Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.
A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Gelsemiaceae). The sometimes used common name of trumpet flower is also used for DATURA.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
The fluid inside CELLS.
A benzimidazole antifilarial agent; it is fluorescent when it binds to certain nucleotides in DNA, thus providing a tool for the study of DNA replication; it also interferes with mitosis.
A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Relating to the size of solids.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The area within CELLS.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A dye that has been used as an industrial dye, a laboratory indicator, and a biological stain.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (1/15061)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

Single cell studies of enzymatic hydrolysis of a tetramethylrhodamine labeled triglucoside in yeast. (2/15061)

Several hundred molecules of enzyme reaction products were detected in a single spheroplast from yeast cells incubated with a tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) labeled triglucoside, alpha-d-Glc(1-->2)alpha-d-Glc(1-->3)alpha-d-Glc-O(CH2)8CONHCH2- CH2NH- COTMR. Product detection was accomplished using capillary electrophoresis and laser induced fluorescence following the introduction of a single spheroplast into the separation capillary. The in vivo enzymatic hydrolysis of the TMR-trisaccharide involves at least two enzymes, limited by processing alpha-glucosidase I, producing TMR-disaccharide, TMR-monosaccharide, and the free TMR-linking arm. Hydrolysis was reduced by preincubation of the cells with the processing enzyme inhibitor castanospermine. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies confirmed the uptake and internalization of fluorescent substrate. This single cell analysis methodology can be applied for the in vivo assay of any enzyme with a fluorescent substrate.  (+info)

Maintenance of motility in mouse sperm permeabilized with streptolysin O. (3/15061)

One approach to studying the mechanisms governing sperm motility is to permeabilize sperm and examine the regulation of motility by manipulating the intracellular milieu of the cell. The most common method of sperm permeabilization, detergent treatment, has the disadvantage that the membranes and many proteins are extracted from the cell. To avoid this problem, we have developed a method that uses streptolysin O to create stable pores within the plasma membrane while leaving internal membranes intact. Sperm were permeabilized, preincubated, and then treated with 0.6 U/ml of streptolysin O. Permeabilization was assessed by fluorescent dye technologies and endogenous protein phosphorylation using exogenously added [gamma-32P]ATP. Streptolysin O-induced permeabilization rendered the sperm immotile, and the effect was Ca2+-dependent. When the cells were treated simultaneously with a medium containing ATP, streptolysin O-treated sperm maintained flagellar movement. These results demonstrate that the streptolysin O permeabilization model system is a useful experimental method for studying the mechanisms that regulate sperm motility since it allows the flagellar apparatus to be exposed to various exogenously added molecules.  (+info)

Quantification of tumour vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements. (4/15061)

Despite the possibility that tumour hypoxia may limit radiotherapeutic response, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A new methodology has been developed in which information from several sophisticated techniques is combined and analysed at a microregional level. First, tumour oxygen availability is spatially defined by measuring intravascular blood oxygen saturations (HbO2) cryospectrophotometrically in frozen tumour blocks. Second, hypoxic development is quantified in adjacent sections using immunohistochemical detection of a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) to a nitroheterocyclic hypoxia marker (EF5), thereby providing information relating to both the oxygen consumption rates and the effective oxygen diffusion distances. Third, a combination of fluorescent (Hoechst 33342 or DiOC7(3)) and immunohistological (PECAM-1/CD31) stains is used to define the anatomical vascular densities and the fraction of blood vessels containing flow. Using a computer-interfaced microscope stage, image analysis software and a 3-CCD colour video camera, multiple images are digitized, combined to form a photo-montage and revisited after each of the three staining protocols. By applying image registration techniques, the spatial distribution of HbO2 saturations is matched to corresponding hypoxic marker intensities in adjacent sections. This permits vascular configuration to be related to oxygen availability and allows the hypoxic marker intensities to be quantitated in situ.  (+info)

Organ-selective homing defines engraftment kinetics of murine hematopoietic stem cells and is compromised by Ex vivo expansion. (5/15061)

Hematopoietic reconstitution of ablated recipients requires that intravenously (IV) transplanted stem and progenitor cells "home" to organs that support their proliferation and differentiation. To examine the possible relationship between homing properties and subsequent engraftment potential, murine bone marrow (BM) cells were labeled with fluorescent PKH26 dye and injected into lethally irradiated hosts. PKH26(+) cells homing to marrow or spleen were then isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and assayed for in vitro colony-forming cells (CFCs). Progenitors accumulated rapidly in the spleen, but declined to only 6% of input numbers after 24 hours. Although egress from this organ was accompanied by a simultaneous accumulation of CFCs in the BM (plateauing at 6% to 8% of input after 3 hours), spleen cells remained enriched in donor CFCs compared with marrow during this time. To determine whether this differential homing of clonogenic cells to the marrow and spleen influenced their contribution to short-term or long-term hematopoiesis in vivo, PKH26(+) cells were sorted from each organ 3 hours after transplantation and injected into lethally irradiated Ly-5 congenic mice. Cells that had homed initially to the spleen regenerated circulating leukocytes (20% of normal counts) approximately 2 weeks faster than cells that had homed to the marrow, or PKH26-labeled cells that had not been selected by a prior homing step. Both primary (17 weeks) and secondary (10 weeks) recipients of "spleen-homed" cells also contained approximately 50% higher numbers of CFCs per femur than recipients of "BM-homed" cells. To examine whether progenitor homing was altered upon ex vivo expansion, highly enriched Sca-1(+)c-kit+Lin- cells were cultured for 9 days in serum-free medium containing interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, flk-2/flt3 ligand, and thrombopoietin. Expanded cells were then stained with PKH26 and assayed as above. Strikingly, CFCs generated in vitro exhibited a 10-fold reduction in homing capacity compared with fresh progenitors. These studies demonstrate that clonogenic cells with differential homing properties contribute variably to early and late hematopoiesis in vivo. The dramatic decline in the homing capacity of progenitors generated in vitro underscores critical qualitative changes that may compromise their biologic function and potential clinical utility, despite their efficient numerical expansion.  (+info)

Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the Ca2+-induced decline of transmitter release at K+-depolarized motor neuron terminals. (6/15061)

The present study tested whether a Ca2+-induced disruption of mitochondrial function was responsible for the decline in miniature endplate current (MEPC) frequency that occurs with nerve-muscle preparations maintained in a 35 mM potassium propionate (35 mM KP) solution containing elevated calcium. When the 35 mM KP contained control Ca2+ (1 mM), the MEPC frequency increased and remained elevated for many hours, and the mitochondria within twitch motor neuron terminals were similar in appearance to those in unstimulated terminals. All nerve terminals accumulated FM1-43 when the dye was present for the final 6 min of a 300-min exposure to 35 mM KP with control Ca2+. In contrast, when Ca2+ was increased to 3.6 mM in the 35 mM KP solution, the MEPC frequency initially reached frequencies >350 s-1 but then gradually fell approaching frequencies <50 s-1. A progressive swelling and eventual distortion of mitochondria within the twitch motor neuron terminals occurred during prolonged exposure to 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+. After approximately 300 min in 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+, only 58% of the twitch terminals accumulated FM1-43. The decline in MEPC frequency in 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+ was less when 15 mM glucose was present or when preparations were pretreated with 10 microM oligomycin and then bathed in the 35 mM KP with glucose. When glucose was present, with or without oligomycin pretreatment, a greater percentage of twitch terminals accumulated FM1-43. However, the mitochondria in these preparations were still greatly swollen and distorted. We propose that prolonged depolarization of twitch motor neuron terminals by 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+ produced a Ca2+-induced decrease in mitochondrial ATP production. Under these conditions, the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio was decreased thereby compromising both transmitter release and refilling of recycled synaptic vesicles. The addition of glucose stimulated glycolysis which contributed to the maintenance of required ATP levels.  (+info)

Simultaneous measurement of evoked release and [Ca2+]i in a crayfish release bouton reveals high affinity of release to Ca2+. (7/15061)

The opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish was used to determine the affinity of the putative Ca2+ receptor(s) responsible for evoked release. Evoked, asynchronous release, and steady-state intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]ss, were measured concomitantly in single release boutons. It was found that, as expected, asynchronous release is highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. Surprisingly, evoked release was also found to be highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. The quantal content (m) and the rate of asynchronous release (S) showed sigmoidal dependence on [Ca2+]ss. The slope log m/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 1.6 and 3.3; the higher slope observed at the lower [Ca2+]o. The slope log S/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 3 and 4 and was independent of [Ca2+]o. These results are consistent with the assumption that evoked release is controlled by the sum of [Ca2+]ss and the local elevation of Ca2+ concentration near the release sites resulting from Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Y). On the basis of the above, we were able to estimate Y. We found Y to be significantly <10 microM even for [Ca2+]o = 13.5 mM. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the Ca2+ receptor(s) associated with evoked release was calculated to be in the range of 4-5 microM. This value of Kd is similar to that found previously for asynchronous release.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (8/15061)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Engineering ESPT pathways based on structural analysis of LSSmKate red fluorescent proteins with large stokes shift. AU - Piatkevich, Kiryl D.. AU - Malashkevich, Vladimir N.. AU - Almo, Steven C.. AU - Verkhusha, Vladislav. PY - 2010/8/11. Y1 - 2010/8/11. N2 - LSSmKate1 and LSSmKate2 are monomeric red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) with large Stokes shifts (LSSs), which allows for efficient separation of absorbance and emission maxima, as well as for excitation with conventional two-photon laser sources. These LSSmKates differ by a single amino acid substitution at position 160 and exhibit absorbance maxima around 460 nm, corresponding to a neutral DsRed-like chromophore. However, excitation at 460 nm leads to fluorescence emission above 600 nm. Structures of LSSmKate1 and LSSmKate2, determined at resolutions of 2.0 and 1.5, respectively, revealed that the predominant DsRed-chromophore configurations are cis for LSSmKate1 but trans for LSSmKate2. Crystallographic and mutagenesis ...
Molecular imaging using radioisotope- or fluorophore-labeled antibodies is now a important element of contemporary precision medicine increasingly. connection of payloads to antibodies. These chemoselective changes methods produce immunoconjugates that are even more homogenous and better described than constructs made out of traditional synthetic techniques. Moreover site-specifically tagged immunoconjugates are also shown to exhibit superior behavior compared to their randomly modified cousins. The over-arching goal of this two-part review is to provide a broad yet detailed account of the various site-specific bioconjugation approaches that have been used to create immunoconjugates for positron emission tomography (PET) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and fluorescence imaging. In Part 1 we covered site-specific bioconjugation techniques based on the modification of cysteine residues and the chemoenzymatic manipulation of glycans. In Part 2 we will detail two families of ...
Nitric Oxide (NO) is a highly-reactive radical gas that can modify a variety of cellular targets in both eukaryotes and bacteria. NO is produced endogenously by a wide variety of organisms: For example, as a cell-signaling molecule in mammals and bacteria via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, and as a product of denitrification. As such, it is of great benefit to NO researchers to be able to sensitively detect intracellular NO and stable reactive nitrogen species (RNS) derived from NO. To this end, a protocol for fluorescent detection of intracellular NO/RNS in biofilm cultures of the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has been optimized using the commercially-available cell-permeable fluorescent stain 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2,7-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate (DAF-FM diacetate). This compound diffuses into cells and intracellular cleavage by esterase enzymes liberates weakly-fluorescent DAF-FM, which reacts with NO or other specific RNS to become highly fluorescent (Kojima et al., 1999).
Fluorescent Molecular Rotors are sensors of microenvironmental restriction that become fluorescent only if their rotation is constrained. It has been suggested that the change of fluorescence intensity is caused by the restriction of intramolecular rotational relaxation about the donor-acceptor bond of the fluorophores.Examples of molecular constraint include increased dye (aggregation)1, binding to antibodies2, or being trapped in the polymerization of actin3. There are also studies of membrane fluidity in endothelial cells under fluid shear stress4 where fluorescent molecular rotors are used.1. Bhattacharyya, A. et al., Indian J. Biochem. Biophys., 32, 442-446 (1995).2. Iwaki, T. et al., Biochem., 32, 7589-7592 (1993).3. Sawada, S. et al., Anal. Biochem., 204, 110-117 (1992).4. Farkas, D.L. and Leif R.C. (ed.), Optical diagnostics of living cells III, Proc SPIE 3291, 101-112 (2000
A red-emitting fluorescent probe was developed for the sensitive and selective detection of H2S. Upon treatment with H2S, this probe exhibited a remarkable fluorescence enhancement (10 fold) with a large Stokes shift (125 nm). The detection limit of this probe was as low as 5.7 nM based on S/N = 3. The appli
Chroma Catalog Sets: ET - BV421/BV480/AF488/AF568/AF647 Quinta Band set | ET Series 五波段带通 | Included Filters: ET395/25x, ET448/19x, ET505/20x, ET570/20x, ET640/30x, 89903bs, ET431/28m, ET482/27m, ET540/30m, ET609/34m, ET690/50m | Related Fluorochromes: DyLight 405, Alexa Fluor 405, Pacific Blue, Brilliant Violet™ 421, ReAsH-CCPGCC, CAL Fluor® Red 610, DyLight 594, Alexa Fluor 568™, Cy3.5™, MitoTracker Red/MeOH, Alexa Fluor 594™, ROX, X-rhod-1/Ca2+, CAL Fluor® Red 590, Sulforhodamine 101, Resorufin, LysoTracker Red/pH 5.2, mCherry, Texas Red®, mRFP1, Texas Red®-X, FusionRed, Killer Red, Rhodamine Red™-X, AsRed2, TO-PRO™-3, DiD, MitoTracker Deep Red 633/MeOH, Atto 647N, Draq5, Quasar® 670, Alexa Fluor 647™, Cy5™, Allophycocyanin (APC), SYTO® 60, DyLight 649, Cerulean, CFP, ECFP, Atto 425, Brilliant Violet™ 480, mKeima Red, Lucifer Yellow, FITC, Calcein, Fluo-4, SYBR® Green I, Alexa Fluor 488™, Acridine Orange + DNA, Atto 488, BCECF/pH 9.0, LysoTracker Green/pH 5.2,
We present a technique for observing single fluorophore molecules in solution. A mode-locked laser beam is focused into the solution, thereby defining a two-photon excitation volume localized in three dimensions. Molecules diffusing into and out of this volume produce fluorescence bursts, which are detected with a high signal-to-background ratio. The theoretical foundations for the technique are laid out, including the attendant fluorescence rate distribution, and agree with experimental results obtained for Rhodamine B molecules in water.. © 1995 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Studying the implication of hydrogen peroxide in biological processes in plants remains a challenge due to the current shortcomings of H2O2-responsive probes. The use of ContPY1, a new fluorescent probe, which is highly selective and sensitive for H2O2, was investigated. To validate the use of ContPY1 on plants, we have generated protocols employing cells suspensions and leaves, and measured specifically H2O2 production by plants using spectrofluorometry and microscopy. © 2013 Landes Bioscience. ...
ortho-Aminobenzoic acid (Abz) has been used as a convenient fluorescent donor group in internally quenched fluorescent peptides, which are employed as substrates for several proteolytic enzymes. As Abz is usually bound to the N-amino terminal of these peptides, it is of interest to investigate the Abz group fluorescent properties bound to different amino acids. We report in this article the optical absorption and fluorescent properties, in aqueous media, of Abz bound to the alpha-amino group of Ala, Gly, Leu, ne, Val, Pro, Phe, Arg, Glu, Met, Asn, Tyr, and Trp, with monomethyl-amidated alpha-carboxyl group, in order to explore the origin of the drastic reduction of Abz attached to N-alpha amino group of prolyl-peptides, we also examined the fluorescence properties of Abz-NHCH3, Abz-N(CH3)(2), and Abz-pyrrolidine. Molecular dynamics simulation and NMR data indicated a lack of periplanarity of the Abz-dimethylamide, which could be the origin of low fluorescence quantum yield of ...
