Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.

Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus. (1/5744)

Indoor cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus lead to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores, being aware of their pathogenicity.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of nurse cell-like stromal cell lines from synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (2/5744)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of synovial stromal cells established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to define these cells as nurse cells. METHODS: Synovial nurse-like stromal cell lines (RA-SNCs) were established from patients with RA. These cell lines were examined for morphology, pseudoemperipolesis activity, cell surface markers, and cytokine production. The interaction between these RA-SNCs and a synovial tissue B cell clone was also examined. RESULTS: RA-SNCs had nurse cell activity. They spontaneously produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, they produced IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and expressed higher levels of the other cytokines after coculture with the B cell clone. Proliferation and Ig production by the B cell clone were dependent on direct contact with RA-SNCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the RA-SNCs were nurse cells. The findings suggest that RA-SNCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing large amounts of cytokines and maintaining infiltrating lymphocytes.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to RNA polymerases recognize multiple subunits and demonstrate cross-reactivity with RNA polymerase complexes. (3/5744)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the subunit specificity of autoantibody directed to RNA polymerases (RNAP) I, II, and III, which is one of the major autoantibody responses in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-two SSc sera with anti-RNAP antibodies (23 with anti-RNAP I/III, 5 with anti-RNAP I/III and II, and 4 with anti-RNAP II alone) were analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity-purified RNAP and by immunoprecipitation using 35S-labeled cell extracts in which RNAP complexes were dissociated. Antibodies bound to individual RNAP subunits were eluted from preparative immunoblots and were further analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: At least 15 different proteins were bound by antibodies in anti-RNAP-positive SSc sera in various combinations. All 9 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP II and all 28 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP I/III recognized the large subunit proteins of RNAP II and III, respectively. Reactivity to RNAP I large subunits was strongly associated with bright nucleolar staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a 62-kd subunit protein cross-reacted with a 43-kd subunit protein and immunoprecipitated both RNAP I and RNAP III. Antibodies that recognized a 21-kd subunit protein obtained from sera that were positive for anti-RNAP I/III and II antibodies immunoprecipitated both RNAP II and RNAP III. CONCLUSION: Anti-RNAP antibodies recognize multiple subunits of RNAP I, II, and III. Moreover, the results of this study provide the first direct evidence that antibodies that recognize shared subunits of human RNAPs or epitopes present on different human RNAP subunits are responsible for the recognition of multiple RNAPs by SSc sera.  (+info)

Frequent nuclear/cytoplasmic localization of beta-catenin without exon 3 mutations in malignant melanoma. (4/5744)

Beta-Catenin has a critical role in E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, and it also functions as a downstream signaling molecule in the wnt pathway. Mutations in the putative glycogen synthase kinase 3beta phosphorylation sites near the beta-catenin amino terminus have been found in some cancers and cancer cell lines. The mutations render beta-catenin resistant to regulation by a complex containing the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, adenomatous polyposis coli, and axin proteins. As a result, beta-catenin accumulates in the cytosol and nucleus and activates T-cell factor/ lymphoid enhancing factor transcription factors. Previously, 6 of 27 melanoma cell lines were found to have beta-catenin exon 3 mutations affecting the N-terminal phosphorylation sites (Rubinfeld B, Robbins P, Elgamil M, Albert I, Porfiri E, Polakis P: Stabilization of beta-catenin by genetic defects in melanoma cell lines. Science 1997, 275:1790-1792). To assess the role of beta-catenin defects in primary melanomas, we undertook immunohistochemical and DNA sequencing studies in 65 melanoma specimens. Nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization of beta-catenin, a potential indicator of wnt pathway activation, was seen focally within roughly one third of the tumors, though a clonal somatic mutation in beta-catenin was found in only one case (codon 45 Ser-->Pro). Our findings demonstrate that beta-catenin mutations are rare in primary melanoma, in contrast to the situation in melanoma cell lines. Nonetheless, activation of beta-catenin, as indicated by its nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization, appears to be frequent in melanoma, and in some cases, it may reflect focal and transient activation of the wnt pathway within the tumor.  (+info)

Angiosarcomas express mixed endothelial phenotypes of blood and lymphatic capillaries: podoplanin as a specific marker for lymphatic endothelium. (5/5744)

Angiosarcomas apparently derive from blood vessel endothelial cells; however, occasionally their histological features suggest mixed origin from blood and lymphatic endothelia. In the absence of specific positive markers for lymphatic endothelia the precise distinction between these components has not been possible. Here we provide evidence by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry that podoplanin, a approximately 38-kd membrane glycoprotein of podocytes, is specifically expressed in the endothelium of lymphatic capillaries, but not in the blood vasculature. In normal skin and kidney, podoplanin colocalized with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, the only other lymphatic marker presently available. Complementary immunostaining of blood vessels was obtained with established endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, factor VIII-related antigen, and Ulex europaeus I lectin) as well as podocalyxin, another podocytic protein that is also localized in endothelia of blood vessels. Podoplanin specifically immunolabeled endothelia of benign tumorous lesions of undisputed lymphatic origin (lymphangiomas, hygromas) and was detected there as a 38-kd protein by immunoblotting. As paradigms of malignant vascular tumors, poorly differentiated (G3) common angiosarcomas (n = 8), epitheloid angiosarcomas (n = 3), and intestinal Kaposi's sarcomas (n = 5) were examined for their podoplanin content in relation to conventional endothelial markers. The relative number of tumor cells expressing podoplanin was estimated and, although the number of cases in this preliminary study was limited to 16, an apparent spectrum of podoplanin expression emerged that can be divided into a low-expression group in which 0-10% of tumor cells contained podoplanin, a moderate-expression group with 30-60% and a high-expression group with 70-100%. Ten of eleven angiosarcomas and all Kaposi's sarcomas showed mixed expression of both lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial phenotypes. By double labeling, most podoplanin-positive tumor cells coexpressed endothelial markers of blood vessels, whereas few tumor cells were positive for individual markers only. From these results we conclude that (1) podoplanin is a selective marker of lymphatic endothelium; (2) G3 angiosarcomas display a quantitative spectrum of podoplanin-expressing tumor cells; (3) in most angiosarcomas, a varying subset of tumor cells coexpresses podoplanin and endothelial markers of blood vessels; and (4) all endothelial cells of Kaposi's sarcomas expressed the lymphatic marker podoplanin.  (+info)

Expression of CD44 in Apc and Tcf mutant mice implies regulation by the WNT pathway. (6/5744)

Overexpression of cell surface glycoproteins of the CD44 family is an early event in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This suggests a link with disruption of APC tumor suppressor protein-mediated regulation of beta-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling, which is crucial in initiating tumorigenesis. To explore this hypothesis, we analyzed CD44 expression in the intestinal mucosa of mice and humans with genetic defects in either APC or Tcf-4, leading to constitutive activation or blockade of the beta-catenin/Tcf-4 pathway, respectively. We show that CD44 expression in the non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa of Apc mutant mice is confined to the crypt epithelium but that CD44 is strongly overexpressed in adenomas as well as in invasive carcinomas. This overexpression includes the standard part of the CD44 (CD44s) as well as variant exons (CD44v). Interestingly, deregulated CD44 expression is already present in aberrant crypt foci with dysplasia (ACFs), the earliest detectable lesions of colorectal neoplasia. Like ACFs of Apc-mutant mice, ACFs of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients also overexpress CD44. In sharp contrast, Tcf-4 mutant mice show a complete absence of CD44 in the epithelium of the small intestine. This loss of CD44 concurs with loss of stem cell characteristics, shared with adenoma cells. Our results indicate that CD44 expression is part of a genetic program controlled by the beta-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling pathway and suggest a role for CD44 in the generation and turnover of epithelial cells.  (+info)

Identification and localization of G protein subunits in human spermatozoa. (7/5744)

Antibodies to alpha and beta subunits of guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins (G proteins) were used to identify which G proteins are present in mature human spermatozoa and to determine their subcellular localization. Immunoblots of membranes from spermatozoa demonstrate the presence of Galphai2, Galphai3, Galphaq/11 and Gbeta35 and the absence of Galphai1, Galpha0, Galphas, Galpha12, Galpha13, Galpha16, Galpha and Gbeta36. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrates the presence of Galphaq/11 in the acrosome, with the highest proportion in the equatorial segment. Galphai2 is present in the acrosome, midpiece and tailpiece and Galphai3 in the postnuclear cap, midpiece and tailpiece. The Gbeta35 subunit is found mostly in the midpiece, with marginal labelling of the head, tailpiece and the equatorial segment of the acrosome. The distinct pattern of distribution of G proteins suggests that they may couple to receptors or effectors which also have discrete regions of localization in spermatozoa. These highly localized signal transduction pathways may regulate discrete functions, such as activation of the acrosome reaction, fusion with the oocyte and motility.  (+info)

CD9 is involved in invasion of human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo cells. (8/5744)

The CD9 molecule is expressed on human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade the endometrium during implantation and placentation. To elucidate the role of CD9 in trophoblastic function, we investigated the expression of CD9 protein and mRNA in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When BeWo cells were cultured with anti-CD9 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), their invasion through the extracellular matrices was significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and human chorionic gonadotrophin production were unaffected. On the other hand, culture in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha3, alpha5 and beta1, which partially block the interaction with the extracellular matrices, inhibited BeWo cell invasion. Anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody had a stimulatory effect on BeWo cell invasion in the presence of anti-integrin alpha3 antibody. In contrast, it had no effect in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha5 and beta1, which were also highly expressed on BeWo cells. These findings suggest that CD9 has a function connected with the invasive properties of BeWo cells, which is partially mediated by integrin alpha5beta1. This may relate to the involvement of CD9 in trophoblastic invasion.  (+info)

Serum samples collected from breeder chickens ranging in age from 1 day to 55 weeks were tested for CAA antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test. The relationship of ELISA to IFA test was determined. The sensitivity of the ELISA relative to the IFA test was 82.64%, and the specificity of the ELISA relative to the IFA test was 56.25%. Agreement between the ELISA and the IFA test was highly significant (Kappa = 0.74, Z = 5.78). We concluded that the ELISA is as good as the IFA test for detecting CAA antibody in sera from chickens.
