Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Bronchiolitis, Viral: An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lyssavirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Sarcocystis: A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Sarcocystosis: Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.Spirochaeta: A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.

Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for actin-based motility of vaccinia but not Listeria or Shigella. (1/24343)

Studies of the actin-based motility of pathogens have provided important insights into the events occurring at the leading edge of motile cells [1] [2] [3]. To date, several actin-cytoskeleton-associated proteins have been implicated in the motility of Listeria or Shigella: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), vinculin and the actin-related protein complex of Arp2 and Arp3 [4] [5] [6] [7]. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of actin-tail assembly, we examined the localization of components of the actin cytoskeleton including Arp3, VASP, vinculin and zyxin during vaccinia, Listeria and Shigella infections. The most striking difference between the systems was that a phosphotyrosine signal was observed only at the site of vaccinia actin-tail assembly. Micro-injection experiments demonstrated that a phosphotyrosine protein plays an important role in vaccinia actin-tail formation. In addition, we observed a phosphotyrosine signal on clathrin-coated vesicles that have associated actin-tail-like structures and on endogenous vesicles in Xenopus egg extracts which are able to nucleate actin tails [8] [9]. Our observations indicate that a host phosphotyrosine protein is required for the nucleation of actin filaments by vaccinia and suggest that this phosphoprotein might be associated with cellular membranes that can nucleate actin.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (2/24343)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (3/24343)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

Arrestin function in G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis requires phosphoinositide binding. (4/24343)

Internalization of agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors is mediated by non-visual arrestins, which also bind to clathrin and are therefore thought to act as adaptors in the endocytosis process. Phosphoinositides have been implicated in the regulation of intracellular receptor trafficking, and are known to bind to other coat components including AP-2, AP180 and COPI coatomer. Given these observations, we explored the possibility that phosphoinositides play a role in arrestin's function as an adaptor. High-affinity binding sites for phosphoinositides in beta-arrestin (arrestin2) and arrestin3 (beta-arrestin2) were identified, and dissimilar effects of phosphoinositide and inositol phosphate on arrestin interactions with clathrin and receptor were characterized. Alteration of three basic residues in arrestin3 abolished phosphoinositide binding with complete retention of clathrin and receptor binding. Unlike native protein, upon agonist activation, this mutant arrestin3 expressed in COS1 cells neither supported beta2-adrenergic receptor internalization nor did it concentrate in coated pits, although it was recruited to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that phosphoinositide binding plays a critical regulatory role in delivery of the receptor-arrestin complex to coated pits, perhaps by providing, with activated receptor, a multi-point attachment of arrestin to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Coupling of the cell cycle and myogenesis through the cyclin D1-dependent interaction of MyoD with cdk4. (5/24343)

Proliferating myoblasts express the muscle determination factor, MyoD, throughout the cell cycle in the absence of differentiation. Here we show that a mitogen-sensitive mechanism, involving the direct interaction between MyoD and cdk4, restricts myoblast differentiation to cells that have entered into the G0 phase of the cell cycle under mitogen withdrawal. Interaction between MyoD and cdk4 disrupts MyoD DNA-binding, muscle-specific gene activation and myogenic conversion of 10T1/2 cells independently of cyclin D1 and the CAK activation of cdk4. Forced induction of cyclin D1 in myotubes results in the cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of cdk4. The specific MyoD-cdk4 interaction in dividing myoblasts, coupled with the cyclin D1-dependent nuclear targeting of cdk4, suggests a mitogen-sensitive mechanism whereby cyclin D1 can regulate MyoD function and the onset of myogenesis by controlling the cellular location of cdk4 rather than the phosphorylation status of MyoD.  (+info)

Retinoic acid, but not arsenic trioxide, degrades the PLZF/RARalpha fusion protein, without inducing terminal differentiation or apoptosis, in a RA-therapy resistant t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL patient. (6/24343)

Primary blasts of a t(11;17)(q23;q21) acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) patient were analysed with respect to retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) sensitivity as well as PLZF/RARalpha status. Although RA induced partial monocytic differentiation ex vivo, but not in vivo, As203 failed to induce apoptosis in culture, contrasting with t(15;17) APL and arguing against the clinical use of As203 in t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL. Prior to cell culture, PLZF/RARalpha was found to exactly co-localize with PML onto PML nuclear bodies. However upon cell culture, it quickly shifted towards microspeckles, its localization found in transfection experiments. Arsenic trioxide, known to induce aggregation of PML nuclear bodies, left the microspeckled PLZF/RARalpha localization completely unaffected. RA treatment led to PLZF/RARalpha degradation. However, this complete PLZF/RARalpha degradation was not accompanied by differentiation or apoptosis, which could suggest a contribution of the reciprocal RARalpha/PLZF fusion product in leukaemogenesis or the existence of irreversible changes induced by the chimera.  (+info)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells. (7/24343)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor.  (+info)

Cloning of the peroxiredoxin gene family in rats and characterization of the fourth member. (8/24343)

Peroxiredoxin (PRx) exhibits thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity and constitutes a family of proteins. Four members of genes from rat tissues were isolated by PCR using degenerated primers based on the sequences which encode a pair of highly conserved Cys-containing domains, and were then cloned to full-length cDNAs. These included two genes which have previously been isolated in rats, PRx I and PRx II, and two rat homologues of PRx III and PRx IV. We showed, for the first time, the simultaneous expression of all four genes in various rat tissues by Northern blotting. Since a discrepancy exists regarding cellular distribution, we further characterized PRx IV by expressing it in COS-1 cells. This clearly demonstrates that PRx IV is a secretory form and functions within the extracellular space.  (+info)

Species, Research Grants, Research Topics, Publications, Genomes and Genes, Scientific Experts about indirect fluorescent antibody technique
Cloyd, M W.; Bolognesi, D P.; and Bigner, D D., "Immunofluorescent analysis of expression of the rna tumor virus major glycoprotein, gp71, on surfaces of virus- -producing murine and other mammalian species cell lines." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1745 ...
Define indirect fluorescent antibody. indirect fluorescent antibody synonyms, indirect fluorescent antibody pronunciation, indirect fluorescent antibody translation, English dictionary definition of indirect fluorescent antibody. adj. 1. Diverging from a direct course; roundabout. 2. a. Not proceeding straight to the point or object. b. Not forthright and candid; devious. 3.
A glycoprotein with an apparent 340,000 mol wt (gp 340K) was isolated from rat kidney saline-soluble extract by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DE 52 ion-exchange cellulose chromatography, concanavalin A affinity column, Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration, and discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The relative purity of gp 340K was examined by double immunodiffusion analysis, disc PAGE, and immunoelectrophoresis. Injection of rabbit gp 340K antiserum into pregnant rats during the organogenetic period induced abnormal embryonic development, fetal growth retardation, and embryonic death. Antiserum against the immunocomplexes isolated by immobilized protein A also produced the same embryotoxic effects. The biologic effects of the antisera appeared to be dose dependent. Defects such as anophthalmia, hydrocephaly, exencephaly, cleft palate, cleft lip, and some cardiovascular anomalies were observed. The most frequently observed anomaly was anophthalmia. Immunofluorescent localization ...
Dynein tethers centrosomes to spindle poles. (a) Cytoplasmic dynein is eluted from spindles by addition of mAb 70.1. Immunofluorescent localization of dynei
Learning Objectives Describe the benefits of immunofluorescent antibody assays in comparison to nonfluorescent assays Compare direct and indirect flu
Immunofluorescence localization and immunoblotting of Gαs in oocytes in Gpr3+/+ and Gpr3−/− ovaries. (A and B) Gαs in Gpr3+/+ (A) and Gpr3−/− (B) oocy
A monoclonal antibody, designated C138, was raised against a particulate fraction from young postnatal mouse cerebellum. In sections from adult mouse brain and cerebellum, this antibody stained a sub-population of neurons. Cell bodies of large neurones and fibre tracts were negative in all brain regions examined, whereas neuropil was heavily labelled. Immune-electron microscopy confirmed the specificity of the antibody for certain types of neurones and indicated that the antigen may be associated with microtubular structures. Immunofluorescence studies on dissociated cerebellar cultures showed that the antigen was expressed inside all tetanus toxin-positive neurones but not by non-neuronal cells.
Facilities for diagnosis of rabies through RT-PCR, mice-inoculation, cultural isolation and, fluorescent antibody technique have been created and is being used on a regular basis. ...
