Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Fluorophotometry: Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Rhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Fluorometry: An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Retinal DiseasesPhotobleaching: Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.PhotochemistryTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Choroid Diseases: Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Erythrosine: A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Blood-Retinal Barrier: A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Dansyl Compounds: Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Photofluorography: The photography of images produced on a fluorescent screen by X-rays.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Eosine I Bluish: A red fluorescein dye used as a histologic stain. It may be cytotoxic, mutagenic, and inhibit certain mitochondrial functions.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Organomercury Compounds: Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Phycoerythrin: The metal-free red phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of red algae. It functions as a light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan: A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.Uveal Diseases: Diseases of the uvea.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Microscopy, Ultraviolet: Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.Lissamine Green Dyes: Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Aminolevulinic Acid: A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Avidin: A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pyridinium CompoundsLuminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
... of fluorescein is measured as the presence of the antioxidant slows the fluorescence decay. Decay curves (fluorescence ... Fluorescein is currently used most as a fluorescent probe. Equipment that can automatically measure and calculate the capacity ... Most of them employ the same principle (i.e. measurement of AAPH-radical mediated damage of fluorescein); however, ORAC-EPR, ... The assay measures the oxidative degradation of the fluorescent molecule (either beta-phycoerythrin or fluorescein) after being ...
At this point, the fluorescein appears green in color. Any changes in color or surface of the fluorescence area indicate the ... A fluorescein strip containing 10% fluorescein is applied topically to the affected area and is examined with a cobalt blue ... The change in the color of the fluorescein strip is due to dilution of fluorescein caused by the aqueous leakage in the cornea ... If the fluorescein strip turns pale upon application to the corneal surface, the person tests positive for the corneal ...
Fluorescein Fluorescence CTD's Pyranine page from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database "chem industry entry". "Comparative ... Pyranine is also found in yellow highlighters, giving them their characteristic fluorescence and bright yellow-green colour. It ...
Following ingestion of antifreeze products containing ethylene glycol and fluorescein, a Wood's lamp may reveal fluorescence of ... "Urine fluorescence using a Wood's lamp to detect the antifreeze additive sodium fluorescein: a qualitative adjunctive test in ... detection of urine fluorescence in a simulated ingestion of sodium fluorescein-containing antifreeze". Annals of Emergency ... Finally, many commercial radiator antifreeze products have fluorescein added to enable radiator leaks to be detected using a ...
The sensor contains an allyl group with the fluorescein functioning as the leaving group. The π-allyl complex is formed and ... This simple, high-throughput method to detect palladium by monitoring fluorescence has been shown to be useful in monitoring ... This detection system is based on a non-fluorescent fluorescein-derived sensor (longer-wavelength sensors have also recently ... after a nucleophile attacks, the fluorescein is released, yielding a dramatic increase in fluorescence. ...
The introduction of a salicylate specific antigen labeled with fluorescein into the sample will mark the sample. Upon ... Abbott Labs' AxSYM is an immunoassay device utilizing Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay (FPIA) technology that can ... Polarization allows the machine to detect the difference between antibody bound, and unbound fluorescein. It is therefore ...
When filled with dye, the processes and cell bodies of these neurons can be examined in live animals by fluorescence microscopy ... Eight pairs of chemosensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans take up fluorescein dyes entering through the chemosensory organs ...
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) "Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer" Check ,url= value (help). UC Davis ... bound to a fluorescein-like xanthenone reporter. It has good contrast upon binding mercury and good selectivity. MF1 is ... by its enhancement effect on the fluorescence of pyrene-tetramethylpiperidinyl (TEMPO) as a spin fluorescence probe". ... Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), the transfer of an exciton from a donor to an acceptor, modulating the emission ...
... as a high fluorescence quantum yield leads to high fluorescence signals and a low fluorescence quantum yield leads to high ... Examples of commonly used fluorophores are fluorescein or rhodamine. The antibodies can be tailor-made for a chemical compound ... However, in fluorescence microscopy the fluorescence quantum yield η f l {\displaystyle \eta _{fl}} needs to be unequal to zero ... Protein will also fluorescence at approximately 353 nm when excited with 280 nm light. Since fluorescence emission differs in ...
... red-emitting fluorophore for use with fluorescein in dual parameter flow microfluorometric and fluorescence microscopic studies ... in fluorescence microscopy applications, and in immunohistochemistry. Texas Red fluoresces at about 615 nm, and the peak of its ... of Texas Red and are used in various chemical and biological applications where greater photostability or higher fluorescence ...
When bound to DNA, it is very similar spectrally to fluorescein. Like fluorescein, it is also useful as a non-specific stain ... Methyl green is used commonly with bright-field, as well as fluorescence microscopes [8] to dye the chromatin of cells so that ... DAPI is a fluorescent nuclear stain, excited by ultraviolet light and showing strong blue fluorescence when bound to DNA. DAPI ... Often used in fluorescence microscopy for DNA staining, Hoechst stains appear yellow when dissolved in aqueous solutions and ...
Historically, fluorophores such as fluorescein, rhodamine, Cy3 and Cy5 have been used in a wide variety of applications. These ... allowing detection using most fluorescence microscopes, as well as infrared imaging systems. To use the DyLight Fluors with ... DyLight Fluors are synthesized through sulfonate addition to coumarin, xanthene (such as fluorescein and rhodamine), and ... cell and tissue labels for fluorescence microscopy, cell biology or molecular biology. ...
The molar extinction coefficient is about 13,000 cm−1M−1 and its overall effective fluorescence is about 1% that of fluorescein ...
A potentially high-throughput fluorescence-based assay has also been proposed by using a fluorinated-gamma-butyrobetaine analog ... as a result of gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase catalyses can be detected by using chemosensors such as protected fluorescein. ... "Development and application of a fluoride-detection-based fluorescence assay for γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase". Chembiochem. 13 ...
"Fluorescence response of 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF), 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF) and ... The cells are then combined with dichloro fluorescein diacetate (DCFDA), which is oxidized in the presence of free radicals to ... activity of varying concentrations of the test compound is measured based on the degree of inhibition of DCF-fluorescence, ...
"Urine fluorescence using a Wood's lamp to detect the antifreeze additive sodium fluorescein: a qualitative adjunctive test in ... This is called fluorescence, and has many practical uses. Black lights are required to observe fluorescence, since other types ... In medicine, the Wood's lamp is used to check for the characteristic fluorescence of certain dermatophytic fungi such as ... Manufacturers of ethylene glycol-containing antifreezes commonly add fluorescein, which causes the patient's urine to fluoresce ...
"Urine fluorescence using a Wood's lamp to detect the antifreeze additive sodium fluorescein: a qualitative adjunctive test in ... This is called fluorescence, and has many practical uses. Black lights are required to observe fluorescence, since other types ... Such fluorescence from certain textile fibers, especially those bearing optical brightener residues, can also be used for ... In medicine, the Wood's lamp is used to check for the characteristic fluorescence of certain dermatophytic fungi such as ...
It is derived from fluorescein, but differs by the presence of four bromine atoms at positions 2, 4, 5 and 7 of the xanthene ... The same principle can be applied at higher throughput by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry (FACS), where all phloxine B- ... Coppeta, J.; Rogers, C. (1998). "Dual emission laser induced fluorescence for direct planar scalar behavior measurements". ... Rasooly, Avraham; Weisz, Adrian (2002). "In Vitro Antibacterial Activities of Phloxine B and Other Halogenated Fluoresceins ...
... quencher fluorescence can increase background noise due to overlap between the quencher and reporter fluorescence spectra. This ... Until the last few years, quenchers have typically been a second fluorescent dye, for example, fluorescein as the reporter and ... Johansson, M.K.; Cook, R.M. (2003). "Intramolecular Dimers: A New Design Strategy for Fluorescence-Quenched Probes". Chem. Eur ... The quencher then returns to the ground state through emissive decay (fluorescence) or nonradiatively (dark quenching). In ...
It is excited at 508 nm and emits 528 nm, a green-yellow, of free fluorescein. The quantum yield is 0.49 for 250 nM FlAsH is ... Generally, FlAsH-EDT2 has 0.1-0.6 fluorescence quantum efficiencies with several μM detection limits for diffuse cytosolic tag ... The modification of the fluorescein moiety also allows multicolor analysis. It has been proven to be a good alternative to ... Its structure is based around a fluorescein core with two 1,3,2-dithiarsolane substituents. It is used in bioanalytical ...
