Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.

Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for actin-based motility of vaccinia but not Listeria or Shigella. (1/24343)

Studies of the actin-based motility of pathogens have provided important insights into the events occurring at the leading edge of motile cells [1] [2] [3]. To date, several actin-cytoskeleton-associated proteins have been implicated in the motility of Listeria or Shigella: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), vinculin and the actin-related protein complex of Arp2 and Arp3 [4] [5] [6] [7]. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of actin-tail assembly, we examined the localization of components of the actin cytoskeleton including Arp3, VASP, vinculin and zyxin during vaccinia, Listeria and Shigella infections. The most striking difference between the systems was that a phosphotyrosine signal was observed only at the site of vaccinia actin-tail assembly. Micro-injection experiments demonstrated that a phosphotyrosine protein plays an important role in vaccinia actin-tail formation. In addition, we observed a phosphotyrosine signal on clathrin-coated vesicles that have associated actin-tail-like structures and on endogenous vesicles in Xenopus egg extracts which are able to nucleate actin tails [8] [9]. Our observations indicate that a host phosphotyrosine protein is required for the nucleation of actin filaments by vaccinia and suggest that this phosphoprotein might be associated with cellular membranes that can nucleate actin.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (2/24343)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (3/24343)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

Arrestin function in G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis requires phosphoinositide binding. (4/24343)

Internalization of agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors is mediated by non-visual arrestins, which also bind to clathrin and are therefore thought to act as adaptors in the endocytosis process. Phosphoinositides have been implicated in the regulation of intracellular receptor trafficking, and are known to bind to other coat components including AP-2, AP180 and COPI coatomer. Given these observations, we explored the possibility that phosphoinositides play a role in arrestin's function as an adaptor. High-affinity binding sites for phosphoinositides in beta-arrestin (arrestin2) and arrestin3 (beta-arrestin2) were identified, and dissimilar effects of phosphoinositide and inositol phosphate on arrestin interactions with clathrin and receptor were characterized. Alteration of three basic residues in arrestin3 abolished phosphoinositide binding with complete retention of clathrin and receptor binding. Unlike native protein, upon agonist activation, this mutant arrestin3 expressed in COS1 cells neither supported beta2-adrenergic receptor internalization nor did it concentrate in coated pits, although it was recruited to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that phosphoinositide binding plays a critical regulatory role in delivery of the receptor-arrestin complex to coated pits, perhaps by providing, with activated receptor, a multi-point attachment of arrestin to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Coupling of the cell cycle and myogenesis through the cyclin D1-dependent interaction of MyoD with cdk4. (5/24343)

Proliferating myoblasts express the muscle determination factor, MyoD, throughout the cell cycle in the absence of differentiation. Here we show that a mitogen-sensitive mechanism, involving the direct interaction between MyoD and cdk4, restricts myoblast differentiation to cells that have entered into the G0 phase of the cell cycle under mitogen withdrawal. Interaction between MyoD and cdk4 disrupts MyoD DNA-binding, muscle-specific gene activation and myogenic conversion of 10T1/2 cells independently of cyclin D1 and the CAK activation of cdk4. Forced induction of cyclin D1 in myotubes results in the cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of cdk4. The specific MyoD-cdk4 interaction in dividing myoblasts, coupled with the cyclin D1-dependent nuclear targeting of cdk4, suggests a mitogen-sensitive mechanism whereby cyclin D1 can regulate MyoD function and the onset of myogenesis by controlling the cellular location of cdk4 rather than the phosphorylation status of MyoD.  (+info)

Retinoic acid, but not arsenic trioxide, degrades the PLZF/RARalpha fusion protein, without inducing terminal differentiation or apoptosis, in a RA-therapy resistant t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL patient. (6/24343)

Primary blasts of a t(11;17)(q23;q21) acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) patient were analysed with respect to retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) sensitivity as well as PLZF/RARalpha status. Although RA induced partial monocytic differentiation ex vivo, but not in vivo, As203 failed to induce apoptosis in culture, contrasting with t(15;17) APL and arguing against the clinical use of As203 in t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL. Prior to cell culture, PLZF/RARalpha was found to exactly co-localize with PML onto PML nuclear bodies. However upon cell culture, it quickly shifted towards microspeckles, its localization found in transfection experiments. Arsenic trioxide, known to induce aggregation of PML nuclear bodies, left the microspeckled PLZF/RARalpha localization completely unaffected. RA treatment led to PLZF/RARalpha degradation. However, this complete PLZF/RARalpha degradation was not accompanied by differentiation or apoptosis, which could suggest a contribution of the reciprocal RARalpha/PLZF fusion product in leukaemogenesis or the existence of irreversible changes induced by the chimera.  (+info)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells. (7/24343)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor.  (+info)

Cloning of the peroxiredoxin gene family in rats and characterization of the fourth member. (8/24343)

Peroxiredoxin (PRx) exhibits thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity and constitutes a family of proteins. Four members of genes from rat tissues were isolated by PCR using degenerated primers based on the sequences which encode a pair of highly conserved Cys-containing domains, and were then cloned to full-length cDNAs. These included two genes which have previously been isolated in rats, PRx I and PRx II, and two rat homologues of PRx III and PRx IV. We showed, for the first time, the simultaneous expression of all four genes in various rat tissues by Northern blotting. Since a discrepancy exists regarding cellular distribution, we further characterized PRx IV by expressing it in COS-1 cells. This clearly demonstrates that PRx IV is a secretory form and functions within the extracellular space.  (+info)

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT), Direct is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory diagnostic tests. It is a method for identifying and locating specific antigens in cells or tissues by using fluorescent-labeled antibodies that directly bind to the target antigen.

In this technique, a sample (such as a tissue section or cell smear) is prepared and then treated with a fluorescently labeled primary antibody that specifically binds to the antigen of interest. After washing away unbound antibodies, the sample is examined under a fluorescence microscope. If the antigen is present in the sample, it will be visible as distinct areas of fluorescence, allowing for the direct visualization and localization of the antigen within the cells or tissues.

Direct FAT is commonly used in diagnostic laboratories to identify and diagnose various infectious diseases, including bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. It can also be used to detect specific proteins or antigens in research and clinical settings.

Culture techniques are methods used in microbiology to grow and multiply microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses, in a controlled laboratory environment. These techniques allow for the isolation, identification, and study of specific microorganisms, which is essential for diagnostic purposes, research, and development of medical treatments.

The most common culture technique involves inoculating a sterile growth medium with a sample suspected to contain microorganisms. The growth medium can be solid or liquid and contains nutrients that support the growth of the microorganisms. Common solid growth media include agar plates, while liquid growth media are used for broth cultures.

Once inoculated, the growth medium is incubated at a temperature that favors the growth of the microorganisms being studied. During incubation, the microorganisms multiply and form visible colonies on the solid growth medium or turbid growth in the liquid growth medium. The size, shape, color, and other characteristics of the colonies can provide important clues about the identity of the microorganism.

Other culture techniques include selective and differential media, which are designed to inhibit the growth of certain types of microorganisms while promoting the growth of others, allowing for the isolation and identification of specific pathogens. Enrichment cultures involve adding specific nutrients or factors to a sample to promote the growth of a particular type of microorganism.

Overall, culture techniques are essential tools in microbiology and play a critical role in medical diagnostics, research, and public health.

Immunodiffusion is a laboratory technique used in immunology to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample. It is based on the principle of diffusion, where molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they reach equilibrium. In this technique, a sample containing an unknown quantity of antigen or antibody is placed in a gel or agar medium that contains a known quantity of antibody or antigen, respectively.

