Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Lasers, Solid-State: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Laser Therapy, Low-Level: Treatment using irradiation with LASER light of low power intensity so that the effects are not due to heat, as they are in LASER THERAPY.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Hair Dyes: Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Lasers, Dye: Tunable liquid lasers with organic compounds (i.e., dye) which have a strong absorption band, used as the active medium. During emission, the dye has to be optically excited by another light source (e.g., another laser or flash lamp). The range of the emission wavelength may be anywhere from the ultraviolet to the near infrared (i.e., from 180 to 1100nm). These lasers are operated in continuous wave and pulsed modes. (UMDNS, 2005)Laser Scanning Cytometry: A scanning microscope-based, cytofluorimetry technique for making fluorescence measurements and topographic analysis on individual cells. Lasers are used to excite fluorochromes in labeled cellular specimens. Fluorescence is detected in multiple discrete wavelengths and the locational data is processed to quantitatively assess APOPTOSIS; PLOIDIES; cell proliferation; GENE EXPRESSION; PROTEIN TRANSPORT; and other cellular processes.Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.Angioplasty, Laser: A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an EXCIMER LASER which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).Laser Capture Microdissection: Techniques using a laser to cut away and harvest a specific cell or cluster of cells from a tissue section while viewing it under the microscope.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging: Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Corneal Surgery, Laser: Surgical techniques on the CORNEA employing LASERS, especially for reshaping the CORNEA to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Lissamine Green Dyes: Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.Pyridinium CompoundsRhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Photorefractive Keratectomy: A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Ophthalmoscopes: Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Neon: Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Erbium: Erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Fetoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Angioplasty, Balloon, Laser-Assisted: Techniques using laser energy in combination with a balloon catheter to perform angioplasty. These procedures can take several forms including: 1, laser fiber delivering the energy while the inflated balloon centers the fiber and occludes the blood flow; 2, balloon angioplasty immediately following laser angioplasty; or 3, laser energy transmitted through angioplasty balloons that contain an internal fiber.Bromphenol Blue: A dye that has been used as an industrial dye, a laboratory indicator, and a biological stain.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Tolonium Chloride: A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Quinolinium CompoundsInterferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Erythrosine: A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Zeatin: An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Retinal DiseasesRetinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Optical Devices: Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.PhotochemistryMicrosurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Yttrium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Iridectomy: Surgical removal of a section of the iris.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Hair Removal: Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Trypan Blue: A diazo-naphthalene sulfonate that is widely used as a stain.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Optical Phenomena: LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.TextilesWound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).BenzoxazolesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Optical Tweezers: A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Krypton: A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.Photoacoustic Techniques: Investigative and diagnostic methods and procedures based on the photoacoustic effect, which is the generation of SOUND WAVES from the absorption of ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
  • The chelates find particular use in resonance energy transfer between chelate-lanthanide complexes and another luminescent agent, often a fluorescent non-metal based resonance energy acceptor. (google.co.uk)
  • The present invention relates to fluorescent, radio-opaque and magnetic quantum nanoparticles, useful as multifunctional contrast agents or probes for in vivo bioimaging, and methods of their use. (google.de)
  • Closely related techniques include the use of fluorescent reporter gene products, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP), for probing gene expression, tracing cell lineage or as fusion tags to monitor protein localization within living cells, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to detect nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) with fluorochromated nucleotide probes. (academicroom.com)