We have engineered a mutant of HIV Reverse Transcriptase that can be fluorescently labeled by covalent attachment of the environmentally sensitive fluorophore 7-diethylamino-3-((((2-maleimidyl)ethyl)amino)carbonyl)coumarin (MDCC). The result is a polymerase that is kinetically indistinguishable from the wild-type enzyme, but provides a signal to monitor changes in enzyme structure that result from conformational changes induced by substrate binding. Using this system, we have expanded the kinetic model governing nucleotide binding to include an enzymatic isomerization following initial nucleotide binding. In doing so, we define the role of induced-fit in nucleotide specificity and mismatch discrimination. Additionally, we have characterized the kinetics governing the specificity and discrimination of several widely administered Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) used to combat HIV infection including 3TC (Lamivudine), FTC (Emtricitabine), and AZT (Zidovudine) for the wild-type ...
Modular fluorescent tags: clickable BODIPYs (co-supervisor Dr. Christoph Nitsche). New dyes for electron and energy transfer. Lighting up sugars - fluorescent probes for mono-saccharides.
Fluorescent Dyes , Reactive Fluorescent Dyes , HiLyte Fluor 594 hydrazide - TFA Salt; HiLyte Fluor 594, an alternative to Alexa Fluor 594 and DyLight Fluor 594, has spectral characteristics similar to those of Texas Red. The labeling performance and stability are better than those of Texas Red. It has high extinction coefficient (80,000 M-1cm-1), high fluorescence quantum yield (0.9) and low correction factor (0.17). HiLyte FluorTM 594 based Bioconjugates exhibit little spectral overlap with green-fluorescent conjugates, and can be efficiently excited by 568 nm line of Ar-Kr laser and by the 594 nm line of orange He-Ne laser. Extinction Coefficient (M-1cm-1): 80,000 Fluorescence quantum yield: 0.90 Fluorescence Life Time (ns): 4.2; HiLyte Fluor594 hydrazide is a carbonyl-reactive fluorescent labeling dye. It can be used for labeling glycoproteins such as HRP.
ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHORS REQUEST.] The design, synthesis and spectroscopic properties of several long wavelength/NIR fluorescent sensors are discussed. Amongst them, the metal complex-indicator sensors are developed based on the indicator-displacement-assay (IDA) strategy; the other BODIPY derived fluorescent sensors are developed based on the indicator-spacer-receptor (ISR) strategy. For the IDA sensors, one [PBA-Zn receptor + ARS] sensor showed some unique dual wavelength patterns when different sugar analytes were introduced. The [Cu complex + Acid Blue 45] sensors have NIR fluorescent properties and displayed high affinity towards various amino acids and warfarin. For the ISR BODIPY sensors, two of the pH responsive sensors have fluorescent emission at 600nm and displayed appropriate pKas for a physiological environment. One piperazine-BODIPY sensor with a novel structure showed a turn-on NIR fluorescent emission when protonated. One ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Spray pyrolysis synthesis of particles possessing magnetic and fluorescent properties. Application of magnetic/fluorescent particles in immunoassays. AU - Dosev, D.. AU - Nichkova, M.. AU - Dumas, R.. AU - Liu, K.. AU - Kennedy, I. M.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Many types of fluorescent nanoparticles have been synthesized as alternatives to organic dyes in biochemistry. Magnetic beads also have a long history of biological applications. In this work we apply flame spray pyrolysis in order to engineer a novel type of particle that has both fluorescent and magnetic properties. The particles have magnetic cores of iron oxide and a fluorescent shell of europium - doped gadolinium oxide (Eu:Gd 2O 3). Measurements on a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer showed an overall paramagnetic response behavior of the composite particles. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed fluorescent spectra typical for the Eu ion in a Gd 2O 3 host with a narrow emission peak centered near 615 nm. Our synthesis method ...
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Fluorescent molecular imaging helped surgeons visually identify lung adenocarcinomas during pulmonary resection, according to study results.
Chroma Catalog Sets: ET - Cy3/Cy5 | ET Series, FRET 双波段带通 | Included Filters: ET545/25x, ET640/30x, 59007bs, ET595/50m, ET690/50m | Related Fluorochromes: Propidium Iodide, Quasar® 570, DiI, MitoTracker Orange/MeOH, Cy3™, Rhod-2, Alexa Fluor 555™, tdTomato, DyLight 549, Atto 550, TAMRA, Tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate, TRITC, Alexa Fluor 546™, TagRFP, DsRed, R-phycoerythrin, CAL Fluor® Red 590, Rhodamine Red™-X, AsRed2, FusionRed, LysoTracker Red/pH 5.2, Alexa Fluor 568™, ROX, MitoTracker Red/MeOH, X-rhod-1/Ca2+, Cy3.5™, TO-PRO™-3, DiD, MitoTracker Deep Red 633/MeOH, Atto 647N, Draq5, Quasar® 670, Alexa Fluor 647™, Cy5™, Allophycocyanin (APC), SYTO® 60, DyLight 649 |
Optimized for western blotting with fluorescent-conjugated antibodies. Invitrogen™ iBind™ Fluorescent Detection (FD) Solution Kit is intended for use with the iBind™ Flex Western Device (SLF2000) for use in infrared detection and dual wavelength semi-quantitative analysis. iBind Fluorescent Detection Solution Kit,X1 bottle,X5 buffer, 2 vials X100 additive, 1 vial ...
We present LIVE-PAINT, a new approach to super-resolution fluorescent imaging inside live cells. In LIVE-PAINT only a short peptide sequence is fused to the protein being studied, unlike conventional super-resolution methods, which rely on directly fusing the biomolecule of interest to a large fluorescent protein, organic fluorophore, or oligonucleotide. LIVE-PAINT works by observing the blinking of localized fluorescence as this peptide is reversibly bound by a protein that is fused to a fluorescent protein. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of LIVE-PAINT by imaging a number of different proteins inside live S. cerevisiae. Not only is LIVE-PAINT widely applicable, easily implemented, and the modifications minimally perturbing, but we also anticipate it will extend data acquisition times compared to those previously possible with methods that involve direct fusion to a fluorescent protein. Oi et al. describe LIVE-PAINT, a new method to achieve superresolution fluorescent imaging within live cells.
There is no simple answer to this question as the quantum yield of a fluorescent dye can vary widely, depending on the dyes micro-environment. For example, the quantum yield of a dye attached to a protein may be very different from the quantum yield of the free dye. For dyes attached to a protein, the quantum yield is highly dependent on how many molecules of the dye are attached to the protein (i.e. degree of protein labeling). In general, a higher degree of protein labeling leads to a lower dye quantum yield due to fluorescence quenching via dye-to-dye interaction. For this reason, as the degree of labeling increases, fluorescence intensity of the labeled protein will eventually reach a maximum and start to decline thereafter. In fact, one of the best ways to compare the relative quantum yields of different dyes is to plot the total fluorescence of the labeled proteins as a function of degree of labeling by the dyes as we have done with CF® dyes and other commercial dyes. CF® dyes generally ...
Single-molecule detection has long relied on fluorescent labeling with high quantum-yield fluorophores. Plasmon-enhanced detection circumvents the need for labeling by allowing direct optical detection of weakly emitting and completely nonfluorescent species. This review focuses on recent advances in single molecule detection using plasmonic metal nanostructures as a sensing platform, particularly using a single particle-single molecule approach. In the past decade two mechanisms for plasmon-enhanced single-molecule detection have been demonstrated: (1) by plasmonically enhancing the emission of weakly fluorescent biomolecules, or (2) by monitoring shifts of the plasmon resonance induced by single-molecule interactions. We begin with a motivation regarding the importance of single molecule detection, and advantages plasmonic detection offers. We describe both detection mechanisms and discuss challenges and potential solutions. We finalize by highlighting the exciting possibilities in analytical ...
GelRed, GelGreen, EvaGreen - Fluorescence dyes, EtBr substitute Apoptosis and necrosis assay kitsCell biology accessory products Nucleic acid stains for microbiology Enzyme substrates Membrane and organelle stains Qubit® kits - DNA, RNA quantification Spectrophotometers a fluorometers Consumables GelRed Nucleic Acid Gel Stain, 10.000 x in water Biot41003 119 €144,30 € incl. Btw […]. ...
When certain compounds are illuminated with high energy light, they emit light of a lower frequency. This effect is known as fluorescence. Often specimens show their characteristic autofluorescence image, based on their chemical makeup.. This method is of critical importance in the modern life sciences, as it can be extremely sensitive, allowing the detection of single molecules. Many different fluorescent dyes can be used to stain different structures or chemical compounds. One particularly powerful method is the combination of antibodies coupled to a fluorophore as in immunostaining. Examples of commonly used fluorophores are fluorescein or rhodamine.. The antibodies can be tailor-made for a chemical compound. For example, one strategy often in use is the artificial production of proteins, based on the genetic code (DNA). These proteins can then be used to immunize rabbits, forming antibodies which bind to the protein. The antibodies are then coupled chemically to a fluorophore and used to ...
Our fluorophore conjugated secondary antibodies are available in a concentrated liquid formats and many are also offered in a convenient prediluted, ready-to-use format. ...
Real-time PCR was performed using the ABI 7700 Sequence detector (Applied Biosystems) as described previously (Biecker et al., 2004). A dual-labeled fluorogenic probe (labeled with a reporter dye at the 5′-end and a second dye, quenching the emission of the reporter dye, at the 3′-end) complementary to a sequence within each PCR product was added to the PCR reaction. Cleavage of the probe during elongation by the exonuclease activity of the TaqDNA polymerase separates the reporter from its quencher. Accumulation of PCR products is detected in real time by monitoring the increase in fluorescence of the reporter dye. The PCR reaction was performed in a volume of 25 μl containing 12.5 μl2× TaqMan PCR master mix (Applied Biosystems) as well as 1.2 μl (equivalent to 300 ng of total RNA) of cDNA. The concentrations of the primers and probes are given in Table 1. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) provided as ready-to-use primers (100 nM each) and probe (200 nM) by the ...
Naturally occurring lipid granules diffuse in the cytoplasm and can be used as tracers to map out the viscoelastic landscape inside living cells. Using optical trapping and single particle tracking we found that lipid granules exhibit anomalous diffusion inside human umbilical vein endothelial cells. For these cells the exact diffusional pattern of a particular granule depends on the physiological state of the cell and on the localization of the granule within the cytoplasm. Granules located close to the actin rich periphery of the cell move less than those located towards to the center of the cell or within the nucleus. Also, granules in cells which are stressed by intense laser illumination or which have attached to a surface for a long period of time move in a more restricted fashion than those within healthy cells. For granules diffusing in healthy cells, in regions away from the cell periphery, occurrences of weak ergodicity breaking are observed, similar to the recent observations inside living
A high dynamic range apparatus for separation and detection of polynucleotide fragments has a housing adapted to receive an electrophoresis gel holder containing an electrophoresis gel loaded with fluorophore-labeled samples; one or more laser diodes for providing radiation of a frequency suitable for excitation of the fluorophore which irradiates a an array of excitation/detection sites on the electrophoresis gel; an array of detectors aligned with the excitation/detection sites for collecting fluorescent emissions; and one or more components for increasing the dynamic range of the instrument by at least an order of magnitude. These components, which can be used individually or in combination include detectors that are connected to a signal processing system that modulates the period of signal integration employed so that large signals are totaled at short time intervals and smaller signals are totaled at longer time intervals; the use of a beam splitter to produces a high intensity beam of emitted
Quinoxalinones are widely exploited for their biological activities, but more rarely for their fluorescence behavior, partly due to a lack of data. Herein, we investigated the photophysical properties of selected 3-benzoylquinoxalin-2-ones and their NaBH4-reduced products, obtained by the rearrangement of be
MIDORIGreen Xtra is a new highly sensitive green fluorescent stain for a safe visualization of DNA and RNA in agarose gels. This DNA stain is a safe and better alternative to the traditional nucleic acid stain ethidium bromide (EtBr). Remarkably, agarose gels stained with MIDORIGreen Xtra have a very low background fluorescence, which makes the identification of low amounts of DNA very easy. ...
A unique DNA-binding dye with features ideal for both qPCR and High Resolution Melting® (HRM) analysis*. EvaGreen® dye binds to dsDNA via a novel release-on-demand mechanism, which permits the use of a relatively high dye concentration in qPCR without PCR inhibition (Ref. 1).. A unique feature of EvaGreen® dye is its safety. DNA-binding dyes are inherently dangerous due to their potential to cause mutation. With this in mind, Biotiums scientists designed EvaGreen® dye such that it cannot cross cell membranes, thus preventing the dye from being in contact with genomic DNA in live cells. All other commercial PCR dyes enter into cells in a matter of minutes. SYBR® Green I, for example, has been shown to be environmentally more toxic than ethidium bromide, a well-known mutagen (Ref. 2). Independent labs have confirmed that EvaGreen dye is nonmutagenic, noncytotoxic and safe to aquatic life for direct disposal in the drain. For details, download the EvaGreen® Dye Safety Report.. An added ...
