High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.Automation, Laboratory: Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Denture Identification Marking: Any system of defining ownership of dentures or dental prostheses.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Drug Repositioning: The deliberate and methodical practice of finding new applications for existing drugs.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Eliminative Behavior, Animal: Behavior associated with the elimination of feces and urine from the body.Analytic Sample Preparation Methods: Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.Lab-On-A-Chip Devices: Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Workflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genotyping Techniques: Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Enzyme Assays: Methods used to measure the relative activity of a specific enzyme or its concentration in solution. Typically an enzyme substrate is added to a buffer solution containing enzyme and the rate of conversion of substrate to product is measured under controlled conditions. Many classical enzymatic assay methods involve the use of synthetic colorimetric substrates and measuring the reaction rates using a spectrophotometer.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bithionol: Halogenated anti-infective agent that is used against trematode and cestode infestations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Single-Cell Analysis: Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Immobilized Proteins: Proteins that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed. The immobilization of proteins allows their use in chemical reactions without being diluted by solvent.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Image Cytometry: A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cytological Techniques: Methods used to study CELLS.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Physical Processes: The forces and principles of action of matter and energy.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Computing Methodologies: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Cunninghamia: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Members contain DITERPENES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Podophyllum: A genus of poisonous American herbs, family BERBERIDACEAE. The roots yield PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and other pharmacologically important agents. The plant was formerly used as a cholagogue and cathartic. It is different from the European mandrake, MANDRAGORA.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Receptors, N-Acetylglucosamine: Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Multiple Pulmonary Nodules: A number of small lung lesions characterized by small round masses of 2- to 3-mm in diameter. They are usually detected by chest CT scans (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY). Such nodules can be associated with metastases of malignancies inside or outside the lung, benign granulomas, or other lesions.InkAntiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Gene Ontology: Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Electric Wiring: An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Patient Identification Systems: Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
... voltage and calcium indicators provided a large-scale and high-throughput platform for cardiovascular drug safety screening. A ... However, the molecular makeup of these cells, including gene expression and epigenetic marks, was somewhere between that of a ... performed a study involving a teratomaformation assay and demonstrated that IPS cells produced an immune response strong enough ... However, refinements to this methodology yielding higher efficiency may lead to production of safer iPSCs. Other approaches ...
Small molecules that modulate stem-cell behavior are commonly identified in high-throughput screens. Libraries of compounds are ... containing incorporated fluorophore molecules-allowed for improved temporal resolution in in vitro binding assays. Experimental ... Both fluorescent proteins and biarsenical tetracysteine can be expressed in live cells, but present major limitations in ... it took until the early 1990s for effective methodology to be developed to ligate small peptide fragments made by SPPS, into ...
Semiconductor quantum dots have also been employed for in vitro imaging of pre-labeled cells. The ability to image single-cell ... owing to the high extinction coefficient combined with a comparable quantum yield to fluorescent dyes[46]) as well as their ... By using QDs, only the necessary colors for ideal images are contained in the screen. The result is a screen that is brighter, ... Green, Mark; Howman, Emily (2005). "Semiconductor quantum dots and free radical induced DNA nicking". Chemical Communications ( ...
... assess the feasibility of developing a high-throughput buccal cell assay for screening smokers for the early detection of oral ... The cells in A to C were stained with H&E. D. View with a fluorescent microscope of a buccal cell that has ∼30 adherent ... Stich JE, Li KK, Chun Y-S, Weiss R, Park N-H. Effect of smokeless tobacco on the replication of herpes simplex virus in vitro ... This article must therefore be hereby marked advertisement in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this ...
These assays often take advantage of the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer foreign DNA into plant cells with intact cell ... High-Throughput Analysis of Gene Regulation, DNA Synthesis in CSH Protocols. 02/01/2010. COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Mon., Feb. 1 ... This green fluorescent protein (GFP) has allowed biologists to make many new discoveries regarding how living cells function. ... Generation of T-Lymphocytes from Embryonic or Hematopoietic Stem Cells In Vitro. ...
... a novel device which provides the opportunity to perform high-throughput biochemical assays on different individual cells. In ... In addition, methodologies for growing patient-derived CTCs in vitro or propagating them in vivo to facilitate CTC drug testing ... Single cells were screened for known hotspot mutations in exons 9 and 20 of the PIK3CA gene. Captured DTCs grown in cell ... This report marks the first time that OCT has been used to detect individual cells within blood in vivo. This technical ...
High-Dose Ultrasound Researchers Morph Ordinary Skin Cells Into Functional Brain Cells Researchers Turn Skin Cells Directly ... Bio-Engineers Grow Functional Human Cartilage in Vitro Team Reprograms Blood Cells into Blood Stem Cells in Mice Stem Cells in ... All Human Genes Fluorescent Neural Cells from Monkey Skin Mature Into Several Types of Brain Cells in Monkeys Immune Cells ... of Adipose Tissue for Screening Obesity-Related Drugs RNA Offers a Safer Way to Reprogram Cells Irradiating Brains Stem Cell ...
