Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cell SeparationStaining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CCD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Rats, Inbred LewHypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Phospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein: A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.Transfer Factor: Factor derived from leukocyte lysates of immune donors which can transfer both local and systemic cellular immunity to nonimmune recipients.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Inbred CBATendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Mice, Inbred DBAAdenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Genes, RAG-1: Genes involved in activating the enzyme VDJ recombinase. RAG-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity: The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred C3HNeoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Natural Killer T-Cells: A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mice, Inbred AHeart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Parabiosis: The experimental joining of two individuals for the purpose of studying the effects of one on the other.
2005). "Adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus-specific CTL to stem cell transplant patients after selection by HLA-peptide ... "Dextramers: New generation of fluorescent MHC class I/peptide multimers for visualization of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells". ... "Multimer technologies for detection and adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells". Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010 (59): ... which are used to detect antigen-specific T-cells in fluid cells and solid tissue samples using flow cytometry. These T-cells ...
... or magnetically activated cell separation) and adoptive transfer of defined antigen specific T cell populations. This may now ... Further, the Strep-Tactin backbone has a fluorescent label to allow flow cytometry analysis. Incubation of MHC-Strep-tag fusion ... expanded T cell lines or clones can be easily purified from contaminating cells or cell debris before transfer to clinical ... Reversible MHC multimer staining for functional isolation of T-cell populations and effective adoptive transfer. Nature ...
"Reversible MHC multimer staining for functional isolation of T-cell populations and effective adoptive transfer". Nat Med. 8 (6 ... Modified oligonucleotides are being generated with a large variety of fluorescent labels as well as diverse base and backbone ... T cells, B cells and other cells of interest. This technology is known as Fab-TACS (Traceless Affinity Cell Selection) and is ... Isolated and purified cells are being deployed for basic research as well as diagnostic applications. The Streptamers for cell ...
Plasma Reagin (RPR) and fluorescent treponemal antibodies (FTA) positive are excluded.. *Pregnant or nursing ... Ipilimumab With Lymphodepletion Plus Adoptive Cell Transfer and High Dose IL-2 in Melanoma Mets Pts. This study is ongoing, but ... Co-stimulation With Ipilimumab to Enhance Lymphodepletion Plus Adoptive Cell Transfer and High Dose IL-2 in Patients With ... The primary endpoints of this pilot trial will be the safety and feasibility of administering ipilimumab with Adoptive Cell ...
Little or no basophil infiltration was detected in T cell-deficient mice, and adoptive transfer of CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells ... Little or no basophil infiltration was detected in T cell-deficient mice, and adoptive transfer of CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells ... and adoptive transfer of IL-3-sufficient but not -deficient CD4+ T cells conferred the basophil infiltration on T cell- ... and adoptive transfer of IL-3-sufficient but not -deficient CD4+ T cells conferred the basophil infiltration on T cell- ...
Adoptive transfer and immunofluorescent microscopy. Purified DO11.10 CD4+ T cells were labeled with the red fluorescent dye, ... Transferred DO11.10 CD4+ T cells were uniquely recognized by PE-anti-KJ1-26 mAb. For DO11.10 CD4+ T cell activation, pLN cells ... 5⇓D) images confirmed the intimate cell-cell interactions of OVA-presenting eosinophil APCs with OVA-specific CD4+ T cells. ... red fluorescent dye loaded OVA TCR-specific CD4+ T cells 24 h earlier. Twenty-four hours after eosinophil transfer, pLNs were ...
... a fixed amount of fluorescent microspheres was added (Flowcount beads; Beckman Coulter, Mijdrecht, the Netherlands) to allow ... T-cell lines for adoptive transfer into recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants. Blood 2004;103:3565-72. ... Early Detection and Rapid Isolation of Leukemia-Reactive Donor T Cells for Adoptive Transfer Using the IFN-γ Secretion Assay. ... As target cells, unmodified leukemic cells and malignant APCs were used. Target cells were incubated with effector cells at a 5 ...
For adoptive transfer experiments involving BDC2.5 CD4+ T cells, 2 × 106 CFSE-labeled cells were injected i.v. into female NOD ... Donor Thy1.1+ OT-II CD4+ or OT-I CD8+ T cells from pooled spleens and lymph nodes were labeled with CFSE fluorescent dye (1 μM ... B cell depletion inhibits antigen-specific CD4+ but not CD8+ T cell expansion. (A) Impaired CD4+ T cell proliferation in B cell ... B cell depletion inhibits autoantigen-driven CD4+ T cell expansion in vivo. (A) B cell depletion impairs β cell-specific CD4+ T ...