To overcome this issue of reduced resolution in STED imaging due to photodegradation, ITbMs team led by Principal Investigators Shigehiro Yamaguchi, a synthetic chemist and Tetsuya Higashiyama, a plant biologist have developed a new fluorescent dye, C-Naphox that has enhanced photostability relative to conventional dyes. C-Naphox has demonstrated to be extremely photoresistant with almost no degradation of fluorescence even after prolonged STED imaging in live cells.. C-Naphox (diarylmethylene-bridged naphthophosphole P-oxide) consists of an aromatic framework with an amino moiety incorporated for its electron-donating properties and phosphorus oxide for its electron-accepting properties, leading to intense fluorescence emissions.. Although the previously synthesized molecules in the Yamaguchi group have also led to high fluorescence intensity, it is the carbon-bridged structure in C-Naphox that is the key to its extremely high resistance to high intensity light, says Aiko Fukazawa, an ...
PTI RatioMaster is a monochromator-based wide-field microscope system for measuring ratio-fluorescence or fluorescence dye intensity of labeled proteins in nanomolar concentrations. Ratio-fluorescence microscopy is the ultimate tool to study dynamic events in live cells and cellular structures. Unlike conventional intensity based fluorescence microscopy, ratio-fluorescence eliminates the effects of photo-bleaching, cell path length variation, non-uniformity of dye loading, non-uniform field of view, making ratio-fluorescence the most accurate method to determine intracellular ion concentrations. More importantly, PTI RatioMaster is fast enough to provide essential dynamic information about ion concentrations and interactions with other molecules, drugs or added reagents. The PTI RatioMaster is capable of dynamic ratio fluorescence measurements on a millisecond timescale. A xenon arc lamp provides high intensity, continuous broadband illumination. Alternating excitation wavelengths are selected ...
Description DNA Dye Non-Toxic products from Biocrede represent a new and safe class of nucleic acid stains for the visualization of double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, and RNA in agarose and polyacrylamide gels. The dyes are developed to replace toxic Ethidium Bromide (EB, a potent mutagen), commonly used in ge
Fluorescence microscopy is ideal for intracellular ion measurements and the most common of these measurements is intracellular calcium imaging measurements. Two of the most popular dyes for calcium imaging are Fura-2 and Indo-1. PTI EasyRatioPro is a monochromator-based wide-field microscope system for measuring ratio-fluorescence or fluorescence dye intensity of labeled proteins in nanomolar concentrations. Ratio-fluorescence microscopy is the ultimate tool to study dynamic events in live cells and cellular structures. Unlike conventional intensity based fluorescence microscopy, ratio-fluorescence eliminates the effects of photo-bleaching, cell path length variation, non-uniformity of dye loading, non-uniform field of view, making ratio-fluorescence the most accurate method to determine intracellular ion concentrations. More importantly, PTI EasyRatioPro is fast enough to provide essential dynamic information about ion concentrations and interactions with other molecules, drugs or added ...
IHC staining was visualized with a fluorescent microscope (Olympus BX51), and images were taken with a digital camera (Olympus DP30BW) using appropriate filters for different fluorophores or bright-field illumination for DAB stain. Identical images were taken for double IHC, overlaid, and pseudocolored using Olympus Software and Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems). Contrast and brightness were adjusted for fluorescent signals with Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems) for better visualization of neurons.. For Ad-iZ/EGFPf tracing from LepRb neurons in the DMH, we analyzed four mice with correct injections into the DMH and showed representative images of projection sites in the mPOA, DMH, PVN, and rRPa in Figure 4.. For FG tracing experiments, we focused our analysis on the mPOA and DMH/DHA to investigate colocalization of LepRb neurons with FG-traced neurons from the RMR/rRPa (n = 4), DMH/DHA (n = 3), or PVN (n = 2). Representative images were shown for the DMH/DHA and mPOA, and, in some cases, we ...
A robust lipophilic dye, based on the structures of the benzothiadiazole heterocycle, was shown to be a potent fluorescent stain for the selective imaging of lipid droplets (LDs) within both live and fixed human cells. Its small molecular framework, large Stokes shift, and vastly improved photostability over that of the current status quo, Nile Red, highlight its tremendous potential as a versatile chemical tool for facilitating LD imaging and research.
Dual-channel fluorometer for personal quantitation workflow. Designed to provide highly sensitive fluorescent detection when quantifying nucleic acids, the compact instrument is simple to operate. The Quantus Fluorometer is optimized with preprogrammed settings for Promega QuantiFluor™ Dye Systems to quantitate nucleic acids and offers the flexibility to create customized methods and quantitation settings for other fluorescent dyes. ...
Method for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used
Chromeo 505 is a bright green fluorescent dye that replaces fluorescein, FITC, Alexa 500, Dylight 505 or other dyes that are excitable at 488 nm. Chromeo 505 and its conjugates are bright, photostable and compatible with standard fluorescent microscopes.
Solon, Ohio (PRWEB) May 06, 2013 -- DNA quantitation is crucial to experimental design and interpretation of results, especially in sensitive molecular biology
Chromeo 642 is a bright dark-red fluorescent dye that replaces Cy5, Alexa 647, DyLight 649 or other dyes that are excitable from 630 nm-650 nm. Chromeo 642 and its conjugates are bright, photostable and compatible with standard fluorescent microscopes.
Contrast agents play an important role in the study of biological tissues and whole organisms, since they enable visualization of functional structures. Fluorescent contrast agents also enable specific targeting in therapeutic approaches. Developing optimized contrast agents is central to optimizing the performance of both imaging and therapy. The ideal contrast agent for optical microscopy combines high resolution, specific targeting of functional groups, 3D imaging (depth resolution), low toxicity, low bleaching (long observation time at high signal), and high signal to noise (low background). Traditional organic dyes and fluorescent proteins are excited in the ultraviolet (UV) or blue spectral region, and emit at a longer-wavelength that is Stokes-shifted. The use of the short-wavelength excitation leads to a short penetration depth of the excitation light and give rise to autofluorescence, photobleaching and photodamage to biological specimens. It is thus primarily suited to pathological and ...
A toxin is used to introduce an otherwise cell-impermeant fluorophore-antibody (or some thing which is equally specific) to bind to an intracellular protein which allows for super resolution imaging and single particle tracking inside the living cell.
Current techniques for observing the cytoskeleton can be difficult to get into living cells, can be toxic, and are usually limited in resolution and duration, since the signal wears off over time. A common technique is fluorescence microscopy, where fluorescent molecules (probes) are attached to cell structures and then lit up against a dark background.. The team of Kai Johnsson at EPFL has developed novel fluorescent probes that can easily enter live cells, are non-toxic, have long-lasting signals, and most importantly, offer unprecedented image resolution. In 2013, the researchers developed a fluorescent molecule called silicon-rhodamine (SiR), which switches on only when it binds to the charged surface of a protein like the ones found on the cytoskeleton. When SiR switches on, it emits light at far-red wavelengths.. The challenge was getting SiR to bind specifically to the cytoskeletons proteins, actin and tubulin. To achieve this, the scientists fused SiR molecules with compounds ...
In this study we employed a common high-throughput P450 enzyme assay kit to evaluate the three SCs against a specific P450 activity. The recombinant enzyme system may be more costly and less representative of physiologic conditions, but it is a more consistent platform that avoids the wide variability in enzyme expression and activity normally encountered in HLM (Snawder and Lipscomb, 2000) and hepatocytes (Rodriguez-Antona et al., 2002; Westerink and Schoonen, 2007). Also, the enzyme systems are highly specific and relatively stable, with no significant loss in activity noted after 7 hours at room temperature (Trubetskoy et al., 2005b).. Fluorescent high-throughput screening methods employ fluorescent P450 substrates that are efficiently metabolized by specific P450 isozymes to yield a product with altered fluorescent properties, usually increased fluorescent intensity (Trubetskoy et al., 2005b). The assay requires only low reactant volume to produce high signal-to-background ratio, which ...
Currently there are no approved biomarkers for the pre-symptomatic diagnosis of Alzheimers disease (AD). Cathepsin-D (Cat-D) is a lysosomal protease that is present at elevated levels in amyloid plaques and neurons in patients with AD and is also elevated in some cancers. We have developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/fluorescent contrast agent to detect Cat-D enzymatic activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular and tissue uptake of this MRI/fluorescent contrast agent. The agent consists of an MRI probe [DOTA-caged metal ion (Gd3+ or Tm3+)] and a fluorescent probe coupled to a cell-penetrating-peptide sequence by a Cat-D recognition site. The relaxivity of Gd3+-DOTA-CAT(cleaved) was measured in 10% heat-treated bovine serum albumin (BSA) phantoms to assess contrast efficacy at magnetic fields ranging from 0.24 mT to 9.4 T. In vitro, Tm3+-DOTA-CAT was added to neuronal SN56 cells over-expressing Cat-D and live-cell confocal microscropy was performed at 30 min. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myosin V walks hand-over-hand. T2 - Single fluorophore imaging with 1.5-nm localization. AU - Yildiz, Ahmet. AU - Forkey, Joseph N.. AU - McKinney, Sean A.. AU - Ha, Taekjip. AU - Goldman, Yale E.. AU - Selvin, Paul R.. PY - 2003/6/27. Y1 - 2003/6/27. N2 - Myosin V is a dimeric molecular motor that moves processively on actin, with the center of mass moving ±37 nanometers for each adenosine triphosphate hydrolyzed. We have labeled myosin V with a single fluorophore at different positions in the light-chain domain and measured the step size with a standard deviation of ,1.5 nanometers, with 0.5-second temporal resolution, and observation times of minutes. The step size alternates between 37 + 2x nm and 37 - 2x, where x is the distance along the direction of motion between the dye and the midpoint between the two heads. These results strongly support a hand-over-hand model of motility, not an inchworm model.. AB - Myosin V is a dimeric molecular motor that moves processively on ...
Fluorescent probes are useful tools to investigate specific subcellular components in cells, tissues and organisms. A classic application of fluorescent ligands of a specific GPCR (G-protein coupled receptors) is the investigation of the receptor location, and, if their binding is reversible, it could provide pharmacological information such as affinity and proximity between interacting molecules. In cultured cell systems, methods based on fluorescence have permitted to observe the receptor cycling and the formation of oligomeric receptor complexes. In high throughput screening, fluorescent ligands represents a safer, more powerful and more versatile alternative to radioligands. [1] The introduction of the bulky fluorophore into a small molecule ligand could lead to deep modifications not only from a physicochemical point of view but also in its pharmacological properties. [2] In order to allow a correct interaction of the pharmacophore with its receptor, it is usually separated from the ...
Single molecule fluorescence measurements are used to probe the effects of GM1 in DPPC monolayers. Langmuir-Blodgett films of GM1 and DPPC were doped with ~10−8 mol% of the fluorescent lipid probe, BODIPY-PC, and transferred onto glass substrates at 23 mN/m. As shown previously, the individual orientation of each BODIPY-PC probe in the membrane can be measured using defocused polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, revealing changes in film properties at the molecular level. Here, BODIPY-PC tilt angle histograms are used to characterize the effects of GM1 in DPPC films from 0.05 mol% to 100 mol% GM1. At high GM1 levels (,5 mol% GM1), trends in the single molecule measurements agree with previous bulk measurements showing the turnover from condensing to expanding influence of GM1 at ~20 mol%, thus validating the single molecule approach. At biologically relevant, low concentrations of GM1 (,5 mol% GM1), where bulk fluorescence measurements are less informative, the single ...
TMA-DPH (1-(4-trimethylammonium)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene), a hydrophobic fluorescent membrane probe, interacts with living cells by instantaneous incorporation into the plasma membrane, where it becomes fluorescent. It then follows the intracellular constitutive membrane traffic and acts as a bulk membrane marker of the endocytic pathway (Illinger, D., P. Poindron, P. Fonteneau, M. Modolell, and J. G. Kuhry. 1990. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1030:73-81; Illinger, D., P. Poindron, and J. G. Kuhry. 1991. Biol. Cell. 73:131-138). As such, TMA-DPH displays particular properties mainly due to partition between membranes and aqueous media. From these properties, original arguments can be inferred in favor of the maturation model for the endocytic pathway, against that of pre-existing compartments, in L929 cultured mouse fibroblasts. (a) TMA-DPH labeling is seen to progress from the cell periphery to perinuclear regions during endocytosis without any noticeable loss in fluorescence intensity; with a ...
购买CGP-54626A Fluorescent ligand (Red), a fluorescent GABAB antagonist。使用Abcam高品质的CGP-54626A Fluorescent ligand (Red)帮助您更快取得科研成果。
Spectral properties of carbocyanine dye 3-methyl-2-[3-methyl-2-(3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazole-2-iliden)-1- butenyl]-1,3-benzothiazole-3-il iodide (Cyan betaiPr) in water solution, as well as in the presence of different types of double stranded DNA have been studied. While in water solution of free dye Cyan betaiPr stays mainly in monomeric form, in the presence of DNA the dye molecules form J-aggregates. The molecular structure of these J-aggregates causes the Davydov splitting of their absorption band, corresponding to the first electronic transition. A study of site-specificity showed that in the presence of poly (dA/dT) the majority of Cyan betaiPr molecules form J-aggregates, while in the presence of poly (dGC/dGC) dye molecules stay mainly in monomeric form and in presence of chicken erythrocytes DNA both J-aggregate and monomeric forms of dye are present. We suppose that Cyan betaiPr molecules aggregate in DNA groove, which serves as a template for J-aggregate forming. An ...
Development of Functional Fluorescent Molecular Probes for the Detection of Biological Substances. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Calcium ions play an important role in cell function, acting as effectors and/or signaling molecules for a variety of cellular biochemical and physiological processes. The development of a variety of Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicators and advancements in imaging technology have enhanced the ability to follow both global and localized changes in intracellular Ca2+ at ever improving temporal and spatial resolution. Ratiometric Ca2+ indicators like fura-2 permit the measurement of intracellular Ca2+ concentration (Grynkiewicz et al., 1985). But, they tend to have a limited dynamic range and a significant fluorescence background, which reduce their sensitivity to small local increases in Ca2+. On the other hand, certain nonratiometric Ca2+ indicators, such as fluo-3, although not able to give a dynamic direct read-out of the Ca2+ concentration, have very low fluorescence when not bound to Ca2+ and have a significant increase in fluorescence intensity upon binding Ca2+ (e.g., ∼200 times for ...
N-Alkylation of a novel pyridine sensor results in pyridinium salts whose conformations are stabilised by pyridinium cation-π interactions resulting in a fluorescent response that can be used to sense the presence of alkylating agents in solution at low concentration.. ...