The modulation of current flowing through a nanowire by DNA molecules has been proposed as high throughput sequencing ... 135] Hu, Y. (2015) Advanced Sensing and Processing Methodologies for ISFET Based DNA Sequencing. A Report Submitted for the ... direct reads of epigenetic marking, which can be carried out by direct measurement of the pulses of tunnel currents; ... which can be measured using electrochemical cell consisting of a FET gate as the working electrode together with a reference ...
Hancock, S. M. ; Tarling, C. A. ; Withers, S. G. High-Throughput Screening Of Cell Lysates For Ganglioside Synthesis. ... High-Throughput Screening Methodology For The Directed Evolution Of Glycosyltransferases. NATURE METHODS 2006, 3, 609-614.* ... Synthesis Of A Type 2 Blood Group A Tetrasaccharide And Development Of High-Throughput Assays Enables A Platform For Screening ... Lemieux, M. J. ; Mark, B. L. ; Cherney, M. M. ; Withers, S. G. ; Mahuran, D. J. ; James, M. N. G. Crystallographic Structure Of ...
This in vitro assay will continue to be a useful screen to validate viral constructs and compare tr ansduction capabilities. To ... The percentages of cells that were non fluorescent, green fluorescent, red fluorescent and red and green fluorescent were ... Therefore, in C hapter 4 , a high - PAGE 114. 114 throughput transduction efficiency protocol, previously est ablished for ... Furthermore, the methodologies used to qu antify transduction efficiency of the novel rAAV capsids can help researchers cho o ...
DLD-1 cells were compared with their ATRS/S derivative in a high-throughput growth assay (see Materials and Methods). The ... we screened a library of FDA-approved anticancer drugs. The standard clonogenic survival assay is not well suited to high- ... In proliferating cells, a pool of Chk1 is associated with chromatin, where it maintains activating marks and thereby ... From a practical standpoint, our study highlights the differences between different methods to assess drug responses in vitro. ...
Agilent cell metabolism assays detect discrete changes in cell bioenergetics in real time, providing a window into the critical ... S. Rathore (2013-03-27) "Chromatography process development in the quality by design paradigm I: Establishing a high-throughput ... Low Cost Solution for PAMPA Assays - Using the Epoch™ Microplate Spectrophotometer with pIONs PAMPA Explorer™ for the In-vitro ... Jun Yang, Stephen M. Dombrowski, Abhishek Deshpande, Natalie Krajcir, Serge El-Khoury, Chandra Krishnan, Mark G. Luciano (2011- ...
... and high-throughput in vitro model for basic NMJ research, and for high-throughput drug screening. ... Keywords: Cajal-retzius cells, Green-fluorescent-protein, In-vitro model, Rat hippocampus, Nervous-tissue, Brain-slices, ... RT-QuIC assay which mimics in vitro the conversion of PrPc to misfolded and amyloid PrP revealed that all the FFI samples of ... Interestingly, a very marked increase in NMDAR-NCS1 complexes was identified in neurons and a marked increase of both NMDAR- ...
domestic fromexternal P getting app and spinal high-throughput laboratory space. expecting and meeting the online FARMING with ... ve aussi des is refreshments allergies able vitro Proceedings de aircraft. Et capability, high-risk again schedule lot que des ... cell cell and warren cadmium. Furthermore do that the order previews are a click. breastfeeding these spaces is already Call a ... We There ask that societal online FARMING FOR HEALTH 2006 divert been to the assays. Like all industry, it wakes taken. If you ...
We examine two methodologies that benefit from the availability of large numbers - high-throughput screening and sequence ... in vitro and regulate genes near the same histone PTMs in living cells. This assay will be useful for assaying the function of ... Development of a Novel Selection Method for Protease Engineering : A high-throughput fluorescent reporter-based method for ... demonstrated marked resistance to thermal degradation. Such a design has potential to circumvent the cold-storage requirements ...
An in vitro CTC model system focusing on clinically useful treatment predictive biomarkers in breast cancer, specifically the ... Secondary characterization of these cells could enable treatment selection based on specific targets in these cells, as well as ... Cells positive for DAPI, cytokeratin (CK) 8, 18 and 19, but negative for the leukocyte-specific marker CD45, were classified as ... was established using healthy donor blood spiked with breast cancer cell lines MCF7 (ERα+/HER2−) and SKBr3 (ERα−/HER2+). ...
High-throughput isolation of immunoglobulin genes from single human B cells and expression as monoclonal antibodies. J. Virol. ... Antibody detection with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.B-cell cultures were screened for antibody production using ELISA as ... the target cell line, and the incubation conditions of the assay (48, 75). Despite difficulties comparing methodologies, ... a version of an assay described previously (45). Viral particles were labeled with the fluorescent lipid DiD (Vybrant cell- ...
1), using high-throughput screenings and structure/activity-based chemical modifications. Remarkably, chronic 6j ... first established cell culture systems and validated DNP and DCA actions in vitro. As expected, DNP potently stimulates ... When transiently expressed as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins in PC12 cells, SH2B1β and SH2B1β ΔPR demonstrated ... December 2 marked the five year anniversary of my husbands death, and it was a good day. I went out to dinner with Hannah and ...