Adoptive cell transfer of macrophages with immunosuppressive properties represents a novel immunotherapy for treatment of such ... Fluorescent imaging analyses revealed that adoptively transferred M2r macrophages specifically homed to the inflamed pancreas, ... Clinical therapeutic efficacy was assessed after adoptive transfer in NOD T1D mice, and after a single transfer of M2r ... Adoptive Transfer of Immunomodulatory M2 Macrophages Prevents Type 1 Diabetes in NOD Mice. ...
Depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells from Splenocytes Used for the Adoptive Transfer.. To further characterize the immune cell ... The mAbs, purchased from PharMingen (San Diego, CA), were directly conjugated with fluorescent markers (FITC, phycoerythrin, or ... mast cells, monocytes/macrophages, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and NK cells (1 , 2) . With respect to NK cells, their ... Adoptive Transfer of Naïve or Tumor-sensitized Immune Cells.. s.c. EMT6 tumors growing in syngeneic BALB/c mice can be ...
Adoptive transfer of S1p1rWT/WT and S1p1rS5A/S5A lymphocytes and S1P1 surface staining of lymph node endothelial cells ... Single-cell lymphocyte suspensions were isolated from the spleen and lymph nodes and labeled with the fluorescent dye CFSE ( ... Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that S5A-S1P1 T cells were refractory to FTY720-induced lymphopenia, even when ... Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that mutant S1P1 expression in lymphocytes, rather than endothelial cells, ...
The Cellometer Auto 2000 Cell Viability Counter is a touchscreen fluorescent automated cell counter for primary samples. Call ... Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapy. Use Cellometer to perform cell based assays and measure cell size, viability and concentration ... In the combined fluorescent counted image, live counted cells are circled in green. Dead counted cells are circled in red. ... Cell Size Assay. Performing cell size measurement assay and using cell size to count cells within preset cell size parameters. ...
Fluorescent imaging and quantification were performed as described above.. Adoptive transfer of MEx treated BMDMo. BMDMy were ... Additionally, the effect of MEx on other cell types in IPF such as lung epithelial cells and endothelial cells needs further ... treated myeloid cells (data not shown). To understand the impact of MEx on My/Mo cells, we next profiled this cell lineage by ... of the cells in culture (BM-derived myeloid cells [BMDMy], data not shown). Cells were subsequently cultured for 3 days in the ...
... fluorescent protein transgenic leukocytes can be studied endogenously without ex vivo manipulation or adoptive transfer. In ... This approach subjects cells to less ex vivo handling and genetically encoded fluorescent tags do not become diluted or fade in ... Transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or its variants in a cell type-specific fashion are alternatives to ... to study cell activation and/or signaling during long-term cell migrations. We are currently generating variety of fluorescence ...
Use of adoptive transfer of T-cell-antigen-receptor-transgenic T cell for the study of T-cell activation in vivo. Immunol. Rev. ... We labeled the CrpA63-71-specific retrogenic T cells with the fluorescent dye SNARF and adoptively transferred 1-2 × 106 ... CD8+ T cells can be detected at the site of infection (1, 2) and adoptive transfer of immune CD8+ T cells can protect against ... Adoptive transfer and tissue preparation. A single cell suspension of spleens and peripheral lymph nodes was harvested from ...
Leukocytes expressing green fluorescent protein as novel reagents for adoptive cell transfer and bone marrow transplantation ... cells (e). The Col I+ and Mac-3+ cells represented 5.5% ± 0.4% of GFP+ cells (f). Inset in f shows the cells stained with ... Cells positive for Col I, α-SMA, or TERT in GFP+ and GFP- cells were counted and expressed as a percentage of total cells ... hematopoietic stem cells or nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stem cells, muscle (2), heart (3), liver (4), and lung (5, 6) cells of ...
Cancer Cell. 2012 Mar 20;21(3):402-17. doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2012.01.008. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, ... Arrow indicates date of adoptive transfer.. B. Average combined tumor burden in PyMT ChOVA mice following adoptive transfer of ... E. Mean fluorescent intensity of CD11c YFP+ cells located proximal or distal to the tumor border, and tumor masses. * line ... Blue cells indicate DCs contacting T cells (defined by overlapping red and green fluorescence), white cells indicate T cells ...
Bright field and fluorescent cell images can be viewed to check cell morphology and verify cell counting. Total cell count, ... Adoptive Cell Transfer TherapyRebecca Skane2018-05-25T00:34:01+00:00 Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapy. Introduction to Adoptive ... Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy focuses of using the patients own cells for therapeutic treatment. Within ACT there are ... Human and Animal Cells Counted by Cellometer that are used in Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapy. ...
... studies were performed in which DCs from mice transgenic for enhanced green fluorescent protein were used for adoptive transfer ... cells, and (D) CD3+ cells. (E) Total number of live cells, CD45+ cells, and CD3+ cells. (F-H) Representative flow cytometry ... G) Coculture of t-BHP-treated DCs with T cells promoted survival of CD8+ T cell. (H) Adoptive transfer of t-BHP-treated DCs in ... Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores hypertension in these animals. In addition, mice with severe combined ...
