ... Oxalyl fluoride is the organofluorine compound with the formula (COF)2. It is a fluorinated derivative of oxalic acid. ... "Evaluation of Oxalyl Fluoride for a Dielectric Etch Application in an Inductively Coupled Plasma Etch Tool". J. Electrochem. ...
... may refer to any of these compounds: Tellurium tetrafluoride, TeF4 Tellurium hexafluoride, TeF6 Ditellurium ... decafluoride, Te2F10 This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Tellurium fluoride. If an internal link ...
... may refer to any of the following: Phosphorus trifluoride, PF3 Phosphorus pentafluoride, PF5 Diphosphorus ...
... (FCN) is a toxic colorless gas. The linear molecule has a molecular mass of 45.015 gmol−1. Cyanogen fluoride ... Cyanogen fluoride (FCN), is synthesized by the pyrolysis of cyanuric fluoride (C3N3F3) at 1300 °C and 50mm pressure; this ... With carbonyl fluoride and carbon tetrafluoride, FCN was obtained by passing these fluorides through the arc flame and ... Cyanogen fluoride is a very volatile fumigant, disinfectant and animal pest killer. "Cyanogen fluoride - Compound Summary". ...
... can refer to Titanium(III) fluoride (titanium trifluoride, TiF3), a violet to purple-red solid Titanium(IV) ... fluoride (titanium tetrafluoride, TiF4), a white hygroscopic solid with polymeric structure This set index article lists ...
The iodate fluorides are chemical compounds which contain both iodate and fluoride anions (IO3− and F−). In these compounds ... Iodate fluorides are under investigation for the non-linear optical properties. The lack of symmetry is enhanced by the lone ... Chen, Jin; Hu, Chun-Li; Mao, Jiang-Gao (2021-02-01). "LiGaF2(IO3)2: A mixed-metal gallium iodate-fluoride with large ... Gai, Minqiang; Wang, Ying; Tong, Tinghao; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie (2020-04-06). "ZnIO 3 F: Zinc Iodate Fluoride with Large ...
2 HF Carbonyl fluoride can also be prepared by reaction of phosgene with hydrogen fluoride and the fluorination of carbon ... 2.70 mg of carbonyl fluoride per 1 m3 of air. "Carbonyl Fluoride". NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. CDC Centers for ... hydrolyzing to carbon dioxide and hydrogen fluoride: COF2 + H2O → CO2 + 2 HF Carbonyl fluoride is very toxic with a recommended ... Carbonyl fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula COF2. It is a carbon oxohalide. This gas, like its analog phosgene, ...
The identity of fluoride as the riboswitch ligand was accidentally discovered when a compound contaminated with fluoride caused ... These "fluoride riboswitches" increase expression of downstream genes when fluoride levels are elevated, and the genes are ... Upon binding fluoride ions, the fluoride riboswitch showed regulation of downstream gene transcription. These downstream genes ... The CLCF proteins have been shown to function as fluoride transporters against fluoride toxicity. The ericF gene is a mutant ...
Scandium(III) fluoride, ScF3, is an ionic compound. This salt is slightly soluble in water but dissolves in the presence of ... This phenomenon is explained by the quartic oscillation of the fluoride ions. The energy stored in the bending strain of the ... 3 H2O The resulting mixture contains a number of metal fluorides and this is reduced by reaction with calcium metal at high ... Fluorides, Metal halides, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
A selenite fluoride is a chemical compound or salt that contains fluoride and selenite anions (F− and SeO2− 3). These are mixed ... Rare earth selenite fluorides can be produced by dissolving the rare earth selenate into molten lithium fluoride at over 800°C ... Similar compounds by varying the chalcogen also include the sulfite fluorides and tellurite fluorides. SHG=second harmonic ... A selenite fluoride compound may also be called a fluoride oxoselenate(IV) using IUPAC naming for inorganic compounds. ...
Nitrogen fluorides are compounds of chemical elements nitrogen and fluorine. Many different nitrogen fluorides are known: ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula UO2F2. As shown by x-ray crystallography, the uranyl (UO22+) centers ... A study of the disorder in the crystal structure of anhydrous uranyl fluoride". Acta Crystallographica. 1 (6): 277-281. doi: ... are complemented by six fluoride ligands. This salt is very soluble in water as well as hygroscopic. It is formed in the ...
... argentous fluoride), AgF Silver(II) fluoride (silver difluoride, argentic fluoride), AgF2 Silver(III) fluoride (silver ... Silver fluoride can refer to: Silver subfluoride (disilver monofluoride), Ag2F Silver(I) fluoride (silver monofluoride, ... Crystal structure of silver(I) fluoride. Crystal structure of silver(II) fluoride. This set index article lists chemical ... trifluoride), AgF3 Silver diamine fluoride, a material used to stop dental caries (cavities). Silver fluorides Crystal ...
... can be obtained from the reaction between disulfur dichloride with potassium fluoride at about 150 °C or ... Thiothionyl fluoride is a chemical compound of fluorine and sulfur, with the chemical formula S=SF2. It is an isomer of ... NF3 + 3 S → S=SF2 + NSF It also forms from disulfur difluoride when in contact with alkali metal fluorides. S=SF2 can also be ... 2 S=SF2 → SF4 + 3 S With hydrogen fluoride, it forms sulfur tetrafluoride and hydrogen sulfide. S=SF2 + 2 HF → SF4 + H2S It ...
... may refer to: Cerium(III) fluoride (cerium trifluoride), CeF3 Cerium(IV) fluoride (cerium tetrafluoride), CeF4 ...
... (POSF) is a synthetic perfluorinated compound with a sulfonyl fluoride functional group. It is ... POSF is synthesized by electrochemical fluorination of octanesulfonyl fluoride in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride by the equation: ... Perfluorooctane Sulfonyl Fluoride as an Initiator in Hot-Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition of Fluorocarbon Thin Films (PDF). ( ... less than that for shorter perfluorosulfonyl fluorides. The POSF obtained is impure as it is a mixture of linear and branched ...
Look up floride in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Floride may refer to: Floride is the French name for Florida and may be ... Floride française) Other uses: An uncommon female given name - see e.g. Floride Calhoun A misspelling for "fluoride" A typeface ... used in Francophone references to the state: Floride (film) Renault Floride, a sports car French Florida (French: ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Floride. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
How Fluoride Works. Fluoride in drinking water is taken in by teeth still developing below the gum to help create a strong ... Infographic: Water with Fluoride Builds a Foundation for Healthy Teeth. *Infographic: Water with Fluoride Builds a Foundation ... In children and adults teeth are bathed in fluoride when drinking water, giving teeth the fluoride they need all day long. ... Fluoride in water. 75 years and going strong. At a faucet near you. ...
Low levels of fluorides can help prevent dental cavities. At high levels, fluorides can result in tooth and bone damage. ... Hydrogen fluoride and fluorine are naturally-occurring gases that are very irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract ... How can fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine affect my health?. * How likely are fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine ... What are fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine?. * What happens to fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine when they ...
Fluoride: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking fluoride,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to fluoride, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some ... Fluoride usually is prescribed for children and adults whose homes have water that is not fluoridated (already has fluoride ... Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay. It is taken up by teeth and helps to strengthen teeth, resist acid, and block the ...
