Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Rhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Pyridinium CompoundsColoring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Quinolinium CompoundsXanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Hair Dyes: Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Rhodamine 123: A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Lissamine Green Dyes: Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.Succinimides: A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.BenzoxazolesCell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Photobleaching: Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Aniline CompoundsVoltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging: Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.Gelsemium: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Gelsemiaceae). The sometimes used common name of trumpet flower is also used for DATURA.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Fluorometry: An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Bisbenzimidazole: A benzimidazole antifilarial agent; it is fluorescent when it binds to certain nucleotides in DNA, thus providing a tool for the study of DNA replication; it also interferes with mitosis.Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Biolistics: Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Organotin Compounds: Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid: A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cytophotometry: A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.AmidinesCalcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Receptors, Purinergic P2X7: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Fluorophotometry: Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Image Cytometry: A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cell SeparationAxons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Intracellular Space: The area within CELLS.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.QuinolinesMicroinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)ThiazolesThapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Mice, Inbred C57BLElectric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Bromphenol Blue: A dye that has been used as an industrial dye, a laboratory indicator, and a biological stain.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Benzenesulfonates: Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.MaleimidesEpithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (1/15061)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

Single cell studies of enzymatic hydrolysis of a tetramethylrhodamine labeled triglucoside in yeast. (2/15061)

Several hundred molecules of enzyme reaction products were detected in a single spheroplast from yeast cells incubated with a tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) labeled triglucoside, alpha-d-Glc(1-->2)alpha-d-Glc(1-->3)alpha-d-Glc-O(CH2)8CONHCH2- CH2NH- COTMR. Product detection was accomplished using capillary electrophoresis and laser induced fluorescence following the introduction of a single spheroplast into the separation capillary. The in vivo enzymatic hydrolysis of the TMR-trisaccharide involves at least two enzymes, limited by processing alpha-glucosidase I, producing TMR-disaccharide, TMR-monosaccharide, and the free TMR-linking arm. Hydrolysis was reduced by preincubation of the cells with the processing enzyme inhibitor castanospermine. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies confirmed the uptake and internalization of fluorescent substrate. This single cell analysis methodology can be applied for the in vivo assay of any enzyme with a fluorescent substrate.  (+info)

Maintenance of motility in mouse sperm permeabilized with streptolysin O. (3/15061)

One approach to studying the mechanisms governing sperm motility is to permeabilize sperm and examine the regulation of motility by manipulating the intracellular milieu of the cell. The most common method of sperm permeabilization, detergent treatment, has the disadvantage that the membranes and many proteins are extracted from the cell. To avoid this problem, we have developed a method that uses streptolysin O to create stable pores within the plasma membrane while leaving internal membranes intact. Sperm were permeabilized, preincubated, and then treated with 0.6 U/ml of streptolysin O. Permeabilization was assessed by fluorescent dye technologies and endogenous protein phosphorylation using exogenously added [gamma-32P]ATP. Streptolysin O-induced permeabilization rendered the sperm immotile, and the effect was Ca2+-dependent. When the cells were treated simultaneously with a medium containing ATP, streptolysin O-treated sperm maintained flagellar movement. These results demonstrate that the streptolysin O permeabilization model system is a useful experimental method for studying the mechanisms that regulate sperm motility since it allows the flagellar apparatus to be exposed to various exogenously added molecules.  (+info)

Quantification of tumour vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements. (4/15061)

Despite the possibility that tumour hypoxia may limit radiotherapeutic response, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A new methodology has been developed in which information from several sophisticated techniques is combined and analysed at a microregional level. First, tumour oxygen availability is spatially defined by measuring intravascular blood oxygen saturations (HbO2) cryospectrophotometrically in frozen tumour blocks. Second, hypoxic development is quantified in adjacent sections using immunohistochemical detection of a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) to a nitroheterocyclic hypoxia marker (EF5), thereby providing information relating to both the oxygen consumption rates and the effective oxygen diffusion distances. Third, a combination of fluorescent (Hoechst 33342 or DiOC7(3)) and immunohistological (PECAM-1/CD31) stains is used to define the anatomical vascular densities and the fraction of blood vessels containing flow. Using a computer-interfaced microscope stage, image analysis software and a 3-CCD colour video camera, multiple images are digitized, combined to form a photo-montage and revisited after each of the three staining protocols. By applying image registration techniques, the spatial distribution of HbO2 saturations is matched to corresponding hypoxic marker intensities in adjacent sections. This permits vascular configuration to be related to oxygen availability and allows the hypoxic marker intensities to be quantitated in situ.  (+info)

Organ-selective homing defines engraftment kinetics of murine hematopoietic stem cells and is compromised by Ex vivo expansion. (5/15061)

Hematopoietic reconstitution of ablated recipients requires that intravenously (IV) transplanted stem and progenitor cells "home" to organs that support their proliferation and differentiation. To examine the possible relationship between homing properties and subsequent engraftment potential, murine bone marrow (BM) cells were labeled with fluorescent PKH26 dye and injected into lethally irradiated hosts. PKH26(+) cells homing to marrow or spleen were then isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and assayed for in vitro colony-forming cells (CFCs). Progenitors accumulated rapidly in the spleen, but declined to only 6% of input numbers after 24 hours. Although egress from this organ was accompanied by a simultaneous accumulation of CFCs in the BM (plateauing at 6% to 8% of input after 3 hours), spleen cells remained enriched in donor CFCs compared with marrow during this time. To determine whether this differential homing of clonogenic cells to the marrow and spleen influenced their contribution to short-term or long-term hematopoiesis in vivo, PKH26(+) cells were sorted from each organ 3 hours after transplantation and injected into lethally irradiated Ly-5 congenic mice. Cells that had homed initially to the spleen regenerated circulating leukocytes (20% of normal counts) approximately 2 weeks faster than cells that had homed to the marrow, or PKH26-labeled cells that had not been selected by a prior homing step. Both primary (17 weeks) and secondary (10 weeks) recipients of "spleen-homed" cells also contained approximately 50% higher numbers of CFCs per femur than recipients of "BM-homed" cells. To examine whether progenitor homing was altered upon ex vivo expansion, highly enriched Sca-1(+)c-kit+Lin- cells were cultured for 9 days in serum-free medium containing interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, flk-2/flt3 ligand, and thrombopoietin. Expanded cells were then stained with PKH26 and assayed as above. Strikingly, CFCs generated in vitro exhibited a 10-fold reduction in homing capacity compared with fresh progenitors. These studies demonstrate that clonogenic cells with differential homing properties contribute variably to early and late hematopoiesis in vivo. The dramatic decline in the homing capacity of progenitors generated in vitro underscores critical qualitative changes that may compromise their biologic function and potential clinical utility, despite their efficient numerical expansion.  (+info)

Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the Ca2+-induced decline of transmitter release at K+-depolarized motor neuron terminals. (6/15061)