  • Another important application of fluorescence in tissues is ion (ratio) imaging, which takes advantage of fluorescent probes sensitive to the concentration of specific ions (e.g. calcium) to monitor their concentration in the cytoplasm and organelles of single living cells. (academicroom.com)
  • SYBR Green I nucleic acid staining dye (10,000× stock concentration) was purchased from Molecular Probes, Inc. (Eugene, Oreg. (asm.org)
  • Over the last years, we have developed several new strategies to monitor signaling events in single cells using different fluorescent microscopy techniques and fluorescent probes and we are now in a unique position to be able to monitor in the same experiment signaling responses in each of many thousands of cells. (stanford.edu)
  • In scanned optical systems such as confocal laser microscopes wherein a beam of light is focused to a spot in a specimen to excite a fluorescent species or other excitable species in the spot, the effective size of the excitation is made smaller than the size of the spot by providing a beam of light. (google.com)
  • An additional filter between the objective and the detector can filter out the remaining excitation light from fluorescent light. (wikibooks.org)
  • Alternatively, one can avoid covalent modification and use UV fluorescence, exploiting the intrinsic fluorescent amino acids present in most proteins. (iucr.org)
  • 10. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more thioaptamers are attached to beads and the step of selecting one or more beads to which one or more proteins has bound is defined further as being fluorescent sorting using a flow-cytometer. (google.it)
  • The DNA is imbedded into a hydrogel, placed onto a slide and the proteins (dye labeled transcription factors) flow across the surface in a microfluidic device. (ucsb.edu)
  • One or more of three such peptides (L 6 KD, L 6 K 2 , DKL 6 ) were fused to the carboxyl termini of model proteins including Aspergillus fumigatus amadoriase II (AMA, all three peptides were used), Bacillus subtilis lipase A (LipA, only L 6 KD was used, hereinafter the same), Bacillus pumilus xylosidase (XynB), and green fluorescent protein (GFP), and expressed in E. coli . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oligonucleotides with fluorescent dyes at opposote ends provide a quenched probe system useful for detecting PCR product and nucleic acid hybridization" PCR Methods and Applications pp. 357-362, 1995. (patents.com)
  • 4. The analytical device of claim 1 wherein the analytical reaction comprises nucleic acid sequencing, and the fluorescent components comprise fluorescently labeled nucleotides. (google.de)
  • available at the BASF Chemical Company website URL,http://worldaccount.basf.com/wa/EUen.sub.--GB/Catalog/Pigments/doc4/B-ASF/PRD/30048274/.pdt?title=Technicai%20Datasheet&asset.sub.--type=pds/pdf- &language=EN&urn=urn:documentum:eCommerce.sub. (patentgenius.com)
  • Another is that intensities sufficient to produce these effects on cells can be delivered to superficial joints and tissues typically treated with laser therapy (Gitomer and Jones, 1990). (overmachogrande.com)
  • Dramatic Fluorescence Effects for Coumarin Laser Dyes Coincluded with Organic Solvents in Cyclodextrins, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 1990, 94:5020-5022 (3 pages). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Publications] T.Tsutsui,C.Adachi,S.Saito: 'Electroluminescence in Multilayer Organic Dye Films' Synthetic Metals. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Y.Hamada,C.Adachi,T.Tsutsui,S.Saito: 'Blue-Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Devices with Oxadiazole Dimer Dyes as an Emitter' Jpn.J.Appl.Phys.31. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] M.Era,C.Adachi,T.Tsutsui,S.Saito: 'Organic Electroluminescent Device with Cyanine Dye Langmuir-Blodgett Film as an Emitter' Thin Solid Films. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Y.Hamda, C.Adachi, T.Tsutsui, S Saito: 'Blue-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with oxadiazole dimer dyes as an emitter' Jpn. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Various embodiments provide a solid state laser, a micro-wire laser, or an organic light-emitting diode as a irradiation source. (google.ca)
  • A dye laser is a laser which uses an organic dye as the lasing medium, usually as a liquid solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • SSDL use dye-doped organic matrices as gain medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • A dye laser uses a gain medium consisting of an organic dye, which is a carbon-based, soluble stain that is often fluorescent, such as the dye in a highlighter pen. (wikipedia.org)
  • To provide direct evidence of Slc26a5 mobility in OHCs, we created a novel knockin mouse where OHCs expressed a fusion protein of Slc26a5 and monomeric Venus yellow fluorescent protein (Slc26a5-YFP). (prolekare.cz)