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
Fluorescent controls are useful for visual indication of delivery, and when combined with functional knockdown assessment, provide a useful tool for optimization.. siGLO Positive controls will effectively silence the indicated gene, and result in punctate cytoplasmic fluorescence. All are labeled with DY-547 (Cy3 analog). siGLO RISC-Free Control is a DY-547-labeled negative control that can also be co-transfected with functional siRNAs.. siGLO Transfection Indicators are unique non-RISC engaging molecules that localize to the nucleus, providing a distinct visual indication of transfection success. They are available with either DY-547 (Red) or 6-FAM (Green).. ...
... is a technique to visualize a specific protein or antigen in cells or tissue sections by binding a specific antibody chemically conjugated with a fluorescent dye. We use the indirect immunofluorescence staining to perform cells fixed on slides and examine under a fluorescence microscope. - Immunofluorescence - AbVideo™ - Support - Abnova
The cellular localization of gastrin in the rabbit pyloric antrum was established by immunofluorescence. The gastrin cell was argyrophil (Grimelius technique) and identical with a previously described cell type that emits fluorescence upon combined formaldehydeozone treatment, a feature that has been interpreted as indicating storage of peptides with NH2-terminal tryptophan. The identity of the peptides and its relation to gastrin is unknown.
Today is exciting because I get to do two things. 1: Post the first successful images of West Nile virus infectined cells that I took on my own and 2: Give a basic explanation one of the most visually impressive techniques at our disposal: immunofluorescent microscopy. For those of you not familiar with fluorescent microscopy…
BD Difco™ Fluorescent Antibody Reagents FA Bordetella Pertussis; 5mL BD Difco™ Fluorescent Antibody Reagents Antibody Binding Proteins and...
This is an historical archive of the activities of the MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit (MRC ANU) that operated at the University of Oxford from 1985 until March 2015. The MRC ANU established a reputation for world-leading research on the brain, for training new generations of scientists, and for engaging the general public in neuroscience. The successes of the MRC ANU are now built upon at the MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit at the University of Oxford.. ...
As with most fluorescence techniques, a significant problem with immunofluorescence is photobleaching. Loss of activity caused by photobleaching can be controlled by reducing or limiting the intensity or time-span of light exposure, by increasing the concentration of fluorophores, or by employing more robust fluorophores that are less prone to bleaching (e.g., Alexa Fluors, Seta Fluors, or DyLight Fluors). Some problems that may arise from this technique include autofluorescence, extraneous undesired specific fluorescence, and nonspecific fluorescence. Autofluorescence includes fluorescence emitted from the sample tissue or cell itself. Extraneous undesired specific fluorescence occurs when a targeted antigen is impure and contains antigenic contaminants. Nonspecific fluorescence involves the loss of a probes specificity due to fluorophore, from improper fixation, or from a dried out specimen.[3]. Immunofluorescence is only limited to fixed (i.e., dead) cells when structures within the cell are ...
The results of antinuclear antibody tests using the indirect immunofluorescence technique may be reported as a description of the pattern and the intensity of fluorescence obtained at a certain dilution. If quantitative results are required titration is necessary. Such titrations may vary greatly between different laboratories. The present study involving 26 laboratories shows an improvement of interlaboratory comparability for the homogeneous fluorescence pattern when a common reference serum is used. Cultured cells as substrate appear to give better quantitative agreement than rat liver sections. National reference sera should be standardised in items of the appropriate WHO reference preparation. ...
Immunofluorescence procedures for SNs and rat cortical neurons followed those of Chin et al. (1999). Briefly, cells were fixed in a solution of 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS containing 20% sucrose. After three rinses in PBS, fixed cells were blocked for 30 min at room temperature in Superblock buffer (Pierce), 0.2% Triton X-100, and 3% normal goat serum and subsequently incubated overnight at 4°C with anti-phosphorylated ERK (pERK) antibody (1:500), anti-phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK antibody (1:200), anti-MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP1) antibody (1:500), or anti-pCREB2 antibody (1:500). Anti-pERK antibody was purchased from Cell Signaling Technology. Anti-p-p38 MAPK and anti-MKP1 antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology. The anti-pCREB2 antibody was raised by a commercial vendor (Genemed Biotechnologies) against the phosphorylated version of a CREB2 hybrid peptide (SPPDSPEQGPSSPET) constructed to juxtapose the sequences immediately surrounding two putative MAPK phosphorylation sites ...
We recently teamed-up with Virology Research Services (VRS) to test a large panel of viral antibodies in immunofluorescence applications. This work was funded by the Medical Research Council (Proximity to Discovery Award for Knowledge Exchange) through the University College London Translational Research Office and aimed to improve utilisation of the available immunofluorescence resources.
KPL DyLight conjugates offer a brilliant choice in a variety of immunofluorescence detection applications. They combine the sensitivity and reproducibility of our affinity purified secondary antibodies with a series of DyLight dyes that span the light spectra from visible to infrared. They are brighter than fluorescein, rhodamine, Cy™3 and Cy5 and offer comparable brightness and photostability to Alexa conjugates. They are ideal for use in the following applications:. • Fluorescent Western ...
Carboxypeptidase O (CPO), a member of the M14 family of proteolytic enzymes, preferentially cleaves C-terminal acidic amino acids, with weak affinity towards hydrophobic amino acids. We investigated the subcellular localization of CPO, and after immunofluorescent analysis of stably-transfected MDCK cells, we found that CPO co-localized with calnexin, an ER marker. To determine what CPO does in the ER, MDCK cells were transfected with plasmids expressing Gaussia Luciferase (GLuc) containing a C-terminal ER retention signal (KDEL). Previous experiments suggested that CPO cleaves the KDEL sequence of GLuc, causing its secretion. In ongoing experiments, plasmids expressing GLuc tagged with modified KDEL sequences (KDELD, KDELE, and KDELEL) will be transfected, and the intracellular activity of CPO against these substrates will be assessed.
Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 10 healthy volunteers, 28 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), eight patients with osteoarthritis, and five patients with ankylosing spondylitis were examined for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) production using monoclonal antibodies and an indirect immunofluorescent method. In freshly isolated PBMC from healthy controls very few cells were stained for either IL-1 type. All 20 RA patients who were not receiving parenteral gold therapy had PBMC staining for IL-1 alpha. In these patients, up to 7.5% of PBMC showed bright IL-1 alpha staining (range 1.2-7.5%). No IL-1 beta staining was seen. These IL-1 alpha-staining cells had a dendritic morphology and the percentage of cells staining correlated well with levels of C-reactive protein, an index of disease activity in these RA patients. Significantly fewer IL-1 alpha-staining cells were present in the peripheral blood of RA patients receiving gold therapy
Spa2p and Cdc10p both participate in bud site selection and cell morphogenesis in yeast, and spa2delta cdc10-10 cells are inviable. To identify additional components important for these processes in yeast, a colony-sectoring assay was used to isolate high-copy suppressors of the spa2delda cdc10-10 lethality. One such gene, AXL2, has been characterized in detail. axl2 cells are defective in bud site selection in haploid cells and bud in a bipolar fashion. Genetic analysis indicates that AXL2 falls into the same epistasis group as BUD3. Axl2p is predicted to be a type I transmembrane protein. Tunicamycin treatment experiments, biochemical fractionation and extraction experiments, and proteinase K protection experiments collectively indicate that Axl2p is an integral membrane glycoprotein at the plasma membrane. Indirect immunofluorescence experiments using either Axl2p tagged with three copies of a hemagglutinin epitope or high-copy AXL2 and anti-Axl2p antibodies reveal a unique localization ...
Immunofluorescence localization was performed as previously described.31 Briefly, corneas were fixed with cold methanol or 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS, cryoprotected with sucrose-PBS in a series of dilutions (10%, 20%, and then 30%), embedded and frozen in OCT medium (Sakura Finetek, Torrance, CA, USA). Cross sections of 6 μm were cut using a cryostat (Microm HM 505E; GMI, Ramsey, MN, USA) followed by immunofluorescence localization. For corneal flat mounts, freshly enucleated corneas were removed under an operating microscope (Carl Zeiss Microscopy, Oberkochen, Germany). Cornea flat mounts were digested in 1 mg/mL collagenase solution (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) in PBS for 7 minutes at 37°C to facilitate antibody penetration into the tissue. No collagenase was used for BrdU or Ki-67 flat mounts which were fixed in cold methanol. For BrdU staining, tissue was treated with 2N HCl at 37°C for 15 minutes to denature DNA and neutralized in boric acid (pH 8.5) 3 times ...