Posts about fluoride toxicity written by What Doctors Dont Tell You ... Fluoride found in the water supply, toothpaste, supplements and processed foods can damage the central nervous system, causing ... At least two highly toxic substances are known to severely impair normal thyroid functioning - one is fluoride, the other is ... Researcher Doris Jones has unearthed startling new evidence demonstrating that fluoride interferes with enzyme systems, ...
... J Am Dent Assoc. 1958 Apr;56(4):589-91. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride)plus icon *Facts about Hydrogen Fluoride (Hydrofluoric Acid) ... Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid)plus icon *Facts about Hydrogen Fluoride (Hydrofluoric Acid) ... Case Definition: Sulfuryl Fluoride Poisoning Includes clinical description, lab criteria for diagnosis, & case classification. ...
In the United States, poisoning most commonly follows ingestion (accidental or intentional) of fluoride-containing products. ... Fluoride toxicity is characterized by a variety of signs and symptoms. ... Fluoride inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase, which may lead to hyperkalemia by extracellular release of potassium. Fluoride inhibits ... Once absorbed, fluoride binds calcium ions and may lead to hypocalcemia. Fluoride also has direct cytotoxic effects and ...
All non-gel separator blood collection tubes, including those that contain heparin, EDTA and non-gel serum tubes can be centrifuged at ≤1300 RCF for 10 minutes. The BD Vacutainer SST and PST gel tubes should be spun at room temperature at a speed of 1000 to 1300 RCF for 10 minutes in a swinging bucket centrifuge and 15 minutes in a fixed-angle centrifuge. The BD Vacutainer Barricor plasma blood collection tubes have a mechanical separator and must be spun at a minimum RCF of 1800 for 10 min in a swinging bucket centrifuge. BD Barricor tubes are optimally spun at an RCF of 4000 for 3 min in a swinging bucket centrifuge. BD Barricor tubes are not compatible with fixed angle centrifuges.. ...
Shop Anticavity Fluoride Mouthwash Mint and read reviews at Walgreens. Pickup & Same Day Delivery available on most store items ...
All non-gel separator blood collection tubes, including those that contain heparin, EDTA and non-gel serum tubes can be centrifuged at ≤1300 RCF for 10 minutes. The BD Vacutainer SST and PST gel tubes should be spun at room temperature at a speed of 1000 to 1300 RCF for 10 minutes in a swinging bucket centrifuge and 15 minutes in a fixed-angle centrifuge. The BD Vacutainer Barricor plasma blood collection tubes have a mechanical separator and must be spun at a minimum RCF of 1800 for 10 min in a swinging bucket centrifuge. BD Barricor tubes are optimally spun at an RCF of 4000 for 3 min in a swinging bucket centrifuge. BD Barricor tubes are not compatible with fixed angle centrifuges.. ...
Fluoride is the New Lead; Similar Loss of IQ From Fluoride as From Lead, Reports Environmental Group. NORTH SUTTON, N.H., May 3 ... Trial on Fluoride Drinking Water Science to Start in January. Science about fluorides toxicity to be debated in court Case ... Report on Fluoride and Neurotoxicity Moves Closer to Final Publication. Pro-fluoride lobbyists and regulatory agencies for ... The National Toxicology Programs fluoride report raises concerns about fluorides neurotoxic effects on the brain & IQ. Safety ...
Domestic Company Wins Fluoride Mine Contract. The Afghanistan Chamber of Industry and Mines (ACIM) said that domestic companies ... Welcome to the Fluoride Action Network News Archive. Our news database is categorized by country, state/province, and industry ... A domestic company won the contract for a fluoride mine located in the western province of Badghis. The Ministry of Mines and ... This collection of articles is constantly being updated with the most recent global news on fluoride-related issues and events. ...
After a decade of cavities, will Calgary put fluoride back in its water supply? ...
Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, ... In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF3), was measured in some of the fire tests. ... The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride ( ... This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven ...
... you may not be getting enough fluoride. Find out more about water with fluoride and dental benefits, here. ... The fluoride level in your bottled water, which can vary greatly by brand, If the fluoride content does not appear on the label ... If bottled water is your primary source of drinking water, you may not be getting enough fluoride. While fluoride is added to ... Your dentist may recommend fluoride drops or tablets if he or she feels your child is not receiving adequate levels of fluoride ...
... scientists are reporting new evidence on how the fluoride in drinking water, toothpastes, mouth rinses and other oral-care ... lending credence to other theories about how fluoride works. The report describes new evidence that fluoride also works by ... In an advance toward solving a 50-year-old mystery, scientists are reporting new evidence on how the fluoride in drinking water ... That research established long ago that fluoride helps to harden the enamel coating that protects teeth from the acid produced ...
Fluoride. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Fluoride results for La Jara Water ... Fluoride. La Jara Water Users Association. Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking ... Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can ... Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily ...
An overview of the many ways fluoride is used topically and systemically for individual and public oral health. ... fluoride), as 2% neutral sodium fluoride products (containing 9,000 ppm fluoride), and as gels or foams of sodium fluoride (0.9 ... fluoride (acidulated phosphate fluoride) gel, or a prescription-strength, home-use 0.5% fluoride gel or paste or 0.09% fluoride ... sodium fluoride varnish, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel, and 5,000 parts per million fluoride (1.1% sodium fluoride) ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Sodium Fluoride and Potassium Nitrate. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions ... Sodium Fluoride and Potassium Nitrate. Generic name: Sodium Fluoride and Potassium Nitrate [ SOW-dee-um-FLOR-ide/po-TAS-ee-um- ... Fluoride / potassium nitrate topical side effects (more detail). What are some other side effects of Sodium Fluoride and ... What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Sodium Fluoride and Potassium Nitrate?. *If you are allergic to sodium fluoride ...
The Isle of Man will not have fluoride added to its water supply, following a public consultation exercise across the island. ...
sodium fluoride 2.09 % (fluoride ion 1.23 % ) Dental Gel. SY. 4. 245593. sodium fluoride 2 % (fluoride ion 1.23 % ) Dental Gel ... Gelato APF (sodium fluoride 2.09 % (fluoride ion 1.23 % )) Dental Gel. SY. 9. 656838. Gelato APF (sodium fluoride 2 % (fluoride ... Gelato 2 % (fluoride ion 1.23 % ) Dental Gel. PSN. 6. 656838. sodium fluoride 0.02 MG/MG Oral Gel [Gelato sodium fluoride]. SBD ... SODIUM FLUORIDE (UNII: 8ZYQ1474W7) (FLUORIDE ION - UNII:Q80VPU408O) FLUORIDE ION. 5.6 g in 454 g. ...
... This article needs additional citations for verification.Please help improve this article by adding reliable ... Fluoride in small amount is beneficial to teeth see Fluoride therapy. One of the side effects of fluoride poisoning is gastro- ... In high concentrations, as with almost all substances, soluble fluoride compounds are toxic. 5 grams of pure sodium fluoride ... Fluoride is taken out of circulation by the body and trace amounts bound in bone. Urine tests are a good indication of high ...