The present study tested whether a Ca2+-induced disruption of mitochondrial function was responsible for the decline in miniature endplate current (MEPC) frequency that occurs with nerve-muscle preparations maintained in a 35 mM potassium propionate (35 mM KP) solution containing elevated calcium. When the 35 mM KP contained control Ca2+ (1 mM), the MEPC frequency increased and remained elevated for many hours, and the mitochondria within twitch motor neuron terminals were similar in appearance to those in unstimulated terminals. All nerve terminals accumulated FM1-43 when the dye was present for the final 6 min of a 300-min exposure to 35 mM KP with control Ca2+. In contrast, when Ca2+ was increased to 3.6 mM in the 35 mM KP solution, the MEPC frequency initially reached frequencies >350 s-1 but then gradually fell approaching frequencies <50 s-1. A progressive swelling and eventual distortion of mitochondria within the twitch motor neuron terminals occurred during prolonged exposure to 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+. After approximately 300 min in 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+, only 58% of the twitch terminals accumulated FM1-43. The decline in MEPC frequency in 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+ was less when 15 mM glucose was present or when preparations were pretreated with 10 microM oligomycin and then bathed in the 35 mM KP with glucose. When glucose was present, with or without oligomycin pretreatment, a greater percentage of twitch terminals accumulated FM1-43. However, the mitochondria in these preparations were still greatly swollen and distorted. We propose that prolonged depolarization of twitch motor neuron terminals by 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+ produced a Ca2+-induced decrease in mitochondrial ATP production. Under these conditions, the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio was decreased thereby compromising both transmitter release and refilling of recycled synaptic vesicles. The addition of glucose stimulated glycolysis which contributed to the maintenance of required ATP levels.  (+info)

Simultaneous measurement of evoked release and [Ca2+]i in a crayfish release bouton reveals high affinity of release to Ca2+. (7/15061)

The opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish was used to determine the affinity of the putative Ca2+ receptor(s) responsible for evoked release. Evoked, asynchronous release, and steady-state intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]ss, were measured concomitantly in single release boutons. It was found that, as expected, asynchronous release is highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. Surprisingly, evoked release was also found to be highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. The quantal content (m) and the rate of asynchronous release (S) showed sigmoidal dependence on [Ca2+]ss. The slope log m/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 1.6 and 3.3; the higher slope observed at the lower [Ca2+]o. The slope log S/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 3 and 4 and was independent of [Ca2+]o. These results are consistent with the assumption that evoked release is controlled by the sum of [Ca2+]ss and the local elevation of Ca2+ concentration near the release sites resulting from Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Y). On the basis of the above, we were able to estimate Y. We found Y to be significantly <10 microM even for [Ca2+]o = 13.5 mM. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the Ca2+ receptor(s) associated with evoked release was calculated to be in the range of 4-5 microM. This value of Kd is similar to that found previously for asynchronous release.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (8/15061)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Engineering ESPT pathways based on structural analysis of LSSmKate red fluorescent proteins with large stokes shift. AU - Piatkevich, Kiryl D.. AU - Malashkevich, Vladimir N.. AU - Almo, Steven C.. AU - Verkhusha, Vladislav. PY - 2010/8/11. Y1 - 2010/8/11. N2 - LSSmKate1 and LSSmKate2 are monomeric red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) with large Stokes shifts (LSSs), which allows for efficient separation of absorbance and emission maxima, as well as for excitation with conventional two-photon laser sources. These LSSmKates differ by a single amino acid substitution at position 160 and exhibit absorbance maxima around 460 nm, corresponding to a neutral DsRed-like chromophore. However, excitation at 460 nm leads to fluorescence emission above 600 nm. Structures of LSSmKate1 and LSSmKate2, determined at resolutions of 2.0 and 1.5, respectively, revealed that the predominant DsRed-chromophore configurations are cis for LSSmKate1 but trans for LSSmKate2. Crystallographic and mutagenesis ...
Nitric Oxide (NO) is a highly-reactive radical gas that can modify a variety of cellular targets in both eukaryotes and bacteria. NO is produced endogenously by a wide variety of organisms: For example, as a cell-signaling molecule in mammals and bacteria via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, and as a product of denitrification. As such, it is of great benefit to NO researchers to be able to sensitively detect intracellular NO and stable reactive nitrogen species (RNS) derived from NO. To this end, a protocol for fluorescent detection of intracellular NO/RNS in biofilm cultures of the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has been optimized using the commercially-available cell-permeable fluorescent stain 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2,7-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate (DAF-FM diacetate). This compound diffuses into cells and intracellular cleavage by esterase enzymes liberates weakly-fluorescent DAF-FM, which reacts with NO or other specific RNS to become highly fluorescent (Kojima et al., 1999).
Fluorescent Molecular Rotors are sensors of microenvironmental restriction that become fluorescent only if their rotation is constrained. It has been suggested that the change of fluorescence intensity is caused by the restriction of intramolecular rotational relaxation about the donor-acceptor bond of the fluorophores.
Examples of molecular constraint include increased dye (aggregation)1, binding to antibodies2, or being trapped in the polymerization of actin3. There are also studies of membrane fluidity in endothelial cells under fluid shear stress4 where fluorescent molecular rotors are used.

1. Bhattacharyya, A. et al., Indian J. Biochem. Biophys., 32, 442-446 (1995).
2. Iwaki, T. et al., Biochem., 32, 7589-7592 (1993).
3. Sawada, S. et al., Anal. Biochem., 204, 110-117 (1992).
4. Farkas, D.L. and Leif R.C. (ed.), Optical diagnostics of living cells III, Proc SPIE 3291, 101-112 (2000
A red-emitting fluorescent probe was developed for the sensitive and selective detection of H2S. Upon treatment with H2S, this probe exhibited a remarkable fluorescence enhancement (10 fold) with a large Stokes shift (125 nm). The detection limit of this probe was as low as 5.7 nM based on S/N = 3. The appli
We present a technique for observing single fluorophore molecules in solution. A mode-locked laser beam is focused into the solution, thereby defining a two-photon excitation volume localized in three dimensions. Molecules diffusing into and out of this volume produce fluorescence bursts, which are detected with a high signal-to-background ratio. The theoretical foundations for the technique are laid out, including the attendant fluorescence rate distribution, and agree with experimental results obtained for Rhodamine B molecules in water.. © 1995 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Studying the implication of hydrogen peroxide in biological processes in plants remains a challenge due to the current shortcomings of H2O2-responsive probes. The use of ContPY1, a new fluorescent probe, which is highly selective and sensitive for H2O2, was investigated. To validate the use of ContPY1 on plants, we have generated protocols employing cells suspensions and leaves, and measured specifically H2O2 production by plants using spectrofluorometry and microscopy. © 2013 Landes Bioscience. ...
ortho-Aminobenzoic acid (Abz) has been used as a convenient fluorescent donor group in internally quenched fluorescent peptides, which are employed as substrates for several proteolytic enzymes. As Abz is usually bound to the N-amino terminal of these peptides, it is of interest to investigate the Abz group fluorescent properties bound to different amino acids. We report in this article the optical absorption and fluorescent properties, in aqueous media, of Abz bound to the alpha-amino group of Ala, Gly, Leu, ne, Val, Pro, Phe, Arg, Glu, Met, Asn, Tyr, and Trp, with monomethyl-amidated alpha-carboxyl group, in order to explore the origin of the drastic reduction of Abz attached to N-alpha amino group of prolyl-peptides, we also examined the fluorescence properties of Abz-NHCH3, Abz-N(CH3)(2), and Abz-pyrrolidine. Molecular dynamics simulation and NMR data indicated a lack of periplanarity of the Abz-dimethylamide, which could be the origin of low fluorescence quantum yield of ...
We have engineered a mutant of HIV Reverse Transcriptase that can be fluorescently labeled by covalent attachment of the environmentally sensitive fluorophore 7-diethylamino-3-((((2-maleimidyl)ethyl)amino)carbonyl)coumarin (MDCC). The result is a polymerase that is kinetically indistinguishable from the wild-type enzyme, but provides a signal to monitor changes in enzyme structure that result from conformational changes induced by substrate binding. Using this system, we have expanded the kinetic model governing nucleotide binding to include an enzymatic isomerization following initial nucleotide binding. In doing so, we define the role of induced-fit in nucleotide specificity and mismatch discrimination. Additionally, we have characterized the kinetics governing the specificity and discrimination of several widely administered Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) used to combat HIV infection including 3TC (Lamivudine), FTC (Emtricitabine), and AZT (Zidovudine) for the wild-type ...
Fluorescent Dyes , Reactive Fluorescent Dyes , HiLyte Fluor 594 hydrazide - TFA Salt; HiLyte Fluor 594, an alternative to Alexa Fluor 594 and DyLight Fluor 594, has spectral characteristics similar to those of Texas Red. The labeling performance and stability are better than those of Texas Red. It has high extinction coefficient (80,000 M-1cm-1), high fluorescence quantum yield (0.9) and low correction factor (0.17). HiLyte FluorTM 594 based Bioconjugates exhibit little spectral overlap with green-fluorescent conjugates, and can be efficiently excited by 568 nm line of Ar-Kr laser and by the 594 nm line of orange He-Ne laser. Extinction Coefficient (M-1cm-1): 80,000 Fluorescence quantum yield: 0.90 Fluorescence Life Time (ns): 4.2; HiLyte Fluor594 hydrazide is a carbonyl-reactive fluorescent labeling dye. It can be used for labeling glycoproteins such as HRP.
ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHORS REQUEST.] The design, synthesis and spectroscopic properties of several long wavelength/NIR fluorescent sensors are discussed. Amongst them, the metal complex-indicator sensors are developed based on the indicator-displacement-assay (IDA) strategy; the other BODIPY derived fluorescent sensors are developed based on the indicator-spacer-receptor (ISR) strategy. For the IDA sensors, one [PBA-Zn receptor + ARS] sensor showed some unique dual wavelength patterns when different sugar analytes were introduced. The [Cu complex + Acid Blue 45] sensors have NIR fluorescent properties and displayed high affinity towards various amino acids and warfarin. For the ISR BODIPY sensors, two of the pH responsive sensors have fluorescent emission at 600nm and displayed appropriate pKas for a physiological environment. One piperazine-BODIPY sensor with a novel structure showed a turn-on NIR fluorescent emission when protonated. One ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Spray pyrolysis synthesis of particles possessing magnetic and fluorescent properties. Application of magnetic/fluorescent particles in immunoassays. AU - Dosev, D.. AU - Nichkova, M.. AU - Dumas, R.. AU - Liu, K.. AU - Kennedy, I. M.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Many types of fluorescent nanoparticles have been synthesized as alternatives to organic dyes in biochemistry. Magnetic beads also have a long history of biological applications. In this work we apply flame spray pyrolysis in order to engineer a novel type of particle that has both fluorescent and magnetic properties. The particles have magnetic cores of iron oxide and a fluorescent shell of europium - doped gadolinium oxide (Eu:Gd 2O 3). Measurements on a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer showed an overall paramagnetic response behavior of the composite particles. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed fluorescent spectra typical for the Eu ion in a Gd 2O 3 host with a narrow emission peak centered near 615 nm. Our synthesis method ...
Fluorescent molecular imaging helped surgeons visually identify lung adenocarcinomas during pulmonary resection, according to study results.
Optimized for western blotting with fluorescent-conjugated antibodies. Invitrogen™ iBind™ Fluorescent Detection (FD) Solution Kit is intended for use with the iBind™ Flex Western Device (SLF2000) for use in infrared detection and dual wavelength semi-quantitative analysis. iBind Fluorescent Detection Solution Kit,X1 bottle,X5 buffer, 2 vials X100 additive, 1 vial ...
There is no simple answer to this question as the quantum yield of a fluorescent dye can vary widely, depending on the dyes micro-environment. For example, the quantum yield of a dye attached to a protein may be very different from the quantum yield of the free dye. For dyes attached to a protein, the quantum yield is highly dependent on how many molecules of the dye are attached to the protein (i.e. degree of protein labeling). In general, a higher degree of protein labeling leads to a lower dye quantum yield due to fluorescence quenching via dye-to-dye interaction. For this reason, as the degree of labeling increases, fluorescence intensity of the labeled protein will eventually reach a maximum and start to decline thereafter. In fact, one of the best ways to compare the relative quantum yields of different dyes is to plot the total fluorescence of the labeled proteins as a function of degree of labeling by the dyes as we have done with CF® dyes and other commercial dyes. CF® dyes generally ...
Single-molecule detection has long relied on fluorescent labeling with high quantum-yield fluorophores. Plasmon-enhanced detection circumvents the need for labeling by allowing direct optical detection of weakly emitting and completely nonfluorescent species. This review focuses on recent advances in single molecule detection using plasmonic metal nanostructures as a sensing platform, particularly using a single particle-single molecule approach. In the past decade two mechanisms for plasmon-enhanced single-molecule detection have been demonstrated: (1) by plasmonically enhancing the emission of weakly fluorescent biomolecules, or (2) by monitoring shifts of the plasmon resonance induced by single-molecule interactions. We begin with a motivation regarding the importance of single molecule detection, and advantages plasmonic detection offers. We describe both detection mechanisms and discuss challenges and potential solutions. We finalize by highlighting the exciting possibilities in analytical ...
Real-time PCR was performed using the ABI 7700 Sequence detector (Applied Biosystems) as described previously (Biecker et al., 2004). A dual-labeled fluorogenic probe (labeled with a "reporter" dye at the 5′-end and a second dye, quenching the emission of the "reporter" dye, at the 3′-end) complementary to a sequence within each PCR product was added to the PCR reaction. Cleavage of the probe during elongation by the exonuclease activity of the TaqDNA polymerase separates the reporter from its quencher. Accumulation of PCR products is detected in real time by monitoring the increase in fluorescence of the reporter dye. The PCR reaction was performed in a volume of 25 μl containing 12.5 μl2× TaqMan PCR master mix (Applied Biosystems) as well as 1.2 μl (equivalent to 300 ng of total RNA) of cDNA. The concentrations of the primers and probes are given in Table 1. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) provided as "ready-to-use" primers (100 nM each) and probe (200 nM) by the ...
A high dynamic range apparatus for separation and detection of polynucleotide fragments has a housing adapted to receive an electrophoresis gel holder containing an electrophoresis gel loaded with fluorophore-labeled samples; one or more laser diodes for providing radiation of a frequency suitable for excitation of the fluorophore which irradiates a an array of excitation/detection sites on the electrophoresis gel; an array of detectors aligned with the excitation/detection sites for collecting fluorescent emissions; and one or more components for increasing the dynamic range of the instrument by at least an order of magnitude. These components, which can be used individually or in combination include detectors that are connected to a signal processing system that modulates the period of signal integration employed so that large signals are totaled at short time intervals and smaller signals are totaled at longer time intervals; the use of a beam splitter to produces a high intensity beam of emitted
Quinoxalinones are widely exploited for their biological activities, but more rarely for their fluorescence behavior, partly due to a lack of data. Herein, we investigated the photophysical properties of selected 3-benzoylquinoxalin-2-ones and their NaBH4-reduced products, obtained by the rearrangement of be
A unique DNA-binding dye with features ideal for both qPCR and High Resolution Melting® (HRM) analysis*. EvaGreen® dye binds to dsDNA via a novel "release-on-demand" mechanism, which permits the use of a relatively high dye concentration in qPCR without PCR inhibition (Ref. 1).. A unique feature of EvaGreen® dye is its safety. DNA-binding dyes are inherently dangerous due to their potential to cause mutation. With this in mind, Biotiums scientists designed EvaGreen® dye such that it cannot cross cell membranes, thus preventing the dye from being in contact with genomic DNA in live cells. All other commercial PCR dyes enter into cells in a matter of minutes. SYBR® Green I, for example, has been shown to be environmentally more toxic than ethidium bromide, a well-known mutagen (Ref. 2). Independent labs have confirmed that EvaGreen dye is nonmutagenic, noncytotoxic and safe to aquatic life for direct disposal in the drain. For details, download the EvaGreen® Dye Safety Report.. An added ...
To overcome this issue of reduced resolution in STED imaging due to photodegradation, ITbMs team led by Principal Investigators Shigehiro Yamaguchi, a synthetic chemist and Tetsuya Higashiyama, a plant biologist have developed a new fluorescent dye, C-Naphox that has enhanced photostability relative to conventional dyes. C-Naphox has demonstrated to be extremely photoresistant with almost no degradation of fluorescence even after prolonged STED imaging in live cells.. C-Naphox (diarylmethylene-bridged naphthophosphole P-oxide) consists of an aromatic framework with an amino moiety incorporated for its electron-donating properties and phosphorus oxide for its electron-accepting properties, leading to intense fluorescence emissions.. "Although the previously synthesized molecules in the Yamaguchi group have also led to high fluorescence intensity, it is the carbon-bridged structure in C-Naphox that is the key to its extremely high resistance to high intensity light," says Aiko Fukazawa, an ...