There is some fluorescence overlap between DAPI and green-fluorescent molecules like fluorescein and green fluorescent protein ... Strong fluorescence when bound to DNA led to the rapid adoption of DAPI for fluorescent staining of DNA for fluorescence ... Outside of analytical fluorescence light microscopy DAPI is also popular for labeling of cell cultures to detect the DNA of ... It is used extensively in fluorescence microscopy. As DAPI can pass through an intact cell membrane, it can be used to stain ...
Cytogenetic studies employ fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric probes to label telomeres on chemically- ... More specifically, telomere-peptide nucleic acid fluorescein probes are frequently used to identify telomeric sequence repeats ...
... is a fluorescence indicator of intracellular calcium (Ca2+). It is used to measure Ca2+ inside living cells in flow ... increases sharply with an emission maximum at 525 nm suitable for conventionally used detectors designed for fluorescein ... This large change in fluorescence coupled with a good yield of photons provides very high contrast which allowed the detection ... but upon binding of Ca2+ its fluorescence ...
Zn(II) binding increases fluorescence intensity, while Cu(II) binding quenches fluorescence and shifts the absorbance maximum ... While most small fluorescent molecules such as FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) are strongly phototoxic when used in live ... The fluorescence quantum yield (QY) of GFP is 0.79. The GFP from the sea pansy (Renilla reniformis) has a single major ... EGFP has an extinction coefficient (denoted ε) of 55,000 M−1cm−1. The fluorescence quantum yield (QY) of EGFP is 0.60. The ...
This law provides a basis for fluorescence and phosphorescence. The law was first proposed in 1817 by Theodor Grotthuss and in ... Violanthrone Isoviolanthrone Fluorescein Rubrene 9,10-Diphenylanthracene Tetracene 13,13'-Dibenzantronile Levulinic Acid ... Devices that measure fluorescence are called fluorometers or fluorimeters. Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic ... absorption or fluorescence). In most photochemical reactions the primary process is usually followed by so-called secondary ...
In cellular biology, the isothiocyanate derivative of fluorescein is often used to label and track cells in fluorescence ... Main article: Fluorescein (medical use). Fluorescein sodium, the sodium salt of fluorescein, is used extensively as a ... Fluorescein is also known as a color additive (D&C Yellow no. 7). The disodium salt form of fluorescein is known as uranine or ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fluorescein.. *Absorption and Emission Spectra of Fluorescein in Ethanol and Basic ...
Both methods provide excellent resolution with enhanced fluorescence that shows intravascular blood flow on top of visible ... Both methods provide excellent resolution with enhanced fluorescence that shows intravascular blood flow on top of visible ... an intracarotid FNa injection results in faster contrast appearance and higher-intensity fluorescence and requires a lower dose ... an intracarotid FNa injection results in faster contrast appearance and higher intensity fluorescence and requires a lower dose ...
Changes in the cytoplasmic matrix were measured by means of intracellular fluorescein fluorescence polarization (IFFP) using ... Prelytic stimulation of target and effector cells following conjugation as measured by intracellular fluorescein fluorescence ... "Prelytic stimulation of target and effector cells following conjugation as measured by intracellular fluorescein fluorescence ... "Prelytic stimulation of target and effector cells following conjugation as measured by intracellular fluorescein fluorescence ...
Inhibition of recombinant human PI3Ka using fluorescein-labeled peptide as substrate by fluorescence-electrophoretic mobility ...
Inhibition of recombinant human c-Raf using fluorescein-labeled peptide as substrate by fluorescence-electrophoretic mobility ...
... K- ... Fluorescence lifetimes of free and intracellular fluorescein as measured at the cellular level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...
Assembly properties of fluorescein-labeled tubulin in vitro before and after fluorescence bleaching. ... analysis using a fluorescein-labeled tubulin and measurements of fluorescence redistribution after laser photobleaching.. J ... analysis using a fluorescein-labeled tubulin and measurements of fluorescence redistribution after laser photobleaching. E D ... Video image analysis has been used to measure the rate of FRAP and to obtain a low resolution view of the fluorescence ...
To address this, we have explored the fluorescence of fluorescein in buffered solutions, in different acidic and basic ... for fluorescein fluorescence quenching by tryptophan derivatives in the encounter complex were then obtained and analyzed. ... and is used in fluorescence microscopy. However, if fluorescein is to be used for quantitative measurements involving proteins ... Investigating Tryptophan Quenching of Fluorescein Fluorescence under Protolytic Equilibrium. Journal Of Physical Chemistry A, ...
Conversion of fluorescein mass to FI using equations 1a and 4a leads to an exponential expression for whole-field fluorescence ... Total fluorescein mass in a field of unit area is the sum of the fluorescein in the interstitial fluid (volume Vi) and in the ... The relation in vitro between fluorescein mass m and fluorescence intensity I was shown to be a straight line through the ... d) Fluorescence quenching by red cells was measured in a hemocytometer chamber containing fluorescein in diluted, heparinized ...
... has been investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies and complementary structural results were obtained ... Our results recommend HNBID as a valuable alternative to fluorescein isothiocyanate for use as a fluorescent probe for IgG1 ... A similar systematic study was undertaken for the well-known fluorescein isothiocyanate fluorophore, for comparison purposes. ...
In cellular biology, the isothiocyanate derivative of fluorescein is often used to label and track cells in fluorescence ... Main article: Fluorescein (medical use). Fluorescein sodium, the sodium salt of fluorescein, is used extensively as a ... Fluorescein is also known as a color additive (D&C Yellow no. 7). The disodium salt form of fluorescein is known as uranine or ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fluorescein.. *Absorption and Emission Spectra of Fluorescein in Ethanol and Basic ...
8, NaFl, NaFluo, Sodium fluorescein, Uranine; Linear Formula: C20H10Na2O5; find Sigma-Aldrich-F6377 MSDS, related peer-reviewed ... Fluorescein sodium salt used as fluorescent tracer; CAS Number: 518-47-8; EC Number: 208-253-0; Synonym: Acid Yellow 73, D&C; ... Sodium fluorescein was also used to monitor in situ solute transportation into bone through fluorescence recovery after ... Fluorescein sodium salt used as fluorescent tracer Synonym: Acid Yellow 73, D&C;Yellow No. 8, NaFl, NaFluo, Sodium fluorescein ...
Fluorescein Injection) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and ... The yellowish-green fluorescence of the product demarcates the vascular area under observation, distinguishing it from adjacent ... AK-FLUOR® (Fluorescein Injection, USP) is a sterile solution in Water for Injection, of Fluorescein prepared with the aid of ... Fluorescein has been demonstrated to be excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when AK-FLUOR®(Fluorescein ...
Fluoresceins. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *HighWire - PDF. Other Literature Sources. *Cited by Patents in - ... Cell sorting: automated separation of mammalian cells as a function of intracellular fluorescence.. Hulett HR, Bonner WA, ...
fluorescein isothiocyanate t I Z C C \ ` I V A l [ g AFITC ... fluorescence resonance energy transfer u ???? G l M [ ړ AFRET ...
... is based on dipivaloylfluorescein and is suitable for standard fluorescein filter sets ... Fluorescein is a green fluorescent substrate that can be used to label CLIP-tag™ fusion proteins inside living cells or in ... Fluorescence microscope with suitable filter set *DMSO. Excitation. 500nm Emission. 532nm Storage Temperature. -20°C ... Figure 3. Structure of CLIP-Cell Fluorescein (MW 756.8 g/mol).. Product Categories:. Discontinued Products. * Properties & ...
Fluorescence anisotropy is described in detail by Fernando and Royer (17). A constant amount of fluorescein-labeled Ara h 1 ... Fluorescence anisotropy measurements of Ara h 1. All fluorescence measurements were made using a Beacon fluorescence ... fluorescein-labeled Ara h 1 (10 nM) was mixed with various concentrations of unlabeled Ara h 1. The anisotropy of fluorescence ... Fluorescein labeling. Ara h 1 was desalted into NaHPO4 buffer, pH 8, and labeled with FITC according to the methods described ...
The lectin conjugates have the appropriate number of fluorochromes bound which provide the maximum fluorescence and optimum ... Our fluorescein labeled lectins are produced by using the highest quality fluorescein isothiocyanate, our affinity-purified ... Fluorescein labeled lectin has an excitation maximum at 495 nm and an emission maximum at 515 nm.. Accompanying each ... Fluorescein labeled lectin has an excitation maximum at 495 nm and an emission maximum at 515 nm.. ...
Color of Fluorescence. Green. Sugar Specificity. N-Acetylgalactosamine. Additional Info. Details. Dolichos biflorus agglutinin ... Fluorescein labeled Dolichos biflorus agglutinin has an appropriate number of fluorochromes bound to provide the optimum ... Fluorescein labeled Dolichos biflorus agglutinin has an appropriate number of fluorochromes bound to provide the optimum ...
Certificate of Analysis: TSA™-Plus Fluorescence Palette System (NEL760) The TSA Plus Fluorescence Palette System contains four ...
Fluorescence Fluorescein angiography is an application of the physical phenomenon of fluorescence.1 Fluorescence is a type of ... Fluorescein Sodium Although commonly referred to as fluorescein, the dye used for fluorescein angiography is actually ... Maximum fluorescence occurs at a pH of 7.4, but the pH of fluorescein sodium for angiographic use is adjusted to a range of 8 ... Jacobs J. Fluorescein sodium - what is it? J Ophthalmic Photography 14:62, 1992. *Dole RB. Use of fluorescein in the study of ...
TSA Fluorescein Tyramide Reagent Pack for amplification of signal in immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF) or in ... These systems are designed for direct fluorescence detection in ISH or IHC procedures. ... TSA® fluorescein reagent pack, for amplification of signal in immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF) or in situ ...
Fluorescein angiography (FA). *Little intratumoral vascularity. *Blocked choroidal fluorescence in early phase, diffuse leaks ...
Specimen names include the following fluorophore labeling information: FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; Triple, a red, green, ... BACK TO FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. Questions or comments? Send us an email.. © 1998-2018 by Michael W. Davidson and The Florida ... red fluorescence), respectively. Time points were taken in two-minute intervals using a fluorescence filter combination with ... Fluorescence Microscopy Interactive Tutorials. Photobleaching. The phenomenon of photobleaching (also commonly referred to as ...
fluorescence-activated cell sorter;. FITC,. fluorescein isothiocyanate;. Ia,. I-region associated;. MHC,. major ...
Here, mitotic chromosomes were subjected to multicolour fluorescence in situhybridization (mFISH) with probes... ... fluorescein isothiocyanate. mFISH. multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization. MITE. miniature inverted-repeat transposable ... Findley, S.D., Cannon, S., Varala, K., Du, J., Ma, J., Hudson, M.E., Birchler, J.A., Stacey, G.: A fluorescence in situ ... Boyle, S., Rodesch, M.J., Halvensleben, H.A., Jeddeloh, J.A., Bickmore, W.A.: Fluorescence in situ hybridization with high- ...
  • TSA ® fluorescein reagent pack, for amplification of signal in immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF) or in situ hybridization protocols. (perkinelmer.com)
  • This compact platform is based on our previous work, and is composed of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope, a disposable sample processing cassette, and a custom-developed smartphone application. (degruyter.com)
  • Therefore, we developed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based technology to study nonequilibrium α 2A -AR function in living cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Functional assays including tight junction immunostaining, sodium fluorescein retardation, trans epithelial resistance, glucose transport, hormone secretion as well as size-dependent polystyrene nanoparticle transport were performed using the four cell types to evaluate key functional parameters of each cell line to act a relevant in vitro placental barrier model. (nature.com)
  • Two fluorescence detection channels on the MiniMax cytometer enable the analysis of cell viability or cell toxicity assays, including ratiometric assays like live-dead and transfection efficiency. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Konstruert vaskulære nettverket kan brukes som en rute ytterligere tilførsel av næringsstoffer og fjerning av avfallsprodukter, etterligne blod sirkulasjon i vivo . (jove.com)
  • The PKH 26潴 labeled articular chondrocytes maintained fluorescence longer than CMFDA in vitro and in vivo. (scirp.org)
  • Both methods provide excellent resolution with enhanced fluorescence that shows intravascular blood flow on top of visible surrounding anatomy, and both allow simultaneous purposeful microsurgical manipulations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Care must be taken to avoid extravasation during injection as the high pH of fluorescein solution can result in severe local tissue damage. (rxlist.com)
  • Other uses of fluorescein include using it as a water-soluble dye added to rainwater in environmental testing simulations to aid in locating and analyzing any water leaks, and in Australia and New Zealand as a methylated spirit dye. (wikipedia.org)