FLUoride). Sodium fluoride, a hazardous-waste by-product from the manufacture of aluminum, is a common ingredient in rat and ... dose of fluoride. Kidney disease, by definition, lowers the efficiency of the kidneys, which is your main route of fluoride ... Controversial fluoride is one of the basic ingredients in both PROZAC (FLUoxetene Hydrochloride) and Sarin nerve gas (Isopropyl ... Sodium fluoride is entirely different from organic calcium-fluoro-phosphate needed by our bodies and provided by nature, in ...
... of Health and Human Services and the Environmental Protection Agency re-evaluate how much fluoride is too much fluoride. ... My daughters actually allergic to fluoride, she had a fluoride treatment and broke out in hives, both in her mouth and on her ... Feds Urge Fluoride Levels Be Watered Down By Maureen Cavanaugh / KPBS Midday Edition Co-Host, Megan Burke / News Editor ... Feds Urge Fluoride Levels Be Watered Down. As San Diego waits for water fluoridation, the U.S. Departments of Health and Human ...
General information on fluoride, one of the most plentiful elements on earth, which occurs naturally in water supplies ... Cal Water monitors fluoride levels in the distribution system of all of its affected water systems to report fluoride levels to ... What should I know about fluoride in my water?. Fluoride, one of the most plentiful elements on earth, occurs naturally in ... Dietary Fluoride Supplements. According to DDW, childrens fluoride supplements, whether pills or drops, should be discontinued ...
The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for statistical purposes. The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for anonymous statistical purposes. Without a subpoena, voluntary compliance on the part of your Internet Service Provider, or additional records from a third party, information stored or retrieved for this purpose alone cannot usually be used to identify you. ...
Fluoride must be listed on the label only if the bottler adds fluoride to the water. If the water is naturally fluoridated, it ... Use, instead, fluoride-free brands like Gerber Pure Water. "Distilled water is as close to fluoride-free as you can get," Dr. ... Fluoride Action Network. http://www.fluoridealert.org. For more on fluoride in foods, see the USDA National Fluoride Database ... Filter your water-the right way. The major source of exposure to fluoride is drinking water. To find out if your drinking water ...
  • Fluorides are often added to drinking water supplies and to a variety of dental products, including toothpaste and mouth rinses, to prevent dental cavities. (cdc.gov)
  • 2. Make sure the child is not receiving significant amounts of fluoride from other medications and swallowed toothpaste. (nih.gov)
  • Toothpaste contains 1 mg/g of fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate. (medscape.com)
  • Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. (ewg.org)
  • Fluoride Toothpaste. (ada.org)
  • Fluoride-containing toothpaste is the most commonly used form of self-applied fluoride worldwide. (ada.org)
  • 3 Fluoride in toothpaste is taken up directly by the dental plaque and demineralized enamel and also increases the concentration of fluoride in saliva. (ada.org)
  • 3 Fluoride toothpaste makes up more than 95% of toothpaste sales in the U.S. 2 The American Dental Association recommends use of a fluoride toothpaste displaying the ADA Seal of Acceptance. (ada.org)
  • If you're concerned about cavities in older children, Blank says, stick with topical applications of fluoride from toothpaste or rinses. (spryliving.com)
  • Tim Kropp of the Environmental Working Group, a research organization based in Washington, D.C., says fluoride should be limited to toothpaste. (slweb.org)
  • MOON'S Stain Removal Fluoride-Free Fresh Mint Whitening Gel Toothpaste helps remove stains and give you brighter and whiter teeth. (ulta.com)
  • Toothpaste may contain "stannous fluoride," and municipal water supplies are often fluoridated. (jrank.org)
  • Fluoride toothpaste for anticavity, antigingivitis and sensitive teeth. (safeway.com)
  • Active Ingredients: Stannous Fluoride (0.14% w/v Fluoride Ion) (0.454 %), Anticavity, Antigingivitis, Antisensitivity Toothpaste. (safeway.com)
  • The fluoride in some toothpaste, mouthwash and municipal drinking water is one of the most effective ways to prevent decay. (scienceblog.com)
  • Stannous fluoride (SnF 2 ) has been used in toothpaste for several decades because it's active in preventing dental caries. (dentalproductsreport.com)
  • In the first study, Colgate Total SF was compared to a nonantibacterial fluoride toothpaste control. (dentalproductsreport.com)
  • After six months of regular use, subjects in the Colgate Total SF group showed statistically significant reductions in gingival inflammation and biofilm control compared with nonantibacterial fluoride toothpaste 5 (Fig. 1). (dentalproductsreport.com)
  • The addition of fluoride (fluoridation) to drinking water that is low in fluoride or the use of fluoride toothpaste and supplements significantly reduces the risk of tooth decay. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Fluoride applied to teeth (fluoride varnish) may help reduce early childhood tooth decay in areas of the world where fluoride toothpaste or fluoridation is not readily available. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Introduction: Fluoride toothpaste is one of the main forms of prevention and control of caries in children. (bvsalud.org)
  • Governments and industry must ensure availability of affordable fluoride toothpaste. (who.int)
  • Fluoride toothpaste should also be used to control periodontal diseases. (who.int)
  • 2003). However, the number of sites evaluated for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine is not known. (cdc.gov)
  • Volcanoes also emit hydrogen fluoride and some fluorine gas. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluorine is a highly reactive element and readily hydrolyzes to form hydrogen fluoride and oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride reacts with many materials both in the vapor phase and in aerosols. (cdc.gov)
  • Marine aerosols also release small amounts of gaseous hydrogen fluoride and fluoride salts into the air (Friend 1989). (cdc.gov)
  • Anthropogenic fluoride emissions include the combustion of fluorine- containing materials, which releases hydrogen fluoride, as well as particulate fluorides, into the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Coal contains small amounts of fluorine, and coal-fired power plants constitute the largest source of anthropogenic hydrogen fluoride emissions. (cdc.gov)
  • both emit hydrogen fluoride and particulate fluorides (EPA 1998b). (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride would also be released by municipal incinerators as a consequence of the presence of fluoride-containing material in the waste stream. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride is one of the 189 chemicals listed as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) in Title III, Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. (cdc.gov)
  • In the atmosphere, gaseous hydrogen fluoride will be absorbed by atmospheric water (rain, clouds, fog, snow) forming an aerosol or fog of aqueous hydrofluoric acid. (cdc.gov)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride and fluorine are naturally-occurring gases that are very irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
  • What are fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine? (cdc.gov)
  • Fluorine also combines with hydrogen to make hydrogen fluoride, a colorless gas. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride dissolves in water to form hydrofluoric acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluorine and hydrogen fluoride are used to make certain chemical compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine when they enter the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride gas will be absorbed by rain and into clouds and fog to form hydrofluoric acid, which will fall to the ground. (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine? (cdc.gov)
  • How can fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • At high levels, such as may occur through exposure from an industrial accident, hydrogen fluoride may also damage the heart. (cdc.gov)
  • How likely are fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • How does fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine affect children? (cdc.gov)
  • The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. (nature.com)
  • At elevated temperature the fluorine content of the electrolyte and, to some extent, other parts of the battery such as the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) binder in the electrodes, may form gases such as hydrogen fluoride HF, phosphorus pentafluoride (PF 5 ) and phosphoryl fluoride (POF 3 ). (nature.com)