Fluorescence Dye 620-M with Streptavidin conjugate. All the Fluorescent Dye M series products are designed to be maximally excited by one of the major light sources equipped in flow cytometers. Besides, in comparison with phycobiliprotein tandems, Fluorescent Dye M series possesses better photostability, higher conjugation yields, and little pH sensitivity making it an ideal choice in fluorescence imaging applications. (U0293) - Products - Abnova
FDSS is a kinetic plate reader in Fluorescence and Luminescence, and suitable for reading the kinetics of the living cells which those response, calcium flux, mobilization for example, is very fast and need to monitor its kinetic property. GPCR is one of the most highly used application field for FDSS kinetic reader monitoring the calcium transient of the living cells. From the basic fluorescence dye such like Fluo-4, Fura-2 and to more various type of fluorescence dye such like FRET, and Flash Luminescence (Aequorine etc.,) reading technology can be used in our Kinetic reading platform.. FDSS7000EX is a lamp&filter base High-end system, capable of 1536 cell based assay with multiple washing ability and 2 dispenser head setup for the sticky compounds. It has more flexibility in having multiple of reading settings. Ratiometric Fura-2, Single wavelength Fluo-3 type Calcium flux, mobilization reading are possible. Some dye which requires FRET can also be done by using the motorized emission filter ...
Fam Labeled Fluorogenic Probe, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
We have examined the migration of murine macrophages from the vascular compartment to normal and inflammatory tissues by the adoptive transfer of resident peritoneal macrophages (RPM phi) fluorescently labeled with the hydrophobic dye 1,1-dioctadecyl 3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI). After initial labeling of the plasma membrane of RPM phi, the dye accumulated stably in intracellular vesicles of low density (rho = 1.042-1.045 kg/l) and cells remained viable in culture for 4 weeks. Like the normal monocyte, DiI-RPM phi, but not exudate-derived or fixed cells, migrated to peritoneal exudates, following i.v. adoptive transfer, by a mechanism inhibitable by an antibody to the type 3 complement receptor. In the absence of an inflammatory stimulus there was no migration to the peritoneal cavity, and DiI-RPM phi accumulated within 4 h in the red pulp and marginal zone of the spleen. By day 6 these cells still formed a tight ring of fluorescence in the marginal zone alone, ...
노인성 치매에서 가장 많은 비율을 차지하는 알츠하이머병 (Alzheimers disease) 환자의 뇌에는 이 질병의 핵심 표지자로 알려져 있는 아밀로이드 단백질 (amyloid β protein)이 쌓여있으며, 이 단백질이 질병의 발달과 연관성에 대한 많은 연구가 있다. 아밀로이드 단백질 연구에 있어서 조직염색 (tissue staining)을 통한 공초점 (confocal microscope) 그리고 이광자 현미경 (two-photon microscope) 촬영이 큰 역할을 하고 있으며, 이에 아밀로이드 단백질 특이한 형광염료 (fluorescence dye)의 중요성이 부각되었다. 본 연구에서는 기존의 아밀로이드 단백질 형광염료와는 다른 새로운 형광염료를 개발하였다. 형광염료내의 전자기부자 (donor)와 수락자 (acceptor)사이의 종류 그리고 두 분자 사이의 거리를 조절함으로써 조직염색 시 더 적은 자가형광을 내며, 더 특이적으로 아밀로이드 ...
Emitted Light Filtering - We find that many researchers have optimized imaging/filtering conditions for EtBr, which is a red dye. Please pay close attention to the filters; though EtBr filters will work if there are no other options, they may absorb a lot of emitted shorter wavelength light and therefore lower the observed sensitivity. A GFP/Sybr Green filter is preferred for Midori Green dyes.. Excitation Light Source - Though transilluminators that emit shorter wavelengths (254 nm) are very good for EtBr, they are not good for Midori Green dyes. We recommend UV tables with emissions at 306 nm or higher-the longer the better! For optimal results, use blue LED and blue/green LED light sources for Midori Green Advance and Midori Green Direct. Midori Green Xtra is not compatible with UV; it should be used with blue LED or blue/green LED illumination only.. Natural Light Exposure - Midori Green is sensitive to photo-bleaching effects from long exposure to direct (or even indirect) sunlight. We ...
I used single molecule fluorescence and fluorescence lifetime measurements of fluorescent dyes conjugated to DNA to better understand the photophysical and photochemical interactions between organic dye molecules and DNA. This process is important, because fluorescent dyes are frequently used as labels for DNA, but interactions with specific DNA bases can significantly affect the fluorescent properties of the dyes, leading from chromatic shifts all the way to fluorescence quenching. Thus, it is very important to obtain a full understanding of the photophysics of these interactions if cDNA or siRNAs are used as molecular probes. I studied DNA hairpins that were labeled with different numbers of red-emitting Atto655 dyes. I investigated three different samples: a DNA hairpin labeled with three dyes, one with two dyes, and one with only one dye attached to specific bases and well-known spatial separations. Sample preparation consisted of denaturing and annealing the short synthesized single strands ...
The use of labelling or staining agents has greatly assisted the study of complex biological interactions in the field of biology. In particular, fluorescent labelling of biomolecules has been demonstrated as an indispensable tool in many biological studies. Types of fluorescent labelling agents that are commonly used include conventional classes of organic fluorophores such as fluorescein and cyanine dyes, as well as newer types of inorganic nanoparticles such as QDs, and novel fluorescent latex/silica nanobeads. The newer classes of fluorescent labels are gaining increasing popularity in place of their predecessors due to their better optical properties such as possessing an enhanced photostability and a larger Stokes shift over conventional organic fluorophores, for example. This paper gives an overview of the recent advances on these luminescent nanomaterials with emphases on their optical characteristics that are crucial in fluorescence microscopy, both advantages and limitations in their ...
The RNAscope® Multiplex Fluorescent assays provide the same exceptional sensitivity as our singleplex assays, allowing single-molecule detection of up to four RNA targets simultaneously. The RNAscope® Multiplex Fluorescent assays are ideal for co-localization studies of any genes in nearly any tissue type using fluorescent labels. Advanced Cell Diagnostics offers two types of multiplex fluorescent assays. RNAscope® Fluorescent Assay, our first generation assay, is an all in one kit, ideal for fresh or fixed frozen tissues.
This application note describes the use of the SPECTRAmax GEMINI XS fluorescence microplate reader, which helps in studying the changes in levels of intracellular cAMP.
Recombinant Proteins , Streptavidin and Labeled Streptavidin , Streptavidin, HiLyte Fluor 555 conjugated; HiLyte Fluor555-streptavidin conjugate has been optimized in fluorophore/protein labeling ratio to ensure high fluorescent signal and uncompromised streptavidin function. The spectrum of HiLyte Fluor555 is only slightly red-shifted compared to those of Cy3 dyes, resulting in an optimal match to filters designed for Cy3 dyes. The fluorescence of HiLyte Fluor555 can be observed at excitation/emission wavelength of 554 nm /570 nm. HiLyte Fluor555 is more photostable than Cy3 , providing researchers with additional time for capturing image. HiLyte Fluor555 - protein conjugates can sustain treatments during immunofluorescent staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization, flow cytometry and other biological applications without hydrolysis.
With respect to cellular analysis, the underlying principle of flow cytometry is that a cell suspension is focused into a single cell stream, which passes through a light source (typically a laser beam). The scattered and emitted fluorescent light (if the cells are fluorescently labeled) is subsequently measured using a range of detectors and these measurements are used to generate multi-parameter data sets that describe the physical characteristics of the cells and their fluorescent properties. The size and granularity of cells can be identified on the basis of their forward and side light scatter characteristics (FSc and SSc respectively). Their characteristics and/or expression of different proteins can be further defined by pre-staining with fluorescently-labeled antibodies or molecules that identify cellular components and / or integrity (viability) or, indeed, fluorescently-labeled proteins.. Flow cytometers can evaluate cells at an extremely rapid rate (up to several tens of thousands of ...
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a valuable cytogenetic technique for the detection and localization of specific DNA or RNA sequences on chromosomes. Typically, this technique can be used to define spatiotemporal expression patterns of target genes. Using fluorescent DNA probes with sequences complementary to the location of the chromosome of interest, gene expression patterns can be easily detected by fluorescence microscopy and further quantitatively analyzed. In addition, improved FISH analysis also allows simultaneous observation of multiple genes by labeling different sequence fragments with different fluorophores.. In plant systems, FISH analysis has been used in a variety of crops, including wheat, rye, cucumber and melon. Based on the information on Lifeasibles official website, Lifeasibles services cover every step of the FISH assay in the plant system:. • Probe designing and construction: aside from commercially available probes, Lifeasible also provides customized ...
Fluorescein is unionised at acidic pH and the fluorescence intensity changes with pH [19, 20]. As expected, our results clearly demonstrate this effect on fluorescence levels using a FRET pair and a quencher pair with FAM. By use of the ATTO495-ATTO647N FRET pair for Hoogsteen-based parallel triplex formation, a robust and reliably LightCycler method was established. This novel FRET pair is well-suited for Tm and ΔTm determinations over a broad pH range of parallel triplex formations.. Furthermore, this FRET pair clearly demonstrates the pH independence from pH 5.5 to 7.5 of antiparallel duplex Tm determinations in contrast to the pH dependent Tm determination of parallel triplex formation from pH 4.5 to 6.0. An interesting feature of this is the negative correlation between pH and fluorescence intensity as pH increases from 4.5 to 6.0 for parallel triplex formation (Figure 3c). This is in concordance with the expected lower efficacy of parallel triplex formation due to the lack of protonated ...
Widefield fluorescent image of epithelial cells (nuclei stained with DAPI, yellow; and filamentous actin stained with Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin, magenta )
Specific labeling of biomolecules with bright fluorophores is the keystone of fluorescence microscopy. Genetically encoded self-labeling tag proteins can be coupled to synthetic dyes inside living cells, resulting in brighter reporters than fluorescent proteins. Intracellular labeling using these techniques requires cell-permeable fluorescent ligands, however, limiting utility to a small number of classic fluorophores. Here we describe a simple structural modification that improves the brightness and photostability of dyes while preserving spectral properties and cell permeability. Inspired by molecular modeling, we replaced the N,N-dimethylamino substituents in tetramethylrhodamine with four-membered azetidine rings. This addition of two carbon atoms doubles the quantum efficiency and improves the photon yield of the dye in applications ranging from in vitro single-molecule measurements to super-resolution imaging. The novel substitution is generalizable, yielding a palette of chemical dyes ...
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Glutathione (GSH) plays crucial roles in various biological functions, the level alterations of which have been linked to varieties of diseases. Herein, we for the first time expanded the application of oxidase-like property of MnO2 nanosheet (MnO2 NS) to fluorescent substrates of peroxidase. Different from previously reported fluorescent quenching phenomena, we found that MnO2 NS could not only largely quench the fluorescence of highly fluorescent Scopoletin (SC) but also surprisingly enhance t
On the substrate carrying a sub-wavelength grating covered with a thin metal layer, a fluorescent dye-labeled cell was observed by fluorescence microscope. The fluorescence intensity was more than 20 times greater than that on an optically flat glass substrate. Such a great fluorescence enhancement from labeled cells bound to the grating substrate was due to the excitation by grating coupled surface plasmon resonance. The application of a grating substrate to two-dimensional detection and fluorescence microscopy appears to offer a promising method of taking highly sensitive fluorescence images.. ©2008 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
These can be very useful. Most allow you to plot out the excitation and emission curves of a number of fluorescent dyes. Some allow the user to add filter sets and excitation sources to see how well they work with the dyes being considered. Noteworthy examples include: an extensive database of single and 2-photon dye spectra assembled here at the University of Arizona (Utzinger & Boswell), Thermo-Fishers Fluorescence spectraviewer, Semrocks searchlight,, Chromas spectra viewer, Biolegends viewer, Leicas Fluoscout, Omega Opticals curvomatic, and Zeiss Fluorescence Dye and Filter Database ...
The boron complexes of dipyrromethene (BODIPY®) comprise a class of fluorescent dyes that can be used in medical and biological studies. Fluorescent molecular labeling can be obtained by conjugation, or linking fluorescent dyes to certain proteins and peptides, in order to detect interactions, conformational changes and localization of specific peptides and parts of a protein. BODIPY molecules are relatively insensitive to the polarity and pH of their environment and are very stable to physiological conditions. The BODIPY core is strong enough to withstand a series of chemical reactions, and even the smallest changes to their structures enable the activation of their fluorescent properties. Herein, we have successfully synthesized N, N-difluoroboryl-2,8-diethyl-1,3,7,9-tetramethyl-5-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)-dipyrromethene, BODIPY derivative that is used for conjugation to proteins. Alternative pathway of synthesis is described with regard to literature. During the synthesis, a fluorescent ...
Coupling nanomaterials with biomolecular recognition events represents a new direction in nanotechnology toward the development of novel molecular diagnostic tools. Here a graphene oxide (GO)-based multicolor fluorescent DNA nanoprobe that allows rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of DNA targets in homogeneous solution by exploiting interactions between GO and DNA molecules is reported. Because of the extraordinarily high quenching efficiency of GO, the fluorescent ssDNA probe exhibits minimal background fluorescence, while strong emission is observed when it forms a double helix with the specific targets, leading to a high signal-to-background ratio. Importantly, the large planar surface of GO allows simultaneous quenching of multiple DNA probes labeled with different dyes, leading to a multicolor sensor for the detection of multiple DNA targets in the same solution. It is also demonstrated that this GO-based sensing platform is suitable for the detection of a range of analytes when ...
Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and super-resolution microscopy are important elements of the ongoing technical revolution to reveal biochemical and cellular processes in unprecedented clarity and precision. Demands placed on the photophysical properties of the fluorophores are stringent a …
The rhodamine labeled f-actin did not appear in the composite image of the three different fluorophores due to the intensity of the fluorescence being too low to register. This could be due to photobleaching that had previously occurred in this specific area of the sample, or if the sample was not labeled adequately with enough fluorescent dye. Time-lapse data for all three fluorophores under the same condition revealed discrepancies in rate of decay and initial intensity for each fluorophore. A relative high initial intensity for DAPI labeled dsDNA can be explained by the relative high net local concentration of bright fluorophores. Each nucleus contains a high concentration of dsDNA, which when stained with DAPI, creates a large solid fluorescent region with overlapping fluorophores. This differs from both tubulin and f-actin, which are of tube like nature, and appear as porous regions of interest where background light can seep through and be analyzed, making the initial brightness in the ...
We recently finished our Ask the Expert discussion on Improving Live Cell Fluorescence Imaging. This week we had several interesting questions focused on combating the negative effects of imaging on cell health and viability including looking at media options as a possible solution.