A range of monoclonal antibodies (AquaMab-P) to detect specific fish and shrimp pathogens is available. These are supplied with a standard protocol to apply these in immunohistochemistry (IHC). These products can also be used in the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). ...
IFA kits allow you to test for autoimmune, bacterial, and viral diseases, as well as parasites. Find quality kits when you shop online at RapidTest.
IFA kits allow you to test for autoimmune, bacterial, and viral diseases, as well as parasites. Find quality kits when you shop online at RapidTest.
Video articles in JoVE about transforming growth factors include In vivo-like Organotypic Murine Retinal Wholemount Culture.
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Define indirect fluorescent antibody. indirect fluorescent antibody synonyms, indirect fluorescent antibody pronunciation, indirect fluorescent antibody translation, English dictionary definition of indirect fluorescent antibody. adj. 1. Diverging from a direct course; roundabout. 2. a. Not proceeding straight to the point or object. b. Not forthright and candid; devious. 3.
Complications. The most severe complication is glaucoma secondary to anterior uveitis.(the cause of 10% of the cases of blindness in our survey ).At present, all treatments are ineffective. The other observed complications are KCS, corneal pigmentation, iris atrophy, cataract, retinal detachment, panophthalmitis and phtisis bulbi. Parasitological techniques Leishmania amastigote can be observed from lymph nodes, bone marrow smears or from ocular tissue. The sensitivity of the technique is low except for smears from granulomas which always reveal a large number of parasites. Cultures and inoculation take too long for practical purposes.. Serological tests. The Indirect Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) are techniques used worldwide. The Direct Agglutination Test is also a good tool under field conditions. If available, the Western Blot technique is more sensitive and suitable for diagnosis of ocular forms.. Molecular techniques. If serological ...
Species, Research Grants, Research Topics, Publications, Genomes and Genes, Scientific Experts about indirect fluorescent antibody technique
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The expression of variable antigen types (VATs) was determined among dividing populations of T. congolense growing in vivo in rabbit chancres and in vitro on bovine aorta endothelial cell monolayers. Experiments were performed in which a single metacyclic VAT (M-VAT) was deleted from a cultured metacyclic population by neutralisation with a monoclonal antibody and complement. Subsequent expression of the deleted M-VAT and two unrelated M-VATs was determined by an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. The deleted M-VAT was re-expressed both in vivo and in vitro and the proportions of unrelated M-VATs were not markedly affected by the neutralisation of this single M-VAT. In addition, an overall similarity was observed between M-VAT expression and re-expression in vivo and in vitro. ...
Objective. The aim of the survey was to evaluate Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in small ruminants and possible risk factors associated with the infection. Materials and methods. Sera from 474 goats and 502 sheep reared on 42 farms in northern Italy were collected and tested for IgG antibodies to T. gondii by IFAT (indirect immunofluorescence antibody test). To identify risk factors, a binary logistic regression analysis of the variables was performed. An audit form about farm management was used. Results. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 96.6% of goat farms and in 87.5% of sheep farms; 41.7% goats and 59.3% sheep resulted positive. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in sheep than in goats. Seroprevalence values were similar in goats from eastern and western areas, whereas goats from the southern area were at lower risk of infection. Saanen goats presented the lowest seroprevalence (30.7 %), whereas cross-breed exhibited the highest rate (48.7%). Goats from farms housing both sheep ...
A range of monoclonal antibodies (AquaMab-P) to detect specific fish and shrimp pathogens is available. These are supplied with a standard protocol to apply these in immunohistochemistry (IHC). These products can also be used in the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). ...
Dear Editor, We have read the letter by Bossuyt X. and Fieuws S. entitled Detection of anti-nuclear antibodies, added-value of solid phase assay? with great interest (1). In this letter the authors described a comparison between anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) performed by indirect immunofluorescent assay(IIFA) and by an automated method (fluoroenzymeimmunoassay; EliA CTD screen, Thermo Fisher) using samples obtained from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc),Sj?grens syndrome (SS) and healthy controls. The authors concluded that the favorable method for ANA detection is disease-dependent and that combining IIFA with solid phase assay can increase the diagnostic accuracy. These points, raised by Bossuyt X. and Fieuws S., may be regarded in the perspective of the international recommendations for ANA detection that we have recently published (2). Indeed, our recommendations support the use of IIFA as well as alternative methods (such as EliA) to determine ...
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Objective. To analyze the clinical value of anti-DFS70 antibodies in a cohort of patients undergoing routine antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) testing. Methods. Sera with a dense fine speckled (DFS) indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) pattern from 100 consecutive patients and 100 patients with other IIF patterns were tested for anti-DFS70 antibodies by a novel chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) and for ANA by ANA Screen ELISA (both INOVA). Results. Among the 100 patients with a DFS IIF pattern, 91% were anti-DFS70 positive by CIA compared to 3% in the comparator group . The CIA and IIF titers of anti-DFS antibodies were highly correlated (rho = 0.89). ANA by ELISA was positive in 35% of patients with the DFS IIF pattern as compared to 67% of patients with other patterns . Only 12.0% of patients with DFS pattern and 13.4% with DFS pattern and anti-DFS70 antibodies detected by CIA had systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARD). Only 5/91 (5.5%) patients with anti-DFS70 antibodies had SARD and their sera
The results of antinuclear antibody tests using the indirect immunofluorescence technique may be reported as a description of the pattern and the intensity of fluorescence obtained at a certain dilution. If quantitative results are required titration is necessary. Such titrations may vary greatly between different laboratories. The present study involving 26 laboratories shows an improvement of interlaboratory comparability for the homogeneous fluorescence pattern when a common reference serum is used. Cultured cells as substrate appear to give better quantitative agreement than rat liver sections. National reference sera should be standardised in items of the appropriate WHO reference preparation. ...
Robinson, C. and Guille, M. 1999. Immunohistochemistry of Xenopus embryos. Methods Mol. Biol. 127: 89-97. Sive, H.L., Grainger, R.M., and Harland, R.M. 2000. Early development of Xenopus laevis: A laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY. Becker, B.E and Gard, D.L. 2006. Visualization of the cytoskeleton in Xenopus oocytes and eggs by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Methods Mol. Biol. 322: 69-86. ...
BioAssay record AID 332145 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of cellular microtubule disrupting activity in rat A10 cells at 1 ug/ml after 24 hrs by indirect immunofluorescence technique.
LaVision BioTec Ultramicroscope fluorescence light sheet imaging for 3D image reconstruction in large samples . Cleared wholemount specimens are illuminated using a thin light sheet and imaged on a high resolution sCMOS camera orthogonal to illumination. Selective illumination ensures decreased photobleaching. System is equipped with dual lightsheet illumination.. Microscope: ...
Achieving publication quality immunofluorescence images can get tricky and its therefore important to ensure you have the right controls for immunofluorescence.
Characterization of iHeps in vitro. a Immunofluorescence analysis of ALB and AAT in iHeps. More than 90 % of iHeps efficiently expressed both ALB and AAT at da
Various methods have been employed in the epidemiological assessment of malaria. In recent years, new serological techniques have suppemented the measurement of spleen rate and parasite rate. Since clasical malariometric indices such as parasite rate and annual parasite incidence were insufficient and not adequately sensitive to assess the progress of control measures, serological methids have been employed. The indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) was the serological test employed in this laboratory. Thick blood films of simian malaria parasites, plasmidium cynomolgi bastianellii and p.fieldi, obtained from infected rhesuns monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used as antigens. The IFA test was shown to be useful to study the antibody levlels of blood donors from different areas in Sri Lanka, to observe the production and persistence of malarial antibodies in man and rhesus monkeys and for epidemiological assessment of malaria in Sri Lanka. The study conducte on 1050 blood donors revealed that ...
Abstract Sera from 175 patients with clinically suspected leptospirosis were tested with the immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) assay and compared with the microscopic agglutination (MA) method. Overall, the IFA test recognized all 58 MA-positive patients with leptospirosis. On acute sera testing, the IFA titer ≥ 1:100 was 0.97 specific and more sensitive than the conventional MA method (sensitivities = 0.48 versus 0.17, respectively). None of the 117 MA-negative patients, 101 healthy blood donors, and 93 patients with five diseases commonly confused with leptospirosis had IFA titers ≥ 1:400. However, cross-reactivity was seen with sera from patients with syphilis. On serial testing, the IFA antibody first appeared during the first week of illness, peaked by the fourth week, and generally decreased below 1:400 after the fourth month. The IFA test appears to be moderately sensitive and specific for the initial diagnosis of leptospirosis. It could replace the more complicated and less sensitive MA assay
The first case of Q fever in Taiwan was reported in 1993. The disease is considered to be emerging in Taiwan, but the route of transmission has remained unclear. The annual number of confirmed Q fever cases has been increasing up to more than 100 cases since 2005, comparing with less than 30 before 2003. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of Coxiella burnetii infection in veterinary-associated populations in southern Taiwan. A total of 228 serum samples of high risk individuals engaging in veterinary-related work or animal-farm work, were collected between March and June in 2007. The study individuals were interviewed by a structured questionnaire designed for Q fever investigation. Serum samples from different animal species were also obtained for Q fever analysis in the same study areas. Serological test was conducted by indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA). The result demonstrated the overall seroprevalence of Q fever was 26.3% in ...
As rabies still represents a major public threat with tens of thousands of deaths per year, particularly in developing countries, adequate surveillance based on rapid and reliable rabies diagnosis for both humans and animals is essential. Rabies diagnosis relies on highly sensitive and specific laboratory tests for detection of viral antigens. Among those tests, at present the immunofluorescence antibody test is the
Ganglion cells in an isolated wholemount preparation of the rat retina were labeled using the DiOlistic labeling method (Gan et al., 2000) and were classified according to their morphological properties. Tungsten particles coated with a lipophilic dye (DiI) were propelled into the wholemount retin …
a total of 1,554 dogs from 5 countries on 3 continents were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. in australia, overall, 42/451 (9%, 95% confidence interval [ci] 6-12%) dogs were seropositive (melbourne 11/207 [5%, 95% ci 2-9%]; sydney 18/150 [12%, 95% ci 7-18%]; perth 13/94 [14%, 95% ci 8-22%]). antibodies to n. caninum were also detected in dogs in south america (uruguay [20%, 95% ci 16-24%, n = 414]) and sub-saharan africa (tanzania [22%, 95% c ...