  • Help support Wordnik (and make this page ad-free) by adopting the word hydrogen fluoride . (wordnik.com)
  • The technique that he developed, electrolysis of potassium fluoride in anhydrous liquid hydrogen fluoride, is still used today, with some modifications. (jrank.org)
  • Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound that contains fluorine. (cdc.gov)
  • When hydrogen fluoride is dissolved in water, it may be called hydrofluoric acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride can be released when other fluoride-containing compounds such as ammonium fluoride are combined with water. (cdc.gov)
  • Sixty percent of the hydrogen fluoride used in manufacturing is for processes to make refrigerants. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride is also used for etching glass and metal. (cdc.gov)
  • In a natural disaster, you could be exposed to high levels of hydrogen fluoride when storage facilities or containers are damaged and the chemical is released. (cdc.gov)
  • You could be exposed to hydrogen fluoride if it is used as a chemical terrorism agent. (cdc.gov)
  • If you work in an occupation that uses hydrogen fluoride, you may be exposed to this chemical in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • You may be exposed to hydrogen fluoride as part of a hobby. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride goes easily and quickly through the skin and into the tissues in the body. (cdc.gov)
  • The seriousness of poisoning caused by hydrogen fluoride depends on the amount, route, and length of time of exposure, as well as the age and preexisting medical condition of the person exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing hydrogen fluoride can damage lung tissue and cause swelling and fluid accumulation in the lungs (pulmonary edema). (cdc.gov)
  • Skin contact with hydrogen fluoride may cause severe burns that develop after several hours and form skin ulcers. (cdc.gov)
  • Swallowing only a small amount of highly concentrated hydrogen fluoride will affect major internal organs and may be fatal. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing in hydrogen fluoride at high levels or in combination with skin contact can cause death from an irregular heartbeat or from fluid buildup in the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Even small splashes of high-concentration hydrogen fluoride products on the skin can be fatal. (cdc.gov)
  • Skin contact with hydrogen fluoride may not cause immediate pain or visible skin damage(signs of exposure). (cdc.gov)
  • Often, patients exposed to low concentrations of hydrogen fluoride on the skin do not show effects or experience pain immediately. (cdc.gov)
  • Showing these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to hydrogen fluoride. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to hydrogen fluoride can result in severe electrolyte problems. (cdc.gov)
  • People who survive after being severely injured by breathing in hydrogen fluoride may suffer lingering chronic lung disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Skin damage caused by concentrated hydrogen fluoride may take a long time to heal and may result in severe scarring. (cdc.gov)
  • Fingertip injuries from hydrogen fluoride may result in persistent pain, bone loss, and injury to the nail bed. (cdc.gov)
  • Eye exposure to hydrogen fluoride may cause prolonged or permanent visual defects, blindness, or total destruction of the eye. (cdc.gov)
  • Swallowing hydrogen fluoride can damage the esophagus and stomach. (cdc.gov)
  • First, if the hydrogen fluoride was released into the air, get fresh air by leaving the area where the chemical was released. (cdc.gov)
  • If the hydrogen fluoride release was outside, move away from the area where the chemical was released. (cdc.gov)
  • If the hydrogen fluoride release occurred indoors, get out of the building. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are near a release of fluorine or hydrogen fluoride, emergency coordinators may tell you either to evacuate the area or "shelter in place" inside a building to avoid being exposed to the chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • It combines with metals to make fluorides such as sodium fluoride and calcium fluoride, both white solids. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium fluoride dissolves easily in water, but calcium fluoride does not. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoride as sodium fluoride. (nih.gov)
  • Each 1.0 mL dose of MultiVitamin with Fluoride Supplement Drops 0.5 mg supplies sodium fluoride (0.5 mg fluoride) plus nine essential vitamins. (nih.gov)
  • 2.2 mg sodium fluoride contains 1 mg fluoride ion. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium fluoride , a hazardous-waste by-product from the manufacture of aluminum, is a common ingredient in rat and cockroach poisons, anesthetics, hypnotics, psychiatric drugs, and military nerve gas. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • their alleged reason for mass-medicating water with sodium fluoride was to sterilize humans and force the people in their concentration camps into calm submission. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Sodium Fluoride and Potassium Nitrate? (drugs.com)
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with sodium fluoride and potassium nitrate. (drugs.com)
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take sodium fluoride and potassium nitrate with all of your drugs and health problems. (drugs.com)
  • What are some things I need to know or do while I take Sodium Fluoride and Potassium Nitrate? (drugs.com)
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take sodium fluoride and potassium nitrate. (drugs.com)
  • If a large amount of sodium fluoride and potassium nitrate is swallowed, call a doctor or poison control center right away. (drugs.com)
  • Different brands of sodium fluoride and potassium nitrate may have different doses for children. (drugs.com)
  • Talk with the doctor before giving sodium fluoride and potassium nitrate to a child. (drugs.com)
  • How is this medicine (Sodium Fluoride and Potassium Nitrate) best taken? (drugs.com)
  • Use sodium fluoride and potassium nitrate as ordered by your doctor. (drugs.com)
  • What are some other side effects of Sodium Fluoride and Potassium Nitrate? (drugs.com)
  • How do I store and/or throw out Sodium Fluoride and Potassium Nitrate? (drugs.com)
  • Available from 2.09% Sodium Fluoride and Hydrofluoric Acid. (nih.gov)
  • In adults, exposure to high levels of fluoride can result in denser bones. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the studies of people living in areas with fluoridated water or naturally high levels of fluoride in drinking water did not find an association between fluoride and cancer risk. (cdc.gov)
  • 1. Small amounts (reflecting the low levels of fluoride in tissue fluids) are incorporated into the enamel crystals while they are being formed. (nih.gov)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children up to the age 16, in areas where drinking water contains less than optimal levels of fluoride, receive daily fluoride supplementation. (nih.gov)
  • However, in many parts of the world (eg, regions of India and China), elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater result in chronic fluoride toxicity (fluorosis). (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] Potentially toxic levels of fluoride have also been found in well water in the US. (medscape.com)
  • Your dentist may recommend fluoride drops or tablets if he or she feels your child is not receiving adequate levels of fluoride. (colgate.com)
  • Many bottled waters on the market do not contain optimal levels of fluoride. (ada.org)
  • A potential risk of fluoride use is the development of fluorosis, which may occur when excess levels of fluoride are ingested during tooth development. (ada.org)
  • The resultant fluorides are typically nonvolatile, stable compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluorides are naturally occurring compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Karin Jacobs and colleagues explain that despite a half-century of scientific research, controversy still exists over exactly how fluoride compounds reduce the risk of tooth decay. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In high concentrations, as with almost all substances, soluble fluoride compounds are toxic . (bionity.com)
  • Urine tests are a good indication of high exposure to fluoride compounds in the recent past. (bionity.com)
  • Skin or eye contact with many fluoride compounds (in high concentrations) is dangerous. (bionity.com)
  • Sulfonyl fluorides are becoming increasingly popular in covalent probe discovery and are often used as tool compounds in chemical biology. (enamine.net)
  • Fluorine and fluoride compounds are toxic. (jrank.org)