Methods and Materials This review targets the role of antibody methods and sialylation because of its quantitation. this lectin-affinity small fraction holds the entire anti-inflammatory activity, with the nonbinding fraction being essentially ineffective. At first glance, these results appear to match nicely with the 11% of sialylated N-glycans found in the Fc region [8, 22]. The situation, however, is more complex. Site-specific analysis of the SNA binding and nonbinding fractions of IVIG revealed no significant difference in Fc sialylation [22]. The obvious conclusion was that the fractionation of IgG on SNA was solely based on the N-glycans in the variable domains, whereas the sialoglycans in the CH2 domain name were inaccessible to the lectin. This view was seemingly supported by SNA fractionation of isolated Fab fragments [22]. However, it harshly contradicts the earlier conclusion that this anti-inflammatory activity depended on sialylation of the Fc region N-glycans [3, 4]. Stadlmann and ...
You can use an immunoassay like a homogeneous sandwich FRET assay: You can use donor-dye-labelled fluorophore antibodies that are able to recognise specific antigens on the virus to bind the virus antigen, then introduce a second set of antibodies labelled with acceptor-dye fluorophore. If the vaccine works and produces an immune response in the in-vivo model that destroys the virus, the antigen that joins the donor-labelled and acceptor-labelled antibodies is also destroyed and can no longer "sandwich" the two antibodies close together within the Förster distance to exhibit FRET.. ...
The culture of African green monkey kidney fibroblasts that appears in this section was immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab fragments conjugated to Rhodamine Red-X.
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
The culture of sheep kidney cells (MDOK line) illustrated in this section was immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab fragments conjugated to fluorescein.
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
By means of the indirect membrane immunofluorescence test, the distribution and antibody-induced redistribution (patching and capping) of a mammary tumor virus-induced (MLr) and a normal (Thy 1.2) cell-surface antigen were compared on mouse thymocytes and leukemia cells (GRSL2). At 0 degrees C Thy 1.2 fluorescence was ringlike and more intense on GRSL2 cells than on thymocytes, whereas MLr fluorescence on GRLS2 cells at this temperature was patchlike and brighter than Thy 1.2 fluorescence. At 20 or 37 degrees C, capping of Thy 1.2 on both cell types was readily achieved but MLr capping occurred only in a few GRSL2 cells and was less pronounced. However, after addition of the secondary antibodies, MLr capping was markedly increased by gradual cooling of cells to about 17 degrees C. Conversely, after addition of antibodies at 0 degrees C, gradual warming of cells under the fluorescence microscope resulted in extensive capping both of MLr and Thy 1.2 at approximately 13-14 degrees C. Rapid cooling ...
Research Proven Rabbit Polyclonal phospho-Tyrosine Hydoxylase-TH antibody. This an excellent neural stem cell and neural marker. This TH is desigend for immunohistochemsitry, immunofluoresence and Western Blotting.
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Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
IFA kits allow you to test for autoimmune, bacterial, and viral diseases, as well as parasites. Find quality kits when you shop online at RapidTest.
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If a certain cell type is expressing a particular receptor, there are usually many examples of a given receptor type on a cell surface. It is possible that there will be a single receptor on the cell surface, but this is an unlikely case; it would be expected to occur just at the onset of expression as the first receptor arrives at the cell surface or would be expected to occur after expression has halted, as the receptors are being degraded by proteases during normal protein turnover and finally only one is left. Receptor concentrations can be roughly estimated by immunohistochemistry (e.g. fluorescent antibodies) but are more rigorously quantitated by Western blot (which requires a larger sample, more cells ...
If a certain cell type is expressing a particular receptor, there are usually many examples of a given receptor type on a cell surface. It is possible that there will be a single receptor on the cell surface, but this is an unlikely case; it would be expected to occur just at the onset of expression as the first receptor arrives at the cell surface or would be expected to occur after expression has halted, as the receptors are being degraded by proteases during normal protein turnover and finally only one is left. Receptor concentrations can be roughly estimated by immunohistochemistry (e.g. fluorescent antibodies) but are more rigorously quantitated by Western blot (which requires a larger sample, more cells ...
... is a very sensitive and versatile method used to label specific molecular targets within cells and tissues through combined use of specific antibodies and chemical fluorescent tags
Multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) combines the spatial information from immunohistochemistry (IHC) with multimarker phenotypes. Recent advances in mIF technology have made it possible for researchers to develop novel custom panels, but additional considerations must be taken into account in order to produce a panel which performs at least as well as IHC on a marker-by-marker basis and avoids any undesirable interactions between detection of the targets and neighboring visible light spectra.<
A quantitative, indirect, fluorescence immunoassay (FIAX; Whittaker Bioproducts, Inc.) was compared with the conventional indirect fluorescent-antibody test for detection of serum antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi. FIAX correlated well with the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (r = 0.72). FIAX is a convenient and dependable means of measuring serum antibody to B. burgdorferi. ...
A quantitative, indirect, fluorescence immunoassay (FIAX; Whittaker Bioproducts, Inc.) was compared with the conventional indirect fluorescent-antibody test for detection of serum antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi. FIAX correlated well with the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (r = 0.72). FIAX is a convenient and dependable means of measuring serum antibody to B. burgdorferi.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid quantification and in situ detection of nitrifying bacteria in biofilms by monoclonal antibody method. AU - Noda, N.. AU - Ikuta, H.. AU - Ebie, Y.. AU - Hirata, A.. AU - Tsuneda, Satoshi. AU - Matsumura, M.. AU - Sumino, T.. AU - Inamori, Y.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Fluorescent antibody technique by the monoclonal antibody method is very useful and helpful for the rapid quantification and in situ detection of the specific bacteria like nitrifiers in a mixed bacterial habitat such as a biofilm. In this study, twelve monoclonal antibodies against Nitrosomonas europaea (IFO 14298) and sixteen against Nitrobacter winogradskyi (IFO 14297) were raised from splenocytes of mice (BALB/c). It was found that these antibodies exhibited little cross reactivity against various kinds of heterotrophic bacteria. The direct cell count method using monoclonal antibodies could exactly detect and rapidly quantify N. europaea and N. winogradskyi. Moreover, the distribution of N. europaea and ...
Figure 3. Immunofluorescent localization of procollagen I and Hsp47 in the presence or absence of brefeldin A treatment in CEC. Cells were treated with 2 µg/ml brefeldin A for 30 min, fixed, permeabilized, and stained as described in the text. A. Procollagen I (green) and Hsp47 (red) in brefeldin A-treated cells. B. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (green) and procollagen I (red) in brefeldin A-treated cells. C. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (green) and Hsp47 (red) in brefeldin A-treated cells. D. Phase-contrast microscopy of C. Bar, 10 µm.. ...
A procedure has been developed for the determination of the concentration of infective Newcastle disease virus (NDV) based on the enumeration of singly infected and distributed HeLa cells which are visualized by staining with fluorescent antibody. Infective virus assayed by the fluorescent cell-counting procedure is expressed in terms of cell-infecting units (CIU).. Adsorption of NDV to HeLa cell monolayers reached a plateau 1 to 1.5 hours after inoculation of coverslip cultures, and 12 per cent of the infective particles inoculated failed to adsorb. The half-life of NDV in protein-free Eagles medium at 37°C. was 2.1 hours. There was a linear relationship between virus concentration and the number of infected cells. The coefficient of variation of the mean of replicate determinations of infective NDV was 8.2 per cent. The distribution of single infected HeLa cells in the monolayer corresponded to the Poisson distribution. With NDV the cell-infecting unit (CIU) determined in HeLa cells is ...
The SHV-1 β-lactamase gene was sub-cloned into the pBC SK(-) vector (Stratagene, LaJolla, CA) from a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae (15571), and transformed into E. coli DH10B cells (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) [15]. The K. pneumoniae clinical isolate possessed the SHV-5 ESBL and was obtained from a previous study [16]. E. coli DH10B without the blaSHV-1 gene served as a negative control.. The procedures used to isolate, express and purify the SHV-1 β-lactamase and to produce the anti-SHV β-lactamase antibodies have been previously detailed [13]. Purified anti-SHV antibodies were fluorescein-labeled with the EZ-Label™ fluorescent labeling kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL), according to the instructions of the manufacturer. In brief, 1 mg of polyclonal anti-SHV antibodies in 1 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 2 mM monobasic sodium phosphate, 8 mM dibasic sodium phosphate, 154 mM sodium chloride, pH 7.4) was mixed with 7.6 μl of a 10 mg/ml solution of NHS-fluorescein in N, N-dimethylformamide for ...
