Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Rhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Fetal Organ Maturity: Functional competence of specific organs or body systems of the FETUS in utero.Fluorometry: An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique: An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Dansyl Compounds: Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pyrvinium CompoundsViscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Fluoroimmunoassay: The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Proflavine: Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Umbelliferones: 7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Optical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Solanine: A mixture of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, found in SOLANACEAE plants.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Eosine Yellowish-(YS): A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.Hymecromone: A coumarin derivative possessing properties as a spasmolytic, choleretic and light-protective agent. It is also used in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES for the determination of NITRIC ACID.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Zinostatin: An enediyne that alkylates DNA and RNA like MITOMYCIN does, so it is cytotoxic.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Galactosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Blood Stains: Antigenic characteristics and DNA fingerprint patterns identified from blood stains. Their primary value is in criminal cases.Acecainide: A major metabolite of PROCAINAMIDE. Its anti-arrhythmic action may cause cardiac toxicity in kidney failure.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Polyenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Photobleaching: Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Benzene DerivativesDiffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Cyclosporins: A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.Anthracenes: A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.PhotochemistryCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Teicoplanin: Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
"Identification of adiponectin receptor agonist utilizing a fluorescence polarization based high throughput assay". PLoS ONE. 8 ...
"Development of a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay for Bcl-x(L)". Anal. Biochem. 307 (1): 70-5. doi:10.1016/S0003 ...
Zhang H, Nimmer P, Rosenberg SH, Ng SC, Joseph M (2002). "Development of a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay for ...
Zhang H, Nimmer P, Rosenberg SH, Ng SC, Joseph M (Aug 2002). "Development of a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay ...
Zhang H, Nimmer P, Rosenberg SH, Ng SC, Joseph M (Aug 2002). "Development of a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay ...
"Cell-free assay of G-protein-coupled receptors using fluorescence polarization". Journal of Biomolecular Screening. 13 (5): 424 ... production of immunogens and ligand binding assays. The understanding of self-assembly of VLPs was once based on viral assembly ...
... researchers developed a high-throughput fluorescence polarization (FP)-binding assay. In this assay, a small peptide of a known ... Compounds that displace the labeled peptide from eIF4E would yield a decrease in fluorescence polarization. The sequence of ... 16,000 compounds of known chemical composition were then tested in this assay. ...
... fluorescence intensity, luminescence, time-resolved fluorescence, and fluorescence polarization. Absorbance detection has been ... Some of the most common assays are: ELISAs Protein and cell growth assays Protein:protein interactions Reporter assays Nucleic ... Many of the detection modes (absorbance, fluorescence intensity, luminescence, time-resolved fluorescence, and fluorescence ... and is used for assays such as ELISA assays, protein and nucleic acid quantification or enzyme activity assays (i.e. in the MTT ...
Rhodamine fluorescence can also be used as a measure of membrane polarization in live cell assays both within mitochondria and ... Rhodamine dyes are used extensively in biotechnology applications such as fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence ... This use relies on the fact that rhodamine 123 accumulates in membranes in a manner which is dependent on membrane polarization ... 2007) 35 (7) Rhodamine 123 R. F. Kubin and A. N. Fletcher, "Fluorescence quantum yields of some rhodamine dyes." J. ...
... life time resolved fluorescence (TRF), polarisation anisotropy fluorescence, FRET, Quenching, FRAP. They are typically used in ... suit direct use in immunoassays or cell assays. FluoProbes dyes that have comparable excitation and emission spectra to ... biotechnology and research applications as fluorescence microscopy, cell biology or molecular biology, as well as infrared ...
... fluorescence polarization spectroscopy, protein kinases assay, two hybrid, and confocal microscopy experiments. KIAA1211L ...
These compounds were tested using a fluorescence based assay. These compounds showed an ability to bind dG-containing DNA ... The data collected also showed that pyrrolo(1,4)benzodiazepines can also be used to measure the fluorescence polarization ... and even possible uses in DNA fluorescence based assays. Its activities against cancer warranted phase I testing of the drug. ...