Adoptive cell transfer.The procedure used for adoptive cell transfer was described earlier (32). Briefly, C57BL/6 mice were ... Enriched HPCs were transduced with different lentiviral plasmids (with a green fluorescent protein [GFP] tag) and cultured with ... Cells were then injected intravenously (i.v.) into recipient mice, and the proportions of myeloid cells among the GFP+ cells in ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that capture, process, and present antigens to T cells and ...
Adoptive transfer of T cells to WT, KI, or KO host mice. (A) CFSE-labeled T cells from KO mice were injected into irradiated WT ... On days 3, 5, or 6, single-cell suspensions from spleens were stained with fluorescent antibodies to CD4, CD8α, and CD45.2 (BD ... Cells were gated on CD45.2+ to exclude endogenous T cells. Proliferation of transferred CD4+/CD8+ T cells was visualized by ... 32D cells are IL-3-dependent myeloid progenitor cells. 32D cells transfected with IL-2Rβ chain (32D-IL-2Rβ cells) can ...
Tumor cells and adoptive T-cell transfer. A20-HA and A20WT cells were previously described ( 8). A20-HAGFP (a kind gift of H. ... was generated by stable transfection of the A20-HA tumor with the enhanced green fluorescent protein and selected following in ... T cells from T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice in vitro. However, with the adoptive transfer of HA-specific T cells into ... Tumor cells (1 × 106) were injected via tail vein. For adoptive transfer using whole CD4+ T cells, single-cell suspensions ...
Adoptive Transfer and Immunization.. Spleen and lymph node cells from DO11.10 mice were labeled with CFSE. 3 × 106 transgenic ... Green fluorescent CMFDA (5-chloromethyl-fluoresceindiacetate) cell tracker (Molecular Probes) was dissolved in a 50/50 (vol/vol ... and by stromal cells present in the T cell zone, and CCL19, which is produced by stromal cells and mature DCs in the T cell ... To examine the impact of DC migration on T cell priming we transferred CFSE-labeled TCR transgenic CD4+ DO11.10 T cells into ...
... we found that adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs)22 or T regulatory cells (TREGs) pretreated with ... Fluorescent intensity is indicated by the color-coded bar. (B) Graph shows quantified differences in absorbance between NCs, WT ... Isolation and Adoptive Transfer of Splenocytes. Single-cell suspensions of splenocytes from mice treated with C57BL/6 WT, S1pr3 ... Cell-based therapy using regulatory immune cells (TREGs,34 myeloid cells,35 or DCs36,37) is a strategy that induces potential ...
We conducted an adoptive transfer assay to directly explore neutrophil trafficking and accumulation. Adoptively transferred WT ... NPA% was calculated as the percentage of CD66+, CD16+, and CD41 triple-positive cells (NPAs) among all CD66+ and CD16+ cells. ... 2J). Purified Ip6k1-null neutrophils were labeled with green fluorescent dye 5- (and 6-) carboxyfluorescein diacetate ... J) Schematic of the neutrophil-adoptive transfer assay. (K) Purified WT and IP6K1-deficient neutrophil mixture for adoptive ...
Tumors were then imaged starting 7 days after the adoptive transfer of the CFP-Pmel cells (day 10 of tumor growth) as ... naïve cyan fluorescent protein-expressing Pmel-1 CD8+ T cells (CFP-Pmel) were adoptively transferred into the Foxp3-GFP tumor- ... Human regulatory T cells rapidly suppress T cell receptor-induced Ca2+, NF-κB, and NFAT signaling in conventional T cells. Sci ... Cell contact-dependent immunosuppression by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells is mediated by cell surface-bound transforming growth ...
We were able to readily identify red fluorescent Salsa6f T cells easily in intact lymph nodes following adoptive transfer. Our ... Cd4 T cell isolation kit. Stem Cell Technologies. Commercial assay or kit. EasySep mouse Cd4 T cell isolation kit. Stem Cell ... B-F, H-L) Two Cd4-Salsa6f (Hom) T cells imaged in a wild-type lymph node after adoptive transfer (same lymph node as in A). Red ... We thus adoptively transferred Cd4-Salsa6f T cells into wild-type recipients so these cells could be viewed in isolation at low ...
CFSE labeling and adoptive transfer. Spleens from donor mice were mechanically disrupted, and erythrocytes were lysed using a ... Cells were labeled for 15 min at 37°C with the 2 µM fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester (CFSE) ( ... mouse donor cells were transferred into WT recipient mice or when WT donor cells were transferred into TNF−/− recipient mice ( ... Nat Immun Cell Growth Regul. 1986;5:169-199. [PubMed]. 30. Zafirova B, et al. Altered NK cell development and enhanced NK cell- ...