Filling a gap in the literature, this atlas stands as a unique authoritative source to thoroughly review the many immunofluorescence patterns seen in immunoderm
Read the Abcam customer review (68940) for Anti-Dopamine beta Hydroxylase antibody used in IHC - Wholemount. Abcam provides excellent in-house scientific support
Human Corneal Epithelial Cell Total RNA https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/sc-6515 https://www.sciencepro.com.br/@@site-logo/logo-novo.png ...
Purpose and History During prostate advancement mesenchymal-epithelial connections regulate body organ development and differentiation. in situ hybridisation display screen and researched Decorin (Dcn) Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) SPARC/Osteonectin (SPARC) Sprouty1 (Spry-1) and Tsukushi (Tsku). Appearance in rat SYN-115 tissue was examined using wholemount in situ hybridisation (postnatal time (P) 0.5) and immunohistochemistry (embryonic time (E) E17.5 E19.5; …Read More. ...
Figure 2. Localization of PMCA in human corneal epithelium. A: Immunostaining with pan-PMCA antibody (5F10) revealed strong PMCA labeling in all layers of the corneal epithelium (CE). The staining was associated primarily with the plasma membranes. The stroma (S) was unstained. B: Control section incubated with nonimmune mouse IgG was unstained.. ...
Has anyone ever performed or have a descriptive protocol for retinal flat mounts with mouse or rat retinas? This is a new technique for me, as such would need a very detailed method ...
Nowoczesna diagnostyka laboratoryjna. Dwuetapowa diagnostyka boreliozy. Molekularna diagnostyka alergii. Testy na alergię z krwi. Przeciwciała onkoneuronalne. IIFT. ELISA. Blot.
High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cuprates are highly anisotropic materials which exhibit metallic-like behavior in the CuO2 planes while retaining dielectric properties in the perpendicular, c-axis, direction. Experimental data show however that in HTS systems the in-plane electronic excitations are strongly coupled to c-axis polarized vibrations. This interaction is manifest in various settings, for example in the resonant Raman profile of phononic excitations, inelastic quasi-particle tunneling, as observation of notch-like features and forbidden scattering for in-plane optical conductivity, colossal c-axis photo-expansion upon in-plane illumination as well as in high-resolution electron energy-loss spectra. We propose that this anisotropic coupling is driven by strong unscreened Coulomb interactions and the preponderance of the Madelung component to the cohesion energy, in particular by the large atomic displacements in the spacer layers induced by charge redistribution within the CuO2 ...
FT. MYERS, Fla., Aug. 22, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- NeoGenomics Announces Closing of Recent Equity Offering and Exercise in Full of Underwriters Over-Allotment...
Borna disease virus-1 (BoDV-1) was recently discovered as cause of severe and often fatal encephalitis in humans. BoDV-1 is known to cause neurological disease in horses and sheep mainly in South and Central Germany. The virus is maintained in bicolored white-toothed shrews (Crocidura leucodon). The incidence of infection and risk factors in humans are completely unresolved. Veterinarians may be disproportionally BoDV-1-exposed through contact to animals not recognized to be BoDV-1 infected. We conducted three serosurveys predominantly in endemic areas of South Germany for the presence of BoDV-1-reactive antibodies. Anonymized residual samples from two serosurveys of veterinarians (n = 736) with interview data on exposures and one serosurvey among blood donors (n = 373) were screened with an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, followed by a newly developed immunoblot as confirmatory assay. One serum from a 55-59-year-old veterinarian who worked in an animal practice and as a meat ...
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Infection with this bacterium is known to induce the development of autoantibodies of which a few are also known to be diagnostic markers for some other diseases. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCAs) are among those autoantibodies used in clinical setting for diagnosing systemic vasculitic syndromes. Multiple studies investigated ANCA positivity in diseases other than small vessel vasculitis. Objective: This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ANCA in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) which may lead to the false diagnosis of Wegeners granulomatosis (WG) or vice versa. Methods: In a case-control study, 32 consecutive smear positive pulmonary TB patients and 32 normal individuals were studied. All cases and controls were screened for ANCA by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IIF), and MPO and PR3 were also tested by ELISA. Results: A prenuclear pattern (PANCA) was detected in 25% of the cases
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epitope variability of Bcl-2 immunolocalization in the human corneal epithelium. AU - Yamamoto, K.. AU - Ladage, P. M.. AU - Ren, D. H.. AU - Li, L.. AU - Jester, J. V.. AU - Cavanagh, Harrison D. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Purpose: To further study the immunological localization of Bcl-2 protein in human corneal epithelium. Methods: Three anti-human Bcl-2 antibodies, generated against amino acid residues (aa) 4-21 (polyclonal), 1-205 (monoclonal), and 41-54 (monoclonal), were used to localize Bcl-2 protein immunocytochemically in fresh eye bank donor human corneas. Results: In the central corneal epithelium, two anti-Bcl-2 antibodies (aa 4-21 and aa 1-205) showed intense cytoplasmic staining of basal epithelial cells. These antibodies produced similar staining in the limbal epithelium, with gradually less intense staining of wing and superficial cells. By contrast, as previously reported, a monoclonal antibody ...
CASTILHO, Juliana Galera et al. Antigenic and genetic characterization of the first rabies virus isolated from the bat Eumops perotis in Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 2008, vol.50, n.2, pp.95-99. ISSN 1678-9946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652008000200006.. Although the main transmitters of rabies in Brazil are dogs and vampire bats, the role of other species such as insectivorous and frugivorous bats deserves special attention, as the rabies virus has been isolated from 36 bat species. This study describes the first isolation of the rabies virus from the insectivorous bat Eumops perotis. The infected animal was found in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo. The virus was identified by immunofluorescence antibody test (FAT) in central nervous system (CNS) samples, and the isolation was carried out in N2A cell culture and adult mice. The sample was submitted to antigenic typing using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (CDC/Atlanta/USA). The DNA sequence of the ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Proteome analysis of serum-cultured human corneal fibroblasts. AU - Karring, Henrik AU - Thøgersen, Ida B. AU - Klintworth, Gordon K. AU - Enghild, Jan J. AU - Møller-Pedersen, Torben. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. M3 - Poster. Y2 - 8 November 2004 through 12 November 2004. ER - ...
Single-cell analysis reveals aspects of cellular physiology not evident from population-based studies, particularly in the case of highly multiplexed methods such as mass cytometry (CyTOF) able to correlate the levels of multiple signaling, differentiation and cell fate markers. Immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy adds information on cell morphology and the microenvironment that are not obtained using flow-based techniques, but the multiplicity of conventional IF is limited. This has motivated development of imaging methods that require specialized instrumentation, exotic reagents or proprietary protocols that are difficult to reproduce in most laboratories. Here we report a public-domain method for achieving high multiplicity single-cell IF using cyclic immunofluorescence (CycIF), a simple and versatile procedure in which four-color staining alternates with chemical inactivation of fluorophores to progressively build a multichannel image. Because CycIF uses standard reagents and instrumentation ...
There are many home-made serological assays developed by different laboratories. The most frequently used test formats are the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) using frozen sections of adult worms, and immunoenzyme assays (mostly ELISAs) with crude or recombinant antigens from eggs or adult worms.. Diagnostic strategies ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrophysiology of retinal glial cells. AU - Newman, Eric A.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024274410&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024274410&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0278-4327(88)90024-7. DO - 10.1016/0278-4327(88)90024-7. M3 - Review article. AN - SCOPUS:0024274410. VL - 8. SP - 153. EP - 171. JO - Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. JF - Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. SN - 1350-9462. IS - C. ER - ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of High resolution detection of DNA-RNA hybrids in situ by indirect immunofluorescence. by George T. Rudkin et al.
Immunofluorescence is a technique to visualize a specific protein or antigen in cells or tissue sections by binding a specific antibody chemically conjugated with a fluorescent dye. We use the indirect immunofluorescence staining to perform cells fixed on slides and examine under a fluorescence microscope. - Immunofluorescence - AbVideo™ - Support - Abnova
This video demonstrates three types of morphometric analyses of the retina, which include measuring the inner nuclear layer thickness,...
Immunofluorescence staining of epidermal LCs in situ. Groups of mice (n = 2) received a single 100 μl injection intraperitoneally of 40 μg anti-α6 integrin
This can be done with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) techniques. It can also be achieved through indirect immunofluorescence ... Another form of microscopy is fluorescent microscopy done by staining with auramine. Other staining techniques include acid- ... vaccine has produced an antibody response in a large group of cows and also antibody response in calves fed rCP15/60-immune ... Antibodies in the serum of humans and animals infected with Cryptosporidium parvum react with several antigens, one of which is ...
Later, Osborn and Weber pioneered fluorescent antibody staining of cellular substructures, a major technique called indirect ... then used fluorescently-tagged secondary antibodies (antibodies to the first set of antibodies) to light up the locations of ... and unreactive to actin antibodies. They developed new antibodies against proteins of the microtubules, intermediate filaments ... Many of their antibodies have been licensed to companies for commercial development. Klaus and Osborn used their method to ...
... a district in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia The Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique, a diagnostic process employing ...
To reduce the four-day waiting time needed for diagnosis, a method using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) was ...
... indirect fluorescent antibody testing, ELISA, PCR, and DNA probe technology techniques can be used to confirm diagnosis. The ...
... fluorescent antibody technique, direct MeSH E05.200.750.551.512.240.310 - fluorescent antibody technique, indirect MeSH E05.200 ... fluorescent antibody technique, direct MeSH E05.478.588.375.310 - fluorescent antibody technique, indirect MeSH E05.478.588.375 ... fluorescent antibody technique MeSH E05.478.588.375.050 - antibody-coated bacteria test, urinary MeSH E05.478.588.375.300 - ... embryo culture techniques MeSH E05.200.249.484 - organ culture techniques MeSH E05.200.249.617 - tissue culture techniques MeSH ...