Some APC-Cy7 conjugates show changes in their emission spectra with prolonged exposure to paraformaldehyde. For instruments equipped with a 561 nm Yellow-Green laser, a 585/15 nm filter is recommended for detection. When making decisions about which fluorochromes to use in your experiments, youll want to know their relative emission spectra. APC (Allophycocyanin) spectrum - APC (Allophycocyanin) is ... excitation and emission wavelengths using the interactive Spectrum Viewer - A web application for viewing and comparing spectra of various fluorescent compounds. BV605 is a tandem fluorochrome that combines BD Horizon BV421 and an acceptor dye with emission at 605nm. APC-H7 conjugates provide greater stability in light and paraformaldehyde fixatives and have less spillover into the APC channel than APC-Cy7 conjugates. However, because of its peak emission at 667 nm, Alexa Fluor® 647 cannot be seen well by eye, and it cannot be excited optimally with a mercury lamp. BV650 is a tandem fluorochrome ...
New techniques for biological optical imaging are of great interest for the detection and visualization of processes and disease in both clinical and research areas. One major advancement has been the use of far red and near infrared (NIR) light, as it has the ability to penetrate tissues deeper than other parts of the spectrum which are readily scatter and absorbed by the surroundings. In order to improve the signal to noise ratio and resolution of optical images, contrast agents are used. Fluorescent markers can be modified to attach to specific molecular targets, creating small molecular probes. These targets can be disease sites, or biological molecules which play a major role in processes such as tumor growth. It was our goal to create a new novel fluorescent probe, consisting of a cyanine based far red to NIR marker, and an n-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) derivative to act as a linker, which could then bind with biological species containing primary amides such as proteins and antibodies, in this
The Quantus Fluorometer is a dual-channel fluorometer for your personal quantitation workflow. Designed to provide highly sensitive fluorescent detection when quantifying nucleic acids, the compact instrument is simple to operate.
A new fluorescent Zn2+ chemosensor (P1) based on a functionalized porphyrin was synthesized and characterized. P1 displayed dramatic ratiometric variations in absorption and fluorescent emission spectra upon exposure to Zn2+ due to the formation of a 1:1 Zn2+/P1 complex. The sensor also exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity toward Zn2+ over other common metal ions in the physiological pH range with a detection limit of 1.8 mM. The sensor showed fast response times and excellent reproducibility, thus confirming its potential applicability as a fluorescent sensor for Zn2+ sensing.
A fluorophore (or fluorochrome, similarly to a chromophore) is a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation. Fluorophores typically contain several combined aromatic groups, or planar or cyclic molecules with several π bonds. Fluorophores are sometimes used alone, as a tracer in fluids, as a dye for staining of certain structures, as a substrate of enzymes, or as a probe or indicator (when its fluorescence is affected by environmental aspects such as polarity or ions). More generally they are covalently bonded to a macromolecule, serving as a marker (or dye, or tag, or reporter) for affine or bioactive reagents (antibodies, peptides, nucleic acids). Fluorophores are notably used to stain tissues, cells, or materials in a variety of analytical methods, i.e., fluorescent imaging and spectroscopy. Fluorescein, by its amine reactive isothiocyanate derivative FITC, has been one of the most popular fluorophores. From antibody labeling, the applications have spread to ...
SH2 protein microarray assays of HA4 specificity(a) Fluorescence images of SH2 chips following incubation with fluorophore-labeled HA4. Each SH2 domain is spott
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly photostable ketopyrrolyl-BODIPYs with red aggregation-induced emission characteristics for ultrafast wash-free mitochondria-targeted bioimaging. AU - Wu, Hao. AU - Guo, Xing. AU - Yu, Changjiang. AU - Wong, Wai Yeung. AU - Hao, Erhong. AU - Jiao, Lijuan. PY - 2020/5. Y1 - 2020/5. N2 - Subcellular organelle-specific probes, including mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probes, have attracted enormous research interests because they can monitor or visualize the morphology or biological activities of specific organelles and play an indispensable role in disease diagnosis. To follow the process, highly specific and photostable fluorescent probes are in demand. However, commercially available mitochondria probes normally suffer from poor photostability under laser irradiation and aggregation caused quenching (ACQ) in the aggregate state. In this work, two simple aggregation-induced emission(AIE)-active meso-2-ketopyrrolyl BODIPYs were developed via a convenient one-pot synthetic ...
Phosphorescent molecules are attractive complements to fluorescent compounds for bioimaging. Time-gated acquisition of the long-lived phosphorescence signals provides an effective means to eliminate unwanted background noises due to short-lived autofluorescence. We have previously investigated the molecular principles governing modulation of photoinduced electron transfer in phosphorescence zinc probes that were based on biscyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Woo, H. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 4771-4787). The studies established that phosphorescence turn-on responses would be attainable for Ir(III) complexes with high triplet-state energies. This sets an upper limit to an emission wavelength, restricting the development of red- or near-IR-phosphorescence turn-on probes. To address this challenge, we designed and synthesized a new phosphorescent probe having an electron-deficient 2-(2-pyridyl)pyrazine diimine ligand tethering a di(2-picolyl)amine (DPA) zinc receptor. This ligand control ...
We offer Amine-Reactive Fluorophores; Bioconjugates; Biotin/Desthiobiotin; Buffers, Detergents; Caged Probes; Cell Analysis Kits; Cell stains; Click Chemistry; Enzyme Substrates; Fluorescent Mitochondrial Probes; Fluorescent Probes; Fluorescent/Non-Fluorescent Ion and pH Indicators; Fluorescent/Non-Fluorescent Lipids, Phospholipid Probes; Gel & Membrane Stains; Kits and Assays; Monomers; Natural Products and Their Fluorescent/None-Fluorescent Conjugates; Neurotransmitter receptors Probes; Nucleotides/Nucleosides; Protein Kinase Inhibitors (PKI); Quencher/Non-Fluorescent Probes; Reactive Probes and Related Products; Sensors; Steroids and Related Products
We offer Amine-Reactive Fluorophores; Bioconjugates; Biotin/Desthiobiotin; Buffers, Detergents; Caged Probes; Cell Analysis Kits; Cell stains; Click Chemistry; Enzyme Substrates; Fluorescent Mitochondrial Probes; Fluorescent Probes; Fluorescent/Non-Fluorescent Ion and pH Indicators; Fluorescent/Non-Fluorescent Lipids, Phospholipid Probes; Gel & Membrane Stains; Kits and Assays; Monomers; Natural Products and Their Fluorescent/None-Fluorescent Conjugates; Neurotransmitter receptors Probes; Nucleotides/Nucleosides; Protein Kinase Inhibitors (PKI); Quencher/Non-Fluorescent Probes; Reactive Probes and Related Products; Sensors; Steroids and Related Products
Similar lines of fluorescent dyes provide an alternative to the DyLight Dyes (see also the list in Category:Fluorescent dyes ... The DyLight Fluor family of fluorescent dyes are produced by Dyomics in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific. DyLight ... "DyLight Reactive Dyes". Pierce Protein Research Products. 2008. Retrieved 2013-10-17. "DyLight Reactive Dyes". Pierce Protein ... and cyanine dyes. Sulfonation makes DyLight dyes negatively charged and hydrophilic. DyLight Fluors are commercially available ...
... including high quantum yields when bound to proteins and reactive versions of these dyes are commonly used as fluorescent ... Squaraine dyes are a class of organic dyes showing intense fluorescence, typically in the red and near infrared region ( ... Efficient energy transfer occurs between the encapsulated dye and nanotube - light is absorbed by the dye and without ... For example, encapsulation of dye molecules inside carbon nanotubes completely quenches strong dye luminescence, thus allowing ...
Similar lines of fluorescent dyes provide an alternative to the FluoProbes Dyes. "FluoProbes Dyes" (PDF). Interchim. 2010. ... "FluoProbes Dyes" (PDF). Interchim. 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-01. (Dyes, Fluorescent dyes). ... The FluoProbes series of fluorescent dyes were developed by Interchim to improve performances of standard fluorophores. They ... FluoProbes dyes are typically used to label proteins or nucleic acids (ultrafast -3 minutes- labeling of antibodies employs ...
Fluorescent dyes, Neuropathology). ... The newer dyes, fluoro-jade B and fluoro-jade C, were developed ... Currently, there are three fluoro-jade dyes (Fluoro-Jade, Fluoro-Jade B, and Fluoro-Jade C ), all of which are anionic ... Schmued LC, Hopkins KJ (August 2000). "Fluoro-Jade B: a high affinity fluorescent marker for the localization of neuronal ... who demonstrated that another anionic dye, fuchsine acid, could successfully bind to damaged neurons after a hyperglycemic ...
Coumarins, Fluorescent dyes, Imines). ... laser dyes, also they are known as biologically active ... Liepouri, F.; Foukaraki, E.; Deligeorgiev, T.G.; Katerinopoulos, H.E. (2001). "Iminocoumarin-based low affinity fluorescent ... "New high-efficiency biscoumarin laser dyes". Chemical Physics Letters. Elsevier BV. 149 (2): 140-144. doi:10.1016/0009-2614(88) ...
Fluorescent dyes can act very differently. Generally, a fluorescent dye will be excited by a light source (a laser) at a ... However, there are many other mechanisms by which fluorescent dyes can act. Some dyes are able to diffuse across membranes. By ... If you can identify which CD is presented on your cells of interest, then you can stain your sample with a fluorescent dye ... Certain fluorescent dyes can be used to characterize kinetic intracellular activity rather than fixing cells in formaldehyde ...
In contrast to thermofluor, no external fluorescent dye is needed because the flavin cofactor is already present in the flavin- ... Materials: A fluorometer equipped with temperature control or similar instrumentation (qPCR machines); suitable fluorescent dye ... 0.5-5 μM protein with dye into a suitable assay buffer. The exact concentrations of protein and dye are defined by experimental ... A prominent advantage of this technique is that no reporter dyes need be added as tryptophan is an intrinsic part of the ...
Fluorescent dyes can be chosen to obtain light emission at different wavelengths, and compounds such as perylene, rubrene and ... fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes and conjugated dendrimers. A number of materials are used for their charge transport ... Alq3 has been used as a green emitter, electron transport material and as a host for yellow and red emitting dyes. Because of ... They applied high alternating voltages in air to materials such as acridine orange dye, either deposited on or dissolved in ...
CFSE was originally developed as a fluorescent dye that could be used to stably label lymphocytes and track their migration ... Parish CR, Glidden MH, Quah BJ, Warren HS (February 2009). "Use of the intracellular fluorescent dye CFSE to monitor lymphocyte ... Weston SA, Parish CR (October 1990). "New fluorescent dyes for lymphocyte migration studies. Analysis by flow cytometry and ... Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) is a fluorescent cell staining dye. CFSE is cell permeable and covalently couples ...
Zoha SJ, Ramnarain S, Morseman JP, Moss MW, Allnutt FT, Rogers YH, Harvey B (1999). "PBXL Fluorescent Dyes for Ultrasensitive ... Phycobilisome versus cyanine dye detection capabilities in Western blot application. Singh NK, Sonani RR, Rastogi RP, Madamwar ...
"Molecular Probes Fluorescent Dyes and Probes webpage". "Molecular Probes: The Handbook webpage". "Invitrogen Press Release: May ... The intention of Molecular Probes was to make available for research purposes fluorescent dyes that would be of utility for ... His research at Stanford was a combination of organic synthesis of novel fluorescent dyes and experimental proofs of the theory ... While there, he continued the synthesis of novel fluorescent dyes and did fluorescence-based studies of contractile proteins. ...
1-Aminopentane Demmig, Stefan; Langhals, Heinz (1988). "Very soluble and Photostable perylene Fluorescent Dyes". Chemische ...
... (6-FAM) is a fluorescent dye with an absorption wavelength of 495 nm and an emission wavelength of 517 nm ... Parish, Christopher (December 1999). "Fluorescent dyes for lymphocyte migration and proliferation studies". Immunology and Cell ... Fluorone dyes, Benzoic acids, Dicarboxylic acids, Triarylmethane dyes). ... The dyes are membrane-impermeant and can be loaded into cells by microinjection or scrape loading. It can be incorporated into ...
Resch-Genger, Ute; Grabolle; Cavaliere-Jaricot; Nitschke; Nann (August 2008). "Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent ... anti-counterfeiting dyes and paints, chemical sensing, and fluorescent tagging. However, unmodified quantum dots tend to be ... CdSe QDs have been shown to possess optical properties superior to organic dyes. The ZnS shell has a two-fold effect: to ... Cell Influence and Imaging Adding iron oxide nanoparticles to the QD micelles allows them to be fluorescent and magnetic. These ...
The use of fluorescent dyes has been explored. These involve labelled proteins targeted at biomarkers, nucleic acid sequences ... The isolate is then exposed to fluorescent dye, which will be luminescent when viewed. Improvements to existing platforms are ...
To that end, the DNA strand is labeled with a fluorescent dye. Excited fluorescent dyes can transfer energy to metal. ... Binding of the analyte to the ligand will change the local environment of the fluorescent dye and thereby quench its ...
Boiling a solution of Nile blue with sulfuric acid produces Nile red (Nile blue oxazone). Nile blue is a fluorescent dye. The ... "Benzophenoxazine-based fluorescent dyes for labeling biomolecules" (PDF). Tetrahedron. 62 (48): 11021. doi:10.1016/j.tet. ... These dyes aggregate in the tumor cells, especially in the lipid membranes, and/or are sequestered and concentrated in ... Nile Blue and related naphthoxazinium dyes can be prepared by acid-catalyzed condensation of either 5-(dialkylamino)-2- ...
... owing to the high extinction coefficient combined with a comparable quantum yield to fluorescent dyes) as well as their ... "Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels". Nature Methods. 5 (9): 763-775. doi:10.1038/nmeth.1248. PMID 18756197 ... various kinds of organic dyes are used. However, as technology advances, greater flexibility in these dyes is sought. To this ... The technology, which is assigned to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, uses a "quantum dot dye that is delivered, in ...
The target molecules are labelled with fluorescent dyes. The fluorescent detection enables monitoring the process in real time ... The test sample is fluorescent labelled to monitor the molecular interactions. The analysis of molecular interaction patterns ... into one fragment to ensure proper quantification of the hybridization intensity It should allow coupling of multiple dyes On- ...
Hartley, BS; V Massey (1956). "The active center of chymotrypsin: 1. Labelling with a fluorescent dye". Biochimica et ... Some of the values are used to estimate the extent of success in attempts to conjugate the dye to a protein. Other values may ... or blue-green-fluorescent sulfonamide adducts. It can also be made to react with secondary amines. Dansyl chloride is widely ...