  • Myeloid and B-cell leukemias were modified into professional immunogenic antigen-presenting cells, and used to stimulate HLA-matched donor T cells. (
  • Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is successfully applied in the treatment of hematologic malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (
  • Using the A20 B-cell lymphoma model, here we identify myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) as the tolerogenic antigen presenting cells capable of antigen uptake and presentation to tumor-specific Tregs. (
  • Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have recently been recognized as critical mediators of tumor progression in numerous solid tumors through their inhibition of tumor-specific immune responses ( 14 ). (
  • Tumor-associated CD8+ T cell tolerance induced by bone marrow-derived immature myeloid cells. (
  • To conclude, TREM-1, TLR2/4 and MyD88 signaling pathways are redundant in myeloid cell activation in kidney injury, but the latter appear to regulate activation of mesenchymal cells. (
  • Recently, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling was shown to be important for initial T cell priming and memory T cell development during WNV NS4B-P38G mutant infection. (
  • In contrast to blood, skin has a greater potential for generating heterogeneity in parasite distribution, and both dispersal and dispersion of parasites within the skin is linked to that of the host myeloid cells in which these parasites reside. (
  • They provide an ideal means to characterize the T cells that respond to a vaccine, and they have been used to test T cell responses in many vaccine systems, including influenza, yellow fever, tuberculosis, HIV/SIV and a large number of cancer vaccine trials, including melanoma and chronic myeloid leukemia. (
  • Flow cytometry confirmed GFP(+) expression in CD11b(+)/CD64(+), CD11c(+)/MHC-II(HI), and CD11b(+)/F4/80(+) myeloid cells. (
  • 2009 Lin28A/Lin28B may donate to the introduction of intense badly differentiated tumors since their manifestation is connected with advanced disease in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) persistent myeloid leukemia (CML) Wilms' tumor ovarian carcinoma digestive tract adenocarcinoma and germ cell tumors (Dangi-Garimella et al. (
  • During acute viral infection, transgenic T cells that were clearly defined as non-virus specific decreased in number and showed an increase in apoptosis. (
  • First, virus infections fail to stimulate the expansion of naive or memory transgenic T cells that do not cross-react with the virus ( 7 , 53 ). (
  • MHC pentamers can also be used in tissue staining, and in magnetic isolation of antigen-specific T cells. (
  • Finally, and most convincingly, new methods to quantify antigen-specific T cells, including MHC tetramer binding ( 11 , 27 ), immunoglobulin G-MHC dimer binding ( 13 , 33 ), and peptide-induced intracellular IFN-γ staining ( 7 , 27 ), have revealed dramatically high percentages of virus-specific cells. (
  • The Streptamer technology allows the reversible isolation and staining of antigen-specific T cells. (
  • Over the past years, various methods (ELISPOT assay, intracellular cytokine staining, secretion assay) have been developed for the identification of T cells, but only major histocompatibility complex (MHC) procedures allow identification and purification of antigen-specific T cells independent of their functional status. (
  • The capacity of airway eosinophils, potentially pertinent to allergic diseases of the upper and lower airways, to function as professional APCs, those specifically able to elicit responses from unprimed, Ag-naive CD4 + T cells has been uncertain. (
  • Thus, recruited luminal airway eosinophils are distinct allergic "inflammatory" professional APCs able to activate primary CD4 + T cell responses in regional LNs. (
  • In this regard, DCs are well established as APCs for their roles in initiating primary T cell-mediated immune responses ( 10 ). (
  • DCs exhibit the three requisite attributes of "professional" APCs in that DCs can: 1) process and present MHC class II restricted Ags, 2) provide required second-signal costimulation of T cells, and 3) initiate T lymphocyte responses among Ag-naive T cells ( 11 ). (
  • Thereby, CD20 mAb treatment was unlikely to modify autoimmune responses by depleting functionally important non B cell leukocyte subsets. (
  • For instance, NK cells may indirectly regulate T cell responses by lysing MCMV-infected antigen-presenting cells 6 - 7 . (
  • We propose that chronic BCR activity and access to T cell help play critical roles in regulating IgE responses. (
  • Programmed death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), the interacting ligand for PD-1, widely expressed in many cell types, acts as a tissue-specific negative regulator of pathogenic T-cell responses. (
  • This is in direct contrast to prior reports of suppressed conventional CD4 + T-cell responses in the lymph node. (
  • Thus developmental exposures lead to context-dependent changes in pulmonary CD4 + T-cell subsets, which may contribute to differential responses to respiratory infection. (
  • Immune responses to vector-corrected cells have limited the application of gene therapy for treatment of chronic disorders such as inherited deficiency states. (
  • These studies indicate that vector-mediated transduction of dendritic cells is necessary for cellular immune responses to muscle gene therapy, a step which AAV avoids, providing a useful biological niche for its use in gene therapy. (
  • Adenoviruses expressing the lacZ gene elicit vibrant cellular and humoral immune responses to cytosolic β-galactosidase following delivery to liver, lung, muscle, and joint that often contribute to destruction of the genetically corrected target cells and lead to inflammation and loss of transgene ( 14 , 41 , 46 , 48 , 52 ). (