... fluorescent antibody technique, direct MeSH E01.450.495.225.230 - fluorescent antibody technique, indirect MeSH E01.450.495.225 ... fluorescent antibody technique MeSH E01.450.495.225.050 - antibody-coated bacteria test, urinary MeSH E01.450.495.225.225 - ... fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test MeSH E01.450.495.735.850.800 - treponema immobilization test MeSH E01.450. ... enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique MeSH E01.450.495.410.380 - immunosorbent techniques MeSH E01.450.495.410.380.200 - ...
... be cultured on specific growth mediums such as brain-heart infusion agar and techniques such as indirect fluorescent antibody ...
Adam Reich, Katarzyna Marcinow, and Rafal Bialynicki-Birula Direct+Fluorescent+Antibody+Technique at the US National Library of ... which uses an indirect method of detection, where the primary antibody binds the target antigen, with a secondary antibody ... A direct fluorescent antibody (DFA or dFA), also known as "direct immunofluorescence", is an antibody that has been tagged in a ... Direct fluorescent antibody can also be used to detect parasitic infections, as was pioneered by Sadun, et al. (1960). ...
Antiechinococcus antibodies can be detected with serodiagnostic tests - indirect fluorescent antibody, complement fixation, ... Cysts are detected with ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography, or other imaging techniques. ...
... an antigen can also be conjugated to the antibody with a fluorescent probe in a technique called fluorescent antigen technique ... Secondary (indirect) immunofluorescence uses two antibodies; the unlabeled first (primary) antibody specifically binds the ... This technique uses the specificity of antibodies to their antigen to target fluorescent dyes to specific biomolecule targets ... recognizes the primary antibody and binds to it. Multiple secondary antibodies can bind a single primary antibody. This ...
This technique also uses an antibody to the protein of interest, along with classical electron microscopy techniques. The ... For example, indirect immunofluorescence will allow for fluorescence colocalization and demonstration of location. Fluorescent ... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high.[33] ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ...
This technique also uses an antibody to the protein of interest, along with classical electron microscopy techniques. The ... For example, indirect immunofluorescence will allow for fluorescence colocalization and demonstration of location. Fluorescent ... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high. Many ligand ... While this technique does not prove colocalization of a compartment of known density and the protein of interest, it does ...
To supplement a blood smear, diagnoses should be made with an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. IFA testing has a much ... This diagnostic technique has been abandoned in favor of faster diagnostic measures. Several methods are available to manage ... Diagnostic measures through antibody testing are also particularly useful for identifying serum prevalence in asymptomatic ... PRBC transfusions that cause infections were identified through testing the blood donor for B. microti antibodies. The ...
Alternatively, the primary antibody can be detected using fluorescent label (immunofluorescence), or be attached to colloidal ... Related techniques are also useful in sub-typing lymphocytes which all look quite similar on light microscopy. In laboratory ... Other catalytic enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase can be used instead of peroxidases for both direct and indirect staining ... Example 3. An untagged primary antibody is detected using a general secondary antibody that recognises all antibodies ...
The indirect method is also used when the binding kinetics of the antibody to the protein is slow for a variety of reasons. In ... Immunoprecipitation (IP) is the technique of precipitating a protein antigen out of solution using an antibody that ... followed by detection using a chemiluminescent or fluorescent secondary antibody. Keene JD, Komisarow JM, Friedersdorf MB (2006 ... irrelevant antibody of the same antibody subclass as the IP antibody is used instead of the IP antibody itself. This approach ...
Numerous antibodies may bind to microtubules in order to amplify the fluorescent signal. Fluorescence microscopy allows for the ... In addition, immunofluorescence may be used as a laboratory technique to tag cells with specific fluorophores using antibodies ... A chromatin bridge may also be observed using indirect immunofluorescence, in which anti-tubulin emits a green coloration when ... Antibodies are utilized by the immune system in the identification and binding of foreign substances. Tubulin is a monomer of ...
... the binding of several secondary antibodies to each primary antibody if the secondary antibody is conjugated to the fluorescent ... The indirect method involves an unlabeled primary antibody (first layer) that binds to the target antigen in the tissue and a ... While this technique utilizes only one antibody and therefore is simple and rapid, the sensitivity is lower due to little ... Thus, polyclonal antibodies are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies that recognize several epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies are ...
Alternatively, there are many indirect methods. In one such method, the antigen is bound by a primary antibody which is then ... Immunocytochemistry is a technique used to assess the presence of a specific protein or antigen in cells (cultured cells, cell ... A direct method involves the use of a detectable tag (e.g., fluorescent molecule, gold particles, etc., ) directly to the ... The primary antibody allows visualization of the protein under a fluorescence microscope when it is bound by a secondary ...
An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) for fixed stool specimens has been developed. One researcher investigated the phenomenon ... The true extent of disease has yet to emerge, as most laboratories do not use techniques to adequately identify this organism. ...
It has been shown that utilizing indirect fluorescent antibody assays and western blot analysis together provide reliable ... Laboratory techniques such as real-time PCR and microimmunofluorescence can be used to identify Rickettsia down to the species ... However, newer laboratory techniques such as real-time PCR and microimmunofluorescence can be used to identify Rickettsia ... "Immunohistochemical diagnosis of typhus rickettsioses using an anti-lipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody". Modern Pathology. ...
... technique. Like the locus-specific DNA methylation assay, the technique identified methylated DNA via its digestion methylation ... the fluorescent tag is cleaved off and the detector detects the fluorescent signal of the nucleotide incorporation. As the ... Since active, unbound regions are destroyed, their detection can only be indirect, by sequencing with a Next Generation ... Modification-specific antibodies in turn, are used to immunoprecipitate the DNA-histone complexes. Following ...
... the binding of several secondary antibodies to each primary antibody if the secondary antibody is conjugated to the fluorescent ... The indirect method involves an unlabeled primary antibody (first layer) that binds to the target antigen in the tissue and a ... While this technique utilizes only one antibody and therefore is simple and rapid, the sensitivity is lower due to little ... Antibody types[edit]. The antibodies used for specific detection can be polyclonal or monoclonal. Polyclonal antibodies are ...
... is much smaller than an antibody that would typically be used to label cellular proteins for fluorescent microscopy ... A high-resolution technique was developed to detect F-actin at the light and electron microscopic levels by using phalloidin ... immunofluorescence microscopy along with microinjection of phalloidin can be used to evaluate the direct and indirect functions ... Fluorescent derivatives of phalloidin have turned out to be enormously useful in localizing actin filaments in living or fixed ...
This competitive, indirect immunoassay uses polyclonal antibodies against YTX to determine its concentration in the sample. The ... The sensitivity of these techniques can, however, be poor due to the low molar absorptivity of the analytes. The technique ... This additional step involves the derivatization of the YTXs with a fluorescent dienophile reagent - dimethoxy-4-methyl-3-oxo-3 ... This technique is also beneficial because it gives good levels of YTX recovery - ranging from 40-50%. A range of analytical ...
The secondary antibody is then visualized through staining or immunofluorescence, allowing indirect detection of the original ... Two fluorescent probes - Cdt1 and Geminin conjugated to fluorescent proteins - allow for real-time visualization of the cell ... Flow cytometry is a technique of measuring physical and chemical characteristics of a population of cells using lasers and ... Primary antibodies recognize and bind the protein in question, and secondary antibodies are added that recognize the primary ...
Using molecular markers such as green fluorescent protein or fluorescent antibodies, it is possible to monitor the location of ... DR54 and native soil bacteria on sugar beet root surfaces using fluorescence antibody and in situ hybridization techniques". ... PGPRs enhance plant growth by direct and indirect means, but the specific mechanisms involved have not all been well ... while indirect mechanisms involve the ability of PGPRs to reduce the harmful effects of plant pathogens on crop yield. PGPRs ...
... thus the technique is more rapid than those which require pre-treatment with fluorescent dyes, with a total preparation and ... the FFA employs immunostaining techniques using fluorescently labeled antibodies specific for a viral antigen to detect ... There are many variations, or types of ELISA assays but they can generally be classified as either indirect, competitive, ... The antibody-antigen binding event is detected and/or quantified through the enzyme's ability to convert a reagent to a ...
Proliferating Daoy cells were placed on a glass coverslip, fixed and stained with fluorescent antibodies for survivin and alpha ... The idea and general principle behind his technique is described below. Mice were immunized with the oral vaccination and then ... suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms plays an indirect role on abnormal over-expression of survivin. With regard to genetic ... To see which subcellular compartments contained the survivin splice variants complexes, fluorescent antibody markers for ...
This technique also uses an antibody to the protein of interest, along with classical electron microscopy techniques. The ... For example, indirect immunofluorescence will allow for fluorescence colocalization and demonstration of location. Fluorescent ... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high.[37] ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ...
For example, the use of antibodies made artificially fluorescent (fluorescently labeled antibodies) can be directed to bind to ... Complex serological techniques have been developed into what are known as Immunoassays. Immunoassays can use the basic antibody ... Indirect contact such as airborne transmission, contaminated objects, food and drinking water, animal person contact, animal ... and can be made exquisitely specific when used in combination with antibody based techniques. ...
In contrast, many life science fluorescence applications are indirect, consisting of a fluorescent dye increasing, decreasing, ... This is many times faster than film/emulsion techniques and outputs data in a digital form, thus it has largely replaced film/ ... This has been used for introducing Yttrium-90 onto a monoclonal antibody for therapeutic purposes and for introducing Gallium- ... Several fluorescent molecules can be used simultaneously (given that they do not overlap, cf. FRET), whereas with radioactivity ...
The indirect antiglobulin test is used to screen for antibodies that could cause transfusion reactions and identify certain ... and fluorescent antibodies and more recently chemiluminescence.[citation needed] In microbiology, serologic tests are used to ... These surveys are potentially the most direct and informative technique available to infer the dynamics of a population's ... In practice, the term usually refers to the diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum. Such antibodies are typically ...