Single-cell analysis reveals aspects of cellular physiology not evident from population-based studies, particularly in the case of highly multiplexed methods such as mass cytometry (CyTOF) able to correlate the levels of multiple signaling, differentiation and cell fate markers. Immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy adds information on cell morphology and the microenvironment that are not obtained using flow-based techniques, but the multiplicity of conventional IF is limited. This has motivated development of imaging methods that require specialized instrumentation, exotic reagents or proprietary protocols that are difficult to reproduce in most laboratories. Here we report a public-domain method for achieving high multiplicity single-cell IF using cyclic immunofluorescence (CycIF), a simple and versatile procedure in which four-color staining alternates with chemical inactivation of fluorophores to progressively build a multichannel image. Because CycIF uses standard reagents and instrumentation ...
Summary Fluorescent antibody technics were used to determine the localization and distribution of Schistosoma mansoni antigen in tissue cells, the presence of circulating antibody, and the sites of antibody production or in vivo antigen-antibody combination. The experiments were performed in mice after a primary infection with cercariae, after several challenges, and after antigen stimulation and challenge. Evidence of the presence of circulating antibody was first observed at 20 days in the inhibition fluorescent antibody test, at 25 days in the indirect fluorescent antibody test, at 42 days with the cercarial fluorescent antibody test, and at 47 days in the Cercarienhullen reaction. Sites of antibody production or in vivo antigen-antibody combination were observed in inflammatory cells of the portal tracts, especially those along the smaller arteries, and in granulomas and isolated cells in the parenchyma of the liver; in the perivascular tissue cells, isolated parenchymal cells and granulomas of the
Synonyms for direct fluorescein-conjugated antibody in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for direct fluorescein-conjugated antibody. 21 words related to antibody: active site, protein, autoantibody, precipitin, ABO antibodies, Rh antibody, antitoxin, agglutinin, Forssman antibody.... What are synonyms for direct fluorescein-conjugated antibody?
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
BioAssay record AID 332145 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of cellular microtubule disrupting activity in rat A10 cells at 1 ug/ml after 24 hrs by indirect immunofluorescence technique.
Efficient cleavage and probe versatility for highly-multiplex detection and co-localization. Modified Lightning Terminators™ provide a robust method for detecting multiple antigens from a single sample. Immunofluorescent detection of antigens in fixed tissue specimens and on immunoblots is used routinely in clinical practice and research laboratories, but current methods are limited to the detection of one to four antigens per tissue section or blot. Consequently, the detection of additional antigens requires multiple independent stains on separate sections and limits the co-localization of antigens on a single section. Whether in immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting, our photocleavable fluorescent labels (PCLs) provide advantages over current methods.. Highly Serial and Multiplex Detection. PCL technology uses our expertise in photocleavable chemistry to provide structures that can both efficiently bind to target antigens and rapidly cleave the dye reporter after exposure to UV light. The ...
Animals, Antilymphocyte Serum, Cell Separation, Complement System Proteins, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Genetic Linkage, Isoantigens, Killer Cells, Natural, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred A, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred C3H, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Inbred CBA, Mice, Inbred DBA, Mice, Inbred NZB. ...
Recent investigations have shown the feasibility of applying the fluorescent antibody method to Lancefield grouping of streptococci.1-4 The present study was un
Buy Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L chain specific) secondary antibody (MBS674759) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Secondary Antibodies. Application: ELISA; Immunoblot; Immunofluorescence; Immunohistochemistry
... is for indirect sensitive immunofluorescent detection of proteins in ICC or IHC via StreptAvidin-Biotin Complex (SABC) method.
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The Gibbs laboratory is focused on the development of novel fluorophores and fluorescence imaging technologies to improve cancer detection and treatment. The main research focuses of the group are on fluorophore development for image-guided surgery, fluorescent labeling of small molecule therapeutics to improve understanding of effective cancer therapy and development of highly multiplexed immunofluorescence imaging technologies to permit deep multiplexed imaging on tissues. Current projects in the Gibbs laboratory include (1) development of near infrared nerve-specific fluorophore to improve nerve sparing during radical prostatectomy, (2) contrast agent and imaging methodology development to improve breast cancer margin assessment in the operating room, (3) design and synthesis of fluorescently labeled small molecule therapeutics for personalized therapy prediction in cancer, and (4) development of improved cyclic immunofluorescence methods to permit up to 50 color staining on a single tissue ...
... , with the specific secondary antibody and all the reagents needed for performing IHC-P;IHC-F;ICC
iPSc-EGFRvIII. CLTH/iPSc-EGFRvIII cell line is induced pluripotent stem cell line that stably expresses high level of EGF mutant receptor vIII and puromycin-resistant gen introduced by virus transduction. EGFRvIII is under EF1 promoter control, allowing high levels of protein expression. Immunofluorescent studies indicate expression of transcription factors (Sox2, Oct4, Nanog) as well as surface proteins (Tra1-81 and Tra1-60) characteristic for iPS cells.. ...
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Definition: labeling of antibodies or antigens with fluorescent dyes in cells or tissue sections which are visualized using a fluorescence or confocal microscope.. General Methods & Techniques. Multiple Labeling Methods & Techniques. Antigen-Antibody Specific Applications. Tissue-Cell Specific Applications. Virological Applications. Tumor, Disease & Diagnostic Applications. Fluorescence Procedures for the Actin and Tubulin Cytoskeleton in Fixed Cells - By Louise Cramer and Arshad Desai. We typically work with tissue culture, primary mammalian cells, and cell extracts, but the protocols can be adapted to other systems, such as whole embryos or lower eukaryotes.. Double Immunofluorescence Staining (IHC World) - By Giorgio Gattoretti. Any type of tissue is suitable for this technique, as long as the antigenicity for your antigen(s) is preserved. Immunofluorescence Double Staining Method - Parallel Approach (IHC World) - This protocol includes preparation of slides, pretreatments, procedure, ...
Abberior STAR 580 was developed for STED and confocal microscopy in the orange spectral region Abberior STAR 580 is highly photostable and bright orange fl
Help! Sections come off slide during mounting - posted in Histology and Pathology: I am doing immunofluorescence on frozen mouse spleen tissue. Everytime I go to mount the coverslip onto my slide with Vectorshield+DAPI, the tissue moves and seems to disappear. When I look under the microscope, the tissue seems to be smeared, folded and can only see very few nuclei. Protocol: The tissue is cryopreserved using concentrations of sucrose from 5%-20%. The tissue is then embedded in OCT in...
OBJECTIVES--An indirect immunofluorescence technique applied to paraffin embedded tissue sections of lesions containing Donovan bodies was evaluated as a serological test for the diagnosis of granuloma inguinale. METHODS--Sera from patients with proven granuloma inguinale, other sexually acquired genital ulcerations and blood donors from areas where granuloma inguinale is rarely encountered as well as from disease-endemic regions were tested. Sera were tested either unabsorbed or following absorption with whole Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria. RESULTS--Using unabsorbed sera at a dilution of 1:160 the test was found to have a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 98%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 89% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. There proved to be no advantage in preabsorbing sera with K. pneumoniae antigen. CONCLUSIONS--In the absence of culture methods for Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, an indirect immunofluorescence technique may prove valuable for the diagnosis of ...
Various methods have been employed in the epidemiological assessment of malaria. In recent years, new serological techniques have suppemented the measurement of spleen rate and parasite rate. Since clasical malariometric indices such as parasite rate and annual parasite incidence were insufficient and not adequately sensitive to assess the progress of control measures, serological methids have been employed. The indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) was the serological test employed in this laboratory. Thick blood films of simian malaria parasites, plasmidium cynomolgi bastianellii and p.fieldi, obtained from infected rhesuns monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used as antigens. The IFA test was shown to be useful to study the antibody levlels of blood donors from different areas in Sri Lanka, to observe the production and persistence of malarial antibodies in man and rhesus monkeys and for epidemiological assessment of malaria in Sri Lanka. The study conducte on 1050 blood donors revealed that ...
WANDERTEY, Dalva Marli Valério et al. Transfusional chagasic infection detected during the execution of a program for the control of Chagas disease in the State of S. Paulo (Brazil). Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 1992, vol.26, n.3, pp.203-205. ISSN 1518-8787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89101992000300012.. A system of surveillance for Chagas disease aiming at a systematic investigation of the occurrence of triatominae in human dwellings in S. Paulo, Brazil was proposed. It included a serological survey of residents in house considered to be potencial breeding places for blood-sucking triatomines. Serologically positive cases were observed to be distributed in age groups from 19 years of age upwards. Case-investigation revealed that the infection had been acquired either in S. Paulo in the past or recently in other States. A serologically positive (titre - 128 - IgG) case of an 8-year-old male child, was detected by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT). In S. Paulo State ...
This program is concerned with the quality of indirect immunofluorescence testing of sera for detection of circulating IgG anti-basement membrane zone and anti-intercellular (cell surface) antibodies. The participating physician or laboratory director receives five serum samples and must process these to determine the presence and titer of circulating antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence technique with monkey esophagus as a substrate and other substrates if desired. The participant records the results including pattern and the titer. Each participant returns the recorded results to Beutner Labs, Inc. The results of all laboratories in the same testing event are number coded, compiled and summarized for quality review. Beutner Labs, Inc. provides this service in cooperation with the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo. Following completion of specimen tests from Beutner Labs, Inc. participants ...
Early immunofluorescence studies on the distribution of γ-tubulin noted that more of this protein is associated with mitotic than interphase centrosomes (e.g., Zheng et al. 1991). This difference in γ-tubulin content correlates with the fact that mitotic centrosomes generate about five to ten times more Mts than interphase centrosomes (Snyder and McIntosh 1975; Kuriyama and Borisy 1981). When does the centrosome acquire its additional γ-tubulin so that it can generate enhanced numbers of Mts during mitosis? One possibility is that γ-tubulin gradually accumulates in the centrosome during the cell cycle, but it is maintained in an inactive form until spindle formation. The other possibility is that it is suddenly recruited to the centrosome near the onset of mitosis. The former hypothesis has recently been supported by Dictenberg et al. 1998 who concluded, from an immunofluorescence analysis of fixed synchronized CHO cells, that the amount of pericentrin and γ-tubulin associated with the ...
Chinese hamster ovary cells were seeded in the absence or presence of the polyamine synthesis inhibitor 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). At 1-4 days after seeding, the cells were labelled for 15-120 min with the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) and they were then fixed directly after the labelling period. In addition, cells were labelled for 30 min and they were then allowed to progress in BrdUrd-free medium during a defined post-labelling time before fixation. An indirect immunofluorescence technique, using the monoclonal BrdUrd antibody and the intercalating stochiometric DNA stain, propidium iodide, was applied to enable quantification of cellular BrdUrd and DNA contents, respectively, by flow cytometry (FCM). By comparing the mean DNA content of BrdUrd-labelled cells to the mean DNA contents of G(1) and G(2) cells, a relative measure of the position of the BrdUrd-labelled cells was obtained (relative movement). Relative movement data, obtained from control and DFMO-treated ...
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Human Lens Epithelial Cells (HLEpiC) from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the human lens. HLEpiC are cryopreserved at primary culture and delivered frozen. Each vial contains >5 x 10^5 cells in 1 ml volume. HLEpiC are characterized by immunofluorescent method with antibodies to cytokeratin-18, cytokeratin-19 and fibronectin. HLEpiC are negative for HIV-1, HBV, HCV, mycoplasma, bacteria, yeast and fungi. HLEpiC are guaranteed to further culture in the conditions provided by Creative Bioarray ...
Specific staining protocols10,11 were as follows: Our DeOlmos cupric silver method and nonfluorescent staining methods for AC3 have been described previously.4,8-12 For MBP (1:100; MAB 395; EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA), fractin (1:400; AB3150; EMD Millipore), Iba1 (1:500; 019-18741; Wako Chemicals, Richmond, VA), and CC-1 (1:200; OP80; Calbiochem, San Diego, CA) immunostaining methods, we used the Vectastain Elite ABC kit with Vector VIP as chromogen (Vector Laboratories, Inc., Burlingame, CA).4,8-12 Immunofluorescent detection of caspase-mediated cell death employed an AC3 rabbit primary polyclonal antibody (9661B; 1:500; Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA). Floating sections were incubated overnight at room temperature. After the sections were rinsed in phosphate-buffered saline (3 × 5 min) they were incubated for 2 h at room temperature with fluorescent goat antirabbit Alexa Fluor 555 (1:1,000, Invitrogen™, Life Technologies™, Grand Island, NY), rinsed in phosphate-buffered ...
A T cell clone (ACH-2) derived from T cells infected with HIV-1 was found to produce HIV-1 in response to stimulation with a monokine-enriched supernatant prepared by culturing human monocyte/macrophages with bacterial LPS (LPS-MO SN). Monokine induction of ACH-2 cells resulted in augmented virus production reflected by an increase in reverse transcriptase activity and in the synthesis of all major viral proteins. Examination of the cells by indirect immunofluorescence revealed that 10 to 15% of uninduced cells constitutively expressed HIV proteins, whereas 100% showed positive immunofluorescence in response to LPS-MO SN. This induction of virus by LPS-MO SN resulted in approximately a 100-fold increase of infectious virus production over uninduced ACH-2 cells. LPS alone could not induce HIV-1 expression, whereas LPS-MO SN resulted in the greatest virus expression. Cell separation studies confirmed the source of the inducing factor(s) to be cells bearing the mature monocyte/macrophage marker, ...
Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) play a major role in social behaviours. Mice have become the species of choice for neurobiology of social behaviour due to identification of mouse pheromones and the advantage of genetically modified mice. However, neuroanatomical data on nonapeptidergic systems in mice are fragmentary, especially concerning the central distribution of OT. Therefore, we analyse the immunoreactivity for OT and its neurophysin in the brain of male and female mice (strain CD1). Further, we combine immunofluorescent detection of OT and AVP to locate cells co-expressing both peptides and their putative axonal processes. The results indicate that OT is present in cells of the neurosecretory paraventricular (Pa) and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei (SON). From the anterior SON, OTergic cells extend into the medial amygdala, where a sparse cell population occupies its ventral anterior and posterior divisions. Co-expression of OT and AVP in these nuclei is rare. Moreover, a remarkable ...
Hi Eleanor, I can offer one general hint: tetraploid yeast cells are larger than diploids, and it may be possible to make cells of even higher ploidy. I did this long ago (~ 15 years!) to facilitate immunofluorescent detection of a low-abundance protein. Unfortunately I cant remember the details or references at this point (my own experiment didnt work so I never published it), but I think it was straightforward to make the polyploid cells - you just need a lot of markers to select them. Good luck! Maria Maria C. Costanzo, Ph.D. Senior Scientific Curator, Saccharomyces Genome Database Department of Genetics Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford, CA 94305-5120 Phone: 650-725-8956 Fax: 650-723-7016 http://www.yeastgenome.org/ maria at genome.stanford.edu On Thursday, November 13, 2003, at 08:14 PM, wozei wrote: , Hi all, , , does any one have an idea how I could make my yeast [S. cerevisiae] , grow to at , least 5-10 micron size or greater for an experiment I need to carry , out with , ...
A number of previous studies have implied that three herpes simplex virus-encoded nuclear transactivator proteins, IE175 (ICP4), IE110 (ICP0), and IE63 (ICP27), may cooperate in transcriptional and posttranscriptional stimulation of viral gene expression. Using double-label immunofluorescence assays (IFA) in transient expression assays, we have examined the intracellular localization of these three proteins in DNA-transfected cells. The IE110 protein on its own forms spherical punctate domains within the nucleus, whereas the IE175 and IE63 proteins alone give uniform and speckled diffuse patterns, respectively. In infected cells, the IE110 punctate granules have been shown to correspond to novel preexisting subnuclear structures referred to as ND10 domains or PODs that contain a variety of cellular proteins, including SP100 and the PML proto-oncogene product. Cotransfection experiments with wild-type nuclear forms of both IE175 and IE110 provided direct evidence for partial redistribution of ...
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0147] The amount of TGF-beta1 protein present in the blood vessel wall was determined by quantitative immunofluoresence, as previously extensively described (see Mosedale et al. (1996) J. Histochem. Cytochem. 44:1043-50 for a comprehensive discussion of the key factors in designing a quantitative immunofluoresence experiment; note that all the recommendations therein were rigorously applied during the experiments presented here). Briefly, five slides were selected according to the Paigen Strategy from each animal, each with two neighbouring 4 μm sections on the slide, and the sections were enclosed with a water-resistant barrier (using a PAP pen; Agar Scientific, UK) such that the enclosed area was approximately equal on all slides. Non-specific antibody binding was then blocked using 3% IgG-free bovine serum albumin (BSA; Sigma Chemical Company) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH7.4 for 2 hours at room temperature. The blocking solution was then gently removed, and replaced with 50 μl of a ...
Goat anti-rabbit IgG (H&L), F(ab)2 fragment, ALP (alkaline phosphatase) conjugated, min. cross-reactivity to bovine,human, mouse IgG/serum -
References for Abcams Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG Fc (Alkaline Phosphatase) (ab97197). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
a total of 1,554 dogs from 5 countries on 3 continents were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. in australia, overall, 42/451 (9%, 95% confidence interval [ci] 6-12%) dogs were seropositive (melbourne 11/207 [5%, 95% ci 2-9%]; sydney 18/150 [12%, 95% ci 7-18%]; perth 13/94 [14%, 95% ci 8-22%]). antibodies to n. caninum were also detected in dogs in south america (uruguay [20%, 95% ci 16-24%, n = 414]) and sub-saharan africa (tanzania [22%, 95% c ...
There are many home-made serological assays developed by different laboratories. The most frequently used test formats are the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) using frozen sections of adult worms, and immunoenzyme assays (mostly ELISAs) with crude or recombinant antigens from eggs or adult worms.. Diagnostic strategies ...
This fluorescence image gallery explores over 30 of the most common cell lines, labeled with a variety of fluorophores using both traditional staining methods as well as immunofluorescence techniques. This fluorescence image gallery explores over 30 of the most common cell lines, labeled with a variety of fluorophores using both traditional staining methods as well as immunofluorescence techniques.
Our results demonstrate that profilin is required for tip cell growth in plants. Using RNAi to reduce the levels of all profilin genes in moss protonemal cells, we reproducibly observed that profilin RNAi plants are dramatically smaller than control plants, and individual cells are small and rounded. This phenotype is observed with either the CDS-RNAi construct or the UTR-RNAi construct. In addition, the immunofluorescence data support that profilin levels were reduced (Figure 7). Since the CDS-RNAi construct contains a region of sequence from PRFa and the UTR-RNAi construct contains regions of sequence from PRFb and PRFc, we are confident that all profilin function is greatly reduced in these RNAi studies. Thus, the strategy of using one sequence to knock down multiple family members is valid. Furthermore, compared with gene knockouts, this transient RNAi approach is much more rapid. In fact, gene knockouts may not be possible to obtain, since our results strongly suggest that profilin function ...
Anti-Rabbit HRP secondary antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC-P. Cited in 1531 publications. High sensitivity and specificity. Other HRP secondaries available.
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of horses naturally and experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona, to assess the correlation between serum and CSF titres, and to determine the effect of S. neurona vaccination on the diagnosis of infection. 110 horses with or without neurological disease submitted for necropsy to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory Show moreThe objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of horses naturally and experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona, to assess the correlation between serum and CSF titres, and to determine the effect of S. neurona vaccination on the diagnosis of infection. 110 horses with or without neurological disease submitted for necropsy to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, ...
A serum indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was compared with a Western blot (WB) and a modified Western blot (mWB) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve of the IFAT was greater than the area under the curves of the WB and the mWB (P=0.025 and P=0.044, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the areas under the curves of the WBs (P,0.05). On the basis of Show moreA serum indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was compared with a Western blot (WB) and a modified Western blot (mWB) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve of the IFAT was greater than the area under the curves of the WB and the mWB (P=0.025 and P=0.044, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the areas under the curves of the WBs (P,0.05). On the basis of an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abnormal interaction of oligomeric amyloid-β with phosphorylated tau. T2 - Implications to synaptic dysfunction and neuronal damage. AU - Manczak, Maria. AU - Reddy, P (Hemachandra). PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Alzheimers disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative mental illness characterized by memory loss, multiple cognitive impairments, and changes in personality and behavior. The purpose of our study was to determine the interaction between monomeric and oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau in AD neurons. Using postmortem brains from AD patients at different stages of disease progression and control subjects, and also from AβPP, AβPPxPS1, and 3xTg-AD mice, we studied the physical interaction between Aβ and phosphorylated tau. Using immunohistological and double-immunofluorescence analyses, we also studied the localization of monomeric and oligomeric Aβ with phosphorylated tau. We found monomeric and oligomeric Aβ interacted with phosphorylated tau in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Classification of the intrafusal muscle fibres in the frog muscle spindle. T2 - Histochemical and immunofluorescent studies. AU - Yoshimura, A.. AU - Fujitsuka, N.. AU - Sokabe, M.. AU - Naruse, Keiji. AU - Nomura, K.. AU - Diwan, F. H.. AU - Ito, F.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Intrafusal muscle fibers from bull-frog semitendinosus, iliofibularis and sartorius muscles were classified into three types using the histochemical, immunofluorescent and morphological characteristics, with reference to the extrafusal muscle fibres, which were classified into five types in accordance with Rowlerson and Spurway (1988). Immunofluorescent reactions with antibodies against slow or fast myosins obtained from anterior or posterior latissimus dorsi muscles (ALD or PLD), respectively, of chicken were used as the primary criterion. Histochemical profiles of muscle fibres were classified into nine types of myosin ATPase activity as the secondary criterion. Anti-PLD intrafusal fibres (polar zone) ...
Using a double labeling indirect immunofluorescent technique, we studied the guinea pig trigeminal ganglion and eye for co-localization of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. In the trigeminal ganglion, the number of neurons immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide significantly outnumber those immunoreactive for substance P, but virtually all substance P positive neurons are immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide. In the eye, a complex pattern of co-localization is present; both peptides co-localize in most immunoreactive nerve fibers. Nerve fibers immunoreactive only for calcitonin gene-related peptide tend to be concentrated in the cornea and posterior ciliary body. Nerve fibers immunoreactive only for substance P are present in relation to both iris muscles. Sensory denervation by intracranial transection of the ophthalmic and maxillary nerves fails to eliminate these substance P positive but CGRP negative iris nerve fibers. These findings indicate an ...
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I: Demonstration of antibrain globulins by fluorescent antibody techniques. Arch Gen Psychiat 16: 1-9.. ...
... by fluorescent-antibody technique". Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 11 (2): 251-259. doi:10.1016/0022-2011(68)90158-4. ...
Also, differential staining methods and fluorescent antibody techniques were introduced for in-situ observation of ... Various new techniques, ranging from the determination of growth and activity of microorganisms in the environments to their ... The new methods and techniques were proved to be successful for the analysis of microbial community in various fields, soil and ...
Burgdorfer, W. Evaluation of the fluorescent antibody technique for the detection of Rocky Mountain spotted fever rickettssiae ... A technique for detection of rickettsiae in ticks, Amer. J. Trop. Med. 19:1010-1014, 1970. Burgdorfer, W., Barbour, A. G., ...
... fluorescent antibody and cell culture isolation techniques for detection of antigen". Journal of Fish Diseases. 7: 57-64. doi: ...
... he and two other researchers were the first to apply a recently developed technique, fluorescent antibody imaging, to the ... Fluorescent antibody technic for sero-diagnosis of schistosomiasis in humans. Proceedings for the Society of Experimental ... and is known for the first application of fluorescent antibody imaging in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. Elvio H. Sadun ...
This distribution of this antibody can then be visualized by a technique such as fluorescent labeling. Immunohistochemistry has ... In this technique, DNA that encodes a reporter gene is randomly inserted into the genome. Depending on the gene promoters ... Techniques that require fixation of tissue can only generate a single temporal time point per individual organism. However, ... For example, the reporter gene green fluorescent protein can be visualized by stimulating it with blue light and then using a ...
... a district in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia The Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique, a diagnostic process employing ...
To reduce the four-day waiting time needed for diagnosis, a method using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) was ...
"Detection of air-borne Pasteurella tularensis using the fluorescent antibody technique" by R. F. Jaeger, R. O. Spertzel and R. ...
... fluorescent antibody technique, direct MeSH E01.450.495.225.230 --- fluorescent antibody technique, indirect MeSH E01.450. ... fluorescent antibody technique MeSH E01.450.495.225.050 --- antibody-coated bacteria test, urinary MeSH E01.450.495.225.225 ... fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test MeSH E01.450.495.735.850.800 --- treponema immobilization test MeSH E01.450. ... enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique MeSH E01.450.495.410.380 --- immunosorbent techniques MeSH E01.450.495.410.380.200 --- ...
Immunohistochemistry is a technique that uses antibodies with fluorescent staining tags that target a specific antigen present ... He created an immunoflorescent technique for labelling the antibodies. This technique continues to be widely used in ... Albert Coons used for the first time a revolutionary technique that uses the principle of antibodies binding specifically to ... These examples use FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization). With this technique we can understand the physiological processes ...
... an antigen can also be conjugated to the antibody with a fluorescent probe in a technique called fluorescent antigen technique ... This technique uses the specificity of antibodies to their antigen to target fluorescent dyes to specific biomolecule targets ... recognizes the primary antibody and binds to it. Multiple secondary antibodies can bind a single primary antibody. This ... Since the number of fluorescent molecules that can be bound to the primary antibody is limited, direct immunofluorescence is ...
... indirect fluorescent antibody testing, ELISA, PCR, and DNA probe technology techniques can be used to confirm diagnosis. The ...
... be cultured on specific growth mediums such as brain-heart infusion agar and techniques such as indirect fluorescent antibody ...