PTI RatioMaster is a monochromator-based wide-field microscope system for measuring ratio-fluorescence or fluorescence dye intensity of labeled proteins in nanomolar concentrations. Ratio-fluorescence microscopy is the ultimate tool to study dynamic events in live cells and cellular structures. Unlike conventional intensity based fluorescence microscopy, ratio-fluorescence eliminates the effects of photo-bleaching, cell path length variation, non-uniformity of dye loading, non-uniform field of view, making ratio-fluorescence the most accurate method to determine intracellular ion concentrations. More importantly, PTI RatioMaster is fast enough to provide essential dynamic information about ion concentrations and interactions with other molecules, drugs or added reagents. The PTI RatioMaster is capable of dynamic ratio fluorescence measurements on a millisecond timescale. A xenon arc lamp provides high intensity, continuous broadband illumination. Alternating excitation wavelengths are selected ...
Description DNA Dye Non-Toxic products from Biocrede represent a new and safe class of nucleic acid stains for the visualization of double-stranded DNA, singl
Fluorescence microscopy is ideal for intracellular ion measurements and the most common of these measurements is intracellular calcium imaging measurements. Two of the most popular dyes for calcium imaging are Fura-2 and Indo-1. PTI EasyRatioPro is a monochromator-based wide-field microscope system for measuring ratio-fluorescence or fluorescence dye intensity of labeled proteins in nanomolar concentrations. Ratio-fluorescence microscopy is the ultimate tool to study dynamic events in live cells and cellular structures. Unlike conventional intensity based fluorescence microscopy, ratio-fluorescence eliminates the effects of photo-bleaching, cell path length variation, non-uniformity of dye loading, non-uniform field of view, making ratio-fluorescence the most accurate method to determine intracellular ion concentrations. More importantly, PTI EasyRatioPro is fast enough to provide essential dynamic information about ion concentrations and interactions with other molecules, drugs or added ...
IHC staining was visualized with a fluorescent microscope (Olympus BX51), and images were taken with a digital camera (Olympus DP30BW) using appropriate filters for different fluorophores or bright-field illumination for DAB stain. Identical images were taken for double IHC, overlaid, and pseudocolored using Olympus Software and Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems). Contrast and brightness were adjusted for fluorescent signals with Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems) for better visualization of neurons.. For Ad-iZ/EGFPf tracing from LepRb neurons in the DMH, we analyzed four mice with correct injections into the DMH and showed representative images of projection sites in the mPOA, DMH, PVN, and rRPa in Figure 4.. For FG tracing experiments, we focused our analysis on the mPOA and DMH/DHA to investigate colocalization of LepRb neurons with FG-traced neurons from the RMR/rRPa (n = 4), DMH/DHA (n = 3), or PVN (n = 2). Representative images were shown for the DMH/DHA and mPOA, and, in some cases, we ...
Dual-channel fluorometer for personal quantitation workflow. Designed to provide highly sensitive fluorescent detection when quantifying nucleic acids, the compact instrument is simple to operate. The Quantus Fluorometer is optimized with preprogrammed settings for Promega QuantiFluor™ Dye Systems to quantitate nucleic acids and offers the flexibility to create customized methods and quantitation settings for other fluorescent dyes. ...
Method for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used
Chromeo 505 is a bright green fluorescent dye that replaces fluorescein, FITC, Alexa 500, Dylight 505 or other dyes that are excitable at 488 nm. Chromeo 505 and its conjugates are bright, photostable and compatible with standard fluorescent microscopes.
Solon, Ohio (PRWEB) May 06, 2013 -- DNA quantitation is crucial to experimental design and interpretation of results, especially in sensitive molecular biology
Chromeo 642 is a bright dark-red fluorescent dye that replaces Cy5, Alexa 647, DyLight 649 or other dyes that are excitable from 630 nm-650 nm. Chromeo 642 and its conjugates are bright, photostable and compatible with standard fluorescent microscopes.
Contrast agents play an important role in the study of biological tissues and whole organisms, since they enable visualization of functional structures. Fluorescent contrast agents also enable specific targeting in therapeutic approaches. Developing optimized contrast agents is central to optimizing the performance of both imaging and therapy. The ideal contrast agent for optical microscopy combines high resolution, specific targeting of functional groups, 3D imaging (depth resolution), low toxicity, low bleaching (long observation time at high signal), and high signal to noise (low background). Traditional organic dyes and fluorescent proteins are excited in the ultraviolet (UV) or blue spectral region, and emit at a longer-wavelength that is Stokes-shifted. The use of the short-wavelength excitation leads to a short penetration depth of the excitation light and give rise to autofluorescence, photobleaching and photodamage to biological specimens. It is thus primarily suited to pathological and ...
A toxin is used to introduce an otherwise cell-impermeant fluorophore-antibody (or some thing which is equally specific) to bind to an intracellular protein which allows for super resolution imaging and single particle tracking inside the living cell.
Current techniques for observing the cytoskeleton can be difficult to get into living cells, can be toxic, and are usually limited in resolution and duration, since the signal wears off over time. A common technique is fluorescence microscopy, where fluorescent molecules (probes) are attached to cell structures and then lit up against a dark background.. The team of Kai Johnsson at EPFL has developed novel fluorescent probes that can easily enter live cells, are non-toxic, have long-lasting signals, and most importantly, offer unprecedented image resolution. In 2013, the researchers developed a fluorescent molecule called silicon-rhodamine (SiR), which switches on only when it binds to the charged surface of a protein like the ones found on the cytoskeleton. When SiR switches on, it emits light at far-red wavelengths.. The challenge was getting SiR to bind specifically to the cytoskeletons proteins, actin and tubulin. To achieve this, the scientists fused SiR molecules with compounds ...
MilliporeSigma offers a versatile range of dyes for microscopy, including high-quality Certistain® dyes, fluorescence dyes, dry dyes and dye mixtures.
Abnormal concentrations of ATP are associated with many diseases and cancers, and quantitative detection of ATP is thus of great importance for disease diagnosis and prognosis. In the present work, we report a new dual recycling amplification sensor integrated with catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) to achieve high sensitivity for fluorescent detection of ATP. The association of the target ATP with the aptamer beacons causes the allosteric structure switching of the aptamer beacons to expose the toehold regions, which hybridize with and unfold the fluorescently quenched hairpin signal probes (HP1) to recycle the target ATP and to trigger CHA between HP1 and the secondary hairpin probes (HP2) to form HP1/HP2 duplexes ...
We have synthesized a novel functionalized pillar[5]arene (PC5) and used it for fluorescent detection of iron ions (Fe³⁺). It displays a specificity response for iron ions over other common cations (Hg²⁺, Co²⁺, Ca²⁺, Ni²⁺, Pb²⁺, Cd²⁺, Zn²⁺, Cr³⁺, Cu²⁺, Mg²⁺ and Ag⁺) in a solution of DMSO/THF (1 : 4, v/v). Competitive cations did not show any significant changes in emission intensity and the fluore ...
Designed as an automated assay on the Leica Biosystems BOND RX Research Advanced Staining System, this new assay enables single-molecule detection of up to four RNA targets simultaneously. Ideal for co-localization and co-expression studies, the assay and RNAscope® LS 2.5 Probes are available for application in your own lab and via ACDs Pharma Assay Services.
We are interested in designing and building small molecules to measure or manipulate biological systems. Our laboratory synthesizes bright fluorescent labels that enable the imaging of individual molecules in living cells. We also develop fluorogenic probes where the chemical and photophysical properties can be masked by assorted molecular functionalities and then unmasked by a user-designated process involving light, enzymatic activity, or environmental changes. This chemical masking suppresses unwanted fluorescence signals, thereby functioning as a filter for bioimaging and other experiments. Combining these novel compounds with advances in instrumentation, protein engineering, and genetic manipulation allows us to devise sophisticated ways to illuminate complex biological systems.. ...