The gold standard is indirect immunofluorescence, but the main limitation of this method is the availability of fluorescent ... by the indirect immunoperoxidase technique". J Clin Microbiol. 15 (6): 1128-l. doi:10.1128/JCM.15.6.1128-1132.1982. PMC 272264 ... 1996). "Antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi in Thai soldiers". Am J Trop Med Hyg. 55 (5): 556-9. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.1996.55.556 ... Indirect immunoperoxidase, a modification of the standard IFA method, can be used with a light microscope, and the results of ...
Pursuant to this indirect method, the primary antibody is added to the test system. The primary antibody seeks out and binds to ... designed to attach exclusively to the primary antibody, is subsequently added. Typical tags include: a fluorescent compound, ... This immunolabeling technique is very similar to the immuno-fluorescence method, but a colloidal gold tag is used instead of a ... This indirect method employs a primary antibody that is antigen-specific and a secondary antibody fused to a tag that ...
CISH is performed using indirect labelling in which antibodies or streptavidin are conjugated to enzymes such as HRP or ... In this technique, one probe binds the reference which, in the case of HER-2/neu amplification detection, is CEN17 (the ... FISH probes are generally labelled with a variety of different fluorescent tags and can only be detected under a fluorescence ... It has been shown that monoclonal antibodies are better than polyclonal antibodies for detection in both IHC and CISH as they ...
It allows indirect disclosure such as with a phone number, bar code, or web site. Advocacy groups such as Center for Food ... Through tissue culture techniques a single tobacco cell was selected that contained the gene and a new plant grown from it. The ... The first genetically modified animal to be commercialised was the GloFish, a Zebra fish with a fluorescent gene added that ... Jha A (14 August 2012). "Julian Ma: I'm growing antibodies in tobacco plants to help prevent HIV". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 ...
... fluorophore-linked antibody. The light produced from the excitation of a fluorescent dye is static, making fluorescent ... allowing indirect detection of the specific target protein. Other related techniques include dot blot analysis, quantitative ... A secondary antibody is added which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. The secondary antibody is visualized through ... the membrane is exposed to another antibody known as the secondary antibody. Antibodies come from animal sources (or animal ...
... or biotin or oxigenin to have fluophore conjugated antibodies added later (indirect labelling). It is then important to check ... However, initial DNA yields of isolated BAC clones are low and DNA amplification techniques are necessary. These techniques ... Using a fluorescence microscope and computer software, the differentially coloured fluorescent signals are then compared along ... The technique involves whole genome amplification from a single cell which is then used in the array CGH method. It may also be ...
The technique is based on measuring the change in apparent size (hydrodynamic radius) of a selective ligand when interacting ... Each PLA probes comes with a unique short DNA strand attached to it and bind either to species specific primary antibodies or ... With fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, one protein is labeled with a fluorescent dye and the other is left unlabeled. The ... A note of caution also is that immunoprecipitation experiments reveal direct and indirect interactions. Thus, positive results ...
Indirect Fluorescent-Antibody Test, and Virus Isolation D. G. Bausch, P. E. Rollin, A. H. Demby, M. Coulibaly, J. Kanu, A. S. ... Use of Fluorescent-Antibody Staining of Cytocentrifuge-Prepared Smears in Combination with Cell Culture for Direct Detection of ... Evaluation of Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Assay for Detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Seroprevalence of B. ... Serodiagnosis of Bartonella bacilliformis Infection by Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Assay: Test Development and Application ...
... Summary. Summary: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect ... viral antibodies*biological markers*fluorescent antibody technique*antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies*monoclonal antibodies* ... fluorescent antibody technique , indirect fluorescent antibody technique ... The exception is malaria antibody detection that is performed by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique using commercially ...
This is an historical archive of the activities of the MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit (MRC ANU) that operated at the University of Oxford from 1985 until March 2015. The MRC ANU established a reputation for world-leading research on the brain, for training new generations of scientists, and for engaging the general public in neuroscience. The successes of the MRC ANU are now built upon at the MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit at the University of Oxford.. ...
Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique. The IFAT test is also an OIE approved screening method for BKD. The method detects ... In some cases, if there is suspicion of BKD, an Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT) test may be carried out on the ... labelled with a fluorescent dye is allowed to bind to those antibodies that have bound to the bacteria. A fluorescent antibody ... Once bound a second antibody targeted against the first antibody (usually rabbit or sheep anti mouse antibodies) ...
... it has not been able to keep pace with most other analytical techniques … ... Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on human epithelial (HEp-2) cells is considered as the gold standard screening method for the ... Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect / methods* * Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect / standards * Humans * Reference ... Automated indirect immunofluorescence evaluation of antinuclear autoantibodies on HEp-2 cells Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012: ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect * Ligands * Listeria monocytogenes / ultrastructure * Mice * Microfilament Proteins / ...
... by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of ... FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy. ... Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, ... Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect • Humans • Microscopy, Confocal • Middle Aged • Osteoarthritis • Viscosity • cytology ... Chondrocyte mechanical properties were determined using the micropipette aspiration technique coupled with a viscoelastic solid ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and ... The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti- ... Inhaler Technique in Low-Income, Inner-City Adults with Uncontrolled Asthma.. Poor inhaler technique has been shown to be ... Pranayama breathing technique was applied to pranayama group 20 minutes once a day for four weeks, and relaxation technique was ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Kinetics. Models, Neurological. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis, metabolism. ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Neurites*. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / genetics. PC12 Cells. Rats. Recombinant ... Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed decreased S100A1 protein levels in all three stable transfectants (pAntisense ...
One serologic testing method is the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) technique. Although IFA tests have good sensitivity and ... Panel B was tested by using in-house techniques at IRBA. Because sample volumes were limited, we used panel A to test the ... serologic techniques are used to detect IgM and/or IgG responses to the virus. Real-time PCR testing can differentiate between ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. 1. 2013. 495. 0.130. Why? Heart Septal Defects. 2. 2011. 174. 0.120. Why? ...
... indirect fluorescent antibody technique, and carbon immunoassay methods. Fluorescent antibody technique and ELISA results have ... Abbreviations: CIA, carbon immunoassay; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IFAT, indirect fluorescent antibody technique ... Serological survey for antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in pet rabbits in Italy. Zoonoses and Public Health. 2008;55(3): ... Seroprevalence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in domestic rabbits in Nigeria. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2008;75(1):33 ...
We tested serum specimens from three groups of patients with pneumonia by indirect immunofluorescence against Legionella-like ... Antibody titers to LLAPs also were determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. These included Acanthamoeba ... The BN 9 antibody titer was 1:50 and 1:6,400 in the acute- and convalescent-phase serum specimens. There was a stable antibody ... One of the most interesting findings in our study was a fourfold rise in antibody titer to BN 19 in a patient with presumed ...
Antibodies are measured with the indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFA), which remains the diagnostic method of choice. ... The diagnosis of VHF is confirmed by isolating the virus or by demonstrating IgM antibody or a fourfold rise in IgG antibody in ... antibody to Lassa virus; or by showing a fourfold rise in titer of IgG antibody between acute- and convalescent-phase serum ... Antibody may not appear in blood until the second week of illness. Virus is usually recovered from blood, although Lassa virus ...
This can be done with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) techniques. It can also be achieved through indirect immunofluorescence ... Another form of microscopy is fluorescent microscopy done by staining with auramine. Other staining techniques include acid- ... vaccine has produced an antibody response in a large group of cows and also antibody response in calves fed rCP15/60-immune ... Antibodies in the serum of humans and animals infected with Cryptosporidium parvum react with several antigens, one of which is ...
Categories: Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. *Glycoproteins (metabolism) *Lymphangiogenesis (physiology) *Mice. *Mice, Inbred BALB ...
KEY WORDS: VHSV · Genotyping · Monoclonal antibody · Indirect fluorescent antibody technique · IFAT · ELISA ... One of these, MAb VHS-10, reacted only with genotype IVa in indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and ELISA. Using ... A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VHSV genotype IVa was produced, with the aim of providing a simple method of discriminating ... Development of a monoclonal antibody against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa ...
Parallel testing of 895 sera by indirect hemagglutination and indirect fluorescent-antibody techniques showed 97.3% agreement. ... technique usually showed more cross-reactivity among serogroups than the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique with Formalin- ... Since the indirect hemagglutination technique was shown to detect both immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies and was ... it appears to be an excellent alternative to the indirect fluorescent-antibody test for serodiagnosis of legionellosis. ...
PEx Activity 1: Using Direct Fluorescent Antibody Technique to Test for Chlamydia ... PEx Activity 3: Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). PEx Activity 4: Western Blotting Technique ...
Suitable techniques include indirect fluorescent antibody stain, Ag-capture ELISA, and PCR (OIE 2012c). Alternatively, viral ... 2.3.4 Detecting Antibodies: Serology. An ELISA for detection of antibodies was developed using a combination of anti-ranavirus ... Advances in techniques might include laser dissection of lesions followed by IHC and PCR, as well as 3D sequential tomography. ... 1993) to detect anti-Bohle iridovirus (BIV) antibodies in wild reptiles in Australia. More recently, Johnson et al. (2007, 2010 ...
Indirect fluorescent antibody techniques for demonstration of trout viruses and corresponding antibody, Acta Vet. Scand. 15n. p ... p. Antigenic variation in 76 virus isolates examined in neutralization tests and by means of the fluorescent antibody tech ... p. Demonstration of virus antigen by the fluorescent antibody technique in tissues of rainbow trout affected by viral ... Sulimanovic, D., 1973, Immunity of carp to Rhabdovirus carpio and determination of antibodies by indirect hemagglutination, Vet ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. *Indoles. *Metaphase. *Mice. *Mice, Inbred Strains. *Nuclear Envelope/drug effects/ ... anti-γ-tubulin antibody, anticentriole antibody, or anticentromere antibody. (A) Megakaryocyte in prophase was stained with ... anti-γ-tubulin antibody, anticentriole antibody, or anticentromere antibody. (A) Megakaryocyte in prophase was stained with ... 3 A, b-d). Anticentriole antibody (Fig. 3 A, c) and anti-α-tubulin antibody (Fig. 3 A, b) stainings confirmed that multiple ...