"Pastel Highlighters" use pastel dyes instead of fluorescent dyes. Some word processing software can simulate highlighting by ... Many highlighters come in bright, often fluorescent and vibrant colors. Being fluorescent, highlighter ink glows under black ... A highlighter is a felt-tip marker filled with transparent fluorescent ink instead of black or opaque ink. The first ... A typical highlighter is fluorescent yellow, colored with pyranine. Different compounds, such as rhodamines (Rhodamine 6GD, ...
doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)82610-7. Cozens, Tom (2020-12-16). "Fluorescent molecule breaks size record for green-emitting dyes ... Stable dyes of low molecular weight which are water soluble are useful in biological systems. HINA has been used to detect and ... However, its fluorescent properties were not described until 2020. It is noteworthy for having a green-emitting fluorophore ... The observed Stokes shift of 6900 cm−1 is typical of push-pull dyes. HINA has been used as an analogue of pyridoxal 5′- ...
Historically, artificially dyeing fish was common. Glassfish, in particular, were often injected with fluorescent dyes. The ... The tail is cut off and dye is injected into the body. The piece also included the first documented evidence to demonstrate ... Hong Kong suppliers were offering a service in which fish could be tattooed with company logos or messages using a dye laser; ... Practical Fishkeeping, February 2006 "Why its cruel to dye , Practical Fishkeeping magazine". Archived from the original on ...
Fragmented nucleic acid sequences of target, labelled with fluorescent dyes. A detection system that records and interprets the ...
Sterically Protected Fluorescent Near-IR Dyes" (PDF). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (10): 3288-3289. doi:10.1021/ja042404n. PMID ... Studies with cyclodextrin-protected rotaxane azo dyes established this characteristic. More reactive squaraine dyes have also ... Potential application as long-lasting dyes is based on the enhanced stability of the inner portion of the dumbbell-shaped ... The enhanced stability of rotaxane dyes is attributed to the insulating effect of the macrocycle, which is able to block ...
Localization of embryonic antigens by antisera labelled with fluorescent dyes. Nature. 1954 Dec 4;174(4440):1059. PubMed PMID ...
... the virus particles separate the fluorescent dyes used for signalling to prevent the formation of non-fluorescent dimers that ... April 2006). "Fluorescent signal amplification of carbocyanine dyes using engineered viral nanoparticles". Journal of the ...
Biological samples are often treated with fluorescent dyes to make selected objects visible. However, the actual dye ... The authors speculate about fluorescent dyes for in vivo investigations. They cite Minsky's patent, thank Steve Baer, at the ... Also, transgenic techniques can create organisms that produce their own fluorescent chimeric molecules (such as a fusion of GFP ... Virtual CLSM (Java-based) Animations and explanations on various types of microscopes including fluorescent and confocal ...
... the transfer of properties of highly fluorescent dyes via spatial and electronic isolation of the dyes by mixing cationic dyes ... "Plug-and-Play Optical Materials from Fluorescent Dyes and Macrocycles". Chem. 6 (8): 1978-1997. doi:10.1016/j.chempr.2020.06. ... Scientists report the creation of the brightest fluorescent solid optical materials so far by enabling ... "Chemists create the brightest-ever fluorescent materials". Retrieved 6 September 2020. "Scientists create the ...
... the virus particles separate the fluorescent dyes used for signaling in order to prevent the formation of non-fluorescent ... Soc., 125, 3192 (2003). Fluorescent signal amplification of carbocyanine dyes using engineered viral nanoparticles. Carissa M. ...
... compounds in fluorescent tube light-from left to right, the sulfate, nitrate, and chloride Neodymium compounds in ... Neodymium compounds were first commercially used as glass dyes in 1927 and remain a popular additive. The color of neodymium ... Usually in daylight or incandescent light neodymium glass appears lavender, but it appears pale blue under fluorescent lighting ... but blue under white fluorescent lighting, or greenish under trichromatic lighting. This color-change phenomenon is highly ...
It is seen either as deposition of silver or dyes across all or part of the image unrelated to the original exposure. It can be ... The discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Röntgen occurred when it was noticed that some fluorescent material lit up at some distance ... Henri Becquerel, who had been investigating fluorescence, observed that a sample of a uranium containing fluorescent material ... with the colour developer which converts all the unexposed silver halides into silver and simultaneously synthesizing dye in ...
... green fluorescent protein, lipophylic dyes or radioactively tagged amino acids) into the brain. These molecules are absorbed ... The crossing of the synaptic cleft is a vital difference between the anterograde tracers and the dye fillers used for ...
... when most standard fluorescent dyes (e.g. fluorescein) emit within a few nanoseconds of being excited. As a result, it is ... non-fluorescent molecule: binding results in a slower rotation speed of the fluorescent molecule, and in an increase in the ... A high level of polarization indicates that fluorescent is attached to a larger molecular complex. As a result, one of the ... It relies on the use of very specific fluorescent molecules, called lanthanides, that have the unusual property of emitting ...
BBI salts are versatile fluorescent dyes with emission wavelengths λem between 329 and 561 nm, pronounced solvatochromism and ... 1831-1834, doi:10.1021/ol060349c, PMID 16623562 A.J. Boydston (2008), "Modular fluorescent benzobis(imidazolium)saltes: ... strong solvent-dependent Stokes shift, which can be used as protein tag for fluorescent labeling of proteins. From 1,2,4,5- ...
It is different from other types of microangiography in that a fluorescent marker or contrast medium is used instead of ... emerges as a competitive alternative to dye angiographies. This class of non-invasive microangiography techniques can be ... A few of the commonly used types are fluorescent, silicone rubber, and synchrotron radiation microangiography. Also known as ... FMA, fluorescent microangiography is used to visualize and quantify changes in microvasculature. ...
Amaranth (dye) Cerise (color) Crimson List of colors Rose (color) Ruby (color) Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York: ... This color is supposed to be fluorescent, but there is no mechanism for displaying fluorescence on a computer screen. The color ...
... either from natural sunlight or from typical office fluorescent lighting, a blueline copy can fade over a span of months ( ... they degrade irreversibly to products that cannot form deeply colored dyes they (the diazonium compounds that were not degraded ...
In Vivo luminescence cell and animal imaging uses dyes and fluorescent proteins as chromophores. The characteristics of each ... Furthermore, some of the blue light released by aequorin in contact with calcium ions is absorbed by a green fluorescent ... Nordgren, I. K.; Tavassoli, A. (2014). "A bidirectional fluorescent two-hybrid system for monitoring protein-protein ... "Bioluminescent and Red-Fluorescent Lures in a Deep-Sea Siphonophore". Science. 309 (5732): 263. doi:10.1126/science.1110441. ...
... the study was conducted using optical recordings of free cytosolic calcium levels after loading a fluorescent indicator dye ...
The use of multiple probes with different fluorescent dyes allows for the identification of different cell types in the same ... These rRNA-based probes identify the cells based on the binding of fluorescent probes to individual cells through use of ...
Fluorescent signal strength depends on many factors such as probe labeling efficiency, the type of probe, and the type of dye. ... A range of colors in mixtures of fluorescent dyes can be detected, so each human chromosome can be identified by a ... Although there are more chromosomes than easily distinguishable fluorescent dye colors, ratios of probe mixtures can be used to ... If the fluorescent signal is weak, amplification of the signal may be necessary in order to exceed the detection threshold of ...
More directly, dyes can be added to (usually liquid) flows to measure concentrations; typically employing the light attenuation ... ISBN 1-86094-193-1. PIV ...
Tsien was a pioneer of calcium imaging and known for developing various dyes which become fluorescent in the presence of ... "Fluorescent indicators for Ca2+ based on green fluorescent proteins and calmodulin". Nature. 388 (6645): 882-7. Bibcode: ... "the green fluorescent protein: discovery, expression and development." The multicolored fluorescent proteins developed in ... One such dye, fura-2, is widely used to track changes of calcium concentration within cells. indo-1 and fluo-3, other popular ...
During this time, he dyed his hair red and often wore a pencil mustache, after Salvador Dalí. In 1980, he became licensed to ... At the museum, the machines were displayed as if in a showroom, and oriented around a central red fluorescent lightbox with ...
Isotopic tracers and fluorescent dyes have been used to establish the water transfer between conspecific or heterospecific ...
"Fluorescent indicators for Ca2+ based on green fluorescent proteins and calmodulin". Nature. 388 (6645): 882-887. Bibcode: ... Because the protein is large, it has a low leakage rate from cells compared to lipophilic dyes such as DiI. It lacks phenomena ... It was also noted during the extraction the animal creates green light due to the presence of the green fluorescent protein, ... In the animal, the protein occurs together with the green fluorescent protein to produce green light by resonant energy ...
Livak, K. J.; Flood, S. J.; Marmaro, J.; Giusti, W.; Deetz, K. (June 1995). "Oligonucleotides with fluorescent dyes at opposite ... Fluorescent dyes, Diazo compounds, Nitro compounds, Ethanolamines, Methoxy compounds). ... Black Hole Quencher 1 (BHQ1) is an example of dark quencher, which is used to quench green and yellow dyes, such as 6- ... fluorescent quenchers). The absorption range of BHQ1 is from 480 to 580 nm with maximum absorption at 534 nm. Quenching ( ...
After amplifying and then concentrating any PrPSc, the samples are labelled with a fluorescent dye using an antibody for ... in a specially constructed apparatus so it is totally surrounded by optical fibres to capture all light emitted once the dye is ...
Flowing and streaking freely on the surface of the panels, the bright and semi-transparent dyes complicated the reflective ... The artist recycled the cans discarded by American servicemen in Osaka and varnished them fluorescent pink. Reflecting, tinting ... creating abstract paintings with liquid dye on tin panels. In addition to her own art creation, Yamazaki devoted herself to ... Yamazaki created a group of tin works by pouring and dripping aniline dye and varnish onto tinplate panels. ...
Synthetic organic compound used as dye and fluorescent tracer Han purple and Han blue - Artificial barium copper silicate ... The original dye required potash, ferric sulfate, and dried cochineal. Instead, the blood, potash, and iron sulfate reacted to ... In the late 1800s, Rabbi Gershon Henoch Leiner, the Hasidic Rebbe of Radzin, dyed tzitziyot with Prussian blue made with sepia ... European painters had previously used a number of pigments such as indigo dye, smalt, and Tyrian purple, and the extremely ...
The technology of the dye solar cells has developed well beyond the laboratory stage and organic solar cells are attractive ... The first areas of focus were the fluorescent collector FLUKO, transparent insulation and the initial steps towards high ... the first serial product using fluorescent collectors as a power supply was produced.[citation needed] Within the PV small ...
... aluminium fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes, and conjugated dendrimers. Fluorescent dyes can be selected according to the ...
... is a fluorescent dye that forms in a reaction between dansyl chloride and ammonia. It is the simplest ... The dansyl group is highly fluorescent, and it has a very high Stokes shift. The excitation maximum (ca 350 nm) is essentially ... Misra A, Tripathi S, Misra K (2000). "Fluorescent labelling of ribonucleosides at 2'-terminus; comparative fluorescence studies ... representative of the class of dansyl derivatized amines, which are widely used in biochemistry and chemistry as fluorescent ...
The sol-gel is made with an organic dye, (2-[4-(dimethylamino)- phenylazo]benzoic acid). The dye has a pH color range of 6.7- ... One large application of the fluorescent method is the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOC's). Another type of ... As the vapor flows into the system it is hit with a high intensity light so that different organic dyes located in different ... fluorescent sensor focuses on metal complexes, rather than organic complexes. One example is the use of dirhodium ...
Each of the four DNA bases is attached to one of four different fluorescent dyes. When a nucleotide is incorporated by the DNA ... Both sets of DNA are subsequently amplified and each labelled with fluorescent dyes and used in two-colour array hybridization ... the fluorescent tag is cleaved off and the detector detects the fluorescent signal of the nucleotide incorporation. As the ... The level of DNA methylation at a given loci is determined by the relative intensity ratios of the two dyes. Adaptation of next ...
... , pronounced like Dye Aye, also known as DiIC18(3), is a fluorescent lipophilic cationic indocarbocyanine dye and indolium ... The crystal form of the dye has melting point of 68 °C (at which it decomposes). The dye had an absorption maximum at 549 nm ... It is mildly fluorescent in aqueous suspension, but becomes bright when bound to cell membrane. Once bound to a membrane it ... The dye (DiIC18(3)) is a violet crystal that is soluble in ethanol, methanol, dimethylformamide, and dimethylsulfoxide. ...
In this study, they report the use of a dual dye-based approach that can effectively double the number of endpoints observed ... Detection is performed using either a primary or a secondary labeled antibody by chemiluminescent, fluorescent or colorimetric ... if fluorescent techniques are used. Two programs available online (P-SCAN and ProteinScan) can then be used to convert the ... and have developed a multiplexed detection method using near-infrared fluorescent techniques. ...
The dye was a major commercial success for AGFA. In the following years, for the same reason, other dyes were marketed using ... The manufacturer reports that fluorescent light through a Congo Blue filter gives the appearance of black light. Congo Blue ... Azo dyes, Staining dyes, Naphthalenesulfonates, Naphthylamines, Biphenyls, Organic sodium salts). ... AGFA marketed the dye under the name "Congo red", a catchy name in Germany at the time of the 1884 Berlin West Africa ...
Fluorescent microscopy and the identification of malaria parasites using an acridine-orange staining technique / by G. T. Shute ...
Red is a fluorescent red dye used in H2O2 detection in cells by measuring the fluorescent product resorufin. Order now from ...
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... which result from the competition of the enzymatic product and the dye for forming a complex with a cucurbituril or calixarene ... convenient and general assay principle based on the reversible interaction of water-soluble macrocycles and fluorescent dyes. ... Figure 1: Assay principle, chemical structures of the macrocycles and complexation equilibria with fluorescent dyes.. ... Hennig, A., Bakirci, H. & Nau, W. Label-free continuous enzyme assays with macrocycle-fluorescent dye complexes. Nat Methods 4 ...
Binding of fluorescent acridine dyes acridine orange and 9-aminoacridine to hemoglobin: Elucidation of their molecular ... Binding of fluorescent acridine dyes acridine orange and 9-aminoacridine to hemoglobin: Elucidation of their molecular ... Home / KnowledgeBase Articles / Binding of fluorescent acridine dyes acridine orange and 9-aminoacridine to hemoglobin: ... The dyes formed stable ground state complex with HHb as revealed from spectroscopic data. Temperature dependent fluorescence ...
The mixture of dyes at each spot encodes binary information that is read with a fluorescent microscope. ... Now, researchers reporting in ACS Central Science have developed a data storage approach based on mixtures of fluorescent dyes ... Storing data as mixtures of fluorescent dyes. by American Chemical Society Mixtures of fluorescent dye molecules, placed in ... The mixture of dyes at each spot encodes binary information that is read with a fluorescent microscope. ...