The two substances then diffuse towards each other and form a visible precipitate at the point where they meet and reach equivalence, which indicates the presence and quantity of the specific antigen or antibody in the sample. There are several types of immunodiffusion techniques, including radial immunodiffusion (RID) and double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique). These techniques are widely used in diagnostic laboratories to identify and measure various antigens and antibodies, such as those found in infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergic reactions.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

I. Definition:

An abortion in a veterinary context refers to the intentional or unintentional termination of pregnancy in a non-human animal before the fetus is capable of surviving outside of the uterus. This can occur spontaneously (known as a miscarriage) or be induced through medical intervention (induced abortion).

II. Common Causes:

Spontaneous abortions may result from genetic defects, hormonal imbalances, infections, exposure to toxins, trauma, or other maternal health issues. Induced abortions are typically performed for population control, humane reasons (such as preventing the birth of a severely deformed or non-viable fetus), or when the pregnancy poses a risk to the mother's health.

III. Methods:

Veterinarians may use various methods to induce abortion depending on the species, stage of gestation, and reason for the procedure. These can include administering drugs that stimulate uterine contractions (such as prostaglandins), physically removing the fetus through surgery (dilation and curettage or hysterectomy), or using techniques specific to certain animal species (e.g., intrauterine infusion of hypertonic saline in equids).

IV. Ethical Considerations:

The ethics surrounding veterinary abortions are complex and multifaceted, often involving considerations related to animal welfare, conservation, population management, and human-animal relationships. Veterinarians must weigh these factors carefully when deciding whether to perform an abortion and which method to use. In some cases, legal regulations may also influence the decision-making process.

V. Conclusion:

Abortion in veterinary medicine is a medical intervention that can be used to address various clinical scenarios, ranging from unintentional pregnancy loss to deliberate termination of pregnancy for humane or population control reasons. Ethical considerations play a significant role in the decision-making process surrounding veterinary abortions, and veterinarians must carefully evaluate each situation on a case-by-case basis.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT), Indirect is a type of immunofluorescence assay used to detect the presence of specific antigens in a sample. In this method, the sample is first incubated with a primary antibody that binds to the target antigen. After washing to remove unbound primary antibodies, a secondary fluorescently labeled antibody is added, which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. This indirect labeling approach allows for amplification of the signal, making it more sensitive than direct methods. The sample is then examined under a fluorescence microscope to visualize the location and amount of antigen based on the emitted light from the fluorescent secondary antibody. It's commonly used in diagnostic laboratories for detection of various bacteria, viruses, and other antigens in clinical specimens.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

Gamma-globulins are a type of protein found in the blood serum, specifically a class of immunoglobulins (antibodies) known as IgG. They are the most abundant type of antibody and provide long-term defense against bacterial and viral infections. Gamma-globulins can also be referred to as "gamma globulin" or "gamma immune globulins."

These proteins are produced by B cells, a type of white blood cell, in response to an antigen (a foreign substance that triggers an immune response). IgG gamma-globulins have the ability to cross the placenta and provide passive immunity to the fetus. They can be measured through various medical tests such as serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) or immunoelectrophoresis, which are used to diagnose and monitor conditions related to immune system disorders, such as multiple myeloma or primary immunodeficiency diseases.

In addition, gamma-globulins can be administered therapeutically in the form of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to provide passive immunity for patients with immunodeficiencies, autoimmune disorders, or infectious diseases.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Viral bronchiolitis is a common respiratory infection in infants and young children, typically caused by a viral pathogen such as the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The infection leads to inflammation and congestion of the small airways (bronchioles) in the lungs, resulting in symptoms like wheezing, cough, difficulty breathing, and rapid breathing.

The infection usually spreads through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus can also survive on surfaces for several hours, making it easy to contract the infection by touching contaminated objects and then touching the face.

Most cases of viral bronchiolitis are mild and resolve within 1-2 weeks with supportive care, including increased fluid intake, humidified air, and fever reduction. However, in severe cases or in high-risk infants (such as those born prematurely or with underlying heart or lung conditions), hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications like dehydration, respiratory distress, or oxygen deprivation.

Preventive measures include good hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and ensuring that infants and young children receive appropriate vaccinations and immunizations as recommended by their healthcare provider.

An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific immune response that occurs when an antigen (a foreign substance, such as a protein or polysaccharide on the surface of a bacterium or virus) comes into contact with a corresponding antibody (a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen). The antigen and antibody bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This interaction can neutralize the harmful effects of the antigen, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate complement proteins to help eliminate the antigen from the body. Antigen-antibody reactions are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response and play a key role in the body's defense against infection and disease.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Immunologic techniques are a group of laboratory methods that utilize the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to specific molecules, known as antigens. These techniques are widely used in medicine, biology, and research to detect, measure, or identify various substances, including proteins, hormones, viruses, bacteria, and other antigens.

Some common immunologic techniques include:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A sensitive assay used to detect and quantify antigens or antibodies in a sample. This technique uses an enzyme linked to an antibody or antigen, which reacts with a substrate to produce a colored product that can be measured and quantified.
2. Immunofluorescence: A microscopic technique used to visualize the location of antigens or antibodies in tissues or cells. This technique uses fluorescent dyes conjugated to antibodies, which bind to specific antigens and emit light when excited by a specific wavelength of light.
3. Western Blotting: A laboratory technique used to detect and identify specific proteins in a sample. This technique involves separating proteins based on their size using electrophoresis, transferring them to a membrane, and then probing the membrane with antibodies that recognize the protein of interest.
4. Immunoprecipitation: A laboratory technique used to isolate and purify specific antigens or antibodies from a complex mixture. This technique involves incubating the mixture with an antibody that recognizes the antigen or antibody of interest, followed by precipitation of the antigen-antibody complex using a variety of methods.
5. Radioimmunoassay (RIA): A sensitive assay used to detect and quantify antigens or antibodies in a sample. This technique uses radioactively labeled antigens or antibodies, which bind to specific antigens or antibodies in the sample, allowing for detection and quantification using a scintillation counter.

These techniques are important tools in medical diagnosis, research, and forensic science.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Rabies is a viral zoonotic disease that is typically transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually by a bite or scratch. The virus infects the central nervous system, causing encephalopathy and ultimately leading to death in both humans and animals if not treated promptly and effectively.

The rabies virus belongs to the Rhabdoviridae family, with a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome. It is relatively fragile and cannot survive for long outside of its host, but it can be transmitted through contact with infected tissue or nerve cells.

Initial symptoms of rabies in humans may include fever, headache, and general weakness or discomfort. As the disease progresses, more specific symptoms appear, such as insomnia, anxiety, confusion, partial paralysis, excitation, hallucinations, agitation, hypersalivation (excessive saliva production), difficulty swallowing, and hydrophobia (fear of water).

Once clinical signs of rabies appear, the disease is almost always fatal. However, prompt post-exposure prophylaxis with rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin can prevent the onset of the disease if administered promptly after exposure. Preventive vaccination is also recommended for individuals at high risk of exposure to the virus, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, and travelers to areas where rabies is endemic.