Berney, H.; Oliver, K. (2005). "Dual polarization interferometry size and density characterisation of DNA immobilisation and ... Toeprinting assay Several bioinformatics methods, as seen in list of RNA structure prediction software CSH Protocols Current ... RNA interference Bisulfite sequencing DNA sequencing Expression cloning Fluorescence in situ hybridization Lab-on-a-chip ... Multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance Dual-polarization interferometry Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation ...
... fluorescence polarization immunoassay MeSH E01.450.495.375 --- hemolytic plaque technique MeSH E01.450.495.385 --- ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.370.750.600 --- passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.370.750.610 --- patch tests MeSH E01.370 ... fluorescence MeSH E01.370.350.515.458.500 --- microscopy, fluorescence, multiphoton MeSH E01.370.350.515.513 --- microscopy, ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.450.495.750.600 --- passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.450.495.750.610 --- patch tests MeSH ...
Bernstein LH, Stiller R, Menzies C, McKenzie M, Rundell C. "Amniotic fluid polarization of fluorescence and lecithin/ ... "Comparison of infrared spectroscopic and fluorescence depolarization assays for fetal lung maturity". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. ...
The basis of the assay is fluorescence anisotropy, also known as fluorescence polarization. If a fluorescent molecule is ... The solution is evaluated again by the fluorescence polarization analyzer. The fluorescence polarization value for the tracer ... "Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay II. Analyzer for Rapid, Precise Measurement of Fluorescence Polarization with Use of ... and is measured by a fluorescence polarization analyzer. Fluorescence polarization was first observed by F. Weigert in 1920. He ...
... such as fluorescence polarization (FP) or TRF assays. In FP assays, background fluorescence due to library compounds is ... TR-FRET assays can also be formatted to use limiting receptor and excess tracer concentrations (unlike FP assays), which can ... Therefore, the use of conventional, steady-state fluorescence measurement presents serious limitations in assay sensitivity. ... TR-FRET combines the low background aspect of TRF with the homogeneous assay format of FRET. The resulting assay provides an ...
Fluorescence polarization is synonymous with fluorescence anisotropy. This method measures the change in the rotational speed ... binding-assay.com/binding-assay-types/solid-phase-assays/on-bead-assays Moss, ed. by Tom (2001). "Filter-Binding Assays". DNA- ... These methods include, but are not limited to, fluorescence polarization (FP), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), ... Ligand binding assays (LBA) is an assay, or an analytic procedure, whose procedure or method relies on the binding of ligand ...
Dual polarisation interferometry is a high resolution optical tool for characterising the order and disruption in lipid ... Many modern fluorescence microscopy techniques also require a rigidly-supported planar surface. Evanescent field methods such ... Vesicles can also be labeled with fluorescent dyes to allow sensitive FRET-based fusion assays. In spite of this fluorescent ... Dual polarisation interferometry can measure unilamelar and multilamelar structures and insertion into and disruption of the ...
... dual polarisation interferometry (which reports the molecular size and fold density) and near-ultraviolet fluorescence (which ... Instead, we assay the relative population of folded molecules using various structural probes, e.g., absorbance at 287 nm ( ... Dual polarisation interferometry is an emerging technique to directly measure conformational change and Δ G o {\displaystyle \ ...
For Trp residues, the wavelength of their maximal fluorescence emission also depend on their environment. Fluorescence ... Dual polarisation interferometry is a surface-based technique for measuring the optical properties of molecular layers. When ... Minde DP, Maurice MM, Rüdiger SG (2012). "Determining biophysical protein stability in lysates by a fast proteolysis assay, ... Fluorescence spectroscopy can be combined with fast-mixing devices such as stopped flow, to measure protein folding kinetics, ...
For fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay (FSEC-TS) the samples are heated in the ... "Protein-ligand interactions investigated by thermal shift assays (TSA) and dual polarization interferometry (DPI)". Acta ... Lo, MC; Aulabaugh, A; Jin, G; Cowling, R; Bard, J (2004). "Evaluation of fluorescence-based thermal shift assays for hit ... Analogous to thermofluor binding assays, a small volume of protein solution is heated up and the fluorescence increase is ...
Protein-protein interaction assays. *Fluorescence techniques. *Cell biology. *Laboratory techniques. *Molecular biology ... Yet researchers can detect differences in the polarisation between the light which excites the fluorophores and the light which ... In fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, as well as in molecular biology, FRET is a useful ... is the fluorescence quantum yield of the donor in the absence of the acceptor, κ. 2. {\displaystyle \kappa ^{2}}. is the dipole ...