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... recently developed a range of new rhodamine-based fluorescent dyes, known as Janelia Fluor®dyes, which were first described by ... New Fluorescent Dyes for Super-resolution Microscopy. Thursday, 23rd November 2017 Fluorescence imaging is an essential tool in ... These dyes are suitable for use with conventional imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, as well as in SRM techniques ... Janelia Fluor® dyes are very bright and photostable and importantly, they are cell-permeable, enabling live-cell intracellular ...
Click Reagents by Chemistry Azide Reagents Fluorescent Dyes ... Azide-containing Fluorescent Dyes. Emission. color. Dye. Azide ... Azide-containing Fluorescent Dyes. (Picolyl-) Azides of fluorescent dyes can be used for the fluorescent labeling of terminal ... You are here: Click Chemistry , Click Reagents by Chemistry , Azide Reagents , Fluorescent Dyes ... Standard Dyes such as Cy3, Tamra or Texas Red have been thoroughly selected to cover the whole UV-Vis spectrum. Novel ...
Two fluorescent dyes covalently attached in diagonal interstrand orientation to siRNA undergo energy transfer and thereby ... "siRNA traffic lights": arabino-configured 2′-anchors for fluorescent dyes are key for dual color readout in cell imaging† ... "siRNA traffic lights": arabino-configured 2′-anchors for fluorescent dyes are key for dual color readout in cell imaging J. ... Two fluorescent dyes covalently attached in diagonal interstrand orientation to siRNA undergo energy transfer and thereby ...
Screening of bead-based peptide libraries against fluorescent dye-labeled target proteins wa ... Commercially available red fluorescent dyes with net negative charges adversely showed strong interactions with library beads. ... Screening of bead-based peptide libraries against fluorescent dye-labeled target proteins was found to be significantly ... The introduction of zwitterionic dyes significantly reduced the unwanted interactions, which sheds light upon using the right ...
All Fluorescent dye articles. * Research Individual cells energy metabolism caught on camera for the first time 2021-07-20T13: ... Fluorescent molecule breaks size record for green-emitting dyes 2020-12-16T14:10:00Z ... Glowing dyes move data storage beyond binary 2017-05-24T09:18:00Z ... Fluorescent labels reveal cells circle of life 2016-11-07T14:49:00Z ...
Non-biased fluorescent dyes as markers of drugs for optical in cellulo and in vivo imaging ... However, fluorescent dyes compatible with the optical imaging are usually extended pi-systems carrying overall positive or ... We will develop non-biased red and near infrared fluorescent dyes, which are compatible with in vivo optical imaging and do not ... Non-biased fluorescent dyes as markers of drugs for optical in cellulo and in vivo imaging ...
1 Fluorescent dyes * 1.1 Vio® Dyes * 1.1.1 Violet laser (405 nm) ... 1 Fluorescent dyes. Flow cytometry has an inherent need to continuously increase the number of fluorochromes to meet the. ... VioGreen™ Dye (Emmax 520 nm). The VioGreen™ Dye is a fluorochrome with a large Stokes shift, emitting strong fluorescence at ... VioBlue® Dye (Emmax 452 nm). The VioBlue® Dye is a coumarin-based fluorochrome with excitation and emission wavelengths of 400 ...
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Selection of the fluorescent dye for your Stellaris RNA FISH probe set should be chosen to best match the specifications of the ... Which fluorescent dye should I choose for my Stellaris RNA FISH probe set?. ... Which fluorescent dye should I choose for my Stellaris RNA FISH probe set? ... Visit our Stellaris Dyes and Modifications page for specific recommendations and considerations for each of our dyes. To learn ...
Zhu, Q., Yoon, H.-S., Parikh, P.B., Chang, Y.-T., Yao, S.Q. (2002-07-15). Combinatorial discovery of novel fluorescent dyes ... We have developed a combinatorial method for the fast and effective synthesis of a library based on a known fluorescent dye, ... By screening the 140 new compounds using fluorescence-based assays, we identified three new fluorescent dyes with novel ...
... far-red fluorescent dye. Cy5 Bis NHS Ester contains two reactive groups on each dye molecule. It has been shown to be useful as ... Cy5 is a bright, far-red fluorescent dye. Cy5 Bis NHS Ester contains two reactive groups on each dye molecule. It has been ... Cy5 is intensely fluorescent and highly water soluble. The NHS ester (or succinimidyl ester) is the most popular amine reactive ... shown to be useful as fluorescent label for biological compounds. ...
Motion Artefact in Voltage-Sensitive Fluorescent Dye Emission During Repeated Ischemia of Isolated Heart. ... Motion Artefact in Voltage-Sensitive Fluorescent Dye Emission During Repeated Ischemia of Isolated Heart ... Motion artefact (MA) in voltage-sensitive fluorescent signals causes significant debasement of action potential. During ...
Regulation of Multicolor Fluorescence Changes Found in Donor-acceptor-type Mechanochromic Fluorescent Dyes. In: Chemistry - An ... Regulation of Multicolor Fluorescence Changes Found in Donor-acceptor-type Mechanochromic Fluorescent Dyes. / Ishi-i, Tsutomu; ... Regulation of Multicolor Fluorescence Changes Found in Donor-acceptor-type Mechanochromic Fluorescent Dyes. Chemistry - An ... title = "Regulation of Multicolor Fluorescence Changes Found in Donor-acceptor-type Mechanochromic Fluorescent Dyes", ...
Dyes and Fluorescent Labels are an invaluable tool for diagnostics, medical biological and biochemical research. ... Dyes and fluorescent labels are an invaluable tool for diagnostics, medical biological, and biochemical research. Find here ...
Erythrocytic vacuoles that accumulate a fluorescent dye predict spleen size and function in sickle cell disease. ...
... synthetic dyes represent an attractive alternative to fluorescent proteins. Dyes with compact structures and a zero net charge ... Fluorescent dyes with increased Stokes shifts offer an advantage of using more flexible imaging schemes. In this case two ... The availability and proper choice of fluorescent dyes is a key factor to success in the entire labelling and imaging procedure ... are known to penetrate the outer plasma membrane of living cells and may be used as fluorescent labels in biology, optical ...
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Home/Sales/What is the best combination of light sources and filters that can be used with common fluorescent dyes? ... What is the best combination of light sources and filters that can be used with common fluorescent dyes?. February 9th, 2018, ... What is the best combination of light sources and filters that can be used with common fluorescent dyes?. ...
Hoechst 33258 trihydrochloride is a fluorescent dyes, which can be used as a cell dye for DNA.. ... DAPI dihydrochloride is A fluorescent dye that binds DNA rich in a-T sequences. The maximum excitation/emission wavelength is ... DAPI dihydrochloride is A fluorescent dye that binds DNA rich in a-T sequences. The maximum excitation/emission wavelength is ... Fluo-4 AM is a fluorescent dye (λex=494 nm, λem=516 nm).. ... Propidium Iodide is a red-fluorescent dye that can be used to ...
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Fluorescent Dyes, Coolant Rust Inhibitor, Phase Change Material and Coolant Coloring Agent offered by Chemtex Speciality ... These dyes can be used in various types of heat transfer fluids and function as excellent leak detectors. Fluorescent dyes ... The Coolant Dye serves as a dye to be utilized in detecting the leaks in the cooling systems. Its unique attributes as follows ... Our product range includes a wide range of fluorescent dyes, coolant rust inhibitor, phase change material, coolant coloring ...
  • Temperature dependent fluorescence data showed the strength of the dye-protein complexation to be inversely proportional to temperature and the fluorescence quenching was static in nature. (
  • pH dependent fluorescence studies revealed the existence of electrostatic interaction between the protein and dye molecules. (
  • We show that amino acid decarboxylase activity can be continuously monitored by measuring changes in fluorescence, which result from the competition of the enzymatic product and the dye for forming a complex with a cucurbituril or calixarene macrocycle. (
  • Then, they used a fluorescence microscope to read the emission spectra of dye molecules at each spot and decode the message. (
  • Two fluorescent dyes covalently attached in diagonal interstrand orientation to siRNA undergo energy transfer and thereby enable a dual color fluorescence readout (red/green) for hybridization. (
  • Single molecule fluorescence lifetime measurements indicate their application in fluorescence cell imaging, which reveals a red/green fluorescence contrast in particular for the arabino-configured 2′-modification by the two dyes, which is key for tracking of siRNA transport into HeLa cells. (
  • Investigating fluorescent dyes in fluorescence-assisted screen. (
  • The introduction of zwitterionic dyes significantly reduced the unwanted interactions, which sheds light upon using the right fluorescent probe for acquisition of reliable results in various fluorescence-assisted applications. (
  • Vio® Dyes represent a family of fluorochromes for flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy developed by Miltenyi Biotec. (
  • Additionally, be mindful that if you plan on using a transgenic cell line that may be expressing a fluorescent protein like GFP or tdTomato, you want to choose a fluorophore with a different fluorescence maximum. (
  • Two crystal polymorphs, BTD-pCHO(O) and BTD-pCHO(R) produced by the introduction of formyl groups to an MCF dye, respond to a mechanical stimulus, allowing a three-color fluorescence change. (
  • The fluorescence lifetimes of PONy dyes vary and generally do not exceed 3 ns. (
  • ION's Brilliant Sodium Assay is compatible with fluorescence microscopes, flow cytometers, and plate readers capable of detecting fluorescein or more optimally, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). (
  • There are Fluorescent Pigments offered by us that are composed of dyed organic polymers that are formulated to be solvents for the fluorescence dyestuff. (
  • Alexa Fluor series dyes.Alexa Fluor dyes are a series of negatively charged and hydrophilic fluorescent dyes with a wide range of dyes and are often used in fluorescence microscopy techniques. (
  • The quencher may absorb its partner's fluorescence and emit the fluorescence at a new wavelength or, in the case of a non-fluorescent quencher, as heat. (
  • The QYs (quantum yield of fluorescence) were determined in 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 7.4 relative to reference dyes using the dye-labeled T12 oligo. (
  • The system is capable of detecting multicolor fluorescence produced by mixtures of fluorescent dyes as well as by micro and nano-objects. (
  • I applied the developed data acquisition system for detection of multicolor fluorescence of mixtures of quantum dots, high speed detection of micro-beads encoded with quantum dots and fluorescent dyes, and DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. (
  • Similar to A-23187, 4-Bromo A-23187 is used for in situ calibrations of fluorescent Ca 2+ indicators to equilibrate intracellular and extracellular calcium concentrations and to allow Mn 2+ to enter cells to quench indicator fluorescence. (
  • Fluorescent probes are a kind of fluorescent molecules with characteristic fluorescence in the UV-visible-near infrared region, and their fluorescence properties (emission and excitation wavelength, intensity, polarization, lifetime) could be sensitively changed with the properties of the environment, such as polarity, refractive index, viscosity and so on. (
  • In the fluorescent molecular probe, the fluorophore reflects the molecular recognition function of the micro world by giving information such as the enhancement and weakening of fluorescence intensity and the shift of fluorescence peak wavelength. (
  • In inorganic analysis, the elements to be measured in inorganic compounds interact with organic reagents, and the complexes combined with fluorescent probes can emit fluorescence of different wavelengths under ultraviolet light, so as to determine the content of elements to be measured. (
  • The fluorescent dye-based method utilizes a dye that emits fluorescence when incorporating itself into double-stranded DNA. (
  • The SyBr Green dye functions as an intercalating agent that emits detectable fluorescence when bound to double-stranded DNA. (
  • Since the dye binds to all amplified PCR products indiscriminately, artefacts such as those resulting from primer dimers or nonspecific binding of the primers may also contribute to the overall fluorescence. (
  • Mixtures of fluorescent dye molecules, placed in tiny spots on an epoxy surface with an inkjet printer, encode data. (
  • The researchers chose seven commercially available fluorescent dye molecules that emit light at different wavelengths. (
  • Storing and Reading Information in Mixtures of Fluorescent Molecules, ACS Central Science (2021). (
  • Both PALM and dSTORM are single molecule imaging techniques in which individual fluorescent molecules are sequentially and repeatedly activated and deactivated using light of specific wavelengths. (
  • (Picolyl-) Azides of fluorescent dyes can be used for the fluorescent labeling of terminal Alkyne and strained Alknye (e.g DBCO)-labeled molecules via Cu(I)-catalyzed Alknye-Azide (CUAAC) or Cu(I)-free strain-promoted Alkyne-Azide Click Chemistry (SPAAC) reaction, respectively. (
  • Dyes with compact structures and a zero net charge (neutral or zwitterionic molecules with a short charge separation distance) are known to penetrate the outer plasma membrane of living cells and may be used as fluorescent labels in biology, optical microscopy and material science. (
  • Redmond Red and Yakima Yellow are fluorescent dye tags that can be incorporated into synthetic DNA molecules to allow probe detection on a variety of platforms. (
  • The dyes come from the molecules that allow jelly fish to glow. (
  • Such methods include pretreatment of the patient with dyes or tumor-specific proteins tagged with fluorescent molecules. (
  • These dyes are molecules that latch only onto tumor cells, fluoresce, and show surgeons the entire tumor, including any of its elusive and meandering finger-like projections that may otherwise escape resection. (
  • In biochemical research, fluorescent probes can label antigens, antibodies and nucleic acids, detect the active sites of proteins, study the damage and repair of DNA base pairs and the chemical reaction activity of drug molecules, and complete the qualitative, quantitative and structural research of biological compounds. (
  • Our product range includes a wide range of fluorescent dyes, coolant rust inhibitor, phase change material, coolant coloring agent, supplemental coolant additive and coolant thickener. (
  • The range of fluorescent dyes offered by Neelikon is recognized to give high colour strength and fluorescent intensity, with good stability & light fastness properties. (
  • Now, researchers reporting in ACS Central Science have developed a data storage approach based on mixtures of fluorescent dyes, which are deposited onto an epoxy surface in tiny spots with an inkjet printer. (
  • Screening of bead-based peptide libraries against fluorescent dye-labeled target proteins was found to be significantly influenced by the dye characteristics. (
  • Due to their superior brightness and photostability, synthetic dyes represent an attractive alternative to fluorescent proteins. (
  • Cytological studies of fluorescent proteins are rapidly yielding insights into chromatin structure and dynamics. (
  • They can combine with biomacromolecule such as amino acids, proteins, peptides and DNA in covalent bonds or other forms to form fluorescent complexes or polymers. (
  • They are fluorescent because, upon absorbing light, they instantly emit light at a longer wavelength than the light absorbed. (
  • What are fluorescent dyes?Fluorescent dyes are substances that absorb light waves of a certain wavelength and emit light waves with a wavelength greater than that of the absorbed light. (
  • The brightest fluorescent material in history is bornFluorescent dyes are organic compounds that absorb light of a certain wavelength and emit light of another wavelength. (