  • Initial studies with recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivered to skeletal muscle have yielded unexpected results in terms of the stability of gene transfer and ensuing immune responses. (
  • Further understanding of these types of allergic responses is dependent on the identification and characterization of these cells. (
  • Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a cytokine secreted by epithelial and innate immune cells, stimulates such pathogenic T H 2 cell responses. (
  • Tumor immunity includes both innate and adaptive immune responses against malignant cells. (
  • Several mechanisms have been described by which tumors can suppress the immune system, including secretion of cytokines, alterations in antigen-presenting cell subsets, expression of costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules and changes in ratios of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to effector T cells, and it is abundantly documented that these mechanisms of immunosuppression can impair tumor specific immune responses [ 5 ]. (
  • A wide array of clinically relevant aspects are associated with the function or malfunction of T-cells: Autoimmune diseases, control of viral or bacterial pathogens, development of cancer or graft versus host responses. (
  • Retrovirally transduced hematopoietic colonies expressed high levels of GFP as determined by direct visualization with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy ( Fig. 1, A and B ). Nontransduced clonogenic progenitors showed no detectable fluorescence ( Fig. 1, C and D ), indicating the specificity of GFP as a marker for genetically modified hematopoietic cells. (
  • Following sexual transmission, Chlamydia trachomatis specifically targets genital tract epithelial cells. (
  • Because epithelial cells are readily recognized by CD8 + T cells, the response of CD8 + T cells to Chlamydia infection has been explored in a number of studies. (
  • Infection with C. trachomatis occurs naturally in the genital tract, where the organisms have a strict tropism for epithelial cells ( 9 ). (
  • Although CD4 + T cells contribute significantly in controlling Chlamydia infection ( 10 , 11 ), they may not recognize Chlamydia -infected epithelial cells in the genital mucosa because epithelial cells typically express low levels of MHC class II. (
  • Because epithelial cells express abundant levels of MHC class I, we sought to determine whether Chlamydia -specific CD8 + T cells are recruited to the genital epithelium in response to Chlamydia infection of the genital tract. (
  • The pathogenesis of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) involves a complex interaction between altered microcirculatory hemodynamics, endothelial and epithelial cells, and infiltration of immune cells. (
  • Using adoptive transfers and manipulating the pathogen properties, we determined that developmental exposure influenced factors intrinsic and extrinsic to CD4 + T cells and may involve developmentally induced changes in signals from infected lung epithelial cells. (
  • Hence, an improved understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms operative in the intestinal mucosa is relevant for elucidating the pathogenesis of IBD.The huge numbers of differentiated T cells that are present within the vast epithelial surface of the intestine contribute to the immense size of the intestinal immune system. (
  • Airway DCs can capture inhaled Ag, migrate to regional paratracheal lymph nodes (pLNs), and present Ag to naive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells ( 10 ). (
  • We observed that the Chlamydia -specific retrogenic T cells proliferated in lymph nodes draining the genital tract in response to genital infection with C. trachomatis . (
  • D. Flow cytometry of tumor-draining lymph nodes 48 hours after 1×10 6 CFSE labeled CD45.1 OT-I T cells were transferred to either a PyMT tumor-bearing mouse or a PyMT ChOVA tumor-bearing mouse. (
  • 5 days post-transfer tumor draining lymph nodes and tumors were removed and analyzed by flow cytometry. (
  • These chemokines attract CCR7 + mature DCs into lymphatics and promote extravasation of CCR7 + naive and central memory T cells through HEV, thus orchestrating their encounter in the T cell area of antigen-stimulated lymph nodes. (
  • In this study we dissected the parameters that affect the migration of BM-derived mature DCs to the draining lymph nodes and analyzed the impact of DC migration on T cell priming. (
  • Tumor growth correlated strictly with ( i ) failure of tumor cells to reach the draining lymph nodes and ( ii ) absence of primed cytotoxic T cells. (
  • DiI-RPM phi injected into the peritoneal cavity migrated to the parathymic lymph nodes where they were found in the subcapsular sinus and in the medullary cords, whereas very few fluorescent cells could be found in the T cell areas. (
  • Only with the advent of modern imaging techniques has it become possible to actually visualize the individual steps of T cell activation in the lymph nodes, of crossing the blood brain barrier, and of interaction between autoreactive T cells and their molecular targets within the CNS. (
  • T Cell Migration from Inflamed Skin to Draining Lymph Nodes Requires Intralymphatic Crawling Supported by ICAM-1/LFA-1 Interactions. (
  • In this study we found that, B16F10 melanoma growth is inversely correlated with peritumoral infiltrate cell number and with cell numbers in draining lymph nodes. (
  • It is still unclear, though, if the effect is mediated mainly by the activation of tumor-specific cells in the draining lymph nodes or by the modulation of the cells infiltrating the tumor. (