Fluorescent Dyes , Reactive Fluorescent Dyes , HiLyte Fluor 647 amine; HiLyte Fluor 647 amine is a carbonyl-reactive fluorescent labeling dye that generates the conjugates that are slightly red-shifted compared to those of Cy5 dyes, resulting in an optimal match to filters designed for Cy5 dye. Its conjugate may have better performance than Cy5 for fluorescence polarization-based assays. Extinction Coefficient (M-1cm-1): 250,000 Fluorescence quantum yield: 0.33 Fluorescence Life Time (ns): 1.0
This application note describes a Multicolour Fluorescent Western Blot allowing the detection of multiple proteins on the same blot, without stripping and reprobing, with final quantative, straightforward and accurate analysis. The FluorChem Q, a CCD-based detection platform is able to rapidly and easily perform traditional chemiluminescent and multicolour fluorescent detection.
Each microsphere is dyed with three different fluorescent dyes with excitation maxima of 377, 517 and 588nm, and emission maxima of 479, 546 and 612nm.
Except values of excitation and emission maxima, solubility in water and values of quantum yield of fluorescent label, photostability of both indicator alone and its conjugates and minimal effect of indicator during fragmentation analysis of biomolecules are also important for its practical use. With respect to these facts, labels based on BODIPY excel, because they exhibit better photostability then fluorescein and have minimal effect on mobility of fragments during DNA sequencing. We have developed conjugate of BODIPY with dibenzazocine molecule which is able to bind spontaneously to proteins or nucleic acids bearing azido group and formed covalently labelled molecules. Designed system then can be used for monitoring of proteosynthesis or synthesis of oligonucleotides as key factors of correct function of cells, enzymes or processes such as proliferation and apoptosis. By this way it can be possible to indicate various pathological changes. For this reason, the mentioned system can be used for ...
Overwhelmed with complicated flow cytometry panel design? Learn how you can simplify your panel design by incorporating new dyes.
Main Page , Multiple Labeling. It is often useful to be able to stain for two or more antigens in one common tissue section. This can be achieved by immunofluorescence method using different fluorescent dyes. Multiple staining can also be done with peroxidase conjugated antibodies developed with different chromogen substrates to produce the end products of different colors. There are three basic approaches in planning multiple staining: parallel, sequential and adjacent. In addition, the antibody dilution and condition are also important factors to be considered. Finally, appropriate color combination is also crucial since improper color combination may produce poor result and fail to demonstrate multiple antigens in the same section. For best result, the careful design and test of multiple staining protocols are necessary.. ...
Various liposome products are available for bioscience research and drug delivery. The liposome products include various liposome research tools and liposomes encapsulated with drugs, fluorescence dyes and biomolecules.
A standard material that is used for judging an abnormal portion in a particle analyzer is described. The standard material comprises first standard particles to be fluorescence-stained by a fluorescence-staining treatment and second standard particles that have preliminarily contained a fluorescence dye.A method and an analyzer that can judge an abnormal portion in a particle analyzer by using such a standard material are also described.
TECHNOLOGY (INVENTION) DESCRIPTION: We introduce an expanding family of non-planar (3D structured) cationic dyes with interesting fluorescent properties that are markedly environment sensitive (e.g. DNA, proteins, heparin, membranes). Our library of 1500 dyes is based on 19 skeletal structures, which are easily modified by standard commercially available chemicals to achieve favourable properties. Our compounds are being screened in various applications such as flow cytometry and microscopy. Strong non-linear optical properties of dyes and their applications in microscopy or spectroscopy are under investigation.. ...
Dear all, in the light of on-going conversation about compensation I would also like to ask a theoretical, but very confusing question. Please accept my apologies for a long text, I really dont know how to explain my question shortly. I wonder how computer calculates proper compensation in a situation when particle is stained with two fluorochromes A and B and both fluorochromes send their signal into two channels (like FITC & PE combination)? On my opinion to calculate proper compensation the one must know true (it means already compensated) number in a first place. Ill try to explain what I mean. Assume that you have a particle stained with fluorochromes A and B. After doing compensation controls with only one dye at a time you find out that A spills over into B for 20% and B spills over into A for 10%. After running double positive (AB positive) particle through flow cytometer youll get a non-compensated data where A signal equals to 3000 and B signal equals to 10000. ...
The Muse® Count & Viability Kit 200X - 100 Tests (Part Number: MCH100104) was developed for absolute cell count and viability determination of difficult cell samples. It is designed to address the need for a compatible reagent for non-mammalian cell lines, such as SF-9 insect cells. These cells prefer significantly lower pH and higher osmolarity than mammalian cells for optimal viability. The reagent contains the same fluorescent DNA-binding dyes used in the Muse Count & Viability Kit, but in a highly concentrated formulation. These dyes have differential permeability to viable and non-viable cells, and provide absolute cell count and viability data on cell suspensions from a variety of cultured cell lines. Both viable and non-viable cells are differentially stained based on their permeability to the DNA-binding dyes in the reagent. Data generated using the Guava® Muse® Cell Analyzer with the Muse Software provides:. ...
On 21 Nov 2006 10:42:15 -0800, Lechu ,lech_kaczmarczyk At yahoo.com, wrote: , What you would reccommed as an alternative to ECL systems + standard , autoradiography film? I start to find film developing pretty boring , and time-consuming, and I always have problems with the right , adjustment of exposure time to get reproducible results. Lifetime of , luminescence is also pretty short. Any suggestions as for reasonable , alternatives? Maybe some fluorescence-based methods? you could use regular substrate-enzyme colour developing methods... (please check up the substrates for alkaline phosphatase and HRP in Molecular Cloning by Sambrook and Maniatis; I dont remember it on the top of my head ...been a while since I used them.)....they work well, if you have high specificity antibodies. Alternatively, you could use the Licor machine, if you have access to it, which uses some special IR tagged secondaries.... I have seen a demo of it, and havent really used it myself to particularly know how ...
Novel Peptide Sequence -IQ-tag- with High Affinity for NIR Fluorochromes Allows Protein and Cell Specific Labeling for In Vivo Imaging. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Fluorescent Dyes[edit]. Hi Shaddack, I came across a few of your articles on Fluorescernt dyes. I have a product I'm working on ... that will require that I can apply a fluorescent dye to Cyanoacrylate (super glue), so that when combined, the two materials ... We have not been able to find an existing dye that would be compatible with cynoacrylate. Can you help? ... Perhaps you can verify/correct my guesses at the spectrum of the origin of the peaks in light from fluorescent tubes?[3]-- ...
Fluorescent dye uses[edit]. Colorless fluorescent dyes that emit blue light under UV are added as optical brighteners to paper ... UV fluorescent dyes are used in many applications (for example, biochemistry and forensics). Some brands of pepper spray will ... UV fluorescent dyes that glow in the primary colors are used in paints, papers, and textiles either to enhance color under ... In some types of nondestructive testing UV stimulates fluorescent dyes to highlight defects in a broad range of materials. ...
... (CFSE) is a fluorescent cell staining dye. CFSE is cell permeable and covalently couples ... Parish CR (December 1999). "Fluorescent dyes for lymphocyte migration and proliferation studies". Immunology and Cell Biology. ... CFSE was originally developed as a fluorescent dye that could be used to stably label lymphocytes and track their migration ... Parish CR, Glidden MH, Quah BJ, Warren HS (February 2009). "Use of the intracellular fluorescent dye CFSE to monitor lymphocyte ...
The intention of Molecular Probes was to make available for research purposes fluorescent dyes that would be of utility for ... His research at Stanford was a combination of organic synthesis of novel fluorescent dyes and experimental proofs of the theory ... was an American scientist noted for his work in researching and commercializing fluorescent dyes.[1] He completed his PhD at ... he continued the synthesis of novel fluorescent dyes and did fluorescence-based studies of contractile proteins. ...