  • Fluoride in drinking water is taken in by teeth still developing below the gum to help create a strong surface, protecting the teeth from cavities. (cdc.gov)
  • In children and adults teeth are bathed in fluoride when drinking water, giving teeth the fluoride they need all day long. (cdc.gov)
  • That research established long ago that fluoride helps to harden the enamel coating that protects teeth from the acid produced by decay-causing bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The report describes new evidence that fluoride also works by impacting the adhesion force of bacteria that stick to the teeth and produce the acid that causes cavities. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The experiments - performed on artificial teeth (hydroxyapatite pellets) to enable high-precision analysis techniques - revealed that fluoride reduces the ability of decay-causing bacteria to stick, so that also on teeth, it is easier to wash away the bacteria by saliva, brushing and other activity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. (ewg.org)
  • Topical fluorides strengthen teeth already present in the mouth, making them more decay resistant, while systemic fluorides are those that are ingested and become incorporated into forming tooth structures. (ada.org)
  • Systemic fluorides also provide topical protection because fluoride is present in saliva, which continually bathes the teeth. (ada.org)
  • 1, 3 Topical fluorides strengthen teeth already present in the mouth, making them more decay resistant. (ada.org)
  • Fluoride in small amount is beneficial to teeth see Fluoride therapy . (bionity.com)
  • Last week's news that a surprising number of teens have damaged teeth due to over-exposure to fluoride has made the bottled-or-tap question even more complicated to answer. (spryliving.com)
  • In small amounts, fluoride can strengthen tooth enamel, but its therapeutic range is small, and, in high amounts, teeth can be pitted by fluoride, which can lead to cavities and tooth loss. (spryliving.com)
  • Fluoride binds strongly to teeth, bones and nails, so blood tests don't reveal true exposure levels," she says. (spryliving.com)
  • Instead of getting tested, she suggests, simply reduce your exposure to fluoride, especially if you have the telltale white mottling of fluorosis on your teeth or nails. (spryliving.com)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency allows so much fluoride that some children in areas with unusually high natural fluoride levels are developing discolored teeth and weakened tooth enamel, according to the report from the National Academies' National Research Council. (slweb.org)
  • Fluoride ions in low concentrations have been shown to prevent cavities in teeth. (jrank.org)
  • However, too high a concentration of fluoride will cause new permanent teeth to have enamel that is mottled. (jrank.org)
  • Cat dental fluoride is a product that helps strengthen cats' teeth and protect against tooth decay and enamel erosion. (medi-vet.com)
  • In a study that the authors describe as lending credence to the idiom, "by the skin of your teeth," scientists are reporting that the protective shield fluoride forms on teeth is up to 100 times thinner than previously believed. (scienceblog.com)
  • Scientists long have known that fluoride makes enamel - the hard white substance covering the surface of teeth - more resistant to decay. (scienceblog.com)
  • The scientists question whether a layer so thin, which is quickly worn away by ordinary chewing, really can shield teeth from decay, or whether fluoride has some other unrecognized effect on tooth enamel. (scienceblog.com)
  • In the body, most fluoride is contained in bones and teeth. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Fluoride is necessary for the formation and health of bones and teeth. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Do not take calcium, magnesium, or iron supplements while taking fluoride without checking with your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Once absorbed, fluoride binds calcium ions and may lead to hypocalcemia. (medscape.com)
  • Fluoride also has direct cytotoxic effects and interferes with a number of enzyme systems: it disrupts oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, coagulation, and neurotransmission (by binding calcium). (medscape.com)
  • 3-5 Fluoride remineralizes the calcium hydroxyapatite structure in enamel by forming calcium fluorapatite, which is more resistant to acid attacks. (ada.org)
  • Corning Advanced Optics is a trusted, premier supplier of calcium fluoride crystal materials. (corning.com)
  • We have expanded our optical portfolio to include Corning® Optical Grade Calcium Fluoride (OptG CaF2), optimized for imaging applications. (corning.com)
  • Developed for over 50 years to maximize durability, Corning® Laser Durable Grade Calcium Fluoride is the most durable material in the world for high fluence 193nm and other DUV laser applications. (corning.com)
  • We have expanded our optical material portfolio, Corning® Optical Grade Calcium Fluoride, an addition to the fluoride crystal product family for Corning, is an ultra-clear, durable crystalline material engineered to withstand and direct the short-wavelength laser light in photolithography. (corning.com)
  • For harsh laser exposure levels, or where maximizing optic lifetime and equipment uptime are critical, Corning® Laser Durable Grade Calcium Fluoride (LDG CaF 2 ) is the material of choice. (corning.com)
  • Corning® Optical Grade Calcium Fluoride (OptG CaF 2 ) is an ultra-clear, durable crystalline material engineered to withstand and direct the short-wavelength laser light in photolithography. (corning.com)
  • The only materials with sufficient transmissivity at 157 nm are single-crystal fluorides such as calcium fluoride, barium fluoride, and lithium fluoride. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Recent breakthroughs in optical fabrication technology now enable high-volume production of ultrahigh-precision fused silica and calcium fluoride optics. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Why calcium fluoride over fused silica? (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Calcium fluoride is used as a companion material to fused silica for color correction at 193 nm and is also used in areas of high flux because of its high laser damage resistance. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • On the other hand, calcium fluoride has a bulk transmission of greater than 98%/cm at 157 nm. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Calcium fluoride is clearly better than fused silica at this wavelength, but still represents a significant relative reduction in transmission from materials at 193 nm, considering that a typical lithographic projection lens might have 60 surfaces and nearly a meter of optical path. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • When the optician applies techniques to calcium fluoride that have been optimized over many years for optical glass, it becomes difficult to polish spherical surfaces with small figure errors, particularly steeply curved surfaces. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • The name fluorine comes from the mineral fluorspar, or calcium fluoride, in which it was found. (jrank.org)
  • In natural water, fluoride forms strong complexes with aluminum in water, and fluorine chemistry in water is largely regulated by aluminum concentration and pH (Skjelkvale 1994). (cdc.gov)
  • 1 Fluoride is the ionic form of the trace element fluorine. (ada.org)
  • Organofluorines do not contain soluble fluoride and thus are not toxic because of fluorine. (bionity.com)
  • Fluoride helps protect and rebuild this surface, preventing about 25% of cavities. (cdc.gov)
  • Low levels of fluorides can help prevent dental cavities. (cdc.gov)
  • Small amounts of fluoride help prevent tooth cavities, but high levels can harm your health. (cdc.gov)
  • When used appropriately, fluoride is both safe and effective in preventing and controlling cavities. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. (ewg.org)
  • It started as a simple idea to help kids avoid getting cavities, but back in the cold war days, the effort to put fluoride in local cart supplies mushroomed interest a widespread political battle, and perhaps nowhere in the nation were people more actively engaged in the fights against fluoridation than right here in San Diego. (kpbs.org)
  • There is no proof that ingested fluoride helps to prevent cavities," she says. (spryliving.com)
  • Low-carbohydrate diets help prevent tooth decay and make fluoride - which has no tangible health benefits other than preventing cavities - largely unnecessary, he says. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. (ewg.org)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recently lowered the amount of fluoride they recommend be added to municipal water supplies to respond to such health concerns. (spryliving.com)
  • however, carbon/charcoal filtration systems do not remove fluoride. (ada.org)
  • You can use a home water distiller, such as the D-3 (recommended by Andrew Weil, M.D. ) to remove fluoride. (spryliving.com)
  • These methods are the only ways to remove fluoride, Blank says. (spryliving.com)
  • Unfortunately, activated charcoal filters such as Brita and Pur do not remove fluoride," she says. (spryliving.com)
  • The Remove Fluoride From Municipal Water Supply in Tulsa petition to City of Tulsa was written by Chris Caffey and is in the category Health at GoPetition. (gopetition.com)
  • Do Any Water Filters Remove Fluoride? (friendsofwater.com)
  • The most common type of exposure is ingestion of products that contain fluoride. (medscape.com)
  • Poisoning most commonly occurs following ingestion (accidental or intentional) of products that contain fluoride. (bionity.com)
  • Implementing Pediatric Fluoride Varnish Application in a Rural Primary Care Medical Office: A Feasibility Study. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine if the application of fluoride varnish (FV) to children 5 years and under was acceptable and practical for health care providers in a rural primary care office. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fluoride toxicity is characterized by a variety of signs and symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Historically, most cases of serious acute fluoride toxicity have followed accidental ingestion of insecticides or rodenticides. (medscape.com)
  • Manifestations of fluoride toxicity are predominantly gastrointestinal (GI), but neurologic and cardiovascular effects also occur (see Presentation ). (medscape.com)
  • No antidote for fluoride toxicity exists, and fluoride does not adsorb to activated charcoal. (medscape.com)
  • Fluoride has several mechanisms of toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Severe fluoride toxicity will result in multiorgan failure. (medscape.com)
  • [ 6 ] In addition to effects on bone, a decrease in insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling has been reported in an animal model of chronic fluoride toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • One of the side effects of fluoride poisoning is gastro-intestinal inflammation as fluoride toxicity has a corrosive effect on the mucous membrane which line the gut [1] . (bionity.com)
  • Among the potential metabolic disturbances reported caused by fluoride toxicity is the increased impact of the natural plant toxin, salicylate [2] ,which may have particular significance in subgroups who already have high incidence of salicylate intolerance such as the ADHD and autism populations (see Autism therapies). (bionity.com)
  • Organizations such as the World Health Organization and the USDA then recommended increased use of fluoride to combat the risk of tooth decay. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Fluorides are naturally-occurring components of rocks and soil and are also found in air, water, plants, and animals. (cdc.gov)
  • 1994). In addition to industrial effluent and natural releases (e.g., weathering of rocks and runoff from soil), fluorides are released into surface water in municipal waste water as a result of water fluoridation. (cdc.gov)
  • Particulate fluorides are similarly removed from the atmosphere and deposited on land or surface water by wet and dry deposition. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoride in water. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluorides released to the air from volcanoes and industry are carried by wind and rain to nearby water, soil, and food sources. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluorides in water and soil will form strong associations with sediment or soil particles. (cdc.gov)
  • The general population can be exposed to fluorides in contaminated air, food, drinking water and soil. (cdc.gov)
  • People living in communities with fluoridated water or high levels of naturally-occurring fluoride may be exposed to higher levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoride usually is prescribed for children and adults whose homes have water that is not fluoridated (already has fluoride added). (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is well established that fluoridation of the water supply (0.7 mg/L fluoride) during the period of tooth development leads to a significant decrease in the incidence of dental caries. (nih.gov)
  • 3. After eruption, the surface enamel acquires fluoride from water, food, supplementary fluoride and small amounts from saliva. (nih.gov)
  • MultiVitamin with Fluoride Supplement Drops provide fluoride in drop form for infants and young children 6 months to 3 years of age in areas where the drinking water contains less than 0.3 ppm of fluoride and for children ages 3 to 6 years in areas where the drinking water contains 0.3 through 0.6 ppm of fluoride. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Determine the fluoride content of the drinking water. (nih.gov)
  • Long-term exposure to fluoride through elevated levels in drinking water leads to skeletal and dental fluorosis. (medscape.com)
  • Long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water stimulates osteoblastic bone formation, particularly in cancellous bone, and at low levels (1.00-1.06 ppm), this decreases the risk of overall fractures. (medscape.com)
  • In a court hearing on Tuesday, the second trial date was set for Jan. 29, 2024, in the ongoing lawsuit (pdf) brought against the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the Fluoride Action Network (FAN) "to prohibit the addition of fluoridation chemicals to drinking water supplies. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In an advance toward solving a 50-year-old mystery, scientists are reporting new evidence on how the fluoride in drinking water, toothpastes, mouth rinses and other oral-care products prevents tooth decay. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If I drink bottled water, am I getting enough fluoride? (colgate.com)
  • If bottled water is your primary source of drinking water, you may not be getting enough fluoride. (colgate.com)
  • While fluoride is added to public water supplies in much of the U.S. to reduce tooth decay, the majority of bottled waters on the market do not contain optimal levels (0.7-1.2 part per million) of fluoride. (colgate.com)
  • The fluoride level in your bottled water, which can vary greatly by brand, If the fluoride content does not appear on the label, contact the company and ask. (colgate.com)
  • If you drink mostly bottled water, you should talk to your dentist about whether you need supplemental fluoride treatments- especially if you have children. (colgate.com)
  • Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. (ewg.org)
  • EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. (ewg.org)
  • Yes, a 20,000% markup: Fluoride - intended only for human consumption by people under 14 years of age - is injected into our drinking water supply at approx. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • Since many diabetics drink more liquids than other people, then according to the Physicians Desk Reference these 11 million Americans probably shouldn't drink fluoridated water, because in doing so, they'll receive an excessive dose of fluoride. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • Cases are on record (Annapolis, Maryland, 1979) where kidney patients on dialysis machines died, due to a fluoride overdose in the city water supply. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • The ADA recognizes the use of fluoride and community water fluoridation as safe and effective in preventing tooth decay for both children and adults. (ada.org)
  • For more information, please visit the ADA Fluoride in Water resource page . (ada.org)
  • When used as directed or within the context of community water fluoridation programs, fluoride is a safe and effective agent that can be used to prevent and control dental caries. (ada.org)
  • Community water fluoridation is the process of adjusting the fluoride content of fluoride-deficient water to the recommended level for optimal dental health, which is currently recommended at 0.7 parts fluoride per million parts water. (ada.org)
  • Fluoride supplements can be prescribed for children ages 6 months to 16 years who are at high risk for tooth decay and whose primary drinking water has a low fluoride concentration. (ada.org)
  • Fluoride is a mineral that is found in all natural water sources. (ada.org)
  • 1 Modes of systemic fluoride delivery include water fluoridation or dietary fluoride supplements in the form of tablets, drops, or lozenges. (ada.org)
  • If the fluoride in your drinking water is greater than or equal to 0.6 parts per million. (drugs.com)
  • As San Diego waits for water fluoridation, the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services and the Environmental Protection Agency re-evaluate how much fluoride is too much fluoride. (kpbs.org)
  • But back in the Cold War days, the effort to put fluoride in local water supplies mushroomed into a wide-spread political battle. (kpbs.org)
  • Move forward 50 years and San Diego is on the cusp of finally joining the rest of the nation in getting fluoride added to the water supply when the city announced a delay. (kpbs.org)
  • And the Environmental Protection Agency released information that it is reviewing the amount of recommended fluoride in water supplies because people may be getting too much. (kpbs.org)
  • So will San Diego ever get fluoride added to the water supply and if so, how much? (kpbs.org)
  • Move forward 50 years and San Diego is on the cusp of finally joining the rest of the nation in getting fluoride added to the water supply when the city announces a delay, then the federal government releases information that agencies are reviewing the amount of recommended fluoride in water because people may be getting too much. (kpbs.org)
  • Well, Ellie, San Diego was preparing to add fluoride to the drinking water in San Diego, as I said, and then postponed that. (kpbs.org)
  • MAUREEN CAVANAUGH: Ellie, give us a little bit of a background on why we don't have fluoride in our drenching water here in San Diego. (kpbs.org)
  • What should I know about fluoride in my water? (calwater.com)
  • Fluoride, one of the most plentiful elements on earth, occurs naturally in water supplies. (calwater.com)
  • Water fluoridation is the addition of small amounts of fluoride to a water supply to achieve the fluoride level recommended by the Division of Drinking Water (DDW) to prevent tooth decay. (calwater.com)
  • Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD) and the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) have joined many of the nation's public water suppliers in adding fluoride to its water supply. (calwater.com)
  • Most sources of drinking water naturally contains some fluoride. (calwater.com)
  • Community water fluoridation is the process of adjusting the naturally occurring fluoride level to the level recommended by DDW to prevent tooth decay. (calwater.com)
  • Cal Water obtains some of its water from sources such as MWD and SFPUC that supplement naturally occurring fluoride to reach 0.8 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of water, the fluoride level public health organizations deem optimum for preventing tooth decay. (calwater.com)
  • Because these service areas receive their entire supply from MWD, the water delivered to these customers have a fluoride level of 0.8 mg/L. (calwater.com)
  • Seasonal changes in water use, operation of local wells, and other variables can affect the water supply mix and level of fluoride in the water. (calwater.com)
  • SFPUC supplies fluoridated water to Bear Gulch, San Mateo, San Carlos, and South San Francisco at concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 mg/L. In South San Francisco and Bear Gulch, SFPUC water is blended with unfluoridated groundwater or surface water, resulting in water that has a less-than-optimal fluoride content. (calwater.com)
  • Cal Water monitors fluoride levels in the distribution system of all of its affected water systems to report fluoride levels to DDW. (calwater.com)
  • According to DDW, children's fluoride supplements, whether pills or drops, should be discontinued when the drinking water is fluoridated. (calwater.com)
  • For customers who receive water from a combination of local water sources and imported MWD or SFPUC water, the continued use of topical fluoride treatments by the child's dentist may still be recommended. (calwater.com)
  • The major source of exposure to fluoride is drinking water. (spryliving.com)
  • Fluoride must be listed on the label only if the bottler adds fluoride to the water. (spryliving.com)
  • Use, instead, fluoride-free brands like Gerber Pure Water. (spryliving.com)
  • Distilled water is as close to fluoride-free as you can get," Dr. Blank says. (spryliving.com)
  • But still, check the label to make sure the distilled water does not have fluoride added back to it. (spryliving.com)
  • Fluoride was added to the water under a false pretence that it helped tooth decay. (gopetition.com)
  • We, the undersigned, call on the City of Tulsa to eliminate fluoride from the municipal water supply. (gopetition.com)
  • Government limits on fluoride in drinking water aren't protecting the public from possible tooth and bone damage, a prestigious advisory panel says. (slweb.org)
  • The council notes that municipalities in areas with low or no fluoride in their water add low levels of the compound to drinking water to help prevent tooth decay, but water supplies in some areas have much higher amounts of naturally occurring fluoride. (slweb.org)
  • The EPA's ceiling on fluoride in drinking water is 4 milligrams per liter, or 4 parts per million. (slweb.org)
  • Drinking water presents the greatest exposure to fluoride, says John Doull, chairman of the panel and emeritus professor of pharmacology and toxicology at the University of Kansas Medical Center in Kansas City. (slweb.org)
  • About 200,000 Americans live in areas where drinking water contains fluoride levels over the EPA standard, the report says. (slweb.org)
  • HONOLULU - A Hawaii lawmaker is pushing to add the mineral fluoride to the state's public water systems in an effort to promote better dental health. (westhawaiitoday.com)
  • Fluoride in your water possesses the risk of ingesting too much. (friendsofwater.com)
  • Fluoride naturally occurs in water due to it getting in by traveling through the ground. (friendsofwater.com)
  • Your drinking water is also tested for fluoride and there is an EPA Standard as to how much can be in your water. (friendsofwater.com)
  • We've helped home owners keep their water safe from fluoride, chlorine, chloramine, and other harmful substances since 2006. (friendsofwater.com)
  • Fluoride can be filtered from your water. (friendsofwater.com)
  • It is Important to know the level of fluoride in your drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • My Water's Fluoride (MWF) allows consumers to learn about the fluoride level in their drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • If your state does not participate, you can contact your community's water provider (utility) to learn the fluoride content of your drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • Although cost-effective, water and salt fluoridation are often unavailable and topical fluorides are recommended. (who.int)
  • In animals, exposure to extremely high doses of fluoride can result in decreased fertility and sperm and testes damage. (cdc.gov)
  • California's dental director and his team of researchers intentionally omitted data from a study seeking to undermine the forthcoming National Toxicology Program report linking fluoride exposure to neurodevelopmental damage in children, according to documents released last week. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Pro-fluoride lobbyists and regulatory agencies for several years have tried to "weaken, delay, or kill" the National Toxicology Program's draft report, which concluded high exposure to fluoride can reduce IQ in children. (fluoridealert.org)
  • A specialized urine test, not readily available, can determine acute exposure, but must be done soon after exposure to fluoride, so it does not reveal the kind of long-term, non-acute overexposure to fluoride that is a problem for most children. (spryliving.com)
  • Breastfeeding your infant reduces fluoride exposure by 100- to 200-fold. (spryliving.com)
  • MultiVitamin with Fluoride Supplement Drops 0.5 mg supply significant amounts of vitamins A, C, D, E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, pyridoxine and cyanocobalamin to supplement the diet, and to help ensure that nutritional deficiencies of these vitamins will not develop. (nih.gov)
  • The suggested dose should not be exceeded since dental fluorosis may result from continued ingestion of large amounts of fluoride. (nih.gov)
  • Fluoride is taken out of circulation by the body and trace amounts bound in bone. (bionity.com)
  • Note that some foods contain high amounts of fluoride. (spryliving.com)
  • 2. After enamel has been laid down, fluoride deposition continues in the surface enamel. (nih.gov)
  • Newer studies already found that fluoride penetrates into and hardens a much thinner layer of enamel than previously believed, lending credence to other theories about how fluoride works. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 3, 5, 6 Topical fluorides encourage remineralization of enamel, and also inhibit bacterial metabolism, reducing the growth of plaque bacteria. (ada.org)
  • Fluoride fortifies the enamel. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Some thought that fluoride simply changed the main mineral in enamel, hydroxyapatite, into a more-decay resistant material called fluorapatite. (scienceblog.com)
  • Researcher Doris Jones has unearthed startling new evidence demonstrating that fluoride interferes with enzyme systems, damaging many organ systems of the body. (healthy.net)
  • Ingested fluoride can form hydrofluoric acid in the stomach, which leads to GI irritation or corrosive effects. (medscape.com)
  • At least two highly toxic substances are known to severely impair normal thyroid functioning - one is fluoride, the other is mercury. (healthy.net)
  • In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF 3 ), was measured in some of the fire tests. (nature.com)
  • Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs. (nature.com)
  • The acute toxic dose of fluoride is believed to be from 2 to 8 milligrams per kilogram of body weight with lethal doses reported with levels of 16mg/kg in children and 32-64mg/kg in adults. (bionity.com)
  • However, the specialized equipment and additional safety precautions required for working with a toxic gas, in addition to challenges with procurement, have precluded the broad usage of sulfuryl fluoride gas. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Fluoride is a highly toxic substance. (gopetition.com)
  • [ 1 ] In the United States, poisoning most commonly follows ingestion (accidental or intentional) of fluoride-containing products. (medscape.com)
  • Historically, most cases of fluoride poisoning have been caused by accidental ingestion of insecticides or rodenticides . (bionity.com)
  • Synthetic methods to construct fluorosulfates and sulfamoyl fluorides have typically relied on the use of sulfuryl fluoride gas. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A solid and bench-stable alternative to sulfuryl fluoride gas has been developed by Pfizer and BioDuro chemists, 4-(acetylamino)phenyl]imidodisulfuryl difluoride (AISF, 901243 ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1999). Fluoride accumulates primarily in the skeletal tissues of terrestrial animals that consume fluoride-containing foliage. (cdc.gov)
  • In animals, the fluoride accumulates primarily in the bones or shell rather than in soft tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoride inhibits Na + /K + -ATPase, which may lead to hyperkalemia by extracellular release of potassium. (medscape.com)
  • NORTH SUTTON, N.H., May 3, 2023 /PRNewswire/ - The Fluoride Action Network (FAN) describes a new National Toxicology Program (NTP) report on fluoride neurotoxicity as confirming what experts have long suggested: that fluoride is the new lead in its ability to lower IQ in children. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The amount of fluorides accumulated depends on the type of plant and soil and the concentration and form of fluoride in the soil. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoride toothpastes available over the counter in the U.S. generally contain a fluoride concentration of 1,000 to 1,500 ppm. (ada.org)
  • Consuming enough fluoride can make tooth decay less likely and may strengthen bones. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 1 Modes of topical fluoride delivery include toothpastes, gels, mouthrinses, and professionally applied fluoride therapies. (ada.org)
  • However, milk and edible tissue from animals fed high levels of fluorides do not appear to contain elevated fluoride concentrations (NAS 1971a). (cdc.gov)
  • At high levels, fluorides can result in tooth and bone damage. (cdc.gov)
  • At higher levels, however (≥4.32 ppm), fluoride can decrease cortical bone mineral density and increase skeletal fragility, leading to increased fracture risk. (medscape.com)
  • And research shows that older people who ingest too much fluoride can develop microscopic bone abnormalities that can lead to osteoarthritis or osteoporosis. (spryliving.com)
  • Though a few studies appear to show a connection between fluoride and bone cancer, the National Academies committee called the results 'tentative and mixed. (slweb.org)
  • Fluoride deficiency can cause tooth and bone weakness. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development. (ewg.org)
  • Fluoride can be a great thing in normal doses but too much and you are in trouble. (friendsofwater.com)
  • Self-applied topical fluorides include toothpastes, mouthrinses, and gels. (ada.org)
  • To evidence the superior availability of active tin, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine the oxidative states of tin in the new Colgate Total SF and other commercially available stannous fluoride-containing toothpastes (Table 1). (dentalproductsreport.com)
  • Objective: To assess the use of fluoride toothpastes by children who sought dental care at a higher education institution. (bvsalud.org)
  • The findings suggest that further efforts should be applied for instructing about the proper use of fluoride toothpastes by children, especially in the academic environment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1 The remineralization effect of fluoride can both reverse the early decay process as well as create a tooth surface that is more resistant to decay. (ada.org)
  • A stable thixotropic fluoride treatment gel used to help prevent dental decay. (nih.gov)
  • Fluoride makes the entire tooth structure more resistant to decay. (slweb.org)
  • Prominent organizations including the World Health Organization and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have dismissed low-carbohydrate diets that prevent tooth decay in favor of recommending high-carbohydrate diets which rely on fluoride and food fortification to mitigate dental damage and nutritional shortcomings, a University of Washington researcher says. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Morris suggested that the issue of dental decay be solved with fluoride rather than sticking to the existing recommendation of a low-carbohydrate diet. (eurasiareview.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to fluoride, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and drugs), or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fluorosulfates and sulfamoyl fluorides have applications ranging from chemical biology to polymer chemistry in addition to being valuable synthetic precursors to diaryl sulfates, sulfamides and sulfamates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • There is a significant difference in reactivity between fluoro sulfonates, sulfamoyl fluorides, and alkyl aryl/hetaryl sulfonyl fluorides, which enables the design of selective covalent binders. (enamine.net)
  • For example, less reactive fluoro sulfonates have been reported to react better with Tyr phenolic hydroxy groups than sulfonyl fluorides and sulfamoyl fluorides. (enamine.net)
  • But adults are vulnerable because of fluoride accumulation in bones. (slweb.org)
  • Fluorides may be taken up from soil and accumulate in plants. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluorides will accumulate in plants and animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Medi-Vet offers dental fluoride products specifically formulated for cats, allowing pet owners to incorporate fluoride treatments into their cat's oral care routine. (medi-vet.com)
  • The international Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that the carcinogenicity of fluoride to humans is not classifiable. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Hujoel's study traces this development toward fluoride-supplemented high-carbohydrate dietary guidelines back to the mid-twentieth century, when leaders like Emory W. Morris, a dentist and president of the Kellogg Foundation - an arm of a major cereal maker - became the first chairman of the ADA's Council on Dental Health in 1942. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Medi-Vet understands the importance of cat dental care and offers products, including dental fluoride, specifically designed to promote and maintain good dental hygiene in feline companions. (medi-vet.com)
  • Regular cat dental care, including the use of dental fluoride, is essential in preventing these issues. (medi-vet.com)
  • Cat oral care goes beyond just the use of dental fluoride. (medi-vet.com)
  • It is important to note that while cat dental fluoride and other cat dental care products can aid in maintaining good oral health, regular veterinary check-ups and professional dental cleanings are still necessary. (medi-vet.com)
  • Cat dental health is an essential aspect of overall well-being, and Medi-Vet offers a range of products, including dental fluoride, to support optimal oral hygiene in cats. (medi-vet.com)
  • Whether for lithography, vision correction, or industrial applications, excimer laser performance is dependent on fluoride crystal quality and durability. (corning.com)
  • MultiVitamin with Fluoride Supplement Drops provide supplementation of the diet with nine essential vitamins, and with fluoride for caries prophylaxis. (nih.gov)
  • Fluoride can be delivered topically and systemically. (ada.org)