  • The immune specificity of these T-cell populations was demonstrated by the absence of cross-reactivity between the EMT6 and Meth-A tumor models (mismatch between tumors growing in splenocyte donors and recipients). (
  • used a three-dimensional, collagen-fibrin gel system to investigate the effects of CD8 + T cells on cocultured melanoma cells excised from mouse tumors. (
  • Established tumors were rejected by vaccine-induced effector T cells if effector T cells were maintained by prolonged or repetitive vaccination, but not by single-dose vaccination. (
  • Thus, in addition to several other tumor-promoting parameters, some antigenic peripheral sarcomas-and probably carcinomas-may grow not because they anergize or tolerize tumor-specific T cells, but because such tumors are immunologically dealt with as if they were in a so-called immunologically privileged site and are ignored for too long. (
  • Experimental tumor immunology has often selected successful tumor cells that initiate tumors after injection of few (10-10 4 ) cells. (
  • A tumor model situation that precludes immediate CTL priming by injected tumor cells in suspension can mimic this physiological situation and permits an analysis of the requirements for peripheral tumors to induce a protective CTL response. (
  • Importantly, short-term ablation of T reg cells in advanced spontaneous tumors led to extensive apoptotic tumor cell death. (
  • Upon SLP vaccination, tumors were highly infiltrated with HPV-specific, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)- and interferon-γ (IFNγ)-producing T cells. (
  • By three-color fluorescence microscopy, OVA Ag-loaded eosinophil APCs were physically interacting with naive OVA-specific CD4 + T cells in paratracheal LN after eosinophil airway instillation. (
  • The Auto 2000 utilizes bright field imaging and dual-fluorescence imaging to quickly and accurately identify and count individual cells. (
  • Dual-color fluorescence allows for staining of live and dead nucleated cells, generating accurate viability results even in the presence of debris, platelets, and red blood cells. (
  • The dual-fluorescence AO/PI method utilizes nuclear staining dyes that bind to nucleic acids in the cell nucleus. (
  • Dual fluorescence-based instruments (Cellometer Vision, Auto 2000, and K2) are capable of measuring the concentration and viability of nucleated cells in clinical samples without the need to perform red-blood cell lysis. (
  • Measuring the ratio of red and green fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of calcium ions inside the cell. (
  • In the absence of calcium signaling, the cells can still be tracked via the red fluorescence of Salsa6f. (
  • DQ Green BSA, which gives bright green fluorescence upon proteolysis, and DQ Red BSA, which yields red-fluorescent hydrolysis products, are packaged in sets of five vials, each containing 1 mg of the substrate. (
  • By day 6 these cells still formed a tight ring of fluorescence in the marginal zone alone, outside the marginal metallophil cells. (
  • however, if direct fluorescence is required, the negative effects on cell migration should be considered. (
  • We also report that DC migration could be increased up to 10-fold by preinjection of inflammatory cytokines that increased the expression of the CCR7 ligand CCL21 in lymphatic endothelial cells. (
  • The magnitude and quality of CD4 + T cell response was proportional to the number of antigen-carrying DCs that reached the lymph node and could be boosted up to 40-fold by preinjection of tumor necrosis factor that conditioned the tissue for increased DC migration. (
  • Besides chemokines, lipid mediators have been recently identified as modulators of DC migration and cell traffic through the lymph node. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) flexibly adapt to different microenvironments by using diverse migration strategies that are ultimately dependent on the dynamics and structural organization of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate the migration and invasion of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), which are key effector cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. (
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) induces ROS generation and, consequently, enhances cell migration. (
  • Following NOX4 inhibition, cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), VEGF, and migration and invasion capacity of RA FLS were markedly decreased to unstimulated levels. (
  • This dual function of cofilin makes it one of the major regulators of actin dynamics important for T-cell activation and migration. (
  • Furthermore, we are interested to define the migration properties of these "unconventional" T cells during physiological vs. inflammatory conditions. (
  • Vectors encoding five different FPs: Cerulean, EGFP, Venus, tdTomato, and mCherry were used to concurrently transduce HSPCs, creating a diverse palette of color marked cells. (
  • eGFP(+) cells were detected in the adoptive host from 2 days to 4 weeks after transfer using an optimized method of fixed cryopreservation to process the tissue. (
  • This allowed the simple, sensitive, and specific detection of eGFP(+) donor cells in histological sections of transplanted hosts. (
  • These B cells produce antibodies that, upon re-exposure to allergen, initiate a cascade of pro-inflammatory events required for the development of the later and more severe T cell-mediated hypersensitivity response. (
  • Alexander Flügel has adapted the model of adoptive transfer EAE for imaging purposes making inflammatory processes accessible to two-photon-microscopy in situ. (
  • Pathogenic mechanisms of RA and its animal model collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) involve joint infiltration by pro-inflammatory T-helper 1 (Thl) type CD4 + T cells. (