  • Today, both the clinical workhorses and the powerful multi-laser, multi-detector, sorting machinery, coupled with sophisticated computers and storage devices and the increasing storehouse of markers and dyes, are taking us to the limit and beyond in finding answers to the cause and cure of cancer. (google.com)
  • Taking this into account, near infrared (NIR) dyes have been the subject of innumerous studies concerning their application in several fields of interest as fluorescent markers but also as therapeutic agents in PDT [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Near-Infrared Heavy-Atom-Modified Fluorescent Dyes for Base-Calling In DNA-Sequencing Applications Using Temporal Discrimination, Anal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Moreover, the dye can be replaced by another type in order to generate an even broader range of wavelengths with the same laser, from the near-infrared to the near-ultraviolet, although this usually requires replacing other optical components in the laser as well, such as dielectric mirrors or pump lasers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reflector cavity is often water cooled, to prevent thermal shock in the dye caused by the large amounts of near-infrared radiation which the flashtube produces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Styrene Terminated Resins as Interlevel Dielectrics for Multichip Modules 32(2) 178 (1991) Joseph J. Zupancic, Daniel C. Blazej, Thomas G. Baker, and Edmund A. Dinkel. (patentgenius.com)
  • Biotium guarantees the stability of chemicals, dyes, and gel stains for at least a year from the date you receive the product. (biotium.com)
  • one or more laser diodes for providing radiation of a frequency suitable for. (google.es)
  • We then separated the dye-labeled fragments by capillary electrophoresis, which is currently one of the most suitable methods for fragment analysis and is now often used for typing small alterations at microsatellite loci ( 6 , 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Unique laser ablation transfer ('LAT') imaging films presenting options of flexibility and versatility hitherto alien to this art are produced, on-demand, by toning appropriate substrate as to provide thereon an ablative discontinuous film topcoat comprising a contrast imaging amount of conventional. (google.com.au)
  • Second, vanadate was tested as a possible foliar Pi tracer using high-resolution laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry elemental mapping. (plantphysiol.org)
  • For microchannel fabrication, different low-cost methods such as laser ablation and deep-UV patterning will be introduced in this research. (ubc.ca)
  • Development of a laser ablation quadrupole ion trap. (ubc.ca)
  • Quadrupole ion traps have demonstrated single ion detection using laser based ion detection methods, making the combination of laser ablation for direct solid sampling and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry a logical choice for ultra-trace (sub-femtogram) analysis. (ubc.ca)
  • This thesis examines the use of laser ablation coupled with quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry as a potential analytical method for ultra-trace direct solid multielemental mass spectrometry. (ubc.ca)
  • This thesis develops an analytical method for direct solid mass spectrometry, called Laser Ablation Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (LAITMS). (ubc.ca)
  • The effect of synchronizing laser ablation with the phase of the ion storage field has also been examined. (ubc.ca)
  • This review outlines some of the current methods employed in the laboratory to measure the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on cellular and molecular processes in the cell. (overmachogrande.com)
  • In situ detection of DNA fragmentation in combination with the avian Schwann cell marker 1E8 antibody demonstrates that dying cells in ventral nerve roots are in the Schwann cell lineage. (jneurosci.org)
  • The dye solution may be circulated through a dye cell, or streamed through open air using a dye jet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dye cell is often a thin tube approximately equal in length to the flashtube, with both windows and an inlet/outlet for the liquid on each end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dye cell is usually side-pumped, with one or more flashtubes running parallel to the dye cell in a reflector cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axial pumped lasers have a hollow, annular-shaped flashtube that surrounds the dye cell, which has lower inductance for a shorter flash, and improved transfer efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coaxial pumped lasers have an annular dye cell that surrounds the flashtube, for even better transfer efficiency, but have a lower gain due to diffraction losses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dye cell, or cuvette, is usually very small. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the four dyes under study, a cytotoxic evaluation in the dark and after irradiation was performed using HeLa cells as the model cell line, which revealed significant changes after irradiation mainly in IR125 and IR813 dyes. (mdpi.com)