The increase in the polarization of the fluorescence upon binding of the labeled protein to its binding partner can be used to ... Rotating cell‑based ligand binding assay using radioactivity or fluorescence, is a recent method that measures molecular ... Fluorescence polarization/anisotropy can be used to measure protein-protein or protein-ligand interactions. Typically one ... With fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, one protein is labeled with a fluorescent dye and the other is left unlabeled. The ...
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and dual polarisation interferometry-are not screening approaches. Methods that ... that is popular for fixing interactions in ChIP assays. Protein-protein interaction BiFC Lu JP, Beatty LK, Pinthus JH (2008). " ... Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) is a new technique for observing the interactions of proteins. Combining it ...
... (6MI) is a base analog for the nucleotide guanine. It is useful as a fluorescent indicator because unlike most other base analogs, quenching does not occur when it is incorporated into a double helix. In fact, it exhibits a 3 to 4-fold increase in quantum yield when it is incorporated into a duplex formation. This allows 6MI to be used to probe the dynamics of DNA or RNA helices using a technique such as fluorescence polarization anisotropy. 5-Bromouracil Moreno, Andrew. "Photophysical Characterization of Enhanced 6-Methylisoxanthopterin Fluorescence in Duplex DNA". doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b07369. Shi, Xuesong. "Probing the Dynamics of the P1 Helix within the Tetrahymena Group I Intron". doi:10.1021/ja902797j ...
... is a category of drug testing that is focused on detecting salicylates such as acetysalicylic acid for either biochemical or medical purposes. Salicylates can be identified by GC/MS, proton NMR, and IR. One of the first in vitro tests for aspirin was through the Trinder reaction. Aqueous ferric chloride was added to a urine sample, and the formation of the iron complex turned the solution purple. This test was not specific to acetylsalicylic acid but would occur in the presence of any phenol or enol. The downfall of this test occurs in the presence of hyperbilirubinemia or elevated bilirubin. When the level of bilirubin exceeds 1 mg/dl, a false positive could occur.[citation needed] The current in vitro testing utilizes molecule specific methods of detecting salicylates. Another identification mechanism is through immunoassay. Abbott Labs' AxSYM is an immunoassay device utilizing Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay (FPIA) technology that can determine ...
Time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) is usually employed because it compensates for variations in source intensity and single photon pulse amplitudes. Using commercial TCSPC equipment a fluorescence decay curve can be recorded with a time resolution down to 405 fs.[6] The recorded fluorescence decay histogram obeys Poisson statistics which is considered in determining goodness of fit during fitting. More specifically, TCSPC records times at which individual photons are detected by a fast single-photon detector (typically a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) or a single photon avalanche photo diode (SPAD)) with respect to the excitation laser pulse. The recordings are repeated for multiple laser pulses and after enough recorded events, one is able to build a histogram of the number of events across all of these recorded time points. This histogram can then be fit to an exponential function that contains the exponential lifetime decay ...
Some scholars argue that diverging parties has been one of the major driving forces of polarization as policy platforms have become more distant. This theory is based on recent trends in the United States Congress, where the majority party prioritizes the positions that are most aligned with its party platform and political ideology.[19] The adoption of more ideologically distinct positions by political parties can cause polarization among both elites and the electorate. For example, after the passage of the Voting Rights Act, the number of conservative Democrats in Congress decreased, while the number of conservative Republicans increased. Within the electorate during the 1970s, Southern Democrats shifted toward the Republican Party, showing polarization among both the elites and the electorate of both main parties.[4][20][21] Political scientists have shown politicians have an incentive to advance and support polarized positions.[22] These argue that ...
如左圖所示,兩根曲線所代表的分別是兩種與受體結合親和性不同的配體。配體對受體的結合能力通常是由半數的受體結合位點被配體佔據時的濃度表徵的,該濃度稱爲IC50(英语:IC50),與解離常數Kd有關但有區別。圖中紅色曲線所表示的配體比起綠色曲線所表示的配體有更高的結合親和性和更小的Kd值。如果這兩種配體同時存在的話,那麼高親和性的配體與受體結合更多。這也就是一氧化碳能優先於氧氣與血紅蛋白結合,從而導致一氧化碳中毒的原理。. 配體對受體的結合親和性通常藉由用放射性同位素標記的配體来確定,這種配體稱爲「熱配體」。「同源競爭性結合實驗」(Homologous competitive binding experiments)的原理就是讓帶有放射性的「熱配體」和不帶放射性的「冷配體」競爭結合位點[4]。不過,表面等離子體共振和雙偏振干涉(英语:dual polarisation ...
All this knowledge was transferred to the Greeks probably shortly after the conquest by Alexander the Great (331 BC). According to the late classical philosopher Simplicius (early 6th century), Alexander ordered the translation of the historical astronomical records under supervision of his chronicler Callisthenes of Olynthus, who sent it to his uncle Aristotle. It is worth mentioning here that although Simplicius is a very late source, his account may be reliable. He spent some time in exile at the Sassanid (Persian) court, and may have accessed sources otherwise lost in the West. It is striking that he mentions the title tèresis (Greek: guard) which is an odd name for a historical work, but is in fact an adequate translation of the Babylonian title massartu meaning "guarding" but also "observing". Anyway, Aristotle's pupil Callippus of Cyzicus introduced his 76-year cycle, which improved upon the 19-year Metonic cycle, about that time. He had the first year of his first cycle start at the ...
... is a category of drug testing that is focused on detecting salicylates such as acetysalicylic acid for either biochemical or medical purposes. Salicylates can be identified by GC/MS, proton NMR, and IR. One of the first in vitro tests for aspirin was through the Trinder reaction. Aqueous ferric chloride was added to a urine sample, and the formation of the iron complex turned the solution purple. This test was not specific to acetylsalicylic acid but would occur in the presence of any phenol or enol. The downfall of this test occurs in the presence of hyperbilirubinemia or elevated bilirubin. When the level of bilirubin exceeds 1 mg/dl, a false positive could occur.[citation needed] The current in vitro testing utilizes molecule specific methods of detecting salicylates. Another identification mechanism is through immunoassay. Abbott Labs' AxSYM is an immunoassay device utilizing Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay (FPIA) technology that can determine ...
... (fosphenytoin sodium, trade names Cerebyx, Parke-Davis; Prodilantin, Pfizer Holding France) is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug that is administered intravenously to deliver phenytoin, potentially more safely than intravenous phenytoin. It is most commonly used in the acute treatment of convulsive status epilepticus. Fosphenytoin was developed in 1996. On 18 November 2004, Sicor (a subsidiary of Teva) received a tentative approval letter from the United States Food and Drug Administration for a generic version of fosphenytoin. Fosphenytoin is approved in the United States for the short term (five days or fewer) treatment of epilepsy when more widely used means of phenytoin administration are not possible or are ill-advised, such as endotracheal intubation, status epilepticus or some other type of repeated seizures; vomiting, and/or the patient is unalert or not awake or both. In 2003, it was reported that even though anticonvulsants are often very effective in mania, and acute ...
... (EMIT) is a common method for qualitative and quantitative determination of therapeutic and recreational drugs and certain proteins in serum and urine. It is an immunoassay in which a drug or metabolite in the sample competes with an drug/metabolite labelled with an enzyme, to bind to an antibody. The more drug there is in the sample, the more free enzyme there will be, and the increased enzyme activity causes a change in color. Determination of drug levels in serum is particularly important when the difference in the concentrations needed to produce a therapeutic effect and adverse side reactions is small, the therapeutic window. EMIT therapeutic drug monitoring tests provide accurate information about the concentration of such drugs such as immunosuppressant drugs and some antibiotics. EMIT urine assays for drugs such as cannabinoids, morphine, and amphetamine are designed to detect the drug itself or a metabolite of the drug present in a concentration ...
... (Chinese: 瘟神) is a deity or a group of deities responsible for illness, plague and disease in Chinese folk religion. In some belief systems Wen Shen is identified as a single entity who commands wen spirits, in others the term is used for a grouping of several distinct deities. The earliest mention of a group of pestilence gods in Chinese mythology is from the Li wei xi ming zheng 禮緯稽命證, an apocryphal Confucian commentary dating from the Han dynasty. This describes three sons of the Emperor Zhuanxu, all three of whom died at birth and became spirits of disease. Over time, these spirits became conflated with the "five wet ghosts" 五濕鬼 of the Longyu hetu 龍魚河圖 and formed the basis for later groupings of pestilence gods. The term Wen Shen is used to refer to the Five Commissioners of Pestilence 五瘟使者. The Five Commissioners, who governed Heaven's Ministry of Epidemics, were Zhang Yuanbo 張元伯, Liu Yuanda 劉元達, Zhao Gongming 趙公明, Zhong Shigui ...
Ta rouyr yiarn nieunagh, er y fa dy vel yiarn seyr yiarnagh ym-obbraghey lesh sarocseed as jannoo fraueyn seyr. T'adsyn jeeylley GDN, proteenyn, lipaidyn, as stoo elley 'sy chillag. Myr shen, ta tomainaght yiarn taghyrt tra ta yiarn seyr 'sy chillag; shen er y fa nagh vel transferrin dy liooar eshyn y chiangley, son y chooid smoo. Ta goaill yiarn fo reiltys lajer. Cha nel monney caa eshyn y checkey, cha nel agh liorish ceau y chrackan, as shen gyn reiltys. Myr shen, ta shin reilley eh liorish lhiettal eh y ghoaill.[8] Ny yei shen, my vees ram yiarn er n'ee, foddee eh jeylley killagyn yn ammyr ghastrey-chollaneagh as neulhiggey daue reilley soo stiagh yiarn. Ta shen lowal co-chruinnaghey ard yiarn 'syn 'uill, as foddee eh jeylley killagyn y chree, aane as organeyn elley. Ta ny smoo na 20mg yiarn/kg glout cur tomainaght yiarn er deiney; ta 60mg/kg ny howse marrooagh.[9] Ta ro-ymmyd yiarn mastey binn vaase smoo cadjin da paitçhyn ny saa na shey; son y chooid smoo, t'ad er n'ee ram lhiackagyn yiarn ...
When a young English man is convicted of murder and sentenced to hang, his sister convinced of his innocence and her fiancé, ask visiting detective Charlie Chan to investigate the crime and find the real murderer. In order to solve the mystery, he must visit a lavish country manor house in England where the suspects vary from the housekeeper to a lawyer. Events soon indicate that the murderer is still actively trying to avoid capture, but Charlie Chan must set a trap to reveal the criminal's identity. ...
... , she shenn fo-reeriaght Animalia eh, as keeayll yn ennym rish ny beiyn. She organeyn bioag gyn craue drommey t'ayn.. Ta killaghyn parasoagh er nyn gur da obbyr er lheh, as myr shen, cha nel ad gollrish ny shennayryn choanoflagellatagh oc. Ny yei shen, cha nel ny killaghyn er nyn reaghey ayns organeyn, as myr shen, cha nel y possah shoh casley rish ny "feer animalia" (Eumetasoa), as adsyn ny .. Cha nel parasoa er mayrney agh thoagyn ny marrey, 'sy phylum Porifera. Ta kuse dy oayllee cur maroo y phylum Placosoa; cha nel agh un dooie ayn, as shen Trichoplax adhaerens. Cha nel coardailys ayn my vel y phylum shoh ny olteyr jeh Parasoa ny dyn.. ...
Keywords:antibody based fluorescence polarization assay, immunoassay, fluorescence polarization immunoassay fpia, fluorescence ... Keywords: antibody based fluorescence polarization assay, immunoassay, fluorescence polarization immunoassay fpia, fluorescence ... Antibody-based Fluorescence Polarization Assay to Screen Combinatorial Libraries for Sweet Taste Compounds. Author(s): D. S. ... We have designed a fluorescence polarization immunoassay for the identification of novel sweeteners. The assay is based on ...
... multi-band fluorescence, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and fluorescence polarization. This invention is ... This fluorescence polarization invention can be practiced on a variety of fluorescence instruments, including prior-art ... Also disclosed are means and methods for a fluorescence polarization measurement which is highly sensitive, inherently self- ... and is well-suited to use in general fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, ...
... and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) in diagnosing cattle brucellosis in endemic areas was assessed and RBT and FPA test ... Evaluation of a fluorescence polarization assay for the detection of serum antibodies to Brucella abortus in water buffalo ( ... Application of the fluorescence polarization assay for detection of caprine antibodies to Brucella melitensis in areas of high ... A homogeneous fluorescence polarization assay for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus. Journal of Immunological Methods, ...
Home , Technical section , Biology , Molecular biology , fluorescence polarization assay. fluorescence polarization assay. ... In a study, the fluorescence polarization assay is more accurate for the heterozygous sample than is the sequence assay. The ... An improved fluorescence polarization assay based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction hybridization for screening SNPs has ... Detection of p16INK4a promoter methylation status in non-small cell lung cancer by a fluorescence polarization assay. Song Z, ...
Binding affinity to recombinant STAT3 by fluorescence polarization based binding assay. ...
Fluorescence polarization based biochemical confirmatory assay of ChemBridge compounds to identify inhibitors of hepatitis C ...
PAULIN, Lília Márcia Silva et al. Fluorescence polarization assay, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-C) and ... fluorescence polarization test (FPA), 2-mercaptoethanol test (2-ME) and complement fixation test (CFT). The gold standard was ... Serum samples collected from 696 adult females were submitted to the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-C), ( ...
... Carl Peters BMG LABTECH 07/ ... Assay Principle. The Prostaglandin D Synthase FP-Based Inhibitor Screening Assay provides a convenient one step assay. An H- ... from lytic assays to live cell assays, from one to multiple assays. ... Both the CLARIOstar® and PHERAstar®FS excel at detection of this fluorescence polarization based assay ...
Interrogation of SET7/9 Histone Lysine Methyltransferase Using a High Throughput Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assay ... The Set7/9 SAM-Screener Assay is a fluorescence polarization assay designed around a small molecule fluorescent probe that ... Interrogation of SET7/9 Histone Lysine Methyltransferase Using a High Throughput Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assay ... The assay made use of a 590/630 nm fluorescent polarization filter cube and dual-matched PMTs for rapid measurements in a 384- ...
Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Detection of Brucella abortus Antibodies in Bulk Tank Bovine Milk Samples. D. Gall, K. ... Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Detection of Brucella abortus Antibodies in Bulk Tank Bovine Milk Samples ... Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Detection of Brucella abortus Antibodies in Bulk Tank Bovine Milk Samples ... Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Detection of Brucella abortus Antibodies in Bulk Tank Bovine Milk Samples ...
... applications using a fluorescence polarization based hERG inhibition assay as a model. By means of assay controls and a panel ... Testing lead compounds early on in the drug development process requires high throughput type assays. This application note ... of multiple hERG inhibitors, analysis of pharmacology endpoints for instrument validation included Z, assay window, precision ... applications using a fluorescence polarization based hERG inhibition assay as a model. By means of assay controls and a panel ...
FP assays) can be used in a variety of ways. FP assays are a great fit for HTS because the assays are simple & homogenous. ... The Concept Behind Fluorescence Polarization Assays. The assay relies on the concept of fluorescence anisotropy to detect ... Fluorescence Polarization Assays for Drug Discovery. by Bellbrook Labs / Friday, 06 March 2020 / Published in HTS Assays, ... Fluorescence polarization assays (FP assays) are used in a variety of ways. From uncovering molecules in solution, to ...
Analysis of a New High Throughput Screening Detection Technology for Rapid hERG Safety Testing using a Fluorescence ... applications using a fluorescence polarization based hERG inhibition assay as a model. By means of assay controls and a panel ... Development of the Predictor hERG Fluorescence Polarization Assay Using a Membrane Protein Enrichment Approach, ASSAY and Drug ... The assay is based on the principle of fluorescence polarization where a redshifted fluorescent tracer is displaced from the ...
The fluorescence polarization assay was miniaturized to a total volume of 24 μl. The SYNJ2 solution was dispensed to black low- ... For selectivity, the fluorescence polarization assay was performed using SYNJ1 instead of SYNJ2. Data representation and curve ... Fluorescence polarization assays. Recombinant SYNJ2 and SYNJ1 were purchased from OriGene (TP315160 and TP315278, respectively ... A) Fluorescence polarization signals to assess the 5-phosphatase activity of a purified SYNJ2 in vitro in the presence of the ...
... substrates assayed by fluorescence polarization. Example III Clostridial Toxin Complex Activity Assayed Using Fluorescence ... polarization, the change in fluorescence polarization can be an increase or decrease in fluorescence polarization. In one ... Clostridial Toxin Complex Activity Assayed Using Fluorescence Polarization [0154]This example demonstrates that a fluorescence ... The combination of fluorescence resonance energy transfer with fluorescence polarization enhanced the polarization change upon ...
Fluorescence polarization measurements provide information on molecular orientation and mobility and processes that modulate ... Dyes for Fluorescence Polarization Assays Tracers used in fluorescence polarization assays include peptides, drugs and ... Table 1. Examples of fluorescence polarization assays. Assay Target. Tracer. References. Ligand binding to neurokinin 1 (NK1) ... Dependence of Fluorescence Polarization on Molecular Mobility Interpretation of the dependence of fluorescence polarization on ...
Using fluorescence polarization assays, strong affinities of NPY to the Y2R with an apparent KD-value of (4 ± 3) nM, but also ... Fluorescence Polarization Ligand Binding Assay. Functionality of the Y2R in nanomolar concentration was verified in a ... Lea, W. A., and Simeonov, A. (2011). Fluorescence polarization assays in small molecule screening. Expert Opin. Drug Discov. 6 ... Special thanks go to Mathias Bosse for supporting the implementation of the fluorescence polarization assay. Parts of this ...
Fluorescence polarization assay reveals that BXI-61 and BXI-72 preferentially bind to Bcl-XL protein but not Bcl2, Bcl-w, Bfl-1 ... Development of a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay for Bcl-x(L). Anal Biochem 2002;307:70-5. ... Fluorescence polarization assay. Fluorescent Bak BH3 domain peptide (FAM-GQVGRQLAIIGDDINR) and Bcl-XL protein were purchased ... To directly measure BXI/Bcl-XL binding, we used an in vitro fluorescence polarization assay with a fluorescent Bak BH3 domain ...
Fluorescence polarization assay. NAMPT bearing a C-terminal His-tag was expressed and purified from E. coli as described ... used in the fluorescence polarization assay are provided in the Supplementary Methods file. Inhibitors were formulated in DMSO ... the analogues were evaluated for binding to NAMPT using a competitive fluorescence polarization (FP) assay where they displayed ... Fluorescence polarization was measured on an Envision multilabel reader (Perkin Elmer) using an installed FITC FP dual mirror. ...
Fluorescence polarization assays. The detailed protocol for fluorescence polarization assays is described in our previous study ... For fluorescence polarization assay, MBP-ASCCARD-SUMO and MBP-ASC-caspase-1CARD-SUMO constructs were expressed and purified as ... We used a fluorescence polarization assay to monitor nucleation of caspase-1CARD filaments by oligomeric ASCCARD in the ... The initial slope of the fluorescence polarization processes in B was plotted against the logarithm of the VHHASC concentration ...
D) A fluorescence polarization assay was used to establish the ability of confirmed hit compounds to bind a disease-length CUG ... Fluorescence polarization assay. FAM-CUG23 (Metabion, Martinsried, Germany) was annealed at 70°C for 10 minutes and allowed to ... Using a fluorescence polarization spectroscopy assay, previously used for studying binding of small molecules to the CUG-RNA ... Pentamidine was used as the positive control for the fluorescence polarization assay (black bar). The same or higher RNA ...
Fluorescence polarization assays. Fluorescence polarization (FP) assays were performed using a Panvera Beacon Fluorescence ... used in the assays were 5′-fluorescein labeled. For each assay, increasing concentrations of SopB were titrated into the ... where P is the polarization magnitude at a given protein concentration, Pfree is the initial polarization of the free ... oligonucleotide and Pbound is the maximum polarization when the oligonucleotide is saturated by SopB. Non-linear least squares ...
An in vitro fluorescence polarization assay identified point mutations in the DNA binding domain of FOXM1 that inhibit binding ... Fluorescence polarization assays. Fluorescence polarization (FP) assays were performed to assess the binding of the FOXM1 ... An in vitro fluorescence polarization assay identified point mutations in the DNA binding domain of FOXM1 that inhibit binding ... b Binding curves measured by fluorescence polarization analysis (assay details in the Materials and methods section), showing ...