Adam Reich, Katarzyna Marcinow, and Rafal Bialynicki-Birula Direct Fluorescent Antibody Technique at the US National Library of ... A direct fluorescent antibody (DFA or dFA), also known as "direct immunofluorescence", is an antibody that has been tagged in a ... Direct fluorescent antibody can also be used to detect parasitic infections, as was pioneered by Sadun, et al. (1960). ... where the primary antibody binds the target antigen, with a secondary antibody directed against the primary, and a tag attached ...
... coli DNA extraction method plus PCR techniques. Newer technologies using fluorescent and antibody detection are also under ... Saul Tzipori; Abhineet Sheoran; Donna Akiyoshi; Arthur Donohue-Rolfe & Howard Trachtman (2004). "Antibody Therapy in the ... such as the use of anti-induction strategies to prevent toxin production and the use of anti-Shiga toxin antibodies, have also ...
6: The fluorescent antibody test". In Kaplan, M.M.; Koprowski, H. Laboratory techniques in rabies. Monograph series. 23 (3rd ed ... The reference method for diagnosing rabies is the fluorescent antibody test (FAT), an immunohistochemistry procedure, which is ... to bind to and allow the visualisation of rabies antigen using fluorescent microscopy techniques. Microscopic analysis of ... Some light microscopy techniques may also be used to diagnose rabies at a tenth of the cost of traditional fluorescence ...
These cells are STED fluorescent dyes bound to antibodies through amide bonds. The first use of this technique coupled MR-121SE ... a red dye, with a secondary anti-mouse antibody. Since that first application, this technique has been applied to a much wider ... However, only fluorescent proteins provide the ability to visualize any organelle or protein in a living cell. This method was ... Using two fluorescent dyes and beam pairs, colocalized imaging of synaptic and mitochondrial protein clusters is possible with ...
Antiechinococcus antibodies can be detected with serodiagnostic tests - indirect fluorescent antibody, complement fixation, ... Cysts are detected with ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography, or other imaging techniques. ...
There are several serology techniques that can be used depending on the antibodies being studied. These include: ELISA, ... and fluorescent antibodies and more recently chemiluminescence. Some serological tests are not limited to blood serum, but can ... In practice, the term usually refers to the diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum. Such antibodies are typically ... In such cases, tests for antibodies will be consistently negative. Serological methods are diagnostic methods that are used to ...
This technique is being used to characterize the immune glycome. Table 1:Advantages and disadvantages of mass spectrometry in ... This method uses either naturally occurring lectins or artificial monoclonal antibodies, where both are immobilized on a ... January 2009). "Comparison of fluorescent labels for oligosaccharides and introduction of a new postlabeling purification ... It is a non-scanning technique, wherein each transition is detected individually and the detection of multiple transitions ...
They are designed for labeling biomolecules, cells, tissues or beads in advanced fluorescent detection techniques. FluoProbes ... while FluoProbes labeled antibodies and cellular probes (i.e. Phalloidin) suit direct use in immunoassays or cell assays. ... Similar lines of fluorescent dyes provide an alternative to the FluoProbes Dyes. "FluoProbes Dyes" (PDF). Interchim. 2010. ... The FluoProbes series of fluorescent dyes were developed by Interchim to improve performances of standard fluorophores. ...
Additionally, instead of using two antibodies the FRET method could be performed with a single fluorescent antibody and a ... A technique that has been shown to work on both complex mixtures and whole cells but unfortunately requires antibodies. The ... The technique was developed by a team led by Patrick Schaeffer at James Cook University and published in Moreau et al. 2012. ... used the technique successfully on the membrane proteins Apelin GPCR and FAAH as well as β-lactoglobin which fibrillates on ...
Light scatter or fluorescent emission by labeled cells. The two commonly used techniques are: The physical characteristics - ... Cell density Cell size Affinity of antibodies on cell surface epitopes. ... Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is a technique for sorting out the cells based on the differences that can be ... cell size and sedimentation velocity - are operative in the technique of centrifugal elutriation. Centrifugal elutriator (from ...
... or by fluorescent antibodies. The technology may be used to determine whether a potential drug is disease modifying. For ... in the amounts of proteins synthesized by cells are measured using a variety of techniques such as the green fluorescent ... The wide use of the green fluorescent protein, a natural fluorescent protein molecule from jellyfish, then accelerated the ... In addition to fluorescent labeling, various label free assays have been used in high content screening. High-content screening ...
Quantitative IgE antibody assays in allergic diseases»։ Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 105 (6): 1077-1084։ June ... fluorescent enzyme immunoassay FEIA)[86]: Այլ թեսթավորումներ[խմբագրել , խմբագրել կոդը]. Հսկիչ թեսթեր. երբ ենթադրյալ ալերգենը ... Revue Scientifique et Technique. 19 (1): 240-58. doi:10.20506/rst.19.1.1218. PMID 11189719. ... Specificity of IgE antibodies to sequential epitopes of hen's egg ovomucoid as a marker for persistence of egg allergy»։ ...
... plus PCR techniques. Newer technologies using fluorescent and antibody detection are also under development. ... and the use of anti-Shiga toxin antibodies,[20] have also been proposed. ... "Antibody therapy in the management of shiga toxin-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome" (PDF). Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 17 ...
6: The fluorescent antibody test". In Kaplan, M.M.; Koprowski, H. (eds.). Laboratory techniques in rabies. Monograph series. 23 ... The reference method for diagnosing rabies is the fluorescent antibody test (FAT), an immunohistochemistry procedure, which is ... to bind to and allow the visualisation of rabies antigen using fluorescent microscopy techniques. Microscopic analysis of ... Gough PM, Jorgenson RD (1976). "Rabies antibodies in sera of wild birds". Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 12 (3): 392-5. doi: ...
The duo is also referred to as a fluorescently labeled antibody. ... Immunofluorescence refers to the combination of an antibody and ... fluorescent antibody technique A method for detecting the location of a specific antigen in a cell by staining a section of the ... fluorescent antibody technique A Dictionary of Plant Sciences © A Dictionary of Plant Sciences 1998, originally published by ... www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/fluorescent-antibody-technique ...
Fluorescent antibody technique definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and ... Either of two techniques used to test for antigen with a fluorescent antibody: direct, in which immunoglobulin conjugated with ... after which the antigen-antibody complex may be labeled with a fluorescent antibody. ... a fluorescent dye is added to tissue and combines with a specific antigen; or indirect, in which unlabeled immunoglobulin is ...
... techniques for locating antigens in a prepared tissue sample by using antibody,antibodies with fluorescent labels which ... ... fluorescent antibody techniques (thing). See all of fluorescent antibody techniques, no other writeups in this node. ... These are techniques for locating antigens in a prepared tissue sample by using antibodies with fluorescent labels which will ...
... Summary. Summary: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect ... viral antibodies*biological markers*fluorescent antibody technique*antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies*monoclonal antibodies* ... fluorescent antibody technique , indirect fluorescent antibody technique ... The exception is malaria antibody detection that is performed by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique using commercially ...
Chemical compound and disease context of Fluorescent Antibody Technique. *Biological context of Fluorescent Antibody Technique ... Gene context of Fluorescent Antibody Technique. *Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fluorescent Antibody ... Gene context of Fluorescent Antibody Technique. *Immunofluorescence localization studies using affinity-purified antibody ... Associations of Fluorescent Antibody Technique with chemical compounds. *Both acetone and formaldehyde fixation were used for ...
... relationships between the malaria parasites and piroplasms of mice as determined by the fluorescent-antibody technique.. ... relationships between the malaria parasites and piroplasms of mice as determined by the fluorescent-antibody technique.. ...
ENUMERATION OF CELL-INFECTING PARTICLES OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS BY THE FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. E. Frederick Wheelock ... ENUMERATION OF CELL-INFECTING PARTICLES OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS BY THE FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE ... on the enumeration of singly infected and distributed HeLa cells which are visualized by staining with fluorescent antibody. ... Infective virus assayed by the fluorescent cell-counting procedure is expressed in terms of cell-infecting units (CIU). ...
Report of Six Cases and Study of the Renal Lesion by the Fluorescent Antibody Technique and Electron Microscopy DONALD A. ... Report of Six Cases and Study of the Renal Lesion by the Fluorescent Antibody Technique and Electron Microscopy. Ann Intern Med ...
The fluorescent antibody technique in the diagnosis of a number of poultry diseases: manufacture of conjugates and their use [ ... The fluorescent antibody technique in the diagnosis of a number of poultry diseases: manufacture of conjugates and their use [ ... The fluorescent antibody technique in the diagnosis of a number of poultry diseases: manufacture of conjugates and their use [ ... The fluorescent antibody technique in the diagnosis of a number of poultry diseases: manufacture of conjugates and their use [ ...