  • Second, pulses of laser light were specifically shaped to target only the cell body of an individual neuron. (elifesciences.org)
  • Biofilms were cultured in static liquid and visualized with fluorescent cell membrane dyes and by engineering cells to express green fluorescent protein (GFP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, although unsupported results do appear, the vast majority of published work finds clear evidence that laser irradiation alters cellular processes in a nonthermal, wavelength-dependent manner. (overmachogrande.com)
  • One conclusion is that laboratory studies support the concept that laser irradiation can modify cellular processes in a wavelength-dependent nonthermal manner. (overmachogrande.com)
  • Publications] T.Tsutsui,C.Adachi,S.Saito,M.Watanabe,M.Koishi: 'Effect of Confined Radiation Field on Spontaneous-Emission Lifetime in Vacuum-Deposited Fluorescent Dye Films' Chem,Phys.Lett.182. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In particular the invention relates to cyanine dye-based compounds which have been rigidized by the inclusion of a bridging group between the heterocyclic rings of the compounds and to methods for their preparation. (google.com)
  • Laboratory Methods for Evaluating the Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT In Wound Healing (another method that Laser Therapy helps fight Hair Loss! (overmachogrande.com)
  • 1991 ). Development of a streak-camera-based time-resolved microscope fluorimeter and its application to studies of membrane fusion in single cells. (biologists.org)
  • We synthesize block copolymers with a single dye (D or A) at the junction, and these become confined at the interface. (utoronto.ca)
  • Surface tubules were observed in vivo with a 633-nm single laser-illuminated real-time video-rate confocal scanning microscope in upright configuration for optical sectioning below the renal capsule. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Extensive work in anaesthetised mammals has shown that in vivo voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) reveals the neocortical population membrane potential dynamics at millisecond temporal resolution and subcolumnar spatial resolution. (springer.com)
  • 7-AAD (7-aminoactinomycin D) is a fluorescent DNA binding dye that is membrane impermeant and therefore generally excluded from viable cells. (biotium.com)
  • Depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P 2 in intact SigD-injected cells was verified by detachment from the membrane of the pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase Cδ, used as a probe for the phosphoinositide by conjugation to green fluorescent protein. (rupress.org)
  • In normal oral macrophages, the particle uptake exerted influence neither on the cellular cytosolic membrane potential ( V mem ) nor mitochondrial superoxide level, as were indicated with fluorescent dyes of DiBAC 4 (3) and MitoSOX Red, respectively. (nature.com)
  • Publications] T.Tsutsui, C.Adachi, S.Saito, M. Watanabe, M.Koishi: 'Effect of confined radiation field on spontaneous-emisiion lifetimes in vacuum-deposited fluorescent dye films' Chem. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The basic tenet of laser therapy is that laser radiation has a wavelength dependent capability to alter cellular behaviour in the absence of significant heating. (overmachogrande.com)
  • Parasite growth is determined by using SYBR Green I, a dye with marked fluorescence enhancement upon contact with Plasmodium DNA. (asm.org)
  • 8. The analytical device of claim 1 further comprising a detector disposed below the nanoscale apertures for detecting light emitted by the fluorescent components. (google.de)
  • This latter form of the apparatus is particularly advantageous due to the low costs of light emitting diodes (LEDs) compared to coherent light sources (e.g. lasers). (google.com)
  • in contrast, light of 880nm wavelength was inhibitory (Smith, 1991). (overmachogrande.com)
  • The resulting hydrate, like many other neodymium salts, has the interesting property that it appears different colors under fluorescent light- In the chloride's case, light yellow (see picture). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are provided high power laser devices and systems for transmitting a high power laser beam across a rotating assembly, including optical slip rings and optical rotational coupling assemblies. (osti.gov)
  • These devices can transmit the laser beam through the rotation zone in free space or within a fiber. (osti.gov)
  • Berns, M. W., A possible two-photon effect in vitro using a focused laser beam . (fsu.edu)
  • In a ring laser, the mirrors of the laser are positioned to allow the beam to travel in a circular path. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past ten years I've fixed mass spectrometers, blasted sapphires with a laser beam, explored for uranium in a nature reserve, and measured growth patterns in fish ears, and helped design the next generation of the world's most advanced ion probe. (blogspot.com)
  • In the present work, we show that chick embryo Schwann cells die by apoptosis both during normal development and after axonal degeneration induced by neurotoxin treatment. (jneurosci.org)