In plant science, fluorescein, and other fluorescent dyes, have been used to monitor and study plant vasculature, particularly ... Other green dyes include Oregon Green, Tokyo Green, SNAFL, and carboxynaphthofluorescein. These dyes, along with newer ... The dye is able to be taken up into the plant the same way as water and moves from the roots to the top of the plant due to a ... Fluorescein is a fluorophore commonly used in microscopy, in a type of dye laser as the gain medium, in forensics and serology ...
"Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels". Nature Methods. 5 (9): 763-775. doi:10.1038/nmeth.1248. PMID 18756197. ... owing to the high extinction coefficient combined with a comparable quantum yield to fluorescent dyes[46]) as well as their ... However, as technology advances, greater flexibility in these dyes is sought.[45] To this end, quantum dots have quickly filled ... A conventional color liquid crystal display (LCD) is usually backlit by fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) or conventional white LEDs ...
Historically, artificially dyeing fish was common. Glassfish, in particular, were often injected with fluorescent dyes.[21] The ... The tail is cut off and dye is injected into the body.[23] The piece also included the first documented evidence to demonstrate ... Hong Kong suppliers were offering a service in which fish could be tattooed with company logos or messages using a dye laser; ... that parrot cichlids are injected with coloured dye. ...
Biological samples are often treated with fluorescent dyes to make selected objects visible. However, the actual dye ... The authors speculate about fluorescent dyes for in vivo investigations. They cite Minsky's patent, thank Steve Baer, at the ... Also, transgenic techniques can create organisms that produce their own fluorescent chimeric molecules (such as a fusion of GFP ... animations and explanations on various types of microscopes including fluorescent and confocal microscopes. (Université Paris ...
Fragmented nucleic acid sequences of target, labelled with fluorescent dyes.. *A detection system that records and interprets ...
... the virus particles separate the fluorescent dyes used for signalling to prevent the formation of non-fluorescent dimers that ... Fluorescent signal amplification of carbocyanine dyes using engineered viral nanoparticles. Journal of the American Chemical ...
Fluorescent dyes are used to label cellular compartments for a similar purpose.[44] ... Proteins in different cellular compartments and structures tagged with green fluorescent protein (here, white) ... such as attachment of fluorescent probes to amino acid side chains.[14] These methods are useful in laboratory biochemistry and ... such as green fluorescent protein (GFP).[42] The fused protein's position within the cell can be cleanly and efficiently ...
Fluorescent dyes are used to label cellular compartments for a similar purpose.[48] ... Margolin W (January 2000). "Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for macromolecular localization in bacterial cells". ... Proteins in different cellular compartments and structures tagged with green fluorescent protein (here, white) ... such as attachment of fluorescent probes to amino acid side chains.[18] These methods are useful in laboratory biochemistry and ...
In contrast to Thermofluor, no external fluorescent dye is needed because the flavin cofactor is already present in the flavin- ... suitable fluorescent dye; a suitable assay plate, such as 96 well RT-PCR plate. Compound solutions: Test ligands are prepared ... 0.5-5 μM protein with dye into a suitable assay buffer. The exact concentrations of protein and dye are defined by experimental ... A prominent advantage is that no reporter dyes are required to be added as tryptophan is an intrinsic part of the protein. This ...
... fluorescent dyes (highly sensitive, safe, expensive).[61] Instruments built to resolve microsatellite fragments by capillary ... electrophoresis also use fluorescent dyes.[61] Forensic profiles are stored in major databanks. The British data base for ... Lászik, A; Brinkmann, B; Sótonyi, P; Palus, A (2000). "Automated fluorescent detection of a 10 loci multiplex for paternity ... or an intercalating dye such as ethidium bromide (fairly sensitive, moderate health risks, inexpensive), or as most modern ...
... typically labeled with a fluorescent dye, are added to the array. Any reaction between the probe and the immobilised protein ... In this technology, an array of microwells on a glass/polymer chip are seeded with magnetic beads (coated with fluorescent ... This limits interferences due to auto-fluorescence of the nitrocellulose at the UV wavelengths used for standard fluorescent ... These antibodies are typically detected with chemiluminescent, fluorescent or colorimetric assays. Reference peptides are ...
... (6-FAM) is a fluorescent dye with an absorption wavelength of 495 nm and an emission wavelength of 517 nm ... Parish, Christopher (December 1999). "Fluorescent dyes for lymphocyte migration and proliferation studies". Immunology and Cell ... The dyes are membrane-impermeant and can be loaded into cells by microinjection or scrape loading. It can be incorporated into ...
Resch-Genger, Ute; Grabolle; Cavaliere-Jaricot; Nitschke; Nann (August 2008). "Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent ... anti-counterfeiting dyes and paints, chemical sensing, and fluorescent tagging. However, unmodified quantum dots tend to be ... CdSe QDs have been shown to possess optical properties superior to organic dyes. The ZnS shell has a two-fold effect: to ... Cell Influence and Imaging Adding iron oxide nanoparticles to the QD micelles allows them to be fluorescent and magnetic. These ...
Boiling a solution of Nile blue with sulfuric acid produces Nile red (Nile blue oxazone). Nile blue is a fluorescent dye. The ... "Benzophenoxazine-based fluorescent dyes for labeling biomolecules" (PDF). Tetrahedron. 62 (48): 11021. doi:10.1016/j.tet. ... These dyes aggregate in the tumor cells, especially in the lipid membranes, and/or are sequestered and concentrated in ... Nile Blue and related naphthoxazinium dyes can be prepared by acid-catalyzed condensation of either 5-(dialkylamino)-2- ...
Hartley, BS; V Massey (1956). "The active center of chymotrypsin: 1. Labelling with a fluorescent dye". Biochimica et ... Some of the values are used to estimate the extent of success in attempts to conjugate the dye to a protein. Other values may ... or blue-green-fluorescent sulfonamide adducts. It can also be made to react with secondary amines. Dansyl chloride is widely ...
Any evidence of fluorescent dye then pinpoints the leaking part which needs replacement. ... Fluorescent black light tubes are typically made in the same fashion as normal fluorescent tubes except that a phosphor that ... the detection of substances tagged with fluorescent dyes, rock-hunting, the detection of counterfeit money, the curing of ... Two black light fluorescent tubes, showing use. The top is a F15T8/BLB 18-inch, 15-watt tube, used in a standard plug-in ...
Any evidence of fluorescent dye then pinpoints the leaking part which needs replacement. Blacklight poster List of light ... Fluorescent black light tubes are typically made in the same fashion as normal fluorescent tubes except that a phosphor that ... the detection of substances tagged with fluorescent dyes, rock-hunting, the detection of counterfeit money, the curing of ... BLB fluorescent lamps tend to run with efficiencies in the 25% range, with an example being a Phillips 40W BLB T12 lamp ...
... the virus particles separate the fluorescent dyes used for signalling to prevent the formation of non-fluorescent dimers that ... Soto CM, Blum AS, Vora GJ, et al.. Fluorescent signal amplification of carbocyanine dyes using engineered viral nanoparticles. ...
... the virus particles separate the fluorescent dyes used for signaling in order to prevent the formation of non-fluorescent ... Soc., 125, 3192 (2003). Fluorescent signal amplification of carbocyanine dyes using engineered viral nanoparticles. Carissa M. ...
When the particles are exposed to wavelengths of light that correspond to the fluorescent dye, the unhealthy tissue glows. This ... Nanoparticles that are functionalized with fluorescent dyes and marker proteins will congregate in a chosen tissue type. ... by intrinsically fluorescent proteins or by synthetic fluorescent molecules covalently attached to a biomarker of interest. ... For the gain medium, a variety of naturally produced fluorescent proteins can be used in different laser structure[11]. ...
These proteins can be stained with fluorescent dye labeled antibodies and detected using flow cytometry. The limit of detection ...
The first major class of antibiotics was the sulfa drugs, derived by German chemists originally from azo dyes. ... gene rearrangements studies and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) fall within the territory of pathology. ... discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1908 after he observed that bacteria took up toxic dyes that human cells did not. ...
The fluorescent dyes provided in the kits are retained in cells by reacting with cellular components. For viable cells, only ... the reactive dyes react with cell surface amines and intracellular amines, resulting in more intense fluorescent staining. The ... the cell-surface amines are available to react with the dyes while for the necrotic cells or the other cells with compromised ...
Note: See fluorescent_dye for more definitions.). Quick definitions from WordNet (fluorescent dye). ▸ noun: a yellow dye that ... Fluorescent dyes: Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia [home, info] Medicine (2 matching dictionaries). *Fluorescent Dyes: Medical ... Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "fluorescent dyes" is defined. General (1 matching ... Search for fluorescent dyes on Google or Wikipedia Search completed in 0.025 seconds.. Home Reverse Dictionary Customize Browse ...
... wrightr at ZOOLOGY.WASHINGTON.EDU wrightr at ZOOLOGY.WASHINGTON.EDU Sat Jul 24 19:37:08 EST 1993 * ... When a dye molecule is bleached, another from the external pool can exchange with it. Let us know how the staining goes. Robin ... We think that what we see represents an equilibrium of dye moving in and out of various lipophilic compartments in the cell. ...
Synonyms of fluorescent dye. Find synonyms for:. Noun. 1. fluorescein, fluoresceine, fluorescent dye, resorcinolphthalein, dye ... usage: a yellow dye that is visible even when highly diluted; used as an absorption indicator when silver nitrate solution is ...
fluorescent dye: Vocabulary.com [home, info] *fluorescent dye: Dictionary.com [home, info] *Fluorescent dye: Wikipedia, the ... fluorescent dye: Free Dictionary [home, info] *fluorescent dye: Mnemonic Dictionary [home, info] *fluorescent dye: WordNet 1.7 ... Note: See fluorescent_dyes for more definitions.). Quick definitions from WordNet (fluorescent dye). ▸ noun: a yellow dye that ... fluorescent dye: Encyclopedia [home, info] Medicine (1 matching dictionary). *fluorescent dye: Medical dictionary [home, info] ...
... Leech neurons stained with voltage-sensitive dye. ... When the dyed cells are exposed to light, neuronal firing causes the dye momentarily to glow more brightly, a flash that can be ... The new method employs dyes that penetrate only the membrane of neurons, either in in vitro cells cultured with the dye or, for ... San Diego School of Medicine have created a new generation of fast-acting fluorescent dyes that optically highlight electrical ...
Two new fluorescent dyes attracted to cancer cells may help neurosurgeons more accurately localize and completely resect brain ... Green and Near-Infrared Fluorescent Dyes Make Cancer Cells Glow... CLR1501 and CLR1502 are synthetic analogs of the tumor- ... Fluorescent dyes light up brain cancer cells, reports Neurosurgery New agents show promise for fluorescence-guided tumor ... Used during surgery for brain cancer, these fluorescent dyes could help neurosurgeons to locate the tumor and to resect it as ...
Fluorescent dye-coated nanoparticles could be used to target and turn off disease-related genes. To test this concept, a team ... Fluorescent Dyes Target Disease Genes. EuroPhotonics. Mar 2015 JENA, Germany - Fluorescent dye-coated nanoparticles could be ... The biodegradable polymer nanoparticles were covered with near-infrared fluorescent polymethine dyes that made it possible to ... But the dyes also play another key function: Because they mimic a cellular transporter of liver epithelial cells, the liver ...
Not all fluorescent calcium indicators can be measured in a standard confocal microscope. An UV laser is not usually installed ... In general, any fluorescent microscope with the required excitation/emission lasers/filters can be adjusted for measuring ... Different brands and models of microscope offer different settings, so choose a fluorescent calcium indicator that suits yours ...
... fluorescent dye; wavelength effective; single fluorescent; fluorescence emissions; specific chromosomes; fluorescent emission; ... Chromosomes are characterized by fluorescent emissions from a single fluorescent dye that is excited over two different ... chromosome; characterization; single; fluorescent; dye; chromosomes; characterized; emissions; excited; wavelengths; mixture; ... The fluorescent dye is excited sequentially by a first light having a wavelength in the ultraviolet range to excite the TOTO or ...
Swager, who is head of the chemistry department, and colleagues developed the new dye, called NIAD-4, through a targeted design ... To make the technique truly noninvasive, scientists must further refine the dye so it fluoresces at a slightly longer ... But now MIT scientists have a promising injectable dye that could light up amyloid plaques characteristic of the disease:. ...
Atto labels represent a comprehensive series of fluorescent labels for biomolecules, which are designed for highest sensitivity ... The Atto dyes are a series of fluorescent dyes that meet the critical needs of modern fluorescent technologies:. *Enhanced ... With the extensive selection available, Atto dyes can replace commonly used fluorescent dyes. There are Atto dyes suitable for ... Atto Dye Conjugates. Activated fluorescent dyes are routinely used to tag proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules for ...
ATTO-TEC® has developed the second generation of fluorescent dyes which are stable at room temperature for more than six months ... With Atto 520, Atto 565 and Atto 590 we are pleased to offer three stable fluorescent dyes as amine-reactive succinimidyl ... ATTO-TEC® Stable activated fluorescent dyes at room temperature (RT). 19.10.2001 ... Further stable activated fluorescent probes including Atto 610, Atto 655 and Atto 680 will be also available shortly. ...
Controlling the excited electronic states in luminescent systems remains a challenge in the development of fluorescent and ... phosphorescent dyes. Now, scientists in Japan have developed a unique org ... ... Smart Fluorescent Dyes. Smart Fluorescent Dyes. Modulating photo- and electroluminescence in a stimuli-responsive molecular dye ... excited electronic states in luminescent systems remains a challenge in the development of fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes ...
... evaluated 19 fluorescent DNA-binding dyes and identified four dyes that were not harmful to cells and could not cross the cell ... dna-binding-fluorescent-dyes-detect-real-time-cell-toxicity-during-drug-screening/. 1438/. ... DNA-binding fluorescent dyes detect real-time cell toxicity during drug screening. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering ... A novel technique that uses DNA-binding fluorescent dyes to evaluate the cytotoxicity of an experimental compound in real-time ...
... as a fluorescent dye for a linear hydrolysis probe used in qPCR.... ... This is the first report describing the possibility of using a green fluorescent protein chromophore synthetic analog, P-HOBDI- ... as a fluorescent dye for a linear hydrolysis probe used in qPCR. The study was carried out on a system for detection of the ... It was demonstrated that a synthetic dye based on the P-HOBDI-BF2 chromophore can be used for labeling hydrolysis probes for ...
Looking for MAGNAFLUX Fluorescent Dye Penetrant Kit (52YX12)? Graingers got your back. Price:$2332.00. Easy ordering & ... Magnaflux® Fluorescent Dye Penetrant Kit comes with dyes, a UV light, and other accessories to help you find the tiniest cracks ... Highly sensitive fluorescent dyes comply with most military specifications for fluorescent inspection. ...
Fluorescent dyes for multiphoton bio-imaging applications Author(s): Katherine J. Schafer; Sheng Yao; Kevin D. Belfield; Joel M ... Fluorescent dyes and probes are key components in multiphoton based fluorescence microscopy imaging of biological samples. ... While many commercially available fluorescent dyes have sufficed, most exhibit relatively low two-photon absorption (2PA) cross ... In order to address the demand for better performing dyes for two-photon based imaging, we have prepared a new series of ...
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In vivo tracking of bone marrow fibroblasts with fluorescent carbocyanine dye.. Ferrari A1, Hannouche D, Oudina K, Bourguignon ... We used a fluorescent lipophilic probe, CM-Dil, that avidly binds to the cell membrane. Human bone marrow stromal fibroblasts ...
Full spectral range of DyLight Dyes as NHS ester-activated reagents to label antibodies (protein amines) as probes for ... NHS ester activated proprietary blue fluorescent dye. Sufficient For. 5 uses to label a total of 3mg of IgG using typical ... Thermo Scientific™ Amine-Reactive DyLight Dyes are NHS ester-activated DyLight Fluors for fluorescent labeling of antibodies ... The DyLight Dyes exhibit higher fluorescence intensity and photostability than Alexa™, CyDye™ and LI-COR™ Dyes in many ...
This fluorescent tracer dye is for traditional coolant systems and pinpoints the exact location of coolant fluid leaks. Locate ... Can I use fluorescent tracer dye for leak detection?. *Yes, tracer dye is a great tool for leak detection. The dye will be ... ACDelco Coolant System Fluorescent Tracer Dye is a fluorescent leak-detection dye for traditional coolant systems. This ... ACDelco Coolant System Fluorescent Tracer Dye can be used with DEX-COOL coolants, but it may change the color of the coolants. ...
... researchers have developed a way to adjust the properties of fluorescent dyes deliberately, resultin ... The team developed the Janelia Fluor (JF) series of dyes - fluorescent molecules up to 50 times brighter than other dyes and ... Broader Palette of Fluorescent Dyes Could Advance Biological Imaging. Photonics.com. Oct 2017 ASHBURN, Va., Oct. 19, 2017 - To ... For their work, researchers at Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) focused on rhodamines, a family of fluorescent dyes that ...
"Having two color sources allows researchers to tag the sample with two dyes," said Sands. "One dye serves as a control to ... When light within a certain wavelength range hits a specific dye, the dye becomes "excited" and emits its own light, usually at ... Engineers create lab-on-a-chip using fluorescent dye to detect toxins ... For example, a dye that is excited by blue light at about 490 nanometers emits a green light in a range of 510-530 nanometers. ...
Angewandte Chemie »Chemie »STED microscopy »Yamaguchi »biological systems »dye »fluorescence »fluorescent »fluorescent dyes » ... photodegradation of fluorescent dyes becomes a serious issue. Representative photoresistant fluorescent dyes such as Alexa ... a plant biologist have developed a new fluorescent dye, C-Naphox that has enhanced photostability relative to conventional dyes ... A new photostable fluorescent dye for super resolution microscopy could serve as a powerful tool to visualize biological events ...
  • For viable cells, only the cell-surface amines are available to react with the dyes while for the necrotic cells or the other cells with compromised membranes, the reactive dyes react with cell surface amines and intracellular amines, resulting in more intense fluorescent staining. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The fluorescent dyes provided in the kits are retained in cells by reacting with cellular components. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Among the reactive dyes, amine-reactive dyes are most often used to prepare various bioconjugates for immunochemistry, histochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), cell tracing, receptor binding and other biological applications since amino groups are either abundant or easily introduced into biomolecules. (biomol.com)
  • Amine-reactive dyes are most often used to prepare bioconjugates for immunochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), cell tracing, receptor labeling and fluorescent analog cytochemistry. (biomol.com)
  • However, current monitoring methods fall short, said the study's first author Evan W. Miller, a post-doctoral researcher in the lab of Roger Tsien, PhD, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, UC San Diego professor of pharmacology, chemistry and biochemistry and 2008 Nobel Prize co-winner in chemistry for his work on green fluorescent protein. (ucsd.edu)
  • Additionally, the water solubility of the DyLight Dyes allows a high dye-to-protein ratio without precipitation during conjugation. (fishersci.ca)
  • Chromeo Py-Dyes have been shown to work efficiently and with high sensitivity in different methods of protein electrophoresis. (activemotif.com)
  • The labeled protein is ready to use immediately, and any possible background from unbound dye is eliminated. (activemotif.com)
  • Because of their unique features, Chromeo Py-Dyes (Chromeo P429, P503, P540 and P543) have been used successfully in a number of "no-wash" applications such capillary electrophoresis, SDS-protein gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing or as a label in receptor binding studies. (activemotif.com)
  • Amine-reactive pyrylium dyes have been used as a pre-stain in protein electrophoresis. (activemotif.com)
  • The mutant form GGBP/H152C of the D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein with the solvatochromic dye BADAN linked to cysteine residue Cys 152 can be used as a potential base for a sensitive element of glucose biosensor system. (peerj.com)
  • Green fluorescent protein - EGFP redirects here. (enacademic.com)
  • Yellow fluorescent protein - (YFP) is a genetic mutant of green fluorescent protein, derived from Aequorea victoria. (enacademic.com)
  • Fluorescent fusions of the N protein of phage Mu label DNA damage in living cells. (viictr.org)
  • Dyes for analysis of protein aggregation WO 2011/065980 A2, 03.06.2011. (org.ua)
  • Use of squaraine dyes to visualize protein during separations // Patent Application Publication WO 2008/027821 A1, 06.03.2008. (org.ua)
  • These fluorophores bind via a vinyl sulfone functional unit to amines and thiols under slightly basic condition rendering an antibody, protein marker, or other moeity fluorescent to aid in microscope visualization. (akinainc.com)
  • When the protein unfolds, the exposed hydrophobic surfaces bind the dye, resulting in an increase in fluorescence by excluding water. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASHBURN, Va., Oct. 19, 2017 - To better illuminate the inner workings of cells, researchers have developed a way to adjust the properties of fluorescent dyes deliberately, resulting in an expanded palette of dyes that are bolder, brighter and more cell-permeable. (photonics.com)
  • A new photostable fluorescent dye for super resolution microscopy could serve as a powerful tool to visualize biological events and structural details in living cells at real-time for prolonged recording periods. (innovations-report.com)
  • Yet, the gradual degradation of fluorescent dyes when exposed to the high intensity light necessary for super resolution microscopy has been a major obstacle for long-term observations. (innovations-report.com)
  • Representative photoresistant fluorescent dyes such as Alexa Fluor® 488 and ATTO 488 are also known to encounter photodegradation in STED microscopy, making it difficult to conduct continuous live-imaging of biological systems while retaining high resolution. (innovations-report.com)
  • Vio® Dyes represent a family of fluorochromes for flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy developed by Miltenyi Biotec. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • According to the self-association properties of the dyes and to the experimental conditions used, the nano- and microcrystals obtained exhibited different sizes and shapes, as observed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. (coursehero.com)
  • Strong non-linear optical properties of dyes and their applications in microscopy or spectroscopy are under investigation. (biospot.eu)
  • Furthermore, strong non-linear optical behavior of compounds increases potential of development of innovative application of dyes combining linear and non-linear optical microscopy methods. (biospot.eu)
  • With the extensive selection available, Atto dyes can replace commonly used fluorescent dyes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The commonly used fluorescent dye YOYO-1 (YOYO) has, using bulk techniques, been demonstrated to stain DNA heterogeneously at substoichiometric concentrations. (chalmers.se)
  • In contrast to a majority of established organic dyes used in bio-imaging, our dyes are significantly non-planar. (biospot.eu)
  • From simple organelle specific dyes for imaging cell structure and determining cell viability, to more complex dyes and reporter assays for monitoring cell signaling, death pathways, and toxicity, every product is developed and reliably manufactured to provide sensitivity, specificity, and convenience. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Multi-color organelle-specific dyes for co-localization studies and monitoring changes in cell structure. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Confocal fluorescence imaging of streptavidin-coated polystyrene microspheres (2 μm diameter) conjugated with biotinylated ODN3 duplex (left) or ODN3 duplex labeled with Cy3 (center) or Cy5 (right) FRET acceptor dyes. (nih.gov)
  • In order to address the demand for better performing dyes for two-photon based imaging, we have prepared a new series of reactive fluorophores tailored for multiphoton imaging. (spie.org)
  • The Invitrogen™ eBioscience™ Super Bright polymer dyes represent a suite of bright fluorophores excited by the violet laser (405 nm). (selectscience.net)
  • The SureColor F9470H also offers businesses the option of printing with two genuine fluorescent inks - Yellow and Pink - which brings bright, vivid colors to the production of sportswear, workwear and fashion items. (digitaloutput.net)
  • The wide house-stock collection containing about 2,000 dyes of various classes (polymethine cyanines, styryles, coumarines, and metallocomplexes) is used as a basis for performing of such studies. (org.ua)