1C) as measured in a fluorescence polarization-based competitive binding assay. DEX is ∼10-fold more potent than HCY in gene ... Fluorescence Polarization Binding Assays.. N-terminal fluorescein amidite (FAM)-labeled coregulator peptides, with the ... C) DEX binds to AncGR2 LBD with a tighter Ki than HCY as measured by fluorescence polarization competition with FAM-DEX. (D) ... Increasing amounts of unlabeled DEX and HCY ligands were added into solution with fluorescence polarization signal recorded as ...
The fluorescence polarization assay was more accurate for the heterozygous sample than was the sequence assay. The minimum ... Detection of ERCC1 118 polymorphisms in non-small-cell lung cancer by an improved fluorescence polarization assay Liu Wenchao 1 ... Detection of ERCC1 118 polymorphisms in non-small-cell lung cancer by an improved fluorescence polarization assay Liu Wenchao ... An improved fluorescence polarization assay based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction hybridization for screening excision ...
  • Discover how cell-based microplate assays advance your research: from viability to cell death mechanisms, from glycolysis to respiration, from lytic assays to live cell assays, from one to multiple assays. (bmglabtech.com)
  • We used the fluorescence polarization (FP) as a bio-physical tool to analyse the binding properties of LSD1-CoREST1 (LC1) hetero-dimer to H3-derived peptides (Fig. 1), that have been conjugated at the C-terminal with the fluorescent label TAMRA (5-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine). (bmglabtech.com)
  • A) H3 labeled peptides in solution show a rapid rotation that causes dispersion in different direction of the incident polarized light: the resulting emitted polarization signal is low. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Maintained human iPSCs and hES for future stem cell differentiation and cell-based assay development. (visualcv.com)
  • These binding assays have been used to gain knowledge of molecular interactions, enzymatic activity, and nucleic acid hybridization. (bellbrooklabs.com)
  • 10. The multilayer analytical element of claim 8 wherein the homogeneous specific binding assay system includes a label which participates in an enzymatic reaction. (google.com)
  • For dyes attached to small, rapidly rotating molecules, the initially photoselected orientational distribution becomes randomized prior to emission, resulting in low fluorescence polarization. (thermofisher.com)
  • where P o is the fundamental polarization of the dye (for fluorescein, rhodamine and BODIPY dyes, P o is close to the theoretical maximum of 0.5), τ is the excited-state lifetime of the dye and Φ is the rotational correlation time of the dye or dye conjugate. (thermofisher.com)
  • Simulation of the relationship between molecular weight (MW) and fluorescence polarization (P). Simulations are shown for dyes with various fluorescence lifetimes (τ): 1 ns (cyanine dyes) in purple, 4 ns (fluorescein and Alexa Fluor 488 dyes) in red, 6 ns (some BODIPY dyes) in green and 20 ns (dansyl dyes) in blue. (thermofisher.com)
  • Simulations assume P o (the fundamental polarization) = 0.5 and rigid attachment of dyes to spherical carriers. (thermofisher.com)
  • The assay detects antibodies to B. abortus in 15 min by testing undiluted whey produced by chemical and physical manipulation of milk from bulk tanks. (asm.org)
  • Agilent cell metabolism assays detect discrete changes in cell bioenergetics in real time, providing a window into the critical functions that provide ATP, the energy that cells need for activation, signaling, proliferation, and biosynthesis. (biotek.com)
  • Alpha SureFire assays are a quantitative alternative to Western Blotting, are automation-friendly, miniaturizable, and detect both endogenous and recombinant proteins. (perkinelmer.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to set the conditions for the use of a commercially available antigen (the O-polysaccharide from B. abortus 1119-3 conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate) for the FPA assay in a 96-well microplate format, and to compare its diagnostic performance with the conventional agglutination tests currently used in Argentina. (scitechnol.com)
  • The tubes were incubated for 5 min at room temperature, and 20 μl each of reaction mixture was transferred to 96-well black PS, HE Microplate (LJL Biosystems Co.). All of the assays were performed in quadruplicate, with blank wells receiving no compound. (aacrjournals.org)