... quantitative analysis of the consistency between two genome-wide shRNA screens conducted on a compendium of cancer cell lines, ... Importantly, by excluding shRNAs having higher propensity for off-target effects, based on their seed-sequence properties, one ... Finally, we applied this novel methodology to identify genetic interactions and synthetic lethal partners of cancer drivers, ... screens has been a major concern due to frequent off-target effects. Currently, a detailed understanding of the key factors ...
Pilot manufacturing in C6/36 cells suggests that high yields can be reached up to 109.5 cell culture infectious dose/ml or ≈7 ... High-throughput sequencing (HTS) provides the opportunity, once a diagnostic result is obtained, to extract additional ... the Australian LNV isolates did not replicate in vertebrate cells in vitro or in vivo, or produce signs of disease in wild-type ... Importantly, the LAMP assays could detect Ae. aegypti DNA in mosquitoes stored in Biogents Sentinel traps deployed in the field ...
High-throughput tissue bioenergetics analysis reveals identical metabolic allometric scaling for teleost hearts and whole ... Screening for developmental neurotoxicity using PC12 cells: comparisons of organophosphates with a carbamate, an organochlorine ... Developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos in vivo and in vitro: effects on nuclear transcription factors involved in cell ... The QPCR assay for analysis of mitochondrial DNA damage, repair, and relative copy number. Methods. 2010 Aug; 51:444-451. doi: ...
BA3 cells could grow in suspension in different media to a high density of up to 7.0 × 10(6) cells/mL and showed rapid ... Hemagglutination assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to screen all allantoic fluids for the ... RNAi methodology is capable of substantially decreasing viral replication at a cellular level, both in vitro and in vivo. In ... The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology. 11(3):573-86 PubMed DOI 167 citations 241 The green-fluorescent protein ( ...
Also used by cell biologists to refer to cells growing in culture (in vitro), as opposed to in an organism (in vivo). ... Therefore, through the use of fluorescent-PCR in the assay, it has enhanced the efficiency and reliability of screening donated ... Hauge B, Oggero C, Nguyen N, Fu C, Dong F, 2009 Single Tube, High Throughput Cloning of Inverted Repeat Constructs for Double- ... 1989 - PCR "explosion" can be seen as a result of a combination of the improvements and optimising of the methodology, and the ...
... we assessed the effect of PLX3397 on microglial cell migration using the in vitro scratch assay. At 24 h we observed a ... High-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was generated using RNA from snap-frozen whole hippocampus samples from the mice and ... Labeled cells were fixed and imaged using a Zeiss AxioObserver Z1 fluorescent microscope (Zeiss). ... Schadt, E. E., Friend, S. H. & Shaywitz, D. A. A network view of disease and compound screening. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 8, 286- ...
... and a high sample throughput, which make it suitable for screening and quality control programs in food chain and occurrence ... fluorescent, and scanning electron microscopy). In vitro dissolution studies (USPII-pH change method) showed that Hh-loaded ... by cellular antioxidant activity assay in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. These results proved that PHWE is an excellent ... Response surface methodology to optimize supercritical carbon dioxide/co-solvent extraction of brown onion skin by-product as ...
... biomarker-based assays, high content screening using fluorescent labelled markers, and label-free assays using both optical and ... or the drugs applied to the cells. Furthermore, the possible in vitro utility of many of the potential new in vivo biomarkers ... We and have identified a number of exciting molecules active against common pathogenic fungi from high throughput screening of ... Blaskovich, Mark A. T., Butler, Mark S. and Cooper, Matthew A. (2017) Polishing the tarnished silver bullet: the quest for new ...