  • The molecular interaction between hemoglobin (HHb), the major human heme protein, and the acridine dyes acridine orange (AO) and 9-aminoacridine (9AA) was studied by various spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular modeling techniques. (
  • The dyes are typically used to dye natural protein (wool and silk), synthetic polyamide (nylon) and to a small extent acrylics and blends of these fibres. (
  • Here we describe the production and cytological characterization of new transgenic maize lines expressing a fluorescent histone fusion protein, H2B-mCherry. (
  • Roger Tsien was honored for developing colorful dyes called Green Fluorescent Protein. (
  • They used genetic engineering to exchange individual moieties of building blocks and modified the protein chemically using fluorescent dyes. (
  • This means that when the sharks are still in the embryo stage, they receive an injection of fluorescent protein genes. (
  • The brilliant hues are produced by a fluorescent protein gene which occurs naturally in some marine organisms. (
  • These dyes are suitable for use with conventional imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, as well as in SRM techniques, including dSTORM. (
  • Fluorescent dyes are widely used as indispensable markers in biology, optical microscopy, and analytical chemistry. (
  • We measured the number of connection sites among neurons using microscopy with fluorescent dyes that label dendritic spines, the post-synaptic structures of excitatory synapses. (
  • The Eclipse Quencher is a new non-fluorescent quencher that allows DNA detection probes to be used for real time PCR applications such as measuring gene expression or detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). (
  • The use of fluorescent tags as an alternative to radiolabels in DNA probes and primers has blossomed over the years. (
  • This qualitative in-vitro diagnostics test uses oligonucleotide probes labeled with four different fluorescent dyes. (
  • Fluorescent probes are also a kind of fluorescent chemical sensors. (
  • The recognition group in the fluorescent probe, also known as the receptor part, is the main part of the molecular recognition function of the probes. (
  • In industry, fluorescent probes can be used to determine the content of impurities in castings, so as to control the quality of products. (
  • In agriculture, fluorescent probes can be used to check the purity of agricultural products, identify the viability of seeds, detect the deterioration of agricultural products as soon as possible, judge the maturity of fruits and diagnose crop diseases and pests. (
  • In addition, fluorescent probes can also be used to detect the content of pesticides. (
  • BOC Sciences provides high-quality Fluorescent Probes and Fluorescent Dyes products for global customers. (
  • In addition to standard oligos synthesis, we also provide scientific research services such as long oligos synthesis, phosphorothioate oligos (S-Oligo) synthesis, modified oligos synthesis, fluorescent oligos synthesis, and real-time quantitative PCR probes to meet your different needs. (
  • Detection of PCR products in real-time can be accomplished by using fluorescent dyes or probes. (
  • Fluorescently-labeled probes detect the amount of specific double-stranded DNA sequences while fluorescent dyes detect only the amount of double-stranded DNA. (
  • Nile Red is a strongly fluorescent stain in the presence of a hydrophobic environment for the detection of intracellular lipid droplets. (
  • Chemtex's Fluoroscent Dye is an excellent coloring agent for glycol/water based coolant for the purpose of easy leak detection that can be easily detected in normal day light and also glows in presence of UV light. (
  • Learn how fluorescent leak detection works and how it is being used in industrial settings. (
  • Fluorescent dyes that stain nucleic acids have been used in the detection of blood parasites. (
  • In leak detection service, oil-based and the water tracing dye are mainly used. (
  • IFWB-331OZ Orange products are specially formulated versions of Xanthene dye for convenient use in water tracing and leak detection studies. (
  • The fluorophore, released from the target and separated from the quencher, is now highly fluorescent and ready for detection. (
  • ATTENTION: A partial charge of PAG Oil with Fluorescent Leak Detection Dye will not provide enough dye for proper fluorescing. (
  • Here, we are going to look at the principles behind fluorescent dye-based detection. (
  • The most commonly used dye for fluorescent- dye based detection is SyBr Green. (
  • To learn more about how to align the dye spectra with your filters, check out our blog here ( Imaging Stellaris Assays: Get to Know Your Microscope ). (
  • Comparison of the UV-vis spectra indicates that PONy dyes absorb and emit at longer wavelengths and possess larger Stokes shifts than the parent dyes. (
  • The unique combination of fluorescent dyes with known spectra is recognized in each individual measurement by using color deconvolution of the dye's spectra. (
  • These dyes can be used in various types of heat transfer fluids and function as excellent leak detectors. (
  • These dyes are highly soluble in water and can be easily incorporated into formulations. (
  • Many water tracing dyes are available in both liquid and powder. (
  • Part number IFWB-331OZ Risk Reactor Inc.'s EPA Approved water tracing dyes. (
  • DAPI dihydrochloride is A fluorescent dye that binds DNA rich in a-T sequences. (
  • As the PCR progresses and the quantity of double-stranded DNA increases, more dye binds to the PCR products and hence, signal intensity increases. (
  • Real-time RT-PCR can also detect a single target in a very small concentration of DNA or RNA because it uses a fluorescent dye that binds to targets. (
  • An American invention, fluorescent pigments were the result of an experiment by Bob and Joe Switzer. (
  • Janelia Fluor ® dyes are very bright and photostable and importantly, they are cell-permeable, enabling live-cell intracellular imaging. (
  • Cy5 is a bright, far-red fluorescent dye. (
  • Exceptionally bright and illuminating, fluorescent colours have been attracting us for ages. (
  • Make your work easier with easy to see, easy to use fluorescent dye tracing product from bright dye. (
  • Visually the dye appears orange to red-orange, depending on its concentration and under ultraviolet light as bright yellow. (
  • Biotium offers a wide range of calcium indicator dyes, including Fluo-4 AM Ester , a bright and cell permeable dye that is used for high-throughput screening. (
  • The dyes will emit in the ultraviolet, visible or near infrared. (
  • The versatility of the proposed transformation is demonstrated by the facile functionalizations of the commercial fluorophores Atto 495 and Pyronin Y. Using the phosphinylation/oxidation chemistry, Atto 495 was converted into an orange emitting dye A1 applicable in immunolabelling ( figure 2 ). (
  • Cy5 Bis NHS Ester contains two reactive groups on each dye molecule. (
  • We solve this challenge by producing purified suspensions of gold nanoparticle dimers linked by a single DNA double strand exhibiting one a single dye molecule. (
  • The VioBlue® Dye is a coumarin-based fluorochrome with excitation and emission wavelengths of 400 nm and 455 nm, respectively. (
  • The "fluorescent" aspect refers to special properties of some chemicals to absorb certain wavelengths and then emit, rather than reflect, light in response. (
  • We will develop non-biased red and near infrared fluorescent dyes, which are compatible with in vivo optical imaging and do not affect properties of drugs upon their conjugation. (
  • Maximo-Fluorescent gel stain (100x) is exceptionally fast and sensitive. (
  • Propidium Iodide is a red-fluorescent dye that can be used to stain cells. (
  • While searching for new fluorophores suitable for nanoscale imaging of intracellular targets, various organic dyes with electrophilic conjugated systems were found to react with nucleophilic phos- phorus(III) reagents (see figure 1 ) to form phos-phonylated leuco bases. (
  • BCECF AM is the most popular green fluorescent, intracellular pH indicator. (
  • The AM ester versions are cell permeable, and hydrolyzed by intracellular esterases to release the fluorescent dye. (
  • The optional use of a probenecid solution and an extracellular background masking solution (TRS) offers the ultimate in compatibility for cells types which are difficult to load with fluorescent Na+ indicators (e.g. (
  • These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays. (
  • To measure iron levels in sub-cellular compartments, we allowed neurons to take up fluorescent iron indicators that naturally reside in either endolysosomes or the cytoplasm and measured their brightness. (
  • The mixture of dyes at each spot encodes binary information that is read with a fluorescent microscope. (
  • Selection of the fluorescent dye for your Stellaris RNA FISH probe set should be chosen to best match the specifications of the available band-pass filters sets on the microscope you will be using. (
  • The system was mounted on a confocal microscope for time-lapse en face imaging, and cells were stained with calcein, a fluorescent vital dye. (
  • Either straight under the microscope without staining or after staining and fixing with a specific dye, amoeba can be seen. (
  • Fluorescent dyes refer to substances that absorb a light wave of a certain wavelength and emit another light wave with a wavelength gre. (
  • Tocris acquired a license to the Janelia Fluor ® dyes and their photoactivatable derivatives from HHMI, Janelia Research Campus, and made them commercially available in 2017. (
  • Commercially available red fluorescent dyes with net negative charges adversely showed strong interactions with library beads. (
  • Upon oxidation, these intermediates provide new fluorophores (PONy dyes) with red-shifted absorption and emission maxima and increased Stokes shifts as compared to the precursor dyes. (
  • Apart from fluorescent dyes, Neelikon also offers dye-Intermediates for fluorescent dyes, optical brighteners, and fluorescent brightening agents. (
  • This entry was posted on Tuesday, March 19th, 2013 at 5:42 AM and is filed under Dye intermediates . (
  • Figure 1: Assay principle, chemical structures of the macrocycles and complexation equilibria with fluorescent dyes. (
  • The Coolant Dye serves as a dye to be utilized in detecting the leaks in the cooling systems. (
  • The use of UV Protection methodologies helps the dyes in locating the leaks in water pumps, radiators, cooling systems, hoses and fittings. (
  • Fluorescent dyes also can reveal leaks in static systems that can be pressurized or agitated. (
  • The uniforms of firefighters, constructions workers , and other safety personnel are designed in fluorescent fabrics to indicate their presence and ensure safety in the working area. (
  • Designing fluorescent dyes typically relies on a molecular engineering approach in which photophysical properties are tuned by chemical modifications. (
  • These files are used in molecular dynamics simulations that include the dyes typically used in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments. (
  • For Yakima Yellow, the reference dye was carboxy tetramethylrhodamine in methanol. (
  • For Redmond Red, the reference dye was sulforhodamine 101 in EtOH. (
  • Dyes and fluorescent labels are an invaluable tool for diagnostics, medical biological, and biochemical research. (
  • Example structures for different PONy dye classes are given in figure 2 . (
  • When modified with fluorophores, for example, such strongly-labeled structures could be used as fluorescent beacons. (
  • One of the leading detergent products in the market switched to fluorescent packaging, thus grabbing eyeballs on the product shelves. (
  • Most appropriate fluorescent products for quantitative analysis! (
  • How Fluorescent Dye Tracing Products Work: The "visual" aspect of our dye products refers to normal reflection of light as color. (
  • Initially we will provide products based on Epoch's Redmond Red™ and Yakima Yellow™ fluorophores and Eclipse™ non-fluorescent quencher, which will be described in detail in this article. (
  • The new Epoch products offer two new fluorescent dyes, available immediately as phosphoramidites and supports, as shown in Figure 1 . (
  • Many antifreeze products also contain yellow-green fluorescent dyes and a bitter taste to reduce the chances of accidental ingestion. (
  • It has been shown to be useful as fluorescent label for biological compounds. (
  • Fluorescent dyes can be used in a variety of staining and biological labeling applications. (
  • Signal in Biological Research-Fluorescent Labeling DyesTypes of fluorescent dyes1. (
  • They are the "molecular devices" that convert biological and chemical events into fluorescent signals that could be analyzed. (
  • A combination of fluorescent dyes with new class polymers led to their effective use in printing and ink sectors. (
  • What this all means is that the glofish shark is basically just a fluorescent-dyed rainbow shark. (
  • GloFish® are not dyed and their color, which is inherited from their parents, does not fade! (
  • The calcium indicator dyes vary in their calcium dissociation constant (Kd), color and brightness. (
  • The transformations required only few synthetic steps and provided functional derivatives of the PONy dyes (e. g. (
  • The double stranded siRNA with the latter type of modification delivered the best energy transfer efficiency, which was explained by molecular dynamics simulations that showed that the two dyes are more flexible at the arabino-configured sugars compared to the completely stacked situation at the ribo-configured ones. (
  • Pluronic F-127 was used for fluorescent labeling of blood vessels, astrocytes, and neurons. (
  • It is easier to discern true signal from autofluorescence if longer wavelength fluorophores, such as Quasar™ 570, 670, or CAL Fluor™ Red 610 dyes, which emit in the red or far-red, are used instead. (
  • Addition of neutral or anionic P(III) nucleophiles to cationic or highly polarized fluorophores results in "PONy" dyes with "grown-up" Strokes shift an red shifted adsorption and emission bands. (
  • This Tie Dye T-shirt Fluorescent Swirl Yellow Pink Swirl Adult Tee Shirt features a striking combination of Tie Dye color! (
  • This Tie Dye T-shirt Spider Brown Retro Vintage Groovy Adult Tee Shirt features a bronze majestic Tie Dye web of color! (
  • Chemtex Speciality Limited is an ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified manufacturer and supplier of Fluorescent Green Color Dye. (
  • Choose a dye color based on contrast to the background of the water body. (
  • The dyes are listed based on the solvent tested in, altering the solvent can alter the color of the dye. (
  • See the dyes below and click to see samples of their color in different solvents. (
  • In this case two fluorescent labels with small and large Stokes shifts can be combined in one experiment and imaged separately. (
  • To enable the imaging, drugs should be labeled with easily detectable moieties, e.g. radioactive markers and fluorescent dyes. (
  • These dyes can be prepared in cationic or zwitterionic forms, making them promising candidates for the development of cell-permeant fluorescent markers for living cells. (
  • The function of the reporter group is to express the molecular recognition information which can be used as a fluorescent signal. (
  • For example, red dyes provide contrast against heavy concentrations of algae. (
  • Because of the fluorescent nature, IFWB-33 offers greater contrast than non-fluorescent tracers! (
  • The Acid Dyes work in water, many choose to activate dyes in acid dye-baths instead. (
  • In addition, the spectral properties of ICT dye can be modulated by the addition of the acid leading to an acid switchable, energy transfer cassette. (
  • Non-fluorescent calcium (Ca ² +) chelator, membrane permeable. (
  • Step-by-step Dye Tracing Instructions for field activities. (
  • Water tracing dye is used by public work departments, engineers, sanitary authorities to trace water. (
  • So they grew the cells in a single layer and tested whether fluid could pass through by pouring a fluorescent liquid on top of the cells and checking to see if any of the glowing liquid ended up underneath. (
  • What is the best combination of light sources and filters that can be used with common fluorescent dyes? (
  • Fluorescent dyes exhibit feature to glow in presence of UV light. (