  • This study investigated the potentiel use of retrovirally transduced collagen type II (CII)-reactive CD4 + T cells for local delivery of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 4 (IL-4), to inflamed joints. (
  • In our project we aim to define the functions exerted by these intestinal T cell subsets under normal conditions and during inflammatory flares. (
  • Researchers showed that human periodontal ligament stem cells-derived conditioned medium and purified exosomes/microvesicles obtained from Relapsing Remitting-multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy donors block experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of MS, by inducing anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in spinal cord and spleen, and reverse disease progression by restoring tissue integrity via remyelination in the spinal cord. (
  • Using intravital two-photon microscopy in the mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we detected antigen recognition motility of the OT-1 CD8 + T cells within the CNS leading to a selective enrichment in inflammatory lesions. (
  • Therefore, intravital imaging demonstrates that local myelin recognition by autoreactive CD8 + T cells in inflammatory CNS lesions alone is not sufficient to induce disability or increase axonal injury. (
  • Using one universal stimulation and isolation protocol for various forms of leukemia, T-cell populations containing high frequencies of leukemia-reactive T cells could reproducibly be generated and early isolated under mild stimulatory conditions. (
  • However, such indicators cannot be targeted to specific subcellular compartments or cell populations, and are unsuitable for long-term studies due to leakage out of cells. (
  • Biological processes typically involve the interactions of a number of elements (genes, cells) acting on each others. (
  • In order to test the functional relevance of susceptibility genes identified in the genome-wide association studies in MS, it is a promising approach to investigate whether the expression level of the corresponding gene products on T cells correlates with an altered functional phenotype of these cells. (
  • Micro-ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression alterations and aberrant methylation patterns in genes, which are particularly deregulated in the CLL, like the B-cellular lymphoma?2 (BCL-2), T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (TCL1), and ZAP-70 genes, are also encountered and from buy (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate the distinct scientific parameters. (
  • In addition to upregulation of genes related to antigen presentation and the MHC class I pathway, and cytotoxic effector molecules, cell-cycle-promoting genes were downregulated in the tumor on days 3 and 5 after CTL transfer. (
  • Thus, it has become increasingly important to define which molecular mechanisms allow the interactions between accessory cells and malignant B-cells and to identify the stromal cells that mediate such signals. (
  • Stem cells in the adult have traditionally been thought to be restricted in their potential to differentiate and regenerate tissues in which they reside. (
  • It has been postulated that antigen recognition in the absence of signal two-as might occur in peripheral tissues and thus in most carcinomas or sarcomas-renders T (or B) cells nonreactive (anergic) or may delete them ( 10 , 12 , 13 ). (
  • Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. (
  • Elimination of HIV-1 requires clearance and removal of integrated proviral DNA from infected cells and tissues. (
  • After two stimulations, responding donor T cells were isolated based on their secretion of IFN-γ and tested for their capacity to recognize and kill the primary leukemia. (
  • A higher incidence of recurrent disease is observed when the grafts are depleted of T cells, illustrating the importance of the graft-versus-leukemia effect exerted by donor-derived T cells ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Briefly, a robot is used to transfer, through conjugation, chloramphenicol (Cm) - marked mutant alleles from engineered Hfr (High frequency of recombination) 'donor strains' into an ordered array of kanamycin (Kan) - marked F- recipient strains. (
  • Single, fully developed cerebellar Purkinje neurons were found to derive from the donor BM, underscoring the tremendous differentiative capacity of adult BM cells. (
  • Clonal expansion via reprogramming also enables the discovery of somatic mutations present in individual donor cells, which are missed by bulk sequencing methods. (
  • B) Absolute numbers of donor neutrophils recognized in the blood, lung cells and BAL fluid from Fig 5E and 5G. (
  • Physiologically, reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signalling molecules and influence cell function through highly regulated redox-sensitive signal transduction. (
  • Recent genetic evidence, however, has indicated a correlation between certain natural killer (NK) cell receptors and progression of both HIV and HCV infection 1 - 3 , implying that NK cells are playing a role in these T cell-associated diseases. (
  • Generally, B cells only activate when their B cell receptors bind to a specific substance. (
  • Since T-cell receptors have a low affinity for their MHC counterparts, it was historically problematic to label T cells effectively using single MHC-T-cell interactions. (
  • Different studies have shown that Toll-like-receptors (TLR) activation is a powerful stimulus to overcome tumor specific T cells tolerization [ 6 ]. (
  • 31. The method according to claim 21, wherein the natural killer cells that are produced express one or more of CD56, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), CD16, NKp44, NKp46, and NKG2D. (