Neutralizing antibodies are a type of antibody that defends against pathogens such as viruses or bacteria by neutralizing their ability to infect cells. They do this by binding to specific regions on the surface proteins of the pathogen, preventing it from attaching to and entering host cells. This renders the pathogen ineffective and helps to prevent or reduce the severity of infection. Neutralizing antibodies can be produced naturally in response to an infection or vaccination, or they can be generated artificially for therapeutic purposes.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Antibodies, protozoan, refer to the immune system's response to an infection caused by a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

When the body is infected with a protozoan, the immune system responds by producing specific proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a B-cell, and they recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the protozoan organism.

There are five main types of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each type of antibody has a different role in the immune response. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. IgM is the first antibody produced in response to an infection and is important for activating the complement system, which helps to destroy the protozoan organism.

Overall, the production of antibodies against protozoan organisms is a critical part of the immune response and helps to protect the body from further infection.

Anti-idiotypic antibodies are a type of immune protein that recognizes and binds to the unique identifying region (idiotype) of another antibody. These antibodies are produced by the immune system as part of a regulatory feedback mechanism, where they can modulate or inhibit the activity of the original antibody. They have been studied for their potential use in immunotherapy and vaccine development.

Rabies is a viral disease that affects the nervous system of mammals, including humans. It's caused by the rabies virus (RV), which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae and genus Lyssavirus. The virus has a bullet-shaped appearance under an electron microscope and is encased in a lipid envelope.

The rabies virus primarily spreads through the saliva of infected animals, usually via bites. Once inside the body, it travels along nerve fibers to the brain, where it multiplies rapidly and causes inflammation (encephalitis). The infection can lead to symptoms such as anxiety, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, paralysis, coma, and ultimately death if left untreated.

Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear, but prompt post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which includes vaccination and sometimes rabies immunoglobulin, can prevent the disease from developing when administered after an exposure to a potentially rabid animal. Pre-exposure vaccination is also recommended for individuals at high risk of exposure, such as veterinarians and travelers visiting rabies-endemic areas.

Antibody affinity refers to the strength and specificity of the interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen at a molecular level. It is a measure of how strongly and selectively an antibody binds to its target antigen. A higher affinity indicates a more stable and specific binding, while a lower affinity suggests weaker and less specific interactions. Affinity is typically measured in terms of the dissociation constant (Kd), which describes the concentration of antigen needed to achieve half-maximal binding to an antibody. Generally, a smaller Kd value corresponds to a higher affinity, indicating a tighter and more selective bond. This parameter is crucial in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as immunoassays and targeted therapies, where high-affinity antibodies are preferred for improved sensitivity and specificity.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

A binding site on an antibody refers to the specific region on the surface of the antibody molecule that can recognize and bind to a specific antigen. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. They have two main functions: to neutralize the harmful effects of antigens and to help eliminate them from the body.

The binding site of an antibody is located at the tips of its Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of the antibody molecule. These regions contain unique amino acid sequences that determine the specificity of the antibody for a particular antigen. The binding site can recognize and bind to a specific epitope or region on the antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex.

The binding between the antibody and antigen is highly specific and depends on non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and electrostatic attractions. This interaction plays a crucial role in the immune response, as it allows the immune system to recognize and eliminate pathogens and other foreign substances from the body.

Agglutination tests are laboratory diagnostic procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, such as blood or serum. These tests work by observing the clumping (agglutination) of particles, like red blood cells or bacteriophages, coated with specific antigens or antibodies when mixed with a patient's sample.

In an agglutination test, the sample is typically combined with a reagent containing known antigens or antibodies on the surface of particles, such as latex beads, red blood cells, or bacteriophages. If the sample contains the corresponding antibodies or antigens, they will bind to the particles, forming visible clumps or agglutinates. The presence and strength of agglutination are then assessed visually or with automated equipment to determine the presence and quantity of the target antigen or antibody in the sample.

Agglutination tests are widely used in medical diagnostics for various applications, including:

1. Bacterial and viral infections: To identify specific bacterial or viral antigens in a patient's sample, such as group A Streptococcus, Legionella pneumophila, or HIV.
2. Blood typing: To determine the ABO blood group and Rh type of a donor or recipient before a blood transfusion or organ transplantation.
3. Autoimmune diseases: To detect autoantibodies in patients with suspected autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
4. Allergies: To identify specific IgE antibodies in a patient's sample to determine allergic reactions to various substances, such as pollen, food, or venom.
5. Drug monitoring: To detect and quantify the presence of drug-induced antibodies, such as those developed in response to penicillin or hydralazine therapy.

Agglutination tests are simple, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic tools that provide valuable information for clinical decision-making and patient management. However, they may have limitations, including potential cross-reactivity with other antigens, false-positive results due to rheumatoid factors or heterophile antibodies, and false-negative results due to the prozone effect or insufficient sensitivity. Therefore, it is essential to interpret agglutination test results in conjunction with clinical findings and other laboratory data.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

HIV antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in the body. These antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific parts of the virus, known as antigens, in order to neutralize or eliminate it.

There are several types of HIV antibodies that can be produced, including:

1. Anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 antibodies: These are antibodies that specifically target the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses, respectively.
2. Antibodies to HIV envelope proteins: These antibodies recognize and bind to the outer envelope of the virus, which is covered in glycoprotein spikes that allow the virus to attach to and enter host cells.
3. Antibodies to HIV core proteins: These antibodies recognize and bind to the interior of the viral particle, where the genetic material of the virus is housed.

The presence of HIV antibodies in the blood can be detected through a variety of tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. A positive test result for HIV antibodies indicates that an individual has been infected with the virus, although it may take several weeks or months after infection for the antibodies to become detectable.

'Staining and labeling' are techniques commonly used in pathology, histology, cytology, and molecular biology to highlight or identify specific components or structures within tissues, cells, or molecules. These methods enable researchers and medical professionals to visualize and analyze the distribution, localization, and interaction of biological entities, contributing to a better understanding of diseases, cellular processes, and potential therapeutic targets.

Medical definitions for 'staining' and 'labeling' are as follows:

1. Staining: A process that involves applying dyes or stains to tissues, cells, or molecules to enhance their contrast and reveal specific structures or components. Stains can be categorized into basic stains (which highlight acidic structures) and acidic stains (which highlight basic structures). Common staining techniques include Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), which differentiates cell nuclei from the surrounding cytoplasm and extracellular matrix; special stains, such as PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff) for carbohydrates or Masson's trichrome for collagen fibers; and immunostains, which use antibodies to target specific proteins.
2. Labeling: A process that involves attaching a detectable marker or tag to a molecule of interest, allowing its identification, quantification, or tracking within a biological system. Labels can be direct, where the marker is directly conjugated to the targeting molecule, or indirect, where an intermediate linker molecule is used to attach the label to the target. Common labeling techniques include fluorescent labels (such as FITC, TRITC, or Alexa Fluor), enzymatic labels (such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase), and radioactive labels (such as ³²P or ¹⁴C). Labeling is often used in conjunction with staining techniques to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of detection.

Together, staining and labeling provide valuable tools for medical research, diagnostics, and therapeutic development, offering insights into cellular and molecular processes that underlie health and disease.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Lyssavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. This genus includes several species of viruses that are closely related to the rabies virus and can cause similar diseases in various mammals, including humans. The lyssaviruses are bullet-shaped viruses with a single strand of negative-sense RNA. They infect nerve cells and spread through the nervous system, causing encephalitis, which is inflammation of the brain.

The most well-known member of this genus is the rabies virus, which is responsible for the disease rabies in humans and animals worldwide. Other members of this genus include Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), Duvenhage virus (DUVV), European bat lyssavirus types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2), Irkut virus (IRKV), Lagos bat virus (LBV), Mokola virus (MOKV), and Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV). These viruses are primarily found in bats, but some have been known to infect other mammals as well.

Prevention of lyssavirus infection is similar to that of rabies and includes avoiding contact with bats or other potential carriers, vaccinating domestic animals against rabies, and seeking prompt medical attention if a bite or scratch from a potentially infected animal occurs. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin is also recommended for individuals who have been exposed to a lyssavirus.

'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a medical term that refers to abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which are cells that have undergone uncontrolled division and form a tumor or malignancy. These antibodies can be produced in large quantities and may have altered structures or functions compared to normal antibodies.

Neoplastic antibodies can arise from various types of malignancies, including leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. In some cases, these abnormal antibodies can interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and contribute to the progression of the disease.

In addition, neoplastic antibodies can also be used as tumor markers for diagnostic purposes. For example, certain types of monoclonal gammopathy, such as multiple myeloma, are characterized by the overproduction of a single type of immunoglobulin, which can be detected in the blood or urine and used to monitor the disease.

Overall, 'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a term that encompasses a wide range of abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which can have significant implications for both the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a type of autoantibody that target structures found in the nucleus of a cell. These antibodies are produced by the immune system and attack the body's own cells and tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. The presence of ANA is often used as a marker for certain autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and polymyositis.

ANA can be detected through a blood test called the antinuclear antibody test. A positive result indicates the presence of ANA in the blood, but it does not necessarily mean that a person has an autoimmune disease. Further testing is usually needed to confirm a diagnosis and determine the specific type of autoantibodies present.

It's important to note that ANA can also be found in healthy individuals, particularly as they age. Therefore, the test results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and symptoms.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

Sarcocystis is a genus of intracellular parasitic protozoa that belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. These microscopic organisms are known to infect both animals and humans, causing a variety of symptoms depending on the specific species involved and the immune status of the host.

Sarcocystis spp. have a complex life cycle involving two hosts: an intermediate host, which is typically a herbivorous animal, and a definitive host, which is usually a carnivorous or omnivorous animal. The parasites form cysts, known as sarcocysts, in the muscles of the intermediate host, which are then ingested by the definitive host during feeding.

In humans, Sarcocystis spp. can cause two main types of infections: intestinal and muscular. Intestinal infection occurs when humans accidentally ingest undercooked or raw meat containing Sarcocystis cysts. The parasites then invade the human's intestinal wall, causing symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.

Muscular infection, on the other hand, is caused by the ingestion of water or food contaminated with sporocysts shed in the feces of infected definitive hosts. This type of infection is relatively rare in humans and typically causes mild symptoms such as muscle pain, weakness, and fever.

It's worth noting that while Sarcocystis spp. can cause illness in humans, they are not usually considered a significant public health concern. Proper cooking of meat and good hygiene practices can help prevent infection with these parasites.

Dysentery is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the intestine, particularly the colon, leading to severe diarrhea containing blood, mucus, and/or pus. It is typically caused by infectious agents such as bacteria (like Shigella, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli) or parasites (such as Entamoeba histolytica). The infection can be acquired through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected person. Symptoms may also include abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent potential complications.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Legionnaires' disease is a severe and often lethal form of pneumonia, a lung infection, caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. It's typically contracted by inhaling microscopic water droplets containing the bacteria, which can be found in various environmental sources like cooling towers, hot tubs, whirlpools, decorative fountains, and large plumbing systems. The disease is not transmitted through person-to-person contact. Symptoms usually appear within 2-10 days after exposure and may include cough, fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, and shortness of breath. Some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems, elderly people, and smokers, are at higher risk for developing Legionnaires' disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment can improve the chances of recovery. Preventive measures include regular testing and maintenance of potential sources of Legionella bacteria in buildings and other facilities.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests are a type of serological assay used in medical laboratories to detect and measure the amount of antibodies present in a patient's serum. These tests are commonly used to diagnose viral infections, such as influenza or HIV, by identifying the presence of antibodies that bind to specific viral antigens and prevent hemagglutination (the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells).

In an HI test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of the viral antigen, which has been treated to attach to red blood cells. If the patient's serum contains antibodies that bind to the viral antigen, they will prevent the antigen from attaching to the red blood cells and inhibit hemagglutination. The degree of hemagglutination inhibition can be measured and used to estimate the amount of antibody present in the patient's serum.

HI tests are relatively simple and inexpensive to perform, but they have some limitations. For example, they may not detect early-stage infections before the body has had a chance to produce antibodies, and they may not be able to distinguish between different strains of the same virus. Nonetheless, HI tests remain an important tool for diagnosing viral infections and monitoring immune responses to vaccination or infection.

Neospora is a genus of intracellular parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The most common species that affects animals is Neospora caninum, which is known to cause serious disease in cattle and dogs. It can also infect other warm-blooded animals, including sheep, goats, horses, and deer.

Neosporosis, the infection caused by Neospora, primarily affects the nervous system and muscles of the host animal. In cattle, it is a major cause of abortion, stillbirths, and neurological disorders. The parasite can be transmitted through the placenta from an infected mother to her offspring (congenital transmission), or through the ingestion of contaminated feed or water (horizontal transmission).

Neospora is a significant economic concern for the livestock industry, particularly in dairy and beef cattle operations. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for neosporosis in animals, so prevention efforts focus on identifying and isolating infected animals to reduce the spread of the parasite.

Sarcocystosis is a parasitic infection caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing Sarcocystis cysts. It can also occur in humans through the accidental ingestion of spores that are shed in feces of infected animals. The two main species that infect humans are S. hominis and S. suihominis, with S. hominis being transmitted via cattle and S. suihominis from pigs.

The infection typically occurs without symptoms (asymptomatic) but can sometimes cause mild to severe illness, depending on the species of the parasite and the immune status of the infected person. Symptoms may include muscle pain, weakness, fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and headache.

In rare cases, sarcocystosis can affect the central nervous system (neurocysticercosis) and cause neurological symptoms such as seizures, balance problems, and difficulty speaking or swallowing. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, kidney failure, or even death.

Diagnosis of sarcocystosis is usually made by identifying the parasite in tissue samples (biopsy) or through serological tests that detect antibodies against the parasite. Treatment typically involves supportive care and anti-parasitic medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pyrimethamine, or nitazoxanide. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly before consumption and practicing good hygiene when handling raw meat.

"Spirochaeta" is a genus of spirochete bacteria, characterized by their long, spiral-shaped bodies. These bacteria are gram-negative, meaning they do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining method, and are typically motile, moving by means of endoflagella located within their outer membrane. Members of this genus are found in various environments, including freshwater, marine, and terrestrial habitats. Some species are free-living, while others are parasitic or symbiotic with animals. It is important to note that the medical significance of "Spirochaeta" species is limited compared to other spirochete genera like "Treponema," which includes the bacterium causing syphilis.

Legionella is the genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that can cause serious lung infections known as legionellosis. The most common species causing disease in humans is Legionella pneumophila. These bacteria are widely found in natural freshwater environments such as lakes and streams. However, they can also be found in man-made water systems like cooling towers, hot tubs, decorative fountains, and plumbing systems. When people breathe in small droplets of water containing the bacteria, especially in the form of aerosols or mist, they may develop Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia, or Pontiac fever, a milder flu-like illness. The risk of infection increases in individuals with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, older age, and smokers. Appropriate disinfection methods and regular maintenance of water systems can help prevent the growth and spread of Legionella bacteria.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Fungal antibodies are a type of protein called immunoglobulins that are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of fungi in the body. These antibodies are specifically designed to recognize and bind to antigens on the surface of fungal cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

There are several types of fungal antibodies, including IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE, each with a specific role in the immune response. For example, IgG antibodies are the most common type of antibody found in the blood and provide long-term immunity to fungi, while IgE antibodies are associated with allergic reactions to fungi.

Fungal antibodies can be measured in the blood or other bodily fluids to help diagnose fungal infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, or assess immune function in individuals who are at risk for fungal infections, such as those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to highlight and visualize specific components within a sample. In this technique, the sample is illuminated with high-energy light, typically ultraviolet (UV) or blue light, which excites the fluorescent molecules causing them to emit lower-energy, longer-wavelength light, usually visible light in the form of various colors. This emitted light is then collected by the microscope and detected to produce an image.

Fluorescence microscopy has several advantages over traditional brightfield microscopy, including the ability to visualize specific structures or molecules within a complex sample, increased sensitivity, and the potential for quantitative analysis. It is widely used in various fields of biology and medicine, such as cell biology, neuroscience, and pathology, to study the structure, function, and interactions of cells and proteins.

There are several types of fluorescence microscopy techniques, including widefield fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, each with its own strengths and limitations. These techniques can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cells and proteins in health and disease.

Encephalomyelitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and spinal cord (myelitis). This condition can be caused by various infectious agents, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites, or it can be due to an autoimmune response where the body's own immune system attacks the nervous tissue.

The symptoms of encephalomyelitis can vary widely depending on the extent and location of the inflammation, but they may include fever, headache, stiff neck, seizures, muscle weakness, sensory changes, and difficulty with coordination or walking. In severe cases, encephalomyelitis can lead to permanent neurological damage or even death.

Treatment for encephalomyelitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as administering antiviral medications for viral infections or immunosuppressive drugs for autoimmune reactions. Supportive care, such as pain management, physical therapy, and rehabilitation, may also be necessary to help manage symptoms and promote recovery.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. It is not considered to be a living organism itself, as it lacks the necessary components to independently maintain its own metabolic functions. Viruses are typically composed of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid. Some viruses also have an outer lipid membrane known as an envelope.

Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. They cause various diseases by invading the host cell, hijacking its machinery, and using it to produce numerous copies of themselves, which can then infect other cells. The resulting infection and the immune response it triggers can lead to a range of symptoms, depending on the virus and the host organism.

Viruses are transmitted through various means, such as respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, contaminated food or water, and vectors like insects. Prevention methods include vaccination, practicing good hygiene, using personal protective equipment, and implementing public health measures to control their spread.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "goats" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a common noun referring to the domesticated animal species Capra aegagrus hircus. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, please provide that and I would be happy to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

The Coombs test is a laboratory procedure used to detect the presence of antibodies on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). It is named after the scientist, Robin Coombs, who developed the test. There are two types of Coombs tests: direct and indirect.

1. Direct Coombs Test (DCT): This test is used to detect the presence of antibodies directly attached to the surface of RBCs. It is often used to diagnose hemolytic anemia, a condition in which RBCs are destroyed prematurely, leading to anemia. A positive DCT indicates that the patient's RBCs have been coated with antibodies, which can occur due to various reasons such as autoimmune disorders, blood transfusion reactions, or drug-induced immune hemolysis.
2. Indirect Coombs Test (ICT): This test is used to detect the presence of antibodies in the patient's serum that can agglutinate (clump) foreign RBCs. It is commonly used before blood transfusions or during pregnancy to determine if the patient has antibodies against the RBCs of a potential donor or fetus, respectively. A positive ICT indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies capable of binding to and agglutinating foreign RBCs.

In summary, the Coombs test is a crucial diagnostic tool in identifying various hemolytic disorders and ensuring safe blood transfusions by detecting the presence of harmful antibodies against RBCs.

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This can be done with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) techniques. It can also be achieved through indirect immunofluorescence ... Another form of microscopy is fluorescent microscopy done by staining with auramine. Other staining techniques include acid- ... vaccine has produced an antibody response in a large group of cows and also antibody response in calves fed rCP15/60-immune ... Antibodies in the serum of humans and animals infected with Cryptosporidium parvum react with several antigens, one of which is ...
Also, differential staining methods and fluorescent antibody techniques were introduced for in-situ observation of ... Various new techniques, ranging from the determination of growth and activity of microorganisms in the environments to their ... The new methods and techniques were proved to be successful for the analysis of microbial community in various fields, soil and ...
... by fluorescent-antibody technique". Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 11 (2): 251-259. doi:10.1016/0022-2011(68)90158-4. ...
Later, Osborn and Weber pioneered fluorescent antibody staining of cellular substructures, a major technique called indirect ... then used fluorescently-tagged secondary antibodies (antibodies to the first set of antibodies) to light up the locations of ... and unreactive to actin antibodies. They developed new antibodies against proteins of the microtubules, intermediate filaments ... Many of their antibodies have been licensed to companies for commercial development. Klaus and Osborn used their method to ...
Burgdorfer, W. Evaluation of the fluorescent antibody technique for the detection of Rocky Mountain spotted fever rickettsiae ... A technique for detection of rickettsiae in ticks, Amer. J. Trop. Med. 19:1010-1014, 1970. Burgdorfer, W., Barbour, A. G., ...
... fluorescent antibody and cell culture isolation techniques for detection of antigen". Journal of Fish Diseases. 7: 57-64. doi: ...
Adam Reich, Katarzyna Marcinow, and Rafal Bialynicki-Birula Direct+Fluorescent+Antibody+Technique at the U.S. National Library ... A direct fluorescent antibody (DFA or dFA), also known as "direct immunofluorescence", is an antibody that has been tagged in a ... Direct fluorescent antibody can also be used to detect parasitic infections, as was pioneered by Sadun, et al. (1960). ... where the primary antibody binds the target antigen, with a secondary antibody directed against the primary, and a tag attached ...
... he and two other researchers were the first to apply a recently developed technique, fluorescent antibody imaging, to the ... "Home". Sadun, E.H, Williams, J.S, Anderson, R.I. Fluorescent antibody technic for sero-diagnosis of schistosomiasis in humans. ... and is known for the first application of fluorescent antibody imaging in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. Sadun was born ...
Immunohistochemistry is a technique that uses antibodies with fluorescent staining tags that target a specific antigen present ... He created an immunoflorescent technique for labelling the antibodies. This technique continues to be widely used in ... Albert Coons used for the first time a revolutionary technique that uses the principle of antibodies binding specifically to ... These examples use FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization). With this technique we can understand the physiological processes ...
This distribution of this antibody can then be visualized by a technique such as fluorescent labeling. Immunohistochemistry has ... In this technique, DNA that encodes a reporter gene is randomly inserted into the genome. Depending on the gene promoters ... Techniques that require fixation of tissue can only generate a single temporal time point per individual organism. However, ... For example, the reporter gene green fluorescent protein can be visualized by stimulating it with blue light and then using a ...
To reduce the four-day waiting time needed for diagnosis, a method using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) was ...
Benador Associates ^ "Detection of air-borne Pasteurella tularensis using the fluorescent antibody technique" by R. F. Jaeger, ...
... a Muslim sultanate in the northern Horn of Africa Indirect fluorescent antibody technique, a diagnostic process employing ...
... fluorescent antibody technique MeSH E05.200.750.551.512.240.300 - fluorescent antibody technique, direct MeSH E05.200.750.551. ... fluorescent antibody technique, direct MeSH E05.478.588.375.310 - fluorescent antibody technique, indirect MeSH E05.478.588.375 ... fluorescent antibody technique MeSH E05.478.588.375.050 - antibody-coated bacteria test, urinary MeSH E05.478.588.375.300 - ... 512.240.310 - fluorescent antibody technique, indirect MeSH E05.200.750.551.790 - periodic acid-schiff reaction MeSH E05.200. ...
She is also well known for her work in the development of the fluorescent antibody technique-a diagnostic technique used to ... "Isothiocyanate Compounds as Fluorescent Labeling Agents for Immune Serum". The American Journal of Pathology. 34 (6): 1081-1097 ...
... fluorescent antibody technique, direct MeSH E01.450.495.225.230 - fluorescent antibody technique, indirect MeSH E01.450.495.225 ... fluorescent antibody technique MeSH E01.450.495.225.050 - antibody-coated bacteria test, urinary MeSH E01.450.495.225.225 - ... fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test MeSH E01.450.495.735.850.800 - treponema immobilization test MeSH E01.450. ... enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique MeSH E01.450.495.410.380 - immunosorbent techniques MeSH E01.450.495.410.380.200 - ...
... be cultured on specific growth mediums such as brain-heart infusion agar and techniques such as indirect fluorescent antibody ...
... an antigen can also be conjugated to the antibody with a fluorescent probe in a technique called fluorescent antigen technique ... This technique uses the specificity of antibodies to their antigen to target fluorescent dyes to specific biomolecule targets ... recognizes the primary antibody and binds to it. Multiple secondary antibodies can bind a single primary antibody. This ... Since the number of fluorescent molecules that can be bound to the primary antibody is limited, direct immunofluorescence is ...
... indirect fluorescent antibody testing, ELISA, PCR, and DNA probe technology techniques can be used to confirm diagnosis. The ...
... coli DNA extraction method plus polymerase chain reaction techniques. Newer technologies using fluorescent and antibody ... Tzipori S, Sheoran A, Akiyoshi D, Donohue-Rolfe A, Trachtman H (October 2004). "Antibody therapy in the management of shiga ... such as the use of anti-induction strategies to prevent toxin production and the use of anti-Shiga toxin antibodies, have also ...
6: The fluorescent antibody test". In Kaplan MM, Koprowski H (eds.). Laboratory techniques in rabies. Monograph series. Vol. 23 ... The reference method for diagnosing rabies is the fluorescent antibody test (FAT), an immunohistochemistry procedure, which is ... to bind to and allow the visualisation of rabies antigen using fluorescent microscopy techniques. Microscopic analysis of ... Bat rabies antibodies (but not the virus) have been found in bats. On Svalbard, animals can cross the arctic ice from Greenland ...
These cells are STED fluorescent dyes bound to antibodies through amide bonds. The first use of this technique coupled MR-121SE ... a red dye, with a secondary anti-mouse antibody. Since that first application, this technique has been applied to a much wider ... However, only fluorescent proteins provide the ability to visualize any organelle or protein in a living cell. This method was ... Using two fluorescent dyes and beam pairs, colocalized imaging of synaptic and mitochondrial protein clusters is possible with ...
Antiechinococcus antibodies can be detected with serodiagnostic tests - indirect fluorescent antibody, complement fixation, ... Cysts are detected with ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography, or other imaging techniques. ...
After expansion, the tissue is far less dense and often allows for better reception of fluorescent antibodies. Markoff J (2015- ... However, this technique has since been adopted into many different fields of research and continues to grow and be applied in ... "Expansion microscopy with conventional antibodies and fluorescent proteins". Nature Methods. 13 (6): 485-8. doi:10.1038/nmeth. ... Expansion microscopy with conventional antibodies and fluorescent proteins. Nature Methods, 2016, 13, 485-488. "Microscopy ...
... such as fluorescent staining, multi-angle light scatter and monoclonal antibody tagging. Most analyzers directly measure the ... In light scattering techniques, light from a laser or a tungsten-halogen lamp is directed at the stream of cells to collect ... These techniques work on the same principle of measuring the interruption in current as cells pass through an aperture, but ... The first techniques for measuring hemoglobin were devised in the late 19th century, and involved visual comparisons of the ...
... or by fluorescent antibodies. The technology may be used to determine whether a potential drug is disease modifying. For ... in the amounts of proteins synthesized by cells are measured using a variety of techniques such as the green fluorescent ... The wide use of the green fluorescent protein, a natural fluorescent protein molecule from jellyfish, then accelerated the ... In addition to fluorescent labeling, various label free assays have been used in high content screening. High-content screening ...
... fluorescent protein based methods, and mass-spectroscopy based methods. The antibody based methods use designed antibodies to ... Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a technique similar to DESI, but while DESI is an ambient ionization technique, SIMS ... Imaging: Antibodies can be bound to fluorescent molecules such as quantum dots or tagged with organic fluorophores for ... Antibody-DNA quantification: another antibody-based method converts protein levels to DNA levels. The conversion to DNA makes ...
In a separate study, antibody-antigen binding was studied without the need for a fluorescent label to be added to the antibody ... Other microscopy techniques are commonly used in tandem with NanoSIMS that allow for multiple types of information to be ... Immunogold labeling uses antibodies to target specific proteins, and subsequently labels the antibodies with gold nano ... This technique can be used to study nutrient exchange. The mouse gut microbiome was investigated to determine which microbes ...
This process is called immunohistochemistry, or when the stain is a fluorescent molecule, immunofluorescence. This technique ... Recently, antibodies have been used to specifically visualize proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. ... Ramón y Cajal won the prize for his correct theory, and Golgi for the silver-staining technique that he invented to make it ... In contrast to H&E, which is used as a general stain, there are many techniques that more selectively stain cells, cellular ...
Chemical compound and disease context of Fluorescent Antibody Technique. *Biological context of Fluorescent Antibody Technique ... Gene context of Fluorescent Antibody Technique. *Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fluorescent Antibody ... Gene context of Fluorescent Antibody Technique. *Immunofluorescence localization studies using affinity-purified antibody ... Associations of Fluorescent Antibody Technique with chemical compounds. *Both acetone and formaldehyde fixation were used for ...
Title : Fluorescent antibody techniques for Salmonella and other enteric pathogens. Personal Author(s) : Cherry, W. B.;Thomason ... Cherry, W. B. and Thomason, B. M. (1969). Fluorescent antibody techniques for Salmonella and other enteric pathogens.. 84(10). ... Cherry, W. B. and Thomason, B. M. "Fluorescent antibody techniques for Salmonella and other enteric pathogens." vol. 84, no. 10 ... Cherry, W. B. and Thomason, B. M. "Fluorescent antibody techniques for Salmonella and other enteric pathogens." 84, no. 10 ( ...
This technique of labeling antibodies with fluorescent substances for antigen localization is called fluorescent antibody ... Fluorescence immunoassay technology is one of the earliest developed labeling immunoassay techniques. ... This technique of labeling antibodies with fluorescent substances for antigen localization is called fluorescent antibody ... by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (fluorescent antibody technique, direct) or an indirect method, by formation of ...
Results of search for su:{Fluorescent antibody technique.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently ... A fluorescent-antibody technique for the detection of enterotoxin-producing cells of Clostridium perfringens type A / Manuel J ... Immunofluorescence techniques in diagnostic microbiology / edited by Joan M. B. Edwards, C. E. D. Taylor, A. H. Tomlinson. by ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique * Humans * Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / classification * Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique * Humans * Matrix Metalloproteinases / biosynthesis * Mutagenicity Tests * Mutagens* * Nitric ...
... indirect fluorescent antibody technique; ND, not done; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid.. †The ELISA is positive if ratio ,1.1 for IgM ...
I: Demonstration of antibrain globulins by fluorescent antibody techniques. Arch Gen Psychiat 16: 1-9. (Schizophrenia, Blood ...
Categories: Fluorescent Antibody Technique Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Categories: Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain ...
Identification of Actinomyces israelii and Actinomyces naeslundii by fluorescent-antibody and agar-gel diffusion techniques. J ...
Infected contacts may be identified rapidly by the fluorescent antibody (FA) technique; however, culture techniques identify ... Sensitive screening techniques exist, for example, fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA), immune adherence ... Techniques are not yet available to detect specific antigens and antibodies or to determine the period of infectivity after ... The Mantoux technique using 5 TU PPD should be used. Category II * The 2-step test should be used to minimize the likelihood of ...
The first practical use for the fluorescent antibody technique is utilized in the CDC laboratories to research communicable ... A fluorescent antibody test is developed for rabies and field trials demonstrate 100 percent accuracy ... A committee on air-borne disease studies is established, with emphasis on sampling techniques and devices adaptable to ...
... and fluorescent-antibody techniques (4). Paramushir was isolated from Ixodes uriae and I. signatus in the eastern USSR (3,4). ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique * Gelsolin * Male * Microfilament Proteins/genetics/ metabolism * Muscle Development * Muscle, ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique Resumo. Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted ... CT antibodies were associated with sexual behavior and smoking.. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia infections, ... prevalence, nucleic acid amplification techniques; infertility, female; fluorescent antibody technique. Downloads Não há dados ... Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of CT IgG antibody in Brazilian pregnant and infertile women, but we found a low ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique * Gap Junctions/metabolism * Hypertension/metabolism/pathology/physiopathology * Male * Muscle ...
Diagnosis of rabies in tested animals was by direct fluorescent antibody technique (DFAT). A positive reaction was demonstrated ... Continued research towards the development of novel diagnostic techniques and newer vaccines and techniques are also desired. ... by visualization of bright apple-green fluorescent particles ranging in size and morphology from dust-like particles to ...
L pneumophila could be demonstrated by direct fluorescent antibody technique, but nonspecific reactions cannot be excluded. A ... Relative growth rates (RGR) were calculated at intervals throughout the summer and autumn using a non-destructive technique in ... higher prevalence of elevated L pneumophila antibody titers was observed in patients nursed for more than four weeks in the ...
Non-fluorescent TiO2 NPs were detected using simple microscopic techniques with the scFv antibody isolated against them. The ... The novel antibodies isolated when used in conjunction with other existing techniques for NP detection will comprise a powerful ... Confocal and fluorescence microscopy are also common techniques used to detect fluorescent NPs, however their detection ability ... antibodies each displayed monovalently on the gene III coat protein of a M13 filamentous phage. The scFv antibodies are ...
91; was FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIC 1963-90. Online Note. use FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE to search FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY ... Fluorescent Coons Technic Coons Technique Fluorescent Antibody Technic Fluorescent Antinuclear Antibody Test Fluorescent ... Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct [E01.370.225.500.607.512.240.300] * Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect [E01.370. ... Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct [E01.370.225.750.551.512.240.300] * Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect [E01.370. ...
Glossalgia, Halitosis, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Serology, Oral Medicine, Mouth Mucosa, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, Biopsy ...
This technique requires specimens stained with fluorescent dyes, fluorescent labelled antibodies or other fluorescent molecular ... Sometimes several techniques are combined. I show pictures using each technique, discuss some of their pros and cons and ... This technique can be applied using a dark-field condenser or metal stop (e.g. coin) that fits below the condenser in the light ... Depending on the fluorescent probe a long exposure by the light source may kill the cells if UV radiation is used to excite the ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique. *Flow Cytometry. *DNA Replication. Citation. APA Chicago ICMJE MLA ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique (MeSH) * Genes, Viral (MeSH) * Humans (MeSH) * Huntington Disease (MeSH) ... In this study, a sensitive host cell reactivation (HCR) technique was used to examine the repair capacity for DNA damaged by ... Previous reports using this technique showed a substantial reduction in the HCR of sunlamp-exposed Ad 2 for infection of ...
... by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of ... antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY ... antibody is currently after some BD antibodies the most commonly used fluorescent dye for FACS. When excited at 488 nanometers ... and approximately half of the absorbed photons are emitted as fluorescent light. For fluorescent microscopy applications, the 1 ...
Keywords: Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect, T-Lymphocytes - immunology, Skin - immunology, Prurigo - immunology, ... Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Child, Case-Control Studies, Biopsy, Autoimmunity, ...
... applying the technique of the fluorescent antibody, and using an automatic analyzer. The heroin and metabolite levels in their ... it is based on a technique of fluorescence polarization immunoassay using an automatic drug analyzer version TDxFLx (Abbott ...
  • Rabbit antibodies can recognize a number of targetable epitopes on humans than rodent antibodies which is pivotal in basic research and in pre-clinical trials. (news-medical.net)
  • For fluorescent microscopy applications, the 1 FITC is seldom used as it photo bleaches rather quickly though in flow cytometry applications, its photo bleaching effects are not observed due to a very brief interaction at the laser intercept. (gentaur.com)
  • However, PV-1-transfected cells only bind PAL-E and anti-PV-1 antibodies, whereas NRP-1 transfectants stain with anti-NRP-1 antibodies in flow cytometry. (abo.fi)
  • Conventional techniques employed to detect NPs in tissues such as transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy offer superior nanoscale resolution, however pose limitations due to the high cost of sample processing and limited sample analysis throughput. (cdc.gov)
  • Confocal and fluorescence microscopy are also common techniques used to detect fluorescent NPs, however their detection ability is often obscured by tissue autofluorescence and are limited to detecting fluorescent NPs. (cdc.gov)
  • I show pictures using each technique, discuss some of their pros and cons and describe how DIC microscopy works. (canadiannaturephotographer.com)
  • Through the use of a proprietary labeling technique developed in-house, we offer FACS and ICC kits which have been optimized for the performance of the targeted proteins in different cell lines and are ready to use. (assaypro.com)
  • Blood samples were collected for CT IgG antibodies testing using indirect immunofluorescence. (ufrgs.br)
  • Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye ( FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT ) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody ( FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT ). (nih.gov)
  • For a long time, some scholars have tried to combine antibody molecules with some tracer substances, and use antigen-antibody reaction to locate antigenic substances in tissues or cells. (medicilon.com)
  • This technique of labeling antibodies with fluorescent substances for antigen localization is called fluorescent antibody technique ( fluorescent antibody technique ). (medicilon.com)
  • This method develops rabbit antibody libraries in single-chain variable format (scFv) as well as in antigen binding fragment (Fab) format. (news-medical.net)
  • Molecular and immunocytological techniques were used to study the expression of embryonic zeta (ζ), epsilon (ε), and fetal gamma (γ) globin genes in newborn cord blood, peripheral blood from men, pregnant and non-pregnant women, and in vitro mononuclear cell cultures. (hku.hk)
  • Pathologische anatomie leiden endothelium (PAL-E) antibody has been used for more than 20 years as a prototype marker for vascular endothelium. (abo.fi)
  • In this work, we have developed antibodies to NPs from a phage library containing approximately 2x109 unique single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies each displayed monovalently on the gene III coat protein of a M13 filamentous phage. (cdc.gov)
  • The scFv antibodies are engineered with a FLAG tag to allow for secondary detection using standard immunohistochemistry methods. (cdc.gov)
  • Non-fluorescent TiO2 NPs were detected using simple microscopic techniques with the scFv antibody isolated against them. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunofluorescence techniques in diagnostic microbiology / edited by Joan M. B. Edwards, C. E. D. Taylor, A. H. Tomlinson. (who.int)
  • A fluorescent-antibody technique for the detection of enterotoxin-producing cells of Clostridium perfringens type A / Manuel J. Torres-Anjel, Hans P. Riemann, and Che C. Tsai. (who.int)
  • However, studies show varying results on NP skin penetration depending upon the NP size and surface chemistry, skin model used and the NP detection techniques employed. (cdc.gov)
  • The novel antibodies isolated when used in conjunction with other existing techniques for NP detection will comprise a powerful tool kit, and enable researchers to use them to detect NPs both in the environment and in a biological milieu. (cdc.gov)
  • A new in vitro method (END) for detection and measurement of hog cholera virus and its antibody by means of effect of HC virus on Newcastle disease virus in swine tissue cultures. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Recently, Wei Y et al developed an ultrasensitive, carbon nanoparticle-labeled pad with rabbit anti-Ebola virus (EBOV)-VP40 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody for rapid detection of EBOV. (news-medical.net)
  • The antibodies do not exhibit non-specific binding to dissimilar NPs such as gold NPs or carbon nanotube s as demonstrated through custom-designed in vitro assays. (cdc.gov)
  • Using lysates from tissues and transfected cells, we further confirm that the molecule recognized by PAL-E and anti-PV-1 antibodies is not NRP-1 but PV-1. (abo.fi)
  • After fusion, the hybridoma cells are isolated, screened, and cultured to produce the required antibody. (news-medical.net)
  • This fitzgerald Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) antibody is currently after some BD antibodies the most commonly used fluorescent dye for FACS. (gentaur.com)
  • Discovery and characterization of antibodies that bind nanoparticle s. (cdc.gov)
  • Some non-fluorescent pigment substances such as methylene blue and basic fuchsin are commonly used in fluorescent antibody technology. (medicilon.com)
  • Daphnnia), ciliates, and some bacteria exhibit good contrast by this technique. (canadiannaturephotographer.com)
  • Processed using the fluorescent antibody (FA) staining technique, this photomicrograph revealed the presence of a number of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria, that were discovered in this cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) sample. (cdc.gov)
  • Paramushir virus was recently demonstrated to be serologically identical to Avalon virus by complement-fixation, neutralization, and fluorescent-antibody techniques (4). (cdc.gov)
  • HCV assay by direct plaque procedure is rapid and convenient and gives infectivity titres identical to the fluorescent focus assay technique. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Using immunofluorescence, we show that PAL-E, anti-PV-1, anti-NRP-1, and anti-CD31 antibodies show largely identical staining patterns in the vasculature of different tissues. (abo.fi)
  • In recent years, several special fluorescent immunoassays have been developed, which are used in clinical tests like enzyme immunoassays and radioimmunoassays. (medicilon.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Fluorescent antibody technique. (who.int)
  • An affinity based selection technique (biopanning) is used to identify binders from the library. (cdc.gov)
  • There is a high prevalence of CT IgG antibody in Brazilian pregnant and infertile women, but we found a low prevalence of positive PCR in the urine samples. (ufrgs.br)
  • FITC has a high quantum yield (efficiency of energy transfer from absorption to emission fluorescence) and approximately half of the absorbed photons are emitted as fluorescent light. (gentaur.com)
  • Other methods that are used to produce rabbit mAbs and to analyze immune antibody repertoires are high-throughput DNA technologies with mass spectrometry. (news-medical.net)
  • The elusive target of this antibody has been claimed to be plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein-1 (PV-1) and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). (abo.fi)
  • Fluorescence immunoassay technology is one of the earliest developed labeling immunoassay techniques. (medicilon.com)
  • We have developed NP binding antibodies to commercially important NPs including QDs and TiO2 NPs using phage display technology. (cdc.gov)
  • The antibodies isolated against GSH-QDs and TiO2 NPs by panning in solution, can recognize the respective NPs in skin and did not show any non-specific binding to skin samples without NPs. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, care should be taken to avoid direct exposure of light (especially ultraviolet light) and contact with other compounds in the storage of fluorescent materials. (medicilon.com)
  • Additionally, the antibodies have been characterized for their binding and cross-reactivity properties to several other NPs, and some challenges associated with the isolation of the antibodies from a large library and alternative method for selection of antibodies have been discussed. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluorescent molecules do not convert all the absorbed light energy into fluorescence, and they are always released in more or less other forms. (medicilon.com)
  • Fluorescence efficiency refers to the percentage of fluorescent molecules that convert the absorbed light energy into fluorescence, which is proportional to the value of the emitted fluorescent light quantum. (medicilon.com)
  • When the wavelength of the excitation light is selected to be close to the maximum absorption peak wavelength of the fluorescent molecule, and the measured light wave is close to the peak of the maximum emission light, the obtained fluorescence intensity is also maximum. (medicilon.com)
  • The radiation ability of fluorescent molecules will be weakened or even quenched after being irradiated by the excitation light for a long time. (medicilon.com)
  • This technique can be applied using a dark-field condenser or metal stop (e.g. coin) that fits below the condenser in the light path. (canadiannaturephotographer.com)
  • The phase display method can also be used to engineer single domain antibody formats, such as the N-terminal variable light chain (VL) and N-terminal variable heavy chain (VH) from rabbit mAbs. (news-medical.net)
  • This conjugate pad along with a nitrocellulose pad layered with a monoclonal antibody (McAb, 4B7F9) against EBOV-VP40 and goat anti-rabbit Ig, sample application pad, and absorbent pad were assembled together to form a lateral flow test strip. (news-medical.net)
  • This is achieved by isolating antibody variable domain repertoires from the B-cell complementary DNA (cDNA) obtained from the rabbit spleen and amplifying it into a Fab repertoire by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. (news-medical.net)
  • however, the small spleen of the mouse is limited in its ability to generate antibodies. (news-medical.net)
  • In this study, a sensitive host cell reactivation (HCR) technique was used to examine the repair capacity for DNA damaged by sunlamp exposure in fibroblast strains derived from 5 normal individuals and 8 patients representing three different diseases associated with DNA repair deficiencies. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Previous reports using this technique showed a substantial reduction in the HCR of sunlamp-exposed Ad 2 for infection of excision repair deficient fibroblasts from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. (mcmaster.ca)
  • OVER 10,000+ PRODUCTS AssayLite™ Our patented fluorescent multiplex kits. (assaypro.com)
  • Ѐtude de la multiplication en cycle unique d'un clone de virus de la peste porcine classique au moyen de l'immunofluorescence. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We found statistically similar prevalence of PCR and IgG antibodies between the groups. (ufrgs.br)
  • This thesis discusses the discovery of novel antibodies binding QDs and TiO2 NPs and their functionality by demonstrating their binding both in vitro and in an ex vivo human skin model. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, a simple economical technique which can provide information on both the presence of NPs and their form in biological systems and the environment is required. (cdc.gov)