  • We also assessed eIF4A1 helicase inhibition, binding between the compound and the target including binding site mutagenesis, and extensive mechanistic studies in cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The last category includes technologies that modify the genome or the epigenome (e.g. somaclonal variation or in vitro mutagenesis, genetic transformation or recently genome editing), which can be used to modify gene structure or functioning. (oeno-one.eu)
  • Summarily, the literature has established that buccal cells are useful not only for characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying tobacco-associated oral cancers but also as exfoliative cells that express diverse changes that offer promise as candidate biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Protein and cell analysis education site is a free-access destination where you can learn more about applications and techniques related to protein gel chemistries, western detection, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, fluorescence imaging, high content imaging, antibodies and antibody labeling, multiplex immunoassays, and more. (labroots.com)
  • The incorporation of flow cytometry for single-cell detection and discrimination between plasmid-free and plasmid-harboring cells in a bacterial population facilitates a very high throughput of cells and thus provides excellent sensitivity and statistics toward detecting even very low levels of plasmid instability. (univ-amu.fr)
  • RESULT: Here we demonstrate that Alpha technology is particularly suitable for studying brain signaling pathways by allowing rapid, sensitive, reproducible and semi-quantitative detection of phosphoproteins from individual mouse brain tissue homogenates and from cell fractionation and synaptosomal preparations of mouse hippocampus. (neurocentre-magendie.fr)
  • The product is a rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for the qualitative detection of human IgG antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) in human serum and whole blood matrices (venous and capillary (finger prick) whole blood). (rapidmicromethods.com)
  • In this sense, expression systems based in eukaryotic cells such as yeast and mammalian cells are considered suitable for the production of proteins with biotechnological applications. (bvsalud.org)
  • The main objective of this work was to express the gDE7E6 fusion proteins HPV-16 and HPV-18 and the E7 oncoprotein HPV-16 in Pichia pastoris and expression of gDE7E6 HPV-16 and HPV-18 in mammalian cells HEK293T and CHODG-44 to obtain purified antigens with future applications in therapeutic vaccines against HPV-16 and HPV-18 associated tumors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Expression of the proteins was analyzed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, however, the production of the proteins in the supernatant and in the cell lysate was not observed. (bvsalud.org)
  • In a later phase signal transduction related genes together with transmembrane transport and cytoskeleton proteins point to a high integration of processes involved in host recognition, adhesion, and invasion. (dal.ca)
  • Ectodomain shedding of cell-surface precursor proteins by metalloproteases generates important cellular signaling molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This rareness of IFN induction is just one form of the extreme cell-to-cell heterogeneity that characterizes infection: cells also vary widely in their production of viral mRNA, proteins, and progeny virions ( 12 - 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Sensitive tumor cells suffer acute loss of translationally regulated proteins, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Receptors may be integral membrane proteins that are linked to signaling pathways within the cell, such as second messenger systems. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Similarly, cells grown in conditions that slow the production of proteins extended the time between their cell divisions to give them enough time to accumulate the material required for two new cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we used split-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusions and complementation-activated light microscopy (CALM) for subresolution imaging of individual membrane proteins in live Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Immunoblot testing in cells with pathogenic SVBP variants demonstrated that the encoded proteins were unstable and non-functional, resulting in a complete loss of VASH detyrosination activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Varying mass-tags bind to different proteins as a sort of footprint such that when analyzing cells of differing perturbations, the levels of each protein can be compared relatively after enrichment by the introduced handle. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the past decade, Dr. Jeffrey's lab has performed molecular profiling of cancer cells with the goal of identifying tumor-specific therapies for the personalized treatment of cancer. (stanford.edu)
  • She was a key member of the collaborative Stanford/Norway team that pioneered the use of DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression in solid tumors and that developed the currently accepted classification schema of breast cancer molecular subtypes based on gene expression profiles: including low and high proliferation luminal, ERBB2(HER2)-overexpressing, and basal-like breast cancers (then, focusing attention on triple-negative breast cancers, TNBCs). (stanford.edu)
  • To explore the molecular mechanisms by which Wnt signaling in dermal condensates regulates hair follicle formation, we analyze genome-wide the gene expression changes in embryonic β-catenin null DP precursor cells. (blogspot.com)
  • From a pharmacological viewpoint, conventional methods used to target transcription factor activity with molecules mimicking endogenous ligands fail to achieve high specificity and are limited by a lack of identification of new molecular targets. (springeropen.com)
  • We introduce a generic platform to evolve synthetic molecular recognition on the surface of near-infrared fluorescent single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) signal transducers. (sciencemag.org)
  • At the same time, our knowledge of microorganisms is increasing at an ever-more rapid rate as the result of incredible improvements in analytical methodology, especially at the molecular level. (asmscience.org)
  • Much of the current effort in the lab is directed toward a molecular understanding of the RNAi machinery and its roles in the cell. (stanford.edu)
  • Their efforts elucidated the gene's molecular structure and pinpointed its location, providing an entry point into understanding the genetic defects that drive CF. Michael Welsh and his laboratory observed that the cells lining the organs of patients with CF lack the ability to transport chloride. (mjncolston.com)
  • Furthermore, by defining the molecular processes underlying normal development we may be able to manipulate immature cell phenotypes such as those of embryonic stem cells or skeletal myoblasts to replace damaged, terminally differentiated cells such as cardiac myocytes. (bmj.com)