This is an historical archive of the activities of the MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit (MRC ANU) that operated at the University of Oxford from 1985 until March 2015. The MRC ANU established a reputation for world-leading research on the brain, for training new generations of scientists, and for engaging the general public in neuroscience. The successes of the MRC ANU are now built upon at the MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit at the University of Oxford.. ...
Describe the benefits of immunofluorescent antibody assays in comparison to nonfluorescent assays Compare direct and indirect ... Direct Fluorescent Antibody Techniques. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) tests use a fluorescently labeled mAb to bind and ... Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Techniques. Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests (Figure 20.29) are used to look for ... In a direct fluorescent antibody test, what does the fluorescent antibody bind to? ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Hs68 fibroblasts were seeded at a density of 105 cells/dish and treated with ADM for 14 days in ... The fluorescent image was photographed under fluorescent microscopy paired with CCD system. (B) The fluorescent intensity of ... Thereafter, the primary antibodies of anti-collagen I IgG produced in rabbit (1:500 in PBS, ab34710, Abcam, Cambridge, United ... After washing with PBS twice, the secondary antibody of H&L Dylight 594 anti-mouse IgG produced in goat (1:50 in PBS, ab96881 ...
Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Techniques. Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests ([link]) are used to look for antibodies in ... Direct Fluorescent Antibody Techniques. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) tests use a fluorescently labeled mAb to bind and ... Fluorescent Antibody Techniques. Learning Objectives. *Describe the benefits of immunofluorescent antibody assays in comparison ... In a direct fluorescent antibody test, what does the fluorescent antibody bind to? ...
Results of search for su:{Fluorescent antibody technique.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... A fluorescent-antibody technique for the detection of enterotoxin-producing cells of Clostridium perfringens type A / Manuel J ... Immunofluorescence techniques in diagnostic microbiology / edited by Joan M. B. Edwards, C. E. D. Taylor, A. H. Tomlinson.. by ...
Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique. The IFAT test is also an OIE approved screening method for BKD. The method detects ... labelled with a fluorescent dye is allowed to bind to those antibodies that have bound to the bacteria. A fluorescent antibody ... In some cases, if there is suspicion of BKD, an Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT) test may be carried out on the ... Once bound a second antibody targeted against the first antibody (usually rabbit or sheep anti mouse antibodies) ...
New instruments for the laboratory diagnosis of hog cholera using the fluorescent antibody technique. *. W. Bommeli ... New instruments for the laboratory diagnosis of hog cholera using the fluorescent antibody technique}, author={W. Bommeli}, ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique. *Fluorescent Antibody Technique: methods. *Humans. *Liver Cirrhosis. *Liver Diseases ... Antibodies to SS-A/Ro-52kD and centromere in autoimmune liver disease: a clue to diagnosis and prognosis of primary biliary ... If confirmed in further studies with adequate follow-up, anti-SS-A/Ro-52kD antibodies might identify PBC patients with a more ... AIM: To investigate the frequency and significance of rheumatological antinuclear antibodies in the field of autoimmune ...
Fluorescent antibody technique in early syphilis. Arch Pathol. 1964; 77:220.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... antimicrobe antibodies) techniques may be important for microbe isolation. ... Fluorescent staining for mycobacteria in sarcoid and tuberculous granulomas. Am J Clin Pathol. 1969;51:584.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... IgG rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies in rheumatoid vasculitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 1983; 52:333.Google Scholar ...
Other: fluorescent antibody technique. *(and 2 more...). Interventional. Phase 1. *University Health Network, Toronto ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT). The most widely used test for postmortem rabies diagnosis is the fluorescent antibody ... D. J. Dean, M. K. Ableseth, and P. Atanasiu, "The fluorescent antibody test," in Laboratory Techniques in Rabies, F.-X. Meslin ... Figure 1: Fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) on human brain smear positive for rabies. ... P. Hostnik, "The modification of fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test for the detection of antibodies to ...
The fluorescent antibody technique as a measure of antibody to malaria parasites / by A. Voller and R. S. Bray  Voller, A; ... Antibody levels detected by the fluorescent antibody technique in mice infected with Plasmodium vinckei and P. chabaudi*  Cox ... Antibody levels detected by the fluorescent antibody technique in mice infected with Plasmodium vinckei / by F. E. G. Cox, ... Detection of HIV-1 antibodies in blood specimens spotted on filter-paper / F. Lillo ... [‎et al.]‎. ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect • Humans • Microscopy, Confocal • Middle Aged • Osteoarthritis • Viscosity • cytology ... Chondrocyte mechanical properties were determined using the micropipette aspiration technique coupled with a viscoelastic solid ...
Immuno fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT),. *Radio immuno assay (RIA),. *Secondary Serological tests (Agglutination tests, ... Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Tests, Nucleic Acid Sequence-based Amplification (NASBA) Tests, Serological Assays, Simple ... Theme: "Exploring the latest Techniques in Orthopedics and Osteoporosis". This conference concentrates on the newest and ... event will bring together the foremost leaders within the human factors and usability engineering space to identify techniques ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mesenchymal Stem Cells / cytology, metabolism. Middle Aged ...
  • Ten hybridoma clones secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against VHSV were established. (int-res.com)
  • Human Non-neutralizing HIV-1 Envelope Monoclonal Antibodies Limit the Number of Founder Viruses during SHIV Mucosal Infection in Rhesus Macaques. (duke.edu)
  • Here, we have studied the capacity of anti-Env monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against either the immunodominant region of gp41 (7B2 IgG1), the first constant region of gp120 (A32 IgG1), or the third variable loop (V3) of gp120 (CH22 IgG1) to modulate in vivo rectal mucosal transmission of a high-dose simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-BaL) in rhesus macaques. (duke.edu)
  • A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. (labome.org)
  • Serum specimens from hospitalized patients with pneumonia were tested for antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumolysin, pneumolysin immune complexes, C polysaccharide, surface protein A, Haemophilus influenzae, and Branhamella catarrhalis by Dr. M. Leinonen, National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland, as reported previously ( 11 - 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • On examination, the T. pallidum bacteria will only be visible if they have been bound by the antibodies from the patient's serum. (openstax.org)
  • In contrast, antibodies that do not neutralize primary HIV-1 strains in the TZM-bl infection assay are readily induced by current vaccine candidates and have also been implicated as secondary correlates of decreased HIV-1 risk in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. (duke.edu)
  • It is shown that, when particular conditions are met, the technique is a useful substitute for or adjunct to the isolation of virus, which requires more time and labour. (fao.org)
  • Various new techniques, ranging from the determination of growth and activity of microorganisms in the environments to their isolation and characterization, were assembled in "Modern Methods in the Study of Microbial Ecology" edited by Thomas Rosswall in 1973). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune response and prevalence of antibody to Norwalk enteritis virus as determined by radioimmunoassay. (asm.org)
  • Immunohistochemical testing or a modified fluorescent antibody technique can be performed on such samples. (scielo.org.za)
  • high antibody titres in single sera may be suggestive of an aetiological association in deep-seated chlamydial infections (epididymitis, arthritis, salpingitis, etc), but unequivocal interpretation is unusual, particularly in an individual case, since the distinction between a current and past infection is problematical. (nih.gov)
  • and Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by a standard complement fixation technique in microtiter plates. (cdc.gov)
  • Paramushir virus was recently demonstrated to be serologically identical to Avalon virus by complement-fixation, neutralization, and fluorescent-antibody techniques (4). (cdc.gov)
  • The fluorescent compound that is attached to an antibody is able to absorb light of a certain wavelength, the particular wavelength being dependent on the molecular construction of the compound. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Here, we developed a molecular imprinting-based dynamic molding approach to fabricate antibody-conjugated signaling nanocavities capable of size recognition. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Based in molecular amplification techniques and host range specificity, several species of Cryptosporidium have been described. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Subsequently, attention has been focused on culture-independent techniques, notably those embracing developments in molecular biology. (springer.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the autoimmune liver disease setting, anti-SS-A/Ro-52kD and ACA have a high specificity for PBC and can thus be of diagnostic relevance in anti-mitochondrial antibodies negative cases. (mendeley.com)
  • Meta-analysis: diagnostic accuracy of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody and rheumatoid factor for rheumatoid arthritis. (springer.com)
  • Get access to the best antibodies, discovery platforms, and know-how to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic programs. (abcam.com)
  • Aim: The aim of this study to Assess the healing process of the immediate implant loading with two different provisional techniques (direct and indirect). (bioportfolio.com)