The antitail antibody blocks transport before the delivery of cargo to the Golgi compartment containing α-1,2 mannosidase I. ... Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. *Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism. *Peptides/chemistry/immunology. *Protein ... We have generated an antibody that uniquely recognizes the p53/58 cytoplasmic tail. Here we present evidence that this antibody ... We have generated an antibody that uniquely recognizes the p53/58 cytoplasmic tail. Here we present evidence that this antibody ...
DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE USING A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY-BASED INDIRECT FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE ... detection and identification of streptococcus iniae using a monoclonal antibody-based indirect fluorescent antibody technique. ... PROTECTIVE ROLE OF ANTIBODY AGAINST STREPTOCICCUS INIAE INFECTION OF TILAPIA - SHELBY, R.A., KLESIUS, P.H., SHOEMAKER, C.A., ... DETECTION OF CUTANEOUS ANTIBODIES AGAINST FLAVOBACTERIUM COLUMNARE IN CHANNEL CATFISH - Shoemaker, C.A., Xu, D., Shelby, R.A., ...
Fluorescent Antibody Techniques (Direct) Viral Diseases in Humans Figure 18.10a Fluorescent Antibody Techniques (Indirect) ... Antibody Titer Viral Diseases in Humans *Is the concentration of antibodies against a particular antigen ... Viral hemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies by the antibodies ability to prevent viruses from agglutinating RBCs. ... Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Viral Diseases in Humans(Indirect ELISA) Figure 18.12b ...
The response of monkeys infected with Plasmodium knowlesi was followed using the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique. ... Four of six monkeys had low levels of antibodies; all had antibodies following intramuscular boosters. The antibody levels were ... Fluorescent-Antibody Studies on Simian Malaria William E. Collins, Peter G. Contacos, Jimmie C. Skinner, William Chin and ... Techniques for Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination-Inhibition with Arthropod-Borne Viruses D. H. Clarke and J. Casals ...
Fluorescent - antibody staining is either direct or indirect , depending on the antibody sandwiching technique used . Readers ... acid activity acute addition agents AIDS amplification analysis antibodies antigen antiviral appear assay associated blood ...
  • Acute- and convalescent-phase serum specimens from 150 patients also had been previously tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to L. pneumophila serogroups 1-6 by Yu ( 14 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of Babesia bigemina antibodies in cattle and buffaloes using indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (bio.net)
  • Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum are classically measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (asm.org)
  • Antibody levels to malarial Ags are classically assessed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (asm.org)
  • Blood samples were tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody techniques for plasmodial antibody and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cysticerci and T. cruzi antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • Pemphigus vulgaris was diagnosed by the presence of circulating autoantibodies predominantly of the IgG4 subtype by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant desmoglein 3. (elsevier.com)
  • Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are 2 methods that are widely used to measureDsg3 orDsg1 antibody titers in PV. (elsevier.com)
  • Indirect fluorescent antibody assay and complement fixation techniques are used to measure convalescent antibodies to R. akari, or if not available, Rickettsia rickettsii. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The most common method of ANA testing is indirect fluorescent assay (IFA) utilizing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as the marker on the secondary antibody. (labce.com)
  • When a fluorescent detection system is linked to a lateral flow assay and matched with a powerful yet low cost analyzer like the Quidel Sofia or Sofia 2, the result is improved assay performance, the opportunity for walk away testing along with the elimination of misinterpretation often associated with visually-read point-of-care assays. (quidel.com)
  • A fluorescing cell assay (FCA) technique utilizing the indirect fluorescent-antibody method to measure human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected cells has been applied to the rapid determination of CMV-neutralizing antibody. (asm.org)
  • FCA and plaque assay yielded identical neutralizing antibody titers to CMV in 20 human sera. (asm.org)
  • Flounder (Limanda herzensteini), greenling (Hexagrammos otakii), Japanese sculpin (Cottus japonicus), and flathead (Platycephalus indicus) captured by fishing around coho salmon net pens were examined for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigen by an indirect dot blot assay and by an indirect fluorescent-antibody technique using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. (cefas.co.uk)
  • Moreover, 86 scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis) were hung from the edge of the net pen for 50 days, and R. salmoninarum antigen was demonstrated in 31 samples by the indirect dot blot assay and the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique. (cefas.co.uk)
  • Indirect immunofluorescence assay with actin‐specific antibody indicated that actin is a major component of the myoblasts' microprocesses. (elsevier.com)
  • A microtechnique for an indirect viable cell membrane immunofluorescence titration assay was developed using Friend murine leukemia virus (F MuLV) producing cells and nonspecific rabbit antisera to F MuLV structural antigens. (utmb.edu)
  • Specificity of the absorbed antisera for human mesothelial cells was demonstrated in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. (elsevier.com)
  • A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. (labome.org)
  • Serum specimens from hospitalized patients with pneumonia were tested for antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumolysin, pneumolysin immune complexes, C polysaccharide, surface protein A, Haemophilus influenzae, and Branhamella catarrhalis by Dr. M. Leinonen, National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland, as reported previously ( 11 - 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Through the use of a filter-paper technique to collect daily serum samples, it was possible to determine that the initial increase in FA response was on the 7th to 9th day of patency. (ajtmh.org)
  • We prepared primary anti- Rickettsia akari and anti- Rickettsia slovaca rabbit antibodies (in serum) in our experimental animal facility at Biomedical Research Center. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This technique requires each Ag to be tested separately and involves long incubation periods, making ELISA labor-intensive and time-consuming as well as requiring significant amounts of Ag and serum or plasma. (asm.org)
  • Diagnosis may be made by culture of the fastidious Gram-negative bacillus from lung tissue or pleural fluid, demonstration of the organism in lung tissue by the direct fluorescent antibody technique, or documentation of a significant rise in serum titer by indirect fluorescence. (annals.org)
  • Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests ( Figure 20.29 ) are used to look for antibodies in patient serum. (openstax.org)
  • Patient serum is spread over the smear and anti-treponemal antibodies, if present, are allowed to bind. (openstax.org)
  • The serum is washed off and a secondary antibody added. (openstax.org)
  • On examination, the T. pallidum bacteria will only be visible if they have been bound by the antibodies from the patient's serum. (openstax.org)
  • Patient serum diffuses from one well through the gel and reacts with a known specific antigen (or antibody) which diffuses through the gel from a second well. (specialtylabs.com)
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe clinical and paraclinical characteristics of all Danish patients who tested positive for anti-voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC)-complex, anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and anti-contactin-associated protein-2 antibodies in the serum/cerebrospinal fluid between 2009 and 2013 with follow-up interviews in 2015 and 2016. (sdu.dk)
  • Histological examination of the cutaneous lesions, indirect immunofluorescence on rat bladder epithelium, and western blot of human keratinocyte proteins identified anti-epidermal antibodies in the patient's serum. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the field serum samples tested, the seroprevalences of anti-N. caninum antibodies were 3.2%, 4.6%, and 6.4% in the NAT, IFAT and ELISA, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • They developed new antibodies against proteins of the microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments to use as reagents in examining many types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like colorimetric and chemiluminescent Western blotting, fluorescent Western blotting uses the antigen-antibody complex to detect specific proteins immobilized on a blotting membrane after separation by electrophoresis. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Fluorescent blotting makes multiplex Western blot analysis easily achievable, as multiple proteins can be simultaneously detected and differentiated on the same blot. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Fluorescent detection allows the blots to be used quantitatively because proteins on the blot are not perturbed by harsh stripping chemicals. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Jackson ImmunoResearch offers fluorescent dye-conjugated secondary antibodies that have minimal cross-reactivity with selected species, enabling detection of individual primary antibodies (and therefore target proteins) without signal overlap. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • When combined with a wide dynamic range, optimized fluorescent Western blots can be used quantitatively, since both low and high abundance proteins can be detected on the same blot without saturating detection. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • This study sought to adapt the new SAT multiplex system for measuring antibodies against nine malarial vaccine candidate antigens, including recombinant proteins from two variants of merozoite surface protein 1, two variants of apical merozoite antigen 1, erythrocyte binding antigen 175, merozoite surface protein 3, and peptides from the circumsporozoite protein, ring erythrocyte surface antigen, and liver-stage antigen 1. (asm.org)
  • Electrophoresis (EP) is a technique for separation of ionic molecules (principally proteins) by the differential migration through a gel according to the size and ionic charge of the molecules in an electrical field. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) is a two-step procedure which first involves the electrophoretic separation of proteins, followed by the linear diffusion of antibodies into the electrophoretic gel from a trough which extends through the length of the gel adjacent to the electrophoretic path. (specialtylabs.com)
  • The induction of TNF-alpha RNA by EBNA-2 was indirect, and constitutive expression of either LMP-1 or c-myc proteins did not substitute for EBNA-2 in induction of TNF-alpha RNA. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Antibodies are B cell (lymphocyte) derived proteins produced by the immune system in order to address the immunological needs of a mammalian system over time. (openwetware.org)
  • Native proteins have traditionally been used to raise antibodies and for some applications there are advantages in using antibodies against the native proteins. (openwetware.org)
  • However, there are also distinct advantages of using peptides over native proteins and it is for these reasons that peptides are now becoming more commonly used in antibody production. (openwetware.org)
  • Eliminates or minimizes potential cross-reactivity between structurally homologous proteins, enables the production of different antibodies for different epitopes of the same protein, enables the production of antibodies for proteins with post-translational modifications. (openwetware.org)
  • Avoids the cost and potential problems of immobilizing whole proteins into affinity columns, eliminates or minimizes conformational and stability problems associated with immobilized proteins, enhances antibody purification since only one peptide ligand is used for affinity binding. (openwetware.org)
  • One of these, MAb VHS-10, reacted only with genotype IVa in indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and ELISA. (int-res.com)
  • Observations on the use of ELISA for Detection of Babesia bigemina specific antibodies. (bio.net)
  • The suspension array technology (SAT) might be an alterative to ELISA, as it allows measurement of antibodies against multiple antigens simultaneously with a small volume of sample. (asm.org)
  • ELISA et transfert Western afin d'étudier la réaction croisée avec des sérums humains en provenance de zones endémiques pour la filariose de Bancroft. (who.int)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Leishmania spp antibodies in feline animals in an area endemic to LV (Bauru-SP), using the serological tests of Indirect Immunofluorescence Reaction (IFR) and ELISA and variables: gender, age, race and form of creation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although the titers of these autoantibodies are generally correlated with disease activity, some patients with a high ELISA index do not have severe symptoms.We encountered a patient with PVin remission,who had a high anti-Dsg3 antibody ELISA index while the IIF resultwas negative. (elsevier.com)
  • OBSERVATIONS: The anti-Dsg3 antibodies of our patient mainly recognized Ca 2+ -dependent conformational epitopes and targeted mature Dsg3 protein.We report this case focusing on the discrepancy between ELISA and IIF findings, as well as on the specific characteristics of the patient's autoantibodies evaluated by newly developed methods. (elsevier.com)
  • Further research on similar patients will be required to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms in patients with PV who have nonpathogenic antibodies and show a discrepancy between ELISA and IIF. (elsevier.com)
  • On the basis of technology, fluorescent antibody test (FAT) market is segmented into ELISA/immunohistochemistry, chromatography techniques, PCR and others. (webnewswire.com)
  • DyLight® conjugated secondary antibodies provide high performance fluorescent conjugates for immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, and flow cytometry. (abcam.com)
  • In developing the method, they tagged microtubules with specific antibodies, then used fluorescently-tagged secondary antibodies (antibodies to the first set of antibodies) to light up the locations of the microtubules in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary Antibodies are conjugated to a fluorescent dye such as an Alexa Fluor ® to generate signal which can be detected using a digital imager. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • A. Fluorescent dye-conjugated secondary antibody detects the primary antibody for the protein of interest. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Dye conjugated secondary antibodies directed against primaries raised in different species can be used to label each specific antigen (protein) with a dye with its own individual emission wavelength - spectral characteristics. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Rhodamine Red-X goat anti-rabbit IgG (H + L) polyclonal secondary antibody was from Invitrogen (reference number R6394, lot: 1402199, made in the USA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human sera with complement fixation titers to CMV of 1/32 or greater and fluorescein-conjugated rabbit anti-human globulin are the primary and secondary reagents in the fluorescent-antibody test. (asm.org)
  • As with the enzyme assays, FA methods may be direct, in which a labeled mAb binds an antigen, or indirect, in which secondary polyclonal antibodies bind patient antibodies that react to a prepared antigen. (openstax.org)
  • F(ab')2 fragment secondary antibodies should be used when trying to avoid non-specific secondary antibody to Fc receptors on cell surfaces. (openwetware.org)
  • The resources below will help you select the DyLight® secondary antibody you need to discover more. (abcam.com)
  • Why choosing the right secondary antibody matters? (abcam.com)
  • In some cases, if there is suspicion of BKD, an Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT) test may be carried out on the fixed tissue. (thefishsite.com)
  • A serologically positive (titre - 128 - IgG) case of an 8-year-old male child, was detected by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT). (scielo.br)
  • Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed decreased S100A1 protein levels in all three stable transfectants (pAntisense clones) that expressed exogenous S100A1 antisense mRNA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Later, Osborn and Weber pioneered fluorescent antibody staining of cellular substructures, a major technique called indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies were detected using fluorescein conjugated goat F(ab') 2 antibody to human IgG by immunofluorescent microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • Fluorescent Western blotting can offer many advantages to an already robust protein detection technique. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Fluorescent Western blotting offers a number advantages over chemiluminescent and colorimetric detection. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • They can be used for high sensitivity, quantitative and in-gel Western blotting as well as microWestern, in-cell and on-cell Western arrays and other techniques that require the brightest dyes. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect IgG anti-toxoplasma. (who.int)
  • A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VHSV genotype IVa was produced, with the aim of providing a simple method of discriminating this genotype from the other VHSV genotypes (I, II, III and IVb). (int-res.com)
  • Ito T, Olesen NJ, Skall HF, Sano M, Kurita J, Nakajima K, Iida T (2010) Development of a monoclonal antibody against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa. (int-res.com)
  • Tabulation of counted data in conjunction with size analysis enables determination of relative percentages of each specific cellular subset for which monoclonal antibody conjugates are utilized, even when the size of the cell is identical to other subset species. (specialtylabs.com)
  • FACS analysis using indirect immunofluorescence techniques indicated that approximately 84% of the synaptosomal fraction was labeled by monoclonal antibody (mAb) A2B5 and thus appeared to be of neuronal origin. (elsevier.com)
  • However to increase the sensitivity and specificity of antinuclear antibody detection further approaches were explored. (scribd.com)
  • Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on human epithelial (HEp-2) cells is considered as the gold standard screening method for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). (nih.gov)
  • These data are further confirming the syecificity and the reproducibility of the NaCl extraction technique for the irnmunofluorescence to differentiate the localization of the autoantibodies in the above two bullous dermatoses. (imicams.ac.cn)
  • Human fetal eyes, 9-20 weeks of gestation (wg), and adult human corneas with different diagnosis were treated for immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies against LM and alpha11 integrin chains. (diva-portal.org)
  • It has been more than 50 years since antinuclear antibodies were first discovered and found to be associated with connective tissue diseases. (scribd.com)
  • Connective tissue diseases (CTD) are a group of autoimmune disorders which are characterized by presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in the blood of patients. (scribd.com)
  • These epitopes bind with their antibody in a highly specific interaction. (openwetware.org)
  • Recent advances in technology have led to the improvement or development of several diagnostic assays which include methods for rabies viral antigen and antibody detection and assays for viral nucleic acid detection and identification of specific biomarkers. (hindawi.com)
  • Fluorescent Immunoassays are simply a different type of immunoassay. (quidel.com)
  • Several breakthroughs have occurred over the past few years that have enabled the implementation of a fluorescent based immunoassay system at the point of care. (quidel.com)
  • A modern fluorescent based immunoassay uses as the detection reagent a fluorescent compound which absorbs light or energy (excitation energy) at a specific wavelength and then emits light or energy at a different wavelength. (quidel.com)
  • The Sofia 2 Flu + SARS Antigen Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA) uses advanced immunofluorescence-based lateral flow technology in. (quidel.com)
  • The Sofia 2 Lyme Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA) uses advanced immunofluorescence-based lateral-flow technology to. (quidel.com)
  • Sofia hCG Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA), with Kinetic Check technology uses advanced immunofluorescence-based lateral-flow technology to detect human. (quidel.com)
  • Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Antibodies to Coxiella burnetii phase 1 and 11 antigens and to Chlamydia pneumoniae were determined by a microimmunofluorescence test, as described ( 16 , 17 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Evaluation of an indirect hemagglutination test for Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 4. (asm.org)
  • Since the indirect hemagglutination technique was shown to detect both immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies and was found to be rapid, simple, and inexpensive, it appears to be an excellent alternative to the indirect fluorescent-antibody test for serodiagnosis of legionellosis. (asm.org)
  • Serologic profiles were established using the indirect fluorescent antibody test in a longitudinal study of six villages in an interior area of El Salvador. (ajtmh.org)
  • Austin, B., Bucke, D., Feist, S. and Rayment, J. (1985) A false positive reaction in the indirect fluorescent antibody test for Renibacterium salmoninarum with a 'coryneform' organism. (springer.com)
  • Varicella-Zoster (VZ) test system is intended for the qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of VZ IgG antibody in human sera by the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) technique. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The fluorescent ANA test uses the indirect fluorescent antibody technique first described by Weller and Coons in 1954. (labce.com)
  • For many decades immunofluorescent antinuclear antibody test has been the 'gold standard' in the diagnosis of these disorders. (scribd.com)
  • IF-ANA: The standard ANA testing technique Before development of IF-ANA test.19]. (scribd.com)
  • Watch the animation on this page to review the procedures of the direct fluorescent antibody test. (openstax.org)
  • In a direct fluorescent antibody test, what does the fluorescent antibody bind to? (openstax.org)
  • The IFA test for syphilis provides an important complement to the VDRL test discussed in Detecting Antigen-Antibody Complexes . (openstax.org)
  • Radial immunodiffusion (RID) is a quantitative variation of the Ouchterlony technique (immunodiffusion) in which the agar gel contains evenly distributed antigen (or antibody) and its counterpart from the test sample diffuses into the gel from a single well resulting in a circular precipitin line around the sample well. (specialtylabs.com)
  • The diameter of the precipitin ring is proportional to the concentration of the antibody (or antigen) present in the test sample. (specialtylabs.com)
  • By comparing the diameter of the test specimen precipitin ring to known standards, a relatively insensitive estimation of the concentration of specific antibody or antigen can be achieved. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Fluorescent Antibody Test Market is a method used to diagnose rabies in fresh or frozen brain tissues, based on antigen detection which is recommended by world health organisation (WHO) and world organisation for animal health (OIE). (webnewswire.com)
  • Antigens are detected by using reflected light fluorescence microscope.Increasing occurrence of rabies resulted from dog bites, favourable government policies and laws and rising funds for research and development are some of the factors that will accelerate the growth of the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) market in the forecast period of 2020-2027. (webnewswire.com)
  • Fluorescent antibody test (FAT) market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.8% in the forecast period of 2020-2027. (webnewswire.com)
  • The increasing occurrence of rabies in animals and humans has been directly impacting the growth of fluorescent antibody test (FAT) market. (webnewswire.com)
  • Few of the major competitors currently working in Global Fluorescent Antibody Test Market are Quidel Corporation, BioTek Instruments, Inc., Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Dewinter Optical Inc, Leica Microsystems, PicoQuant GmbH, Carl Zeiss AG, Cole-Parmer Instrument Company, LLC. (webnewswire.com)
  • Fluorescent antibody test (FAT) market is segmented on the basis of technology, product, method, indication, antigen and end-user. (webnewswire.com)
  • On the basis ofproduct, fluorescent antibody test (FAT) market is segmented into instruments, reagents & kits, accessories. (webnewswire.com)
  • On the basis of method, fluorescent antibody test (FAT) market is segmented into direct and indirect. (webnewswire.com)
  • On the basis of end-user, fluorescent antibody test (FAT) market is segmented into diagnostic centers, hospitals, clinics and others. (webnewswire.com)
  • and Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by a standard complement fixation technique in microtiter plates. (cdc.gov)
  • These precipitin lines (precipitated antigen-antibody complexes) form where the binding concentrations of antigen and antibody are equivalent. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) is a procedure in which oppositely charged antigen and antibody are propelled toward each other by an electrical field. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Cross-reaction was found between S. equina antigens and antibodies in the sera of Wuchereria bancrofti -infected patients, with the highest levels observed between sera of chronic infected patients and Setaria spp. (who.int)
  • The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Autoimmune Diseases and Antinuclear Antibody Testing: Methods and Staining Patterns . (labce.com)
  • When results are positive, a stable three-part complex forms, consisting of fluorescent antibody bound to human antinuclear antibody that is bound to nuclear antigen. (labce.com)
  • This article provides an overview on advancement in antinuclear antibody detection methods, their future prospects, advantages, disadvantages and guidelines for use of these tests. (scribd.com)
  • Flow cytometry (FC) is an emerging technique which holds great promise for the separation, classification and quantitation of blood cells and antibodies which affect blood cells. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Instruments have been further segmented into fluorescent analyser, fluorescent microscope, flow cytometry, cell sorting, thermal cycler and others. (webnewswire.com)
  • Parallel testing of 895 sera by indirect hemagglutination and indirect fluorescent-antibody techniques showed 97.3% agreement. (asm.org)
  • Prevalence of anti-DFS70 antibodies in sera of patients with different autoimmune pathologies and in healthy controls. (elsevier.es)
  • Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were investigated in the sera of 86 maternal blood samples, 86 cord blood samples and 86 amniotic fluid samples using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) technique. (eurekamag.com)
  • In this study author examined sera and lesional skin of 4 cases of bullous pemphigoid (BP), and 2 cases of epidermolysis bulloaa acquisita(EBA) with the above mentioned indirect imrnunofluorescence and modified direct immunofluorescence to evaluate the specificity of the tests. (imicams.ac.cn)
  • Sera of patients with JRA with iridocyclitis were compared to sera from patients with JRA with and without antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and healthy children. (elsevier.com)
  • An increased frequency of antibody to the human iris was seen with sera of patients with JRA with iridocyclitis compared to healthy children's sera. (elsevier.com)
  • A higher frequency of antibody was also noted to human retina in sera of patients with JRA with iridocyclitis compared to patients without ANA and healthy children. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results demonstrate the presence of antibody to iris and retina by immunofluorescence in the sera of patients with JRA with iridocyclitis. (elsevier.com)
  • Uchiyama, RC, Osborn, TG & Moore, TL 1989, ' Antibodies to iris and retina detected in sera from patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with iridocyclitis by indirect immunofluorescence studies on human eye tissue ', Journal of Rheumatology , vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1074-1078. (elsevier.com)
  • Of the 41 sera tested for poliovirus type 1 antibody, 40% were in complete agreement, 55% differed by one dilution, and 5% differed by two dilutions. (elsevier.com)
  • Detection of Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in an Egyptaian shhep-herd using Modern serological techniques. (bio.net)
  • Indirect immunofluorescence and microneutralization methods for the detection of antibodies to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3 were compared. (elsevier.com)
  • Far-red and infrared fluorescent dye conjugates such as Alexa Fluor ® 680 and 790 (Figure 2) offer greater sensitivity due to low fluorescence quenching, high extinction coefficients and low background autofluorescence. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • and a method for detecting antibodies of patients with autoimmune diseases with the use of the same. (google.com)
  • Aim: The aim of this study to Assess the healing process of the immediate implant loading with two different provisional techniques (direct and indirect). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Understand the difference between direct and indirect methods for immunofluorescence. (abcam.com)
  • abstract = "We describe a case of cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-Hu antibodies and benign ganglioneuroma. (elsevier.com)
  • Antibody titers to LLAPs also were determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the indirect hemagglutination technique usually showed more cross-reactivity among serogroups than the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique with Formalin-fixed antigens and a conjugate which detected primarily immunoglobulin G antibodies, heterologous serogroup reactions were significantly lower than homologous serogroup titers and the etiological serogroup could be easily defined. (asm.org)
  • Although lower amounts of these antibodies can be seen in the normal population as well, a spurt in titers is seen in patients of CTD. (scribd.com)
  • 5 days after onset of symptoms, serologic techniques are used to detect IgM and/or IgG responses to the virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunodiffusion (ID), also called Double diffusion (DD) or the Ouchterlony technique, is the classical procedure used to detect the presence of antibodies and determine their specificity by visualization of 'lines of identity' (precipitin lines). (specialtylabs.com)
  • In contrast, in the presence of antibody, processing was completely inhibited (Fig. 4, open circles). (nih.gov)
  • The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (labome.org)
  • Rapid visualization of bacteria from a clinical sample such as a throat swab or sputum can be achieved through fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques that attach a fluorescent marker ( fluorogen ) to the constant region of an antibody, resulting in a reporter molecule that is quick to use, easy to see or measure, and able to bind to target markers with high specificity. (openstax.org)
  • Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Today a battery of newer techniques are available some of which are now considered better and are competing with the older methods. (scribd.com)
  • Various detection methods are in use and there is continuous pouring of newer techniques to facilitate diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in CTD patients. (scribd.com)
  • METHODS: We evaluated antibody status, symptoms leading to testing, course of disease, suspected diagnosis and time of admission as well as diagnosis and treatment. (sdu.dk)
  • Microtubules and microfilaments were known, and they established that microtubules always reacted with antibodies to tubulins while microfilaments always reacted with antibodies to actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the course of their studies, they also found intermediate filaments, slightly thicker than microfilaments, and unreactive to actin antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herein we optimized this serological technique, testing four fixative solutions, for the sensitive detection of rickettsial antigens, and preservation of intracellular structures of the host cells, particularly filamentous actin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SAT uses symmetrical microspheres internally labeled with two fluorescent dyes. (asm.org)
  • In addition, monoclonal antibodies to specific cell surface markers are conjugated to fluorescent dyes and each cell displaying appropriate fluorescent light emission is counted. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Frozen sections of intestine obtained by biopsy from normal persons were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. (bmj.com)
  • The antitail antibody blocks transport before the delivery of cargo to the Golgi compartment containing α-1,2 mannosidase I. Semiintact CHO clone 15B cells were incubated at 32°C in a complete transport cocktail for indicated time in the absence (closed circles) or presence (open circles) of antitail antibody. (nih.gov)
  • 1994). The cells were pelleted, resuspended in a transport cocktail that contained either 5 mM EGTA (a), 0.1 μM Ca2+ (b), or 0.1 μM Ca2+ and 10 μg of antitail antibody (c), and incubated at 32°C for 90 min. (nih.gov)
  • As shown in Fig. 4 (closed circles), semiintact CHO 15B cells incubated in the absence of antibody at 32°C processed VSV-G to the Man5 form. (nih.gov)
  • When heterologous antireceptor antibody is used in the indirect fluorescence technique, the number of fluorescent cells in these animals is significantly lower than in normal animals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Fluorescent cells appear after a relatively brief incubation of cells from adult-suppressed animals, whereas no fluorescent cells are detected when cells from neonatally treated animals are incubated briefly. (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast, antireceptor antibody causes reversible blockade of responsive cells in adult-suppressed animals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antibodies against protein kinase C (PKC), parvalbumin, and calbindin were used to label rod bipolar cells, AII amacrine cells, and cone bipolar cells, respectively. (lu.se)
  • The AB5 antibody was used to label ganglion cells. (lu.se)
  • Cloyd, MW & Bigner, DD 1977, ' Contained indirect viable cell membrane immunofluorescence microassay for surface antigen analysis of cells infected with hazardous viruses ', Journal of Clinical Microbiology , vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 86-90. (utmb.edu)
  • or indirect, in which unlabeled immunoglobulin is added to tissue and combines with a specific antigen, after which the antigen-antibody complex may be labeled with a fluorescent antibody. (dictionary.com)
  • The fluorescent dye absorbs light at its excitation wavelength, and then releases photons at its emission wavelength to return the molecule to its ground electronic state. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • The light emitted by the fluorescent molecule (fluorophore) is then detected by a digital imager equipped with the correct filters. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • The key variable is the biochemical technique used for detecting the binding of the "detection" antibody and the analyte molecule. (quidel.com)
  • Consistent with a role for the KKXX retrieval motif found at the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus of p53/58 in retrograde traffic, inhibition of transport through VTCs correlates with the ability of the antibody to block recruitment of COPI coats to the p53/58 cytoplasmic tail and to p53/58-containing membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Inset) Antibody inhibition precedes the Ca2+-dependent fusion of VTCs to the Golgi stack. (nih.gov)
  • Viral hemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies by the antibodies' ability to prevent viruses from agglutinating RBCs. (slideserve.com)
  • However, in terms of automation and standardization, it has not been able to keep pace with most other analytical techniques used in diagnostic laboratories. (nih.gov)
  • Use of appropriate diagnostic techniques is key to identifying ranavirus infections and determining the effects of infection on host species. (springer.com)
  • We point out the limitations of certain diagnostic techniques, and identify needed areas of improvement. (springer.com)
  • Get access to the best antibodies, discovery platforms, and know-how to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic programs. (abcam.com)
  • Specific unresponsiveness can be induced in neonatal and adult BALB/c mice by antibody against antigen-specific receptor (antireceptor antibody). (sciencemag.org)
  • Evidently, treating neonatal mice with antireceptor antibody specifically depletes the antigen-responsive clone. (sciencemag.org)
  • Anti-DFS70 antibodies (Dense Fine Speckled, 70 kDa molecular weight) are a sub-group of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) that show a fine dense speckled pattern (DFS) by indirect immunofluorescence. (elsevier.es)
  • Our study supports using antibody detection tests, rather than parasitological and molecular examination, to assess surra prevalence in camels. (biomedcentral.com)