  • However, the molecular makeup of these cells, including gene expression and epigenetic marks, was somewhere between that of a fibroblast and an ESC, and the cells failed to produce viable chimeras when injected into developing embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • These characteristics justify the extensive use of fluorescent PCR for genetic screening and analysis in medical research. (edu.au)
  • As it progressed to mid 1990s, PCR was used as a diagnostic and screening tool for genetic diseases. (edu.au)
  • We show that viral genetic variation explains some but not all of the cell-to-cell variability in viral gene expression and innate immune induction. (asm.org)
  • We propose to develop and apply such tools to modify the genetic code of cultured mammalian cells and bacteria with the aim to study the role of lysine acetylation in the regulation of metabolism and in cancer development. (europa.eu)
  • Synthetic Biology aims at applying engineering principles to biological systems [ 1 ], yet the complexity of living cells often leads to unpredictable behavior of heterologous genetic circuits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With these methodologies, DNA parts such as promoters, coding sequences, and terminators are assembled to build functional transcription units that can then be combined in more complex genetic circuits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combining our assays with chemical/genetic perturbations confirmed that cells employ two strategies, adjusting both cell cycle length and growth rate, to maintain the appropriate size. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our lab studies the mechanisms by which cells and organisms respond to genetic change. (stanford.edu)
  • The genetic landscape faced by a living cell is constantly changing. (stanford.edu)
  • Developmental transitions, environmental shifts, and pathogenic invasions lend a dynamic character to both the genome and its activity pattern.We study a variety of natural mechanisms that are utilized by cells adapting to genetic change. (stanford.edu)
  • Malaria results in the death of ~0.5 million children a year, with drug resistance impacting the usefulness of successive generations of new medicines ( www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2017/en/ ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Beaumont, Mark( 29 November 2017). (newviewgraphics.com)
  • Other interests include exploitation of hepatic stem cells, development of small animal models, NASH, liver cancer, and engineered human liver tissues. (stanford.edu)
  • Cell size uniformity in healthy tissues suggests that control mechanisms might coordinate cell growth and division. (elifesciences.org)
  • Uniformity of cell size is a consistent feature of healthy tissues. (elifesciences.org)
  • In fact, in some tissues, loss of cell size uniformity is a diagnostic marker of malignancy ( Greenough, 1925 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Since iPSCs can be derived directly from adult tissues, they not only bypass the need for embryos, but can be made in a patient-matched manner, which means that each individual could have their own pluripotent stem cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through high-throughput screening and computational shape homology approaches, we identified R-ketorolac as a Cdc42 and Rac1 inhibitor, distinct from the anti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of S-ketorolac. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While the computational advantages of high frequency sampling have not been yet elucidated, here, in order to motivate further investigation in active sampling strategies, we share the data from an artificial olfactory system made of 16 MOX gas sensors under gas flow modulation. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Diverse assay formats and reagents have been developed that measure specific aspects of cell viability corresponding to particular cellular response pathways and mechanisms of injury. (biotekchina.com.cn)
  • Cellular metabolism comprises a number of biochemical reactions that occur in concert within the cells of living organisms. (biotekchina.com.cn)
  • Double immunofluorescence (DIFA) with markers for neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and NDV nucleoprotein detected the three strains in all three cell types at similar levels.These data indicate that similar to other paramyxoviruses, neurons and glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia) are susceptible to vNDV infection, and suggest that factors other than cellular tropism are likely the major determinant of the neurotropic phenotype. (base2bio.com)
  • EGFR activation generates signals for cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, or survival (reviewed in ref. 1 ), cellular phenotypes that are often dysregulated in cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies on immortalized human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SKOV3ip) and primary patient-derived ovarian cancer cells show that R-ketorolac is a robust inhibitor of growth factor or serum-dependent Cdc42 and Rac1 activation with a potency and cellular efficacy similar to small-molecule inhibitors of Cdc42 (CID2950007/ML141) and Rac1 (NSC23766). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We derived a method to assay whether cellular growth rates depend on cell size, by monitoring how variance in size changes as cells grow. (elifesciences.org)
  • HhRzs targeted predicted accessible and inaccessible sites and were screened for cellular knockdown using a bicistronic reporter construct. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this study, we use a unique panel of genetically modified human cancer cells to unambiguously test the roles of upstream and downstream components of the ATR pathway in the responses to common therapeutic agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ATR signaling in turn activates downstream pathways that control cell-cycle arrest and mediate cell survival ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Automated imaging tools can provide valuable information for improving routine cell culturing techniques and increasing the effectiveness and reproducibility of downstream cell-based assays. (biotekchina.com.cn)
  • COLD SPRING HARBOR, NEW YORK -- In an important, comprehensive, and timely review, an expert team from the University of California Berkeley details the methodologies used in nucleic acid-based tests for detecting the presence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (cshlpress.com)
  • Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) obtained from minimally invasive blood samples has been well established as a valuable monitoring tool in metastatic and early breast cancer, as well as in several other cancer types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These differences among cells in a population may be essential to quantify when looking at, e.g., protein expression and mutations in tumor cells which often show high degree of heterogeneity. (diva-portal.org)
  • These compounds of natural and semisynthetic origins block microtubule depolymerization and mitosis in tumor cells via a mechanism of stabilization of tubulin heterodimers, eventually leading to apoptosis [ 1 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • however, the poor reproducibility of RNA interference (RNAi) screens has been a major concern due to frequent off-target effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, a detailed understanding of the key factors contributing to the sub-optimal consistency is still a lacking, especially on how to improve the reliability of future RNAi screens by controlling for factors that determine their off-target propensity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considerable efforts have been devoted to designing efficient genome-wide RNAi libraries, composed either of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) or short hairpin RNAs (shRNA), using both pooled and arrayed formats for cell-based screens [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To systematically evaluate human rod opsin ( hRHO ) mRNA for potential target sites sensitive to posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by hammerhead ribozyme (hhRz) or RNA interference (RNAi) in human cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Lead hhRz and RNAi PTGS agents were rationally optimized for target knockdown in human cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, most synthetic probes are developed through conjugation of fluorescent signal transducers to preexisting recognition moieties such as antibodies or receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antibodies targeting leiomodin-1 were neurotoxic in vitro, and leiomodin-1 antibodies purified from patients with nodding syndrome were cross-reactive with O. volvulus antigens. (cdc.gov)
  • The present invention provides high affinity anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies and related compositions, which may be used in any of a variety of therapeutic methods for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. (justia.com)
  • Bello C, Sotomayor E M. Monoclonal antibodies for B-cell lymphomas: Rituximab and beyond. (justia.com)
  • Further, JAG21 is efficacious against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • A primary method for drug target deconvolution in Plasmodium falciparum is in vitro evolution of compound-resistant parasites followed by whole-genome scans. (cdc.gov)
  • Conventional methods for evaluating cell culturing techniques and assay design consist of manual inspection of a small subset of the cell population at random locations and time points. (biotekchina.com.cn)
  • The acquired time series show two dominant frequency bands: the low-frequency signal corresponds to a conventional response curve of a sensor in response to a gas pulse, and the high-frequency signal has a clear principal harmonic at the respiration frequency. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The immune system relies on diverse mechanisms working in concert to defend the host from infection and to identify and remove aberrant or damaged cells. (biotekchina.com.cn)
  • Overall, these data increase our knowledge of negevirus mechanisms of infection and replication in vitro. (bvsalud.org)
  • We show that particular surface lectins are expressed at the beginning of the infection cycle, which likely mediate the attachment to the host cell. (dal.ca)
  • [email protected]#To determine the expression profile of microRNA (miRNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and immune factors in pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Overall, our study provides the first complete picture of how viral mutations affect the course of infection in single cells. (asm.org)
  • In addition, more than 291 million women have a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is a necessary cause of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (grade 2 or higher [CIN2+]) (1) . (who.int)
  • Factors associated with DM among HIV-infected adults included age, duration of HIV infection, geometric mean CD4 cell count, and obesity. (cdc.gov)
  • The liver cells eventually rupture, releasing these parasites into the bloodstream as nonmotile merozoites, to begin the asexual stage of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The goal was to identify HUCB-induced neuronal genes associated with cell survival following a stroke & to discover how soluble factors secreted by HUCBCs induce critical signaling pathways in neurons that enhance cell survival. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • While pathways other than Akt have been shown to be important in cell survival, Akt has been shown to be more important than others because it works to activate Prdx5, an antioxidant enzyme gene with the primary function of reducing hydrogen peroxide and inflammation. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • The regulation of metabolic pathways is of particular importance to cancer research, as misregulation of metabolic pathways, especially upregulation of glycolysis, is common to most transformed cells and is now considered a new hallmark of cancer. (europa.eu)
  • Cells use signaling pathways to communicate both between cells and within cells. (wisc.edu)
  • While current methods rely on mutational analyses, we will genetically encode the incorporation of acetylated lysine and directly measure the functional role of each acetylation site in cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. (europa.eu)
  • Using this methodology, we will study the structural and functional implications of all the acetylation sites in glycolytic enzymes. (europa.eu)
  • Fitness data for single mutants (Figure 1) map functional regions of the promoter (marked in pink), including the TATA box. (fieldslab.org)
  • Host-cell-bound vitronectin promoted pneumococcal adherence to and invasion into human epithelial and endothelial cells. (univ-amu.fr)
  • In this paper we therefore describe details of the dynamic interplay between matrix adhesion and pericellular proteolysis in endothelial cells adhered to glass model substratum. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • By fluorescent visualization of surface-associated VN in different ways, we provide the first evidence of significant proteolytic remodelling of VN by endothelial cells (HUVECs) at the sites of αv integrin clusters. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Here, we describe a phosphorylation-regulated polarization mechanism that is important for neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells during inflammatory responses. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Consistent with the roles of PIP5K1C90 polarization, the lack of PKN1 or RPH 3 A impairs neutrophil integrin activation, adhesion to endothelial cells, and infiltration in inflammatory models. (worldwidescience.org)
  • I first showthat the extracellular matrix protein elastin normalizes endothelial cell function. (oatd.org)
  • There are numerous methods for performing these assays including scratch assays performed on a monolayer of cells adhered to plasticware (microplates or culture inserts) or using 3D cell culture models. (biotekchina.com.cn)
  • An approach following this viewpoint is the use of whole organism models involving living invertebrates and vertebrates such as nematodes and zebrafish conducive to drug screening methods. (biotekchina.com.cn)
  • We performed a systematic, quantitative analysis of the consistency between two genome-wide shRNA screens conducted on a compendium of cancer cell lines, and also compared several gene summarization methods for inferring gene essentiality from shRNA level data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene amplification accounts for the high sensitivity of PCR where single copies of genes are analyzed. (edu.au)
  • Gene amplification accounts for the high sensitivity of PCR where single copies of genes could be analyzed. (edu.au)
  • This paper presents a user friendly implementation of an automated method for image based measurements of mtDNA mutations in individual cells detected with padlock probes and rolling-circle amplification (RCA). (diva-portal.org)
  • The two dual AAV vector systems evaluated for the delivery of CEP290 were unable to mediate full-length transcript and protein expression in vitro. (ufl.edu)
  • When experimentally-evolved in limited sulfur, yeast reproducibly amplify the locus containing the gene for the high-affinity sulfur transporter, SUL1, increasing Sul1 protein expression. (fieldslab.org)
  • Multiple assays of cell behavior using SKOV3ip and primary patient-derived ovarian cancer cells show that R-ketorolac significantly inhibits cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, by excluding shRNAs having higher propensity for off-target effects, based on their seed-sequence properties, one can remove noise from the genome-wide shRNA datasets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The researchers concluded that HUCBCs "rescued" neural cells and prevented neuronal loss in rats modeled with stroke by increasing the transcription of genes related to survival and repair by inhibiting inflammation. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Influenza virus-infected cells vary widely in their expression of viral genes and only occasionally activate innate immunity. (asm.org)
  • We do this by determining the transcriptome and full-length sequences of all viral genes in single cells infected with a nominally "pure" stock of influenza virus. (asm.org)
  • However, immune activation remains stochastic in cells infected by virions with these defects and occasionally is triggered even by virions that express unmutated copies of all genes. (asm.org)
  • This IFN directs expression of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the infected cell and its neighbors via autocrine and paracrine signaling, as well as helps launch a broader immune response ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • 1, 2 In higher organisms, ranging from yeast to plants and man, practically all genes are interrupted, with sequences coding for protein (coding exons ) separated by regions of non-coding DNA called introns . (bmj.com)
  • The beginning and ends of genes are usually marked by exons that do not code for parts of the protein, the so called non-coding exons. (bmj.com)
  • The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka's lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • iPSCs are typically derived by introducing products of specific sets of pluripotency-associated genes, or "reprogramming factors", into a given cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They hypothesized that genes important to embryonic stem cell (ESC) function might be able to induce an embryonic state in adult cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cold Spring Harbor, NY -- Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (CSHLP) today announced the release of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Other Means to an End, Second Edition, available on its website in hardcover, paperback and ebook formats. (cshlpress.com)
  • In the absence of costimulatory signals, T cells may undergo unresponsiveness (anergy) or programmed cell death (apoptosis) upon antigen stimulation. (justia.com)
  • The effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown on phenotype and fluorouracil sensitivity of GC cells were evaluated in vitro, and the therapeutic effects of siRNAs were evaluated using a mouse xenograft model. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Accordingly, F. cunicularia workers present compound eyes with higher resolution, while C. aethiops workers exhibit eyes with lower resolution but higher sensitivity. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Full Text Available Abstract Background Synovial sarcoma is a high-grade malignant tumor of soft tissue, characterized by the specific chromosomal translocation t(X;18, and its resultant SYT -SSX fusion gene. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Finally, we assembled and genomically integrated synthetic ECF σ factor/anti-σ switches with high efficiency, showing that the growth defects observed for circuits encoded on medium-copy plasmids were alleviated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study provides hope of a treatment for stroke using HUCBCs, which are easily obtained, avoid ethical issues, and have a minimal chance of rejection compared with other allogeneic stem cells, in order to rescue endogenous cells and restore function," said Dr. Shinn-Zong Lin, professor of Neurosurgery and superintendent at the China Medical University Hospital, TaiChung, Taiwan, and Coeditor-in-chief of 15. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells hold promise in the field of regenerative medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells were first generated by Shinya Yamanaka's team at Kyoto University, Japan, in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the first generation of iPSCs, these second generation iPSCs produced viable chimeric mice and contributed to the mouse germline, thereby achieving the 'gold standard' for pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, just how the cells exert their therapeutic effects has not been clear. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • These results show that specifically inhibiting the Cdk2/ATR/Chk1 pathway via distinct regulators can differentially sensitize cancer cells to a wide range of therapeutic agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42) and Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) are attractive therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer based on established importance in tumor cell migration, adhesion, and invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bioengineering of nisin A has resulted in the generation of derivatives with increased in vitro potency against Gram-positive bacteria. (teagasc.ie)
  • BioTek offers many peripheral instruments and accessories to expand functionality and enhance assay workflows. (biotekchina.com.cn)
  • However, the field of CTC research is now moving beyond solely quantifying cells in peripheral blood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metabolite analysis can be performed on a variety of specimens (e.g. cultured cells, culture medium, blood, urine, tissue). (c-doctor.org)
  • Mitochondria as a target of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides: Revisiting common mechanisms of action with new approach methodologies. (duke.edu)
  • Modifying existing antibiotics to overcome resistance mechanisms presents an opportunity to rationally develop effective new drugs more rapidly than screening for new structures. (edu.au)
  • Full Text Available Polarized vesicle transport plays an important role in cell polarization, but the mechanisms underlying this process and its role in innate immune responses are not well understood. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Such observations raise the intriguing question of whether there are dedicated mechanisms that restrict cell size to a specific range. (elifesciences.org)
  • Studies of yeast have long postulated the existence of cell-autonomous size control mechanisms. (elifesciences.org)
  • The different degrees of mutation in a cell culture can be quantified by making measurements on individual cells as an alternative to looking at an average of a population. (diva-portal.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Because influenza virus has a high mutation rate, many cells are infected by mutated virions. (asm.org)
  • Considering that vitronectin (VN) can promote both cell adhesion and matrix degradation, it is likely to play a dual role at the cell-biomaterial interface. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Using a systems genetics approach and starting from gene expression data from the target tissue, CRAFT provides a predictive framework for identifying cell membrane receptors with a direction-specified influence over disease-related gene expression profiles. (nature.com)
  • One approach uses public databases of transcriptomic profiles of cell lines treated with chemical compounds and seeks a chance anti-correlated overlap between a drug's gene expression profile and a disease's gene expression signature 10 . (nature.com)
  • Ingestion of pneumococci by host cells via vitronectin required a dynamic actin cytoskeleton and was dependent on integrin-linked kinase (ILK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase B (Akt), as demonstrated by gene silencing or in inhibition experiments. (univ-amu.fr)
  • Our work shows that the diverse spectrum of defects in influenza virus populations contributes to-but does not completely explain-the heterogeneity in viral gene expression and immune activation in single infected cells. (asm.org)
  • At the root of these studies are questions of how a cell can distinguish 'self' versus 'nonself' and 'wanted' versus 'unwanted' gene expression. (stanford.edu)
  • 1 The promoter contains the start site of transcription, usually designated +1, which marks the beginning of the first exon of the gene and hence corresponds to the first nucleotide of the mRNA. (bmj.com)
  • The fibroblasts were engineered so that any cells reactivating the ESC-specific gene, Fbx15, could be isolated using antibiotic selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Rodney Nash, CEO of Javeen Biosciences used their new Mesen-X media to grow the cells. (blogspot.com)
  • A major advance in antimalarial drug discovery has been the shift towards cell-based phenotypic screening, with notable progress in the screening of compounds against the asexual blood stage, liver stage, and gametocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • Experimental infections have shown that the replication of virulent NDV (vNDV) strains is in the brain parenchyma and is possibly confined to neurons and ependymal cells. (base2bio.com)
  • Because they can propagate indefinitely, as well as give rise to every other cell type in the body (such as neurons, heart, pancreatic, and liver cells), they represent a single source of cells that could be used to replace those lost to damage or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40, a member of the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily, is expressed primarily on B cells and other antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells and macrophages. (justia.com)
  • From the results, we will be working with our collaborators to determine potential cell based therapies for improving the symptom and behaviors of ASD sufferers. (blogspot.com)
  • Additionally, although Rb signaling is not required for these regulatory behaviors, perturbing Cdk4 activity still influences cell size, suggesting that the Cdk4 pathway may play a role in designating the cell's target size. (elifesciences.org)
  • Generally, low contact order ILV clusters favor local compaction and, in specific cases, long range electrostatic interactions may have stabilizing effects in higher energy states. (oatd.org)
  • We established that their GGR Affinofile metrics reflected their differential entry phenotypes on primary PBMCs and CD4+ T-cell subsets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using quantification of structural andfunctional phenotypes, I identified multiple drugs that ameliorate in vitro CCM models, and found twodrugs that significantly reduce the formation of lesions in murine models of CCM disease. (oatd.org)
  • In the denaturation phase of thermal cycling, these hydrogen bonds are broken to generate single-stranded DNA by high temperatures. (edu.au)
  • Within the immune system, complexes inside our immune cells called inflammasomes generate signals that activate and maintain inflammation. (edu.au)
  • We showed that the enrichment for T cell and B cell epitopes is not uniform on the viral genome, with several focused regions that generate abundant epitopes and may be more targetable. (preprints.org)
  • These unlimited supplies of autologous cells could be used to generate transplants without the risk of immune rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Cdk2-mediated ATR activation promoted cell survival after treatment with many drugs, signaling from ATR directly to the checkpoint kinase Chk1 was required for survival responses to only a subset of the drugs tested. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These lead to potent T cell responses (Stout, R. D., J. Suttles. (justia.com)
  • In addition these motifs improve binding to the bacterial cell wall precursor Lipid II. (edu.au)
  • Determining the stability of plasmids in bacterial populations is traditionally performed by isolating a large number of clones followed by screening for the presence of plasmids by replica transfer to plasmid-selective agar plates. (univ-amu.fr)
  • Most virulence factors must be secreted from bacterial cells so that they can interact with host determinants and aid bacterial replication within the host. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, little information is available on the ability of vNDV strains to infect subset of glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia). (base2bio.com)
  • Written in accessible, clear prose, the manual covers four broad areas: general methodologies, environmental public health microbiology, microbial ecology, and biodegradation and biotransformation. (asmscience.org)