  • 7 , 8 Clinical studies have correlated the involvement of chemokine receptors with nodal homing of B-cell non-Hodgkin (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma. (
  • 9 , 10 Conversely, lack of the major lymph node (LN) addressins, foremost the homeostatic chemokine receptors CXCR5 and CCR7, may predispose those tumor cells for extranodal dissemination instead. (
  • Some evidence suggests that signals from cell surface receptors influence the expression of miRNAs in CD8+ T cells, and may have consequent effects on cell phenotype and function. (
  • 1 ⇓ - 3 IL-2 was discovered as a T-cell growth factor but in addition has other important roles, for example related to the development of regulatory T cells, 4 in activation-induced cell death (AICD), 5 and in the boosting of natural killer (NK)-cell cytolytic activity. (
  • Regulatory T cells (T regs ) suppress antitumor immunity by inhibiting the killing of tumor cells by antigen-specific CD8 + T cells. (
  • Although there were very few Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in the parenchyma of quiescent retina, and they did not accumulate in retina, their depletion by local toxin administration led to disease susceptibility. (
  • These effects were CD4 + T cell subset specific, with increases in T helper type 1 and regulatory T cells, but no change in the frequency of T helper type 17 cells in the infected lung. (
  • Tetramer assays are used for single-cell phenotyping and cell counting, and offer an important advantage over other methods, such as ELISPOT and single-cell PCR because they enable the recovery and further study of sorted cells. (
  • This second edition expands on the first edition with new chapters describing methods for studying cell movement, molecular components involved in chemotaxis, spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling components, and quantitative modeling, as well as several updated chapters from the first edition. (
  • Various methods to investigate directional cell growth and movements are presented in Chapters 1-20. (
  • Methods for using such NK cells, e.g., in the treatment of cancer and infectious disease are also provided. (
  • The advantages of the Streptamer technology become clear in comparison with other methods that aim to identify and purfify T cells. (
  • The first population is CD25 − /FOXP3 − and does not proliferate, whereas the second CD25 + /FOXP3 + population proliferates and inhibits the effector function of peptide stimulated naive T cells ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • B Cell Depletion Does Not Affect Serum Cytokine Levels and T Cell Phenotypes or Functional Capacity. (
  • Based on morphologic criteria and the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the newly generated Purkinje cells were functional. (
  • By contrast, chronic leukemias are arrested at later stages of maturation and resemble functional, yet abnormal, blood cell counterparts. (
  • The reversibility of this interaction and the fact that it is performed at low temperatures is the reason for the successful isolation and characterization of functional T cells. (
  • The Streptamer technique enables a reversible identification and purification of antigen specific T cell population at 4 °C, thus it does not affect the functional status of the cells. (
  • Using intravital live imaging, we determined that infiltrating tumor-specific T cells engage in long-lived interactions with these cells, proximal to the tumor. (
  • After initial labeling of the plasma membrane of RPM phi, the dye accumulated stably in intracellular vesicles of low density (rho = 1.042-1.045 kg/l) and cells remained viable in culture for 4 weeks. (
  • The origin of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis is assumed to be intrapulmonary, but their extrapulmonary origin and especially derivation from bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells has not been ruled out. (
  • Thus the collagen-producing lung fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis can also be derived from BM progenitor cells. (
  • It is at present unclear whether bone marrow stem cells overcome their intrinsic restrictions upon exposure to nervous system environment ("transdifferentiation"), or are truly pluripotent stem cells capable of supplying the adult CNS with neurons and glia. (
  • In patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), bone marrow cells have an increased predisposition to apoptosis, yet MDS cells outcompete normal bone marrow (BM)-- suggesting that factors regulating growth potential may be important in MDS. (
  • strong class="kwd-title" Keywords: artificial neural network, biomarkers, diagnosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia Introduction Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of blood and bone marrow cancer in which uncontrolled and abnormal growth of lymphocytic cells occur. (
  • Combined with the recent evidence of BM stem cell plasticity cited above, this provides a compelling argument for re-examination of the origin of the fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis, especially in terms of their possible extrapulmonary origin. (
  • The versatility of stem cells has only recently been fully recognized. (
  • The authors describe a transgene-independent method for the generation of sinoatrial node (SAN)-like pacemaker cells (SANLPCs) from human pluripotent stem cells by stage-specific manipulation of developmental signaling pathways. (
  • To explore the impact of age on iPSC quality, investigators produced induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from blood cells of 16 donors aged 21-100. (
  • 22. The method according to claim 21, wherein the pluripotent stem cells are human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (