The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.
Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.
LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Compound such as LUMINESCENT PROTEINS that cause or emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE).

Stabilization of poly-L-lysine/DNA polyplexes for in vivo gene delivery to the liver. (1/5934)

We are developing a self-assembling non-viral in vivo gene delivery vehicle based on poly-l-lysine and plasmid DNA. We have characterized poly-l-lysines of different chain lengths for DNA condensation and strength of DNA binding. Poly-l-lysine chains >20 residues bound DNA efficiently in physiological saline, while shorter chains did not. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid to PLL increased the PLL chain length required for efficient DNA binding in saline and for efficient DNA condensation. By electron microscopy, poly-l-lysine/DNA polyplexes appeared as toroids 25-50 nm in diameter or rods 40-80 nm long; conjugation of asialoorosomucoid to the polylysine component increased the size of resulting polyplexes to 50-90 nm. In water, poly-l-lysine and asialoorosomucoid-PLL polyplexes have effective diameters of 46 and 87.6 nm, respectively. Polyplexes containing only poly-l-lysine and DNA aggregated in physiological saline at all charge ratios and aggregated at neutral charge ratios in water. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid lessened, but did not eliminate, the aggregation of PLL polyplexes, and did not result in efficient delivery of polyplexes to hepatocytes. Conjugation of polyethylene glycol to poly-l-lysine sterically stabilized resulting polyplexes at neutral charge ratios by shielding the surfaces. For efficient in vivo gene delivery, polyplexes will need to be sterically stabilized to prevent aggregation and interaction with serum components.  (+info)

Relocating the active site of activated protein C eliminates the need for its protein S cofactor. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer study. (2/5934)

The effect of replacing the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain of activated protein C (APC) with that of prothrombin on the topography of the membrane-bound enzyme was examined using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The average distance of closest approach (assuming kappa2 = 2/3) between a fluorescein in the active site of the chimera and octadecylrhodamine at the membrane surface was 89 A, compared with 94 A for wild-type APC. The gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain substitution therefore lowered and/or reoriented the active site, repositioning it close to the 84 A observed for the APC. protein S complex. Protein S enhances wild-type APC cleavage of factor Va at Arg306, but the inactivation rate of factor Va Leiden by the chimera alone is essentially equal to that by wild-type APC plus protein S. These data suggest that the activities of the chimera and of the APC.protein S complex are equivalent because the active site of the chimeric protein is already positioned near the optimal location above the membrane surface to cleave Arg306. Thus, one mechanism by which protein S regulates APC activity is by relocating its active site to the proper position above the membrane surface to optimize factor Va cleavage.  (+info)

Mitochondrial depolarization accompanies cytochrome c release during apoptosis in PC6 cells. (3/5934)

Cytochrome c is released from mitochondria into the cytosol in cells undergoing apoptosis. The temporal relationship between cytochrome c release and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored by laser-scanning confocal microscopy in single living pheochromocytoma-6 cells undergoing apoptosis induced by staurosporine. Mitochondrial membrane potential monitored by tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester decreased abruptly in individual cells from 2 to 7 h after treatment with staurosporine. Depolarization was accompanied by cytochrome c release documented by release of transfected green fluorescent protein-tagged cytochrome c in these cells. The results show that mitochondrial depolarization accompanies cytochrome c release in pheochromocytoma-6 cells undergoing apoptosis.  (+info)

Novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants readily diffuse across the blood-brain barrier and access intracellular sites. (4/5934)

In an accompanying article, an in vitro assay for permeability predicts that membrane-protective, antioxidant 2,4-diamino-pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidines should have improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation over previously described lipophilic antioxidants. Using a first-pass extraction method and brain/plasma quantification, we show here that two of the pyrrolopyrimidines, one of which is markedly less permeable, readily partition into rat brain. The efficiency of extraction was dependent on serum protein binding, and in situ efflux confirms the in vitro data showing that PNU-87663 is retained in brain longer than PNU-89843. By exploiting inherent fluorescence properties of PNU-87663, its distribution within brain and within cells in culture was demonstrated using confocal scanning laser microscopy. PNU-87663 rapidly partitioned into the cell membrane and equilibrates with cytoplasmic compartments via passive diffusion. Although partitioning of PNU-87663 favors intracytoplasmic lipid storage droplets, the compound was readily exchangeable as shown by efflux of compound from cells to buffer when protein was present. The results demonstrated that pyrrolopyrimidines were well suited for quickly accessing target cells within the central nervous system as well as in other target tissues.  (+info)

A fluorescent orthotopic bone metastasis model of human prostate cancer. (5/5934)

Here, we report a fluorescent spontaneous bone metastatic model of human prostate cancer developed by surgical orthotopic implantation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing prostate cancer tissue. Human prostate cancer PC-3 cells were transduced with the pLEIN expression retroviral vector containing the enhanced GFP and neomycin resistance genes. Stable GFP high-expression PC-3 clones were selected in vitro with G418, which were then combined and injected s.c. in nude mice. For metastasis studies, fragments of a single highly fluorescent s.c. growing tumor were implanted by surgical orthotopic implantation in the prostate of a series of nude mice. Subsequent micrometastases and metastases were visualized by GFP fluorescence throughout the skeleton, including the skull, rib, pelvis, femur, and tibia The central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord, was also involved with tumor, as visualized by GFP fluorescence. Systemic organs, including the lung, plural membrane, liver, kidney, and adrenal gland, also had fluorescent metastases. The metastasis pattern in this model reflects the bone and other metastatic sites of human prostate cancer. Thus, this model should be very useful for the study and development of treatment for metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer.  (+info)

A sialoglycoprotein, gp20, of the human capacitated sperm surface is a homologue of the leukocyte CD52 antigen: analysis of the effect of anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody (CAMPATH-1) on capacitated spermatozoa. (6/5934)

In this study we performed N-terminal sequence analysis of gp20, a 20 kDa sialoglycoprotein on the human sperm surface previously identified by radiolabelling of the sialic acid residues of sperm surface. We found 100% identity with the N-terminus of CD52, an antigen expressed on almost all human leukocytes. We also show that, like CD52, gp20 behaves as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and that anti-gp20 antiserum reacts with an antigen on leukocytes of the same molecular weight as CD52. Using CAMPATH-1, the monoclonal antibody against CD52, in fluorescent staining of capacitated spermatozoa, Western blot analysis and the zona-free hamster egg penetration test, we found that the effect of this antibody was different from that of our anti-gp20. Western blot analysis revealed a well-defined 20 kDa band with anti-gp20, whereas a 14-20 kDa band was detected with CAMPATH-1. Anti-gp20 stained the equatorial region of the sperm head, whereas CAMPATH-1 stained the tail in immunofluorescence analysis of capacitated spermatozoa. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect was seen with CAMPATH-1, similar to that previously detected with anti-gp20, in a zona-free hamster egg penetration test. However, with CAMPATH-1 agglutination of motile spermatozoa was detected, and this was not present with anti-gp20. This suggests that the epitopes recognized by the two antibodies are different.  (+info)

Two affinities for a single antagonist at the neuronal NK1 tachykinin receptor: evidence from quantitation of receptor endocytosis. (7/5934)

1. In smooth muscle contractility assays, many NK1 receptor (NK1r) antagonists inhibit responses to the neurotransmitter, substance P (SP), and its analogue, septide, with markedly different potency, leading to the proposal that there is a septide-preferring receptor related to the NK1r. 2. We used fluorescence immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to visualize agonist-induced NK1r endocytosis and analyse agonist/antagonist interactions at native NK1r in neurons of the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig ileum. 3. SP and septide gave sigmoid log concentration-response curves and were equipotent in inducing NK1r endocytosis. 4. The NK1r antagonists, CP-99994 (2S,3S)-3-(2-methoxybenzyl)amino-2-phenylpiperidine dihydrochloride and MEN-10581, cyclo(Leu,[CH2NH]Lys(benzyloxycarbonyl)-Gln-Trp-Phe-betaAla) were both more potent in inhibiting endocytosis (50 x and 8 x greater respectively) against septide than against SP. 5. The results suggest that SP and septide interact differently with the NK1r, and that a single antagonist can exhibit different affinities at a single NK1r population, depending on the agonist with which it competes. Thus it may not be necessary to posit a separate septide-preferring tachykinin receptor.  (+info)

Simultaneous detection of multiple green fluorescent proteins in live cells by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. (8/5934)

The green fluorescent protein (GFP) has proven to be an excellent fluorescent marker for protein expression and localisation in living cells [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Several mutant GFPs with distinct fluorescence excitation and emission spectra have been engineered for intended use in multi-labelling experiments [6] [7] [8] [9]. Discrimination of these co-expressed GFP variants by wavelength is hampered, however, by a high degree of spectral overlap, low quantum efficiencies and extinction coefficients [10], or rapid photobleaching [6]. Using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16], four GFP variants were shown to have distinguishable fluorescence lifetimes. Among these was a new variant (YFP5) with spectral characteristics reminiscent of yellow fluorescent protein [8] and a comparatively long fluorescence lifetime. The fluorescence intensities of co-expressed spectrally similar GFP variants (either alone or as fusion proteins) were separated using lifetime images obtained with FLIM at a single excitation wavelength and using a single broad band emission filter. Fluorescence lifetime imaging opens up an additional spectroscopic dimension to wavelength through which novel GFP variants can be selected to extend the number of protein processes that can be imaged simultaneously in cells.  (+info)

Cell fusion is known to underlie key developmental processes in humans and is postulated to contribute to tissue maintenance and even carcinogenesis. The mechanistic details of cell fusion, especially between different cell types, have been difficult
The final biological events in the life of a worm are described today, revealing how death spreads like a wave from cell to cell until the whole organism is dead.
The X-axis is the amount of red fluorescence. The more red fluorescence a cell emits, the farther to the right the cell data will appear on the histogram. The Y-axis is the amount of blue fluorescence. The more blue fluorescence a cell emits, the cell data will appear closer to the top on the histogram. Remember, CTLs have a high level of protein B(blue) and protein R (red).. Quadrant 1 shows data for a cells with many blue fluorochromes and no red fluorochromes. Data for cells with high levels of both blue and red fluorochromes will appear in quadrant 2. If cells have neither blue nor red fluorochromes, the data will appear in quadrant 3. Data for a cell with many red fluorochromes and no blue fluorochromes attached will appear in quadrant 4.. ...
A system and method for imaging tissue autofluorescence through a video endoscope is described, comprising a light source capable of providing both ultraviolet light capable of inducing tissue autofluorescence and visible light which induces little or no autofluorescence, an optical system to deliver both wavelength bands to the tissue with the same apparent spatial and angular intensity distribution, a means for digitally acquiring the resulting, visible fluorescence and visible reflectance images using a single imaging detector at the distal tip of the endoscope and a means for digitally processing said images to generate a final, false-color image for display which indicates regions of tissue dysplasia. This system can either be added on to an existing video endoscope or integrated into its structure. The combined system can be electronically switched between normal white light imaging and fluorescence imaging.
BioTek 科學海報, 03/31 2011, Utility of a Sensitive, Fluorescence-Based Assay for the Detection of Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) Activity
BioTek 科学海报, 03/31 2011, Utility of a Sensitive, Fluorescence-Based Assay for the Detection of Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) Activity
The AccuClear® and AccuBlue® DNA Quantitation kits are designed for use with fluorescence 96-well plate readers. AccuClear®, AccuBlue® NextGen and AccuBlue® High Sensitivity kits require an instrument equipped to read green fluorescence emission (similar to FITC). AccuBlue® Broad Range requires an instrument equipped to read blue fluorescence emission (Ex/Em 350/460 nm).. These assays also can be used with fluorometers such as the Qubit® (Thermo Scientific) and QuantiFluor™-P (Promega). However, due to different linear ranges of the assays, not all of these assays are compatible with the pre-programmed DNA quantitation programs on these instruments. For users who own a Qubit® fluorometer, we recommend using our AccuGreen™ kit, which is designed for use on that instrument.. The AccuGreen™ High Sensitivity DNA Quantitation kit is designed for use on the Qubit® fluorometer. It can be used in the preprogrammed Qubit® dsDNA High Sensitivity assay, and is a direct replacement for the ...
Purified Fixable Dead Cell Staining Kit (Red Fluorescence) from Creative Biomart. Fixable Dead Cell Staining Kit (Red Fluorescence) can be used for research.
A split-EGFP bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay was used to visualise and locate three interacting pairs of proteins from the GAL genetic switch of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both the Gal4p-Gal80p and Gal80p-Gal3p pairs were found to be located in the nucleus under indu …
Fluorescence reading or fluorescence measurement is the measurement of the light rays coming out of the fluorescent particle by energizing through the light at much greater energy and comparatively much lesser wavelength. In this process, a sample is energized through the light generated using a source of light and then screened at a certain wavelength, either using a screener or monochromator.. The samples post being energized mostly radiate the lights at minimal energy and greater wavelength in comparison with the energized light and fluorescence within no time after energizing. The light post emission is screened, captured, and measured as well using detectors. Fluorescence reader comes handy in such occasions.. Energy emission mechanism. Great to see is the way the fluorescence has developed in terms of its standard in the past twenty years. This has made the intensity calculation of fluorescence a highly acclaimed method of fluorescence reader. Making things even more encouraging, there are ...
The strong fluorescence response (10-fold increase) after induction with IPTG shows the functionality of GFP inside the fusion protein. After the induction a TEV protease is produced which is specifically cutting the recognition sequence build inside the linker (K1319016) between GFP and K1319002. The cutting results in a separation of GFP and REACh2 resulting in a collapse of the FRET system between the two. This results in a fluorescence signal of GFP due to the fact that the emission is no longer absorbed by REACh2 and emitted as heat but rather as fluorescence with a wavelength of 511 nm. The overall fluorescence of the double plasmid system reaches the fluorescence level of the positive control indicating a total clavage of all fusion proteins by the produced TEV protease. The very low fluorescence in the non induced double plasmid system of K1319014 and K1319008 shows the functionality of K1319002. As established before, the GFP is being expressed correctly inside the fusion protein, ...
The brightness and stability cerFP505 are similar to other fluorescent proteins used in biomedical research. The fluorescence can be switched on and off, Scope)
바로가기 ,. Abstract. In vivo tumor labeling with fluorescent agents may assist endoscopic and surgical guidance for cancer therapy as well as create opportunities to directly observe cancer biology in patients. However, malignant and nonmalignant tissues are usually distinguished on fluorescence images by applying empirically determined fluorescence intensity thresholds. Here, we report the development of fSTREAM, a set of analytic methods designed to streamline the analysis of surgically excised breast tissues by collecting and statistically processing hybrid multiscale fluorescence, color, and histology readouts toward precision fluorescence imaging. fSTREAM addresses core questions of how to relate fluorescence intensity to tumor tissue and how to quantitatively assign a normalized threshold that sufficiently differentiates tumor tissue from healthy tissue. Using fSTREAM we assessed human breast tumors stained in vivo with fluorescent bevacizumab at microdose levels. Showing that ...
Think about fireworks again. You can see them live, or on a screen, or in a photo. Seeing them live is best, but usually you cant do that and you need to rely on someone filming or photographing. Sometimes the filming or photographing is good, sometimes its not, and so what you see can range from terrific to terrible. Its the same with photographing fluorescence and phosphorescence. Photographing fluorescence is challenging. There are many terrible photos of it around, especially on eBay. Photographing phosphorescence, however, is much more challenging. You have to turn the UV lamps off and immediately open the shutter. A typical setting for my fluorescence photos is [ 1 sec @ f5.6 @ ISO100 ]. A typical setting for my phosphorescence photos is [ 30 sec @ f3.5 @ ISO4000 ]. Based on these settings, the total exposure value for the phosphorescence photo is 3,840 times that for the fluorescence photo.*. The brightness of fluorescence and phosphorescence can vary greatly from rock to rock. One ...
The fully sequenced pCERI is transformed into E.coli BL21 and E.coli Nissle 1917 that are used for the characterization of our regulatory system. The expression efficiency of the genes of interest is characterized by a fluorescence-based assay (Results) Overnight cultures of both recombinant strains are inoculated with single colonies. The overnight cultures are diluted with LB-Amp to an OD of 0.02. 200 μ of the dilutions are pipetted in microtiter plates and incubated at 37 °C in the plate reader. Every 15 minutes mRFP fluorescence (Ex. 584 nm, Em. 607 nm), CFP fluorescence (Ex. 439 nm, Em. 476) and OD600 is measured over a period of 13 h. The measured RFU (relative fluorescence unit) is either blotted against time or against OD600 to evaluate the expression behavior of pCERI. Additionally several samples are either induced with 0.1 -50 nM of 3OC6-HSL and 0.1-100 nM of C8-HSL to explore putative advantages of higher HSL-synthesis, that might be possible by positioning each HSL-synthase, ...
Although different FPs can be employed for BiFC studies, the GFP variants eYFP (enhanced YFP) and mVenus have been most extensively used (Kerppola, 2008; Waadt et al., 2014). Several distinct sites within the eYFP (or mVenus) protein have been found to allow for efficient reconstitution after splitting into separate fragments. Commonly, eYFP is split between Ala-154 and Asp-155 located between the seventh and the eighth β-sheet (Hu et al., 2002; Walter et al., 2004), between Glu-172 and Asp-173 within the linker separating the eighth and the ninth β-sheet (Hu and Kerppola, 2003; Waadt et al., 2008), and, more recently, after residue 210 within the loop separating the tenth and the eleventh β-sheet (Ohashi et al., 2012; Gookin and Assmann, 2014). Although fragmentation at position 172 appears to result in the strongest signal intensity of reconstituted YFP fluorescence, it also enhances unwanted background fluorescence. The split after residue 154 still allows for efficient reconstitution of ...
A nonfluorescent coumarin-malonitrile conjugate (1) was transformed into a strongly fluorescent molecule through the Michael addition of a thiol group to the α,β-unsaturated malonitrile of 1. The molecular probe has exhibited a highly selective fluorescence response toward biothiols (Cys, Hcy, GSH) with micr
Article Introduction to Fluorescence for Oil in Water Monitoring. Fluorescence can be found in many applications throughout our day-to-day routines. Commercially, one of the most obvious uses is in fluorescent lighting. For this, fluorescence is us...
Background autofluorescence of biological samples often complicates fluorescence-based imaging techniques, especially in aged human...
I perform immunophenotyping of human lymphocytes by flow cytometry. I use 1% paraformaldehyde solution (PFA; Sigma) in PBS for cell fixation. The autofluorescence of fixed cell exited at 488nm is increased 6-7 fold comparing to nonfixed control. 1. Can someone suggest me an alternative PFA source which gives minimal autofluorescence? 2. Can someone suggest me a post-fixation protocol which reduces PFA-fixed cell autofluorescence? Thank you. Dr. L. Volkov ...
The use of flat focusing devices, such as Fresnel lenses and holographic optical elements, for the passive optical separation of fluorescence and scattered light is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. Although flat lenses do not focus incident light isochronically, and should therefore have different spatial focusing characteristics for very short pulses (scattered light) and pseudo-continuous-wave signals (fluorescence), the optical quality of the flat lenses tested is insufficient to achieve such discrimination. Additionally, if the coherence length of the fluorescence is less than the difference in optical pathlength from extreme positions on the flat lens, fluorescence cannot be considered to be a pseudo-cw signal; this limitation constrains the potential applications of such instrumentation.. PDF Article ...
Bimoleküler Floresan tamamlama akış sitometrik analizi protein-protein etkileşimleri incelemek için bir yüksek kapasiteli nicel yöntem...
This fluorescence image gallery explores over 30 of the most common cell lines, labeled with a variety of fluorophores using both traditional staining methods as well as immunofluorescence techniques. This fluorescence image gallery explores over 30 of the most common cell lines, labeled with a variety of fluorophores using both traditional staining methods as well as immunofluorescence techniques.
The compact and power-friendly design of NIGHTSEAs Stereo Microscope Fluorescence Adapter allows you to take it anywhere! Watch this video of fluorescence microscopy at a rocky cove.
Watch this video to learn about the NIGHTSEA Model SFA Stereo Microscope Fluorescence Adapter system, designed to add fluorescence to any stereo microscope at a fraction of what you might expect to pay. Discover how this complete modular system provides everything you need to go from zero to fluorescence in under 60 seconds.
Absorption of energy as light by some molecules and emission of energy as fluorescence can occur only at certain wavelengths, which are characteristic for a given molecule (fluorophore)
Press release - business new - Global Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Market 2018 - Leica, Olympus - published on
Book Allergy Cephalosporin Fluorescence Assay Blood @Home at Best Prices at the slot of your choice. View details of test: When to take, What is the normal range & Get reports Online.
Tripathi V, Das R. 2020. A Fluorescence-Based Assay to Monitor SUMOylation in Real-Time.. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 101(1):e111. ...
Lumenera Research grade Peltier cooled CCD digital microscope cameras for scientific, laboratory, research, biomedical. FISH, FRET, FRAP, FLIM, fluorescence, peltier cooled CCD sensors, ultra low light sensitivity, trace fluorescence. Knowledgeable staff.
The Nightseaâ ¢ fluorescence stereo microscope adapter equips most dissecting/stereo microscopes for use with fluorescence with no modification. - Page O15 Introduction to Fluorescence Sensing [4095772] - IntroductionnChapter 1. Basic principlesn1.1. Overview of strategies in molecular sensingn1.2. Labeled targets in fluorescence assaysn1.3. Competitor displacement assaysn1.4. Sandwich assaysn1.5. Catalytic biosensorsn1.6. Direct reagent-independent sensingnSensing and thinking 1: How to make the best sensor? Comparison of basic principlesnnChapter 2. Theoretical aspectsn2.1. Parameters that need to be optimized in every sensorn2.2.
Comprehensive whitepapers and specialist articles on the subject of fluorescence in biotechnology, life sciences, pharmacy, healthcare, diagnostics, bioinformatics. Find comprehensive information on the latest methods, processes, trends and applications.
52 mg of fluorescent product per mL of suspension, while in NC-RS100 and in NC-S100, the liquid portion was 333 μL/10 mL of suspension corresponding to learn more approximately 3.15 mg of fluorescent product per mL of suspension. It is important to note that … Continue reading →. ...
thus, ZnTs play a central role in zinc homeostasis. We have recently shown the in situ dimerization and function of multiple normal and mutant ZnTs using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC ...
Services provided: Common fluorescent emission studies, for more information contact Dr.K.Sudhakaraprasad, [email protected] ...
Prior LUMEN 220 Fluorescence Illumination System with Extended UV and IR Output - This illumination system lasts about 2000 hours, remote mounting, and an easy to read display.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Discover our protocol describing the procedure of fluorescence activated cell sorting of live cell populations. Including tips to keep cells viable.
Be extraordinary. iStyles your HP TouchPad with a Fluorescence Blue HP TouchPad Skin. Vibrant, premium quality decal, no bulk, provides scratch protection.
The |i|Journal of Biomedical Optics|/i| (JBO) publishes peer-reviewed papers on the use of novel optical systems and techniques for improved health care and biomedical research.
Introduction to Fluorescence de David M. Jameson en - ISBN 10: 1439806047 - ISBN 13: 9781439806043 - CRC Press - 2014 - Tapa dura
When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If youre eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator. If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
Activation key to upgrade the CytoFLEX S V2-B2-Y3-R2 flow cytometer with additional parameters. Upon installation the instrument will have 4 active lasers (405 nm, 488 nm, 561 nm, 638 nm) and 13 channels for fluorescence detection in the V4-B2-Y4-R3 configuration.
CLIP-Cell™ Block (bromothenylcytosine, BTC) is a non-fluorescent compound that blocks the reactivity of the CLIP-tag™ in vitro and inside or on the surface of living cells. It can be used to generate inactive controls in live cell labeling experiments performed with CLIP-tag fusion proteins. BTC reacts with CLIP-tag irreversibly, inactivating it for subsequent labeling steps.
Optical imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to study physiological, neurological, oncological, cell biological, molecular, developmental, immunological, and infectious processes
Objective Using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR to detect mitochondrial DNA content changes within HepG2 cells induced by d4T and AZT. Methods HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations(0,3,10,100,200,300μmol/L) of d4T and AZT respectively for two weeks. And then mitochondrial DNA contents were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Results Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was set up successfully to detect mitochondrial DNA contents. Mitochondrial DNA relative amounts were 96.94±5.77, 53.73±7.14, 20.78±3.10, 1.37±0.29 respectively with d4T concentrations of 0, 3, 10, 100μmol/L. The differences between groups were significant(P0.01). However, they were 96.94±5.77, 108.84±7.80, 172.56±4.70, 199.51±10.37, 158.74±6.64 and 64.06±6.27 respectively with AZT concentrations of 0, 3, 10, 100, 200, 300μmol/L, and the differences between groups were significant(P0.01). Conclusions It is practicable to detect mitochondrial DNA contents with real-time fluorescence
Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent ...
Metabolic stress occurs at disease onset and causes altered flavoprotein redox activity that increases flavoprotein autofluorescence (FA).
Fluorescence describes the illumination created when a diamond is exposed to ultraviolet light. Faint of medium fluorescence rarely affects a diamonds appearance, but stronger fluorescence may have an impact on the perceived color. For instance, with a yellowish diamond with a strong blue fluorescence, the fluorescence can be strong enough to mask the yellowish tint when viewed under fluorescent lighting. When looked at under different lighting, that same diamond can look very different. Also, the opposite is possible as well - diamonds that fluoresce yellow may look more yellow under ultraviolet lighting, and whiter under incandescent lighting ...
Introduction: This is a preliminary report of an ongoing prospective bimodality lung cancer surveillance trial for high-risk patients. Bimodality surveillance incorporates autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) and spiral CT (SCT) in high-risk patients as a primary lung cancer surveillance strategy, based entirely on risk factors. AFB was used for surveillance and findings were compared with conventional sputum cytology (CSC) for the detection of malignancy and premalignant central airway lesions. Eligibility: For eligibility, patients were required to have at least two of the following risk factors: 1) , 20 pack year history of tobacco use, 2) asbestos-related lung disease on chest radiograph, 3) COPD with an FEV-1 , 70% of predicted, and 4) prior aerodigestive cancer treated with curative intent, with no evidence of disease for , 2 years. All eligible patients under went AFB, a low dose SCT of the chest without contrast, and a sputum sample was collected for cytology. Bronchoscopy biopsy findings ...
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Automated plant phenotyping has been established as a powerful new tool in studying plant growth, development and response to various types of biotic or abiotic stressors. Respective facilities mainly apply non-invasive imaging based methods, which enable the continuous quantification of the dynamics of plant growth and physiology during developmental progression. However, especially for plants of larger size, integrative, automated and high throughput measurements of complex physiological parameters such as photosystem II efficiency determined through kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence analysis remain a challenge. We present the technical installations and the establishment of experimental procedures that allow the integrated high throughput imaging of all commonly determined PSII parameters for small and large plants using kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence imaging systems (FluorCam, PSI) integrated into automated phenotyping facilities (Scanalyzer, LemnaTec). Besides determination of the maximum PSII
A new type of modulation fluorometer was used in the study of energy-dependent chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (qE) in intact leaves. Under conditions of strong energization of the thylakoid membrane (high light intensity, absence of CO2) not only variable fluorescence, FV, but also dark-level fluorescence, FO, was quenched, leading to definition of a quenching coefficient, qO. Information on qO was shown to be essential for correct determination of photochemical (qQ) and energy dependent quenching (qE) by the saturation pulse method. The relationship between qE and qO was analysed over a range of light intensities at steady state conditions. qE was found to consist of two components, the second of which is linearly correlated with qO. qO and the second component of qE are interpreted to reflect the state 1 - state 2 shift caused by LHC II phosphorylation.
Because fluorescence consists of photons at a longer wavelength than the excitation radiation, the fluorescence signal can be easily separated from the excitation light using a beamsplitter and/or filters. Unlike other forms of microscopy that utilise reflected or scattered light, this means that very weak fluorescence signals - down to a single photon - can be detected. In turn, this means that a single fluorescent tag can be imaged - enabling visualisation of the distribution of individual biological molecules. The figure shows the most common form of fluorescence microscope where excitation light is reflected by a dichroic beamsplitter and illuminates the field of view to produce fluorescence at a wavelength that is transmitted by the dichroic beamsplitter. The fluorescence image is formed by the action of the two lenses, known as the objective lens, which captures the light from the sample, and the tube lens that forms a real image at the camera. This configuration is called an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The sentinel margin. T2 - Intraoperative ex vivo specimen mapping using relative fluorescence intensity. AU - Van Keulen, Stan. AU - Nishio, Naoki. AU - Birkeland, Andrew. AU - Fakurnejad, Shayan. AU - Martin, Brock. AU - Forouzanfar, Tim. AU - Cunanan, Kristen. AU - Colevas, A. DImitrios. AU - Van Den Berg, Nynke S.. AU - Rosenthal, Eben. PY - 2019/8/1. Y1 - 2019/8/1. N2 - Purpose: Despite major advancements in surgical oncology, the positive margin rate for primary head and neck cancer resection remains around 15%-30%. In particular, the deep surface margin is the most challenging to adequately assess. Inadequate margins are directly correlated to poor survival, and as such, mitigation of these rates is critical to improve patient outcomes. We have developed an ex vivo imaging strategy that utilizes fluorescence intensity peaks (relative to background signal) of an injected anti-EGFR antibody conjugated to a fluorescent probe to locate potential close or positive margins on the ...
This image was produced using fluorescence microscopy, staining the cells with compounds that bind to the cell walls and fluoresce. The blue cells have walls made of cellulose and their blue fluorescence is due to the calcofluor that theyve been stained with, which fluoresces blue in ultraviolet light. Calcofluor has been used as a blue whitener in washing powders - it binds to the cellulose in cotton fabrics and fluoresces faintly blue in the UV component of sunlight. The yellow staining is due to another fluorescent dye (fluorochrome) called auramine O, which binds to cutin in the outer cuticle of the plant, and to dead, lignified cell walls that give the stem its strength - and it fluoresces yellow. The cuticle in this cross section is the thin yellow line covering the outer surface of the section. The yellow circle in the centre is composed of dead, lignified cells - not particularly well developed in goosegrass because it scrambles over surrounding vegetation rather then investing ...
Fast and non-invasive, diagnostic techniques based on fluorescence spectroscopy have the potential to link the biochemical and morphologic properties of tissues to individual patient care. One of the most widely explored applications of fluorescence spectroscopy is the detection of endoscopically invisible, early neoplastic growth in epithelial tissue sites. Currently, there are no effective diagnostic techniques for these early tissue transformations. If fluorescence spectroscopy can be applied successfully as a diagnostic technique in this clinical context, it may increase the potential for curative treatment, and thus, reduce complications and health care costs. Steady-state, fluorescence measurements from small tissue regions as well as relatively large tissue fields have been performed. To a much lesser extent, time-resolved, fluorescence measurements have also been explored for tissue characterization. Furthermore, sources of both intrinsic (endogenous fluorophores) and extrinsic ...
In this work, we report the optical and thermal properties of Cu(BTC)·3H2O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) and Zn(ADC)·DMSO (ADC = 9,10- anthracenedicarboxylic acid, DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) micro/nanopillars. The morphologies of MOFs on surfaces are most in the form of micro/nanopillars that were vertically oriented on the surface. The size and morphology of the pillars depend on the evaporation time, concentration, solvent, substrate, and starting volume of solutions. The crystal structures of the nanopillars and micropillars are the same, confirmed by powder XRD. Zn(ADC)·DMSO pillars have a strong blue fluorescence. Most of ADC in the pillars are in the form of monomers, which is different from ADC in the solid powder.
Frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate way of measuring fluorescence lifetimes in widefield microscopy. However, the resolution of multiple exponential fluorescence decays has remained beyond the reach of most practical FD-FLIM systems. In this paper we describe the implementation of FD-FLIM using a 40MHz pulse train derived from a supercontinuum source for excitation. The technique, which we term multi-harmonic FLIM (mhFLIM), makes it possible to accurately resolve biexponential decays of fluorophores without any a priori information. The systems performance is demonstrated using a mixture of spectrally similar dyes of known composition and also on a multiply-labeled biological sample. The results are compared to those obtained from time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) microscopy and a good level of agreement is achieved. We also demonstrate the first practical application of an algorithm derived by G. Weber [1] for analysing mhFLIM ...
Location: 1-158 Jackson Hall. This system is equipped with pulsed 405 and 485 nm lasers for FLIM. FLIM is the acronym for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy and is the technique that maps the spatial distribution of fluorescence lifetimes within microscopic images of fixed or living cells. The fluorescence lifetime measures the time that a population of fluorescent molecules spends in the excited state. The fluorescence lifetime does not change upon intensity variations and therefore lifetime measurements are not dependent on the local concentration of fluorophores, or variations in the optical path of the microscope, the local excitation light intensity, or on the local fluorescence detection efficiency.. The FLIM is a time domain system, and uses pulsed lasers at 405 and 488 nm. The detector on the system is a Hybrid GaAsP cathode with three possible emission filter setups - a 480/30nm band pass for CFP emission, a 460LP and a 525/50 nm bandpass filter for GFP. ...
A biological fluorescence diagnostic apparatus having a device for irradiating a biological tissue with light which excites the tissue to generate fluorescent light, and a device for taking a fluorescence image of the biological tissue passing through an ocular optical system of an endoscope. The apparatus further has a television camera unit including a television camera for taking an ordinary endoscopic observation image passing through the ocular optical system, and a television camera with an image intensifier for taking a fluorescence observation image passing through the ocular optical system after amplifying the light intensity of the image. An optical path switching system which includes a reflective surface is selectively inserted and withdrawn from the optical path of light passing through the ocular optical system so as to selectively produce ordinary and fluorescence images in the television camera unit. A filter is selectively inserted into and movable out of an illuminating light path of
Background/Aims: In vivo autofluorescence endoscopic imaging and spectroscopy have been used to detect and differentiate benign ( hyperplastic) and preneoplastic ( adenomatous) colonic lesions. This fluorescence is composed of contributions from the epithelium, lamina propria, and submucosa. Because epithelial autofluorescence in normal and diseased tissues is poorly understood, this was the focus of the present study. Methods: Whole colonic crypts were isolated, and short term primary cultures of epithelial cells were established from biopsies of normal, hyperplastic, and adenomatous colon. Autofluorescence ( 488 nm excitation) was examined by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescently labelled organelle probes and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify subcellular sources of fluorescence. Results: Mitochondria and lysosomes were identified as the main intracellular fluorescent components in all cell types. Normal and hyperplastic epithelial cells were weakly ...
What is Fluorescence Spectroscopy? Fluorescence is a type of luminescence caused by photons exciting a molecule, raising it to an electronic excited state. Overview of what is fluorescence, what is a fluorescence spectrum, what materials exhibit fluorescence.
High-resolution spectrometers enable new avenues in global carbon cycle research, including the first accurate retrievals of chlorophyll fluorescence from space as an indicator of photosynthetic activity.
(a) Representative in vivo fluorescence images of MGC803-tumour-bearing mouse after iv-injected with FA-AlexaFluor647-labeled pRNA nanoparticle. The tumor areas
Quantum dot (QD) labeling combined with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy is proposed as a powerful transduction technique for the detection of DNA hybridization events. Fluorescence lifetime analysis of DNA microarray spots of hybridized QD labeled target indicated a characteristic lifetime value of 18.8 ns, compared to 13.3 ns obtained for spots of free QD solution, revealing that QD labels are sensitive to the spot microenvironment. Additionally, time gated detection was shown to improve the microarray image contrast ratio by 1.8, achieving femtomolar target sensitivity. Finally, lifetime multiplexing based on Qdot525 and Alexa430 was demonstrated using a single excitation-detection readout channel.
Homologous recombination (HR) plays an important role in cell proliferation and maintaining genomic stability by repairing DNA double-strand breaks that occur during replication. RAD51, a key protein of HR in eukaryotes, can have increased expression levels in tumor cells, which correlates with resistance to anticancer therapy. Therefore, inhibition of RAD51 targeted by inhibitors can improve tumor response to therapy. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the activity of RAD51, we screened Prestwick library (1120 molecules) for their effect on the strand exchange reaction catalyzed by RAD51. We found that the Chicago Sky Blue (CSB) is a potent inhibitor of the RAD51, showed IC₅₀ values ​​in the low nanomolar range (400 nM). Biochemical analysis showed that the mechanism of inhibition may occur by interfering with RAD51 association with a single strand of DNA, which prevents the formation of nucleoprotein filaments, the first step of protein activity. Structure Activity ...
Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
The present invention provides a technology called Pulse-Multiline Excitation or PME. This technology provides a novel approach to fluorescence detection with application for high-throughput identification of informative SNPs, which could lead to more accurate diagnosis of inherited disease, better prognosis of risk susceptibilities, or identification of sporadic mutations. The PME technology has two main advantages that significantly increase fluorescence sensitivity: (1) optimal excitation of all fluorophores in the genomic assay and (2) color-blind detection, which collects considerably more light than standard wavelength resolved detection. Successful implementation of the PME technology will have broad application for routine usage in clinical diagnostics, forensics, and general sequencing methodologies and will have the capability, flexibility, and portability of targeted sequence variation assays for a large majority of the population ...
Fluorescence enhancement of QDs coupled to NPAs.(a) QD fluorescence intensity as a function of average incident laser power in three cases-on a glass slide, o
Both fluorescence and photoactivity activatable probes are particularly valuable for cancer theranostics as they allow for sensitive fluorescence diagnosis and on-demand photodynamic therapy (PDT) against targeted cancer cells at the same time, which undoubtedly promote the diagnostic accuracy and reduce the side e Cancer Diagnostics
Until now the fluorescence assay with ethidium bromide has only been used on pure DNA. This assay depends on the difference in fluorescence between single- and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Cross-links in DNA are measured by the return of fluorescence of dsDNA after heat denaturation at pH 12. Under …
HORIBA Scientific offers Lifetime Fluorescence Spectroscopy solutions for changes in Fluorescence over time when irradiated with UV, Visible or near-IR Light. Fluorescence Decay can be measured from picoseconds to milliseconds.
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If there is only very minimal starting material and therefore a correspondingly low concentration of cDNA is available. The optimised reflection properties of the wells of white Multiply® PCR plates effectively prevent crosstalk between the wells and increase the fluorescence level of the qPCR reaction by a factor of 10. In this way, reliable Ct values can still be generated through the common qPCR cycles even when there is only a small volume of starting material. If you are aiming to achieve the lowest possible variability. The optimised reflection properties of the white Multiply® PCR plates ensure an even and stable fluorescence level of the qPCR reaction. This leads to a significantly improved reproducibility of the measurement results and increased accuracy. Tip: In order to further improve the variability, we recommend processing at least the template DNA and better still all of the reagents used, with our low retention pipette tips. If you are aiming to save reagents. The optimised ...
If there is only very minimal starting material and therefore a correspondingly low concentration of cDNA is available. The optimised reflection properties of the wells of white Multiply® PCR plates effectively prevent crosstalk between the wells and increase the fluorescence level of the qPCR reaction by a factor of 10. In this way, reliable Ct values can still be generated through the common qPCR cycles even when there is only a small volume of starting material. If you are aiming to achieve the lowest possible variability. The optimised reflection properties of the white Multiply® PCR plates ensure an even and stable fluorescence level of the qPCR reaction. This leads to a significantly improved reproducibility of the measurement results and increased accuracy. Tip: In order to further improve the variability, we recommend processing at least the template DNA and better still all of the reagents used, with our low retention pipette tips. If you are aiming to save reagents. The optimised ...
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The RNAscope® Multiplex Fluorescent assay is ideal for multiplex ISH to simultaneously analyze mRNA levels from up to three different genes and enable gene expression studies in specific sub-cell populations. This webinar will help new or recent users understand the RNAscope® Multiplex Fluorescent manual assay and discuss how to produce quality results with simple and easy
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As briefly stated in a previous section on the fluid mosaic model of biological membranes, proteins and phospholipids diffuse both laterally and, to a lesser extent transversely, through the entire span of a membrane. This sort of behavior can be characterized by fluorescence microscopy. This particular technique is called FRAP or fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching. In a typical procedure, a specific portion of a cellular membrane is first tagged with a fluorescent chromophore. Next, an intense light is pulsed over a small part of the fluorescent-marked region and viewed under a microscope. As a result of the exposure to the powerful laser-light, the fluorescent molecules are bleached (destroyed). The bleached region is then monitored over time for the recovery of fluorescence (as neighboring unbleached molecules moving towards the bleached areas).This can determine the availability state of a protein - whether it is free to diffuse or is already bounded. The rate at which the recovery ...
The organic electroluminescent device of the present invention has at least one organic compound layer containing a light-emitting layer between an anode and a cathode. The organic compound layer contains a fluorescent light-emitting compound emitting fluorescence at a time that voltage is applied and an amplifying agent. A phosphorescent light-emitting maximum wavelength of the amplifying agent is 500 nm or less, and the light emission at a time that voltage is applied is derived mainly from light emission of a fluorescent compound. In order to amplify intensity of emission at a time that voltage is applied It is preferable that the amplifying agent be capable of amplifying the number of singlet excitons generated at a time that voltage is applied.
Pan, Xiangliang et al. A comparison of five extraction methods for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from biofilm by using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Water SA (Online), Jan 2010, vol.36, no.1, p.111-116. ISSN 1816- ...
Here, industry expert Tony OLenick explains the difference between color and fluorescence, as understanding the effects of fluorescence can lead to a better visual appearance to skin.
The application of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy to the quantitative analysis of complex, aqueous solutions of cell culture media components was investigated. These components, yeastolate ...
He fluorescence enhancement must be the AP site involved. The optical properties of SG bound in the AP site environment should be different from that directly
Advanced LED light source for fluorescence excitation. The X-Cite XLED1 is a high-power LED light source designed to optimize fluorophore excitation with unmatched LED switching speeds. Its unique plug-and-play modularity allows the system to evolve alongside changing research applications, with easily interchangeable LED modules. With unprecedented wavelength switching speeds to capture fast cell dynamics and advanced triggering options including X-Cite Live Cell Mode to extend live-cell imaging experiments, the X-Cite XLED1 represents the industrys next generation of fluorescence LED illumination.. Features:. ...
Zn(II) binding increases fluorescence intensity, while Cu(II) binding quenches fluorescence and shifts the absorbance maximum ... The fluorescence quantum yield (QY) of GFP is 0.79. The GFP from the sea pansy (Renilla reniformis) has a single major ... EGFP has an extinction coefficient (denoted ε) of 55,000 M−1cm−1.[19] The fluorescence quantum yield (QY) of EGFP is 0.60. The ... Yuste R (Dec 2005). "Fluorescence microscopy today". Nature Methods. 2 (12): 902-4. doi:10.1038/nmeth1205-902. PMID 16299474. ...
"Sorting Out Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting". Retrieved 2017-11-09.. *^ Julius MH, Masuda T, Herzenberg LA (1972). " ... Java Fluorescence Spectrum Viewer (Becton, Dickinson and Company). *The History of the Cell Sorter Interviews from the ... The current record for a commercial instrument is ten lasers[6] and 30 fluorescence detectors.[7] Increasing the number of ... Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is a specialized type of flow cytometry. It provides a method for sorting a ...
In 1852, in his famous paper on the change of wavelength of light, he described the phenomenon of fluorescence, as exhibited by ... with notable works on polarization and fluorescence. As a mathematician, he popularised "Stokes' theorem" in vector calculus ...
Fluorescence[edit]. The quinine in tonic water will fluoresce under ultraviolet light. In fact, the sensitivity of quinine to ...
Comparison with fluorescence[edit]. See also: Fluorescence in the life sciences. Prior to the widespread use of fluorescence in ... Fluorescence is not necessary easier or more convenient to use because fluorescence requires specialized equipment of its own ... The primary advantage of fluorescence over radiotracers is that it does not require radiological controls and their associated ... In contrast, many life science fluorescence applications are indirect, consisting of a fluorescent dye increasing, decreasing, ...
Fluorescence[edit]. Blebbistatin is a relatively strong fluorophore. When dissolved in water, it absorbs at 340 nm and emits at ... Its fluorescence is less than 1% of that of blebbistatin myosin inhibitory properties are similar to those of blebbistatin. It ... This derivative was developed in 2005 to increase the photostability and decrease the fluorescence of blebbistatin.[42] (S)- ... This photo-instability, phototoxicity and fluorescence makes in-vivo imaging of blebbistatin-treated samples impossible. ...
Fluorescence. Fluorescence, a type of photoluminescence, is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or ... Unlike fluorescence, a phosphorescent material does not immediately re-emit the radiation it absorbs. ...
Fluorescence studies. *Semiconductor material analysis and structural studies. *Geological material analysis. *Medical imaging ...
... including a green pigment which fluoresces with a yellow-green light and a pigment with blue-white fluorescence.[28] ... "Azotobacter Fluorescence". Journal of Bacteriology. 69 (4): 481-482. doi:10.1128/JB.69.4.481-482.1955. PMC 357568. PMID ...
Yuste R (2005). "Fluorescence microscopy today". Nature Methods. 2 (12): 902-904. PMID 16299474. doi:10.1038/nmeth1205-902.. ... For example, indirect immunofluorescence will allow for fluorescence colocalization and demonstration of location. Fluorescent ...
... x-ray fluorescence; electro-analytical techniques (e.g., stripping voltammetry); and neutron activation analysis. Inductively ...
Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy Archived 1 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine 3rd edition. Springer (2006). ISBN 978- ... Because of its relatively constant and well-known fluorescence quantum yield, quinine is used in photochemistry as a common ... "Basic Concepts in Fluorescence". Archived from the original on 13 September 2012.. ... fluorescence standard.[25][26] Contraindications[edit]. Because of the narrow difference between its therapeutic and toxic ...
UV can also cause many substances to glow with visible light; this is called fluorescence. ...
Stefan Dithmar; Frank Gerhard Holz (28 April 2008). Fluorescence Angiography in Ophthalmology. Springer. pp. 168-. ISBN 978-3- ...
At small strains, elastin confers stiffness to the tissue and stores most of the strain energy. The collagen fibers are comparatively inextensible and are usually loose (wavy, crimped). With increasing tissue deformation the collagen is gradually stretched in the direction of deformation. When taut, these fibers produce a strong growth in tissue stiffness. The composite behavior is analogous to a nylon stocking, whose rubber band does the role of elastin as the nylon does the role of collagen. In soft tissues, the collagen limits the deformation and protects the tissues from injury. Human soft tissue is highly deformable, and its mechanical properties vary significantly from one person to another. Impact testing results showed that the stiffness and the damping resistance of a test subject's tissue are correlated with the mass, velocity, and size of the striking object. Such properties may be useful for forensics investigation when contusions were induced.[4] When a solid object impacts a human ...
To improve fluorescence quantum yield, quantum dots can be made with "shells" of a larger bandgap semiconductor material around ... Fluorescence spectra of CdTe quantum dots of various sizes. Different sized quantum dots emit different color light due to ... This is called fluorescence. In a simplified model, the energy of the emitted photon can be understood as the sum of the band ... Furthermore, it was shown [41] that the lifetime of fluorescence is determined by the size of the quantum dot. Larger dots have ...
Edelhoch, H., Brand, L., Wilchek, M. (1967). "Fluorescence studies with tryptophyl peptides". Biochemistry. 6 (2): 547-559. doi ...
"In DeEll JA, Toivonen PM (eds.). Practical Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Plant Biology. Dordrecht, the ... Chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem II can measure the light reaction, and Infrared gas analyzers can measure the dark ... "In Papaqeorgiou G, Govindjee (eds.). Chlorophylla Fluorescence a Signature of Photosynthesis. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: ... But analysis of chlorophyll-fluorescence, P700- and P515-absorbance and gas exchange measurements reveal detailed information ...
A tryptophan fluorescence quenching analysis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (25): 17649-54. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.25. ... The structures described also highlight the dynamic nature of ABC exporters as also suggested by fluorescence and EPR studies. ... A fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and tryptophan fluorescence quenching analysis". The ... fluorescent or have a fluorescent tag so that the radioactivity or fluorescence retained on the filter can be quantified. ...
Fluorescence is only active if the molecules of the substrate are halved. The DNA enzyme simulate logical functions. For ... Weiss, S. (1999). "Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Single Biomolecules". Science. 283 (5408): 1676-1683. Bibcode:1999Sci... ... While other materials can be used, most models use a fluorescence-based substrate because it is very easy to detect, even at ... the single molecule limit.[26] The amount of fluorescence can then be measured to tell whether or not a reaction took place. ...
225-226 Other techniques are X-ray fluorescence, electron microprobe analysis and optical emission spectrography.[9]:227-232 ...
The fluorescence that is created by the dye makes problem areas more visible and easily identified. A similar concept can be ... The fluorescence of this molecule is very intense; peak excitation occurs at 494 nm and peak emission at 521 nm. ... In cellular biology, the isothiocyanate derivative of fluorescein is often used to label and track cells in fluorescence ... the fluorescence lifetimes of the protonated and deprotonated forms of fluorescein are approximately 3 and 4 ns, which allows ...
Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRF). References[edit]. *^ a b Pawley JB (editor) (2006). Handbook of ... In fluorescence observations, the resolution limit of confocal microscopy is often limited by the signal to noise ratio caused ... All parts of the specimen in the optical path are excited at the same time and the resulting fluorescence is detected by the ... In a conventional (i.e., wide-field) fluorescence microscope, the entire specimen is flooded evenly in light from a light ...
This emission is known as fluorescence. Successively higher electronic states are conventionally named A. {\displaystyle A}. , ... The aforementioned fluorescence occurs in distinct regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, called "emission bands": each band ...
"7 Differences between Fluorescence and Phosphorescence". Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 4 September ... With a few exceptions related to high-energy photons (such as fluorescence, harmonic generation, photochemical reactions, the ... After experimenting with high voltages applied to an evacuated tube on 8 November 1895, he noticed a fluorescence on a nearby ... Immediate photon emission is called fluorescence, a type of photoluminescence. An example is visible light emitted from ...
1991). "Imaging cytometry by multiparameter fluorescence". Cytometry. 12 (7): 579-96. PMID 1782829. doi:10.1002/cyto.990120702. ...
"Directionally Controlled Fluorescence Emission in Butterflies". Science. 310 (5751): 1151. doi:10.1126/science.1116612. PMID ...
Not to be confused with Fluorescence.. "Inflorescent" redirects here. For the Friendly Fires album, see Inflorescent (album). ...
"Assessing phototoxicity in live fluorescence imaging". Nature Methods. 14 (7): 657-661. doi:10.1038/nmeth.4344. hdl:21.11116/ ... "Phototoxicity in live fluorescence microscopy, and how to avoid it". BioEssays. 39 (8): 1700003. doi:10.1002/bies.201700003 ...
Vukusic, Pete; Hooper, Ian (2005). "Directionally Controlled Fluorescence Emission in Butterflies". Science. 310 (5751): 1151. ...
... a fact which has spurred the development of more sophisticated microscopes and fluorescence accessories. ... Fluorescence is the most rapidly expanding microscopy technique in both the medical and biological sciences, ... Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). When the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is applied ... Anatomy of the Fluorescence Microscope. * Olympus BX51 Upright Microscope. Learn about the Olympus BX51 Fluorescence Microscope ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fluorescence in situ hybridization.. *Fluorescent+in+Situ+Hybridization at the US ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only ... Fluorescence microscopy can be used to find out where the fluorescent probe is bound to the chromosomes. FISH is often used for ... Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Photos of bacteria. *Rational design of polynucleotide probe mixes to identify particular ...
is the fluorescence lifetime, I. 0. {\displaystyle I_{0}}. is the initial fluorescence at t. =. 0. {\displaystyle t=0}. , and k ... of the fluorescence signal in time bin i, the lifetime estimation is carried out by minimization of: χ. 2. =. ∑. i. [. d. i. ( ... Imaging technique based on fluorescence. Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy or FLIM is an imaging technique based on the ... Since the fluorescence lifetime of a fluorophore depends on both radiative (i.e. fluorescence) and non-radiative (i.e. ...
The field of fluorescence continues to grow steadily, both in fundamental aspects and applications in a highly ... Fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence imaging and fluorescent probes are indispensible tools in numerous fields of modern ... The field of fluorescence continues to grow steadily, both in fundamental aspects and applications in a highly ... The Springer Series on Fluorescence aims at publishing state-of-the-art articles that can serve as invaluable tools for both ...
... fluorescence (cs); fluorescencija (bs); প্রতিপ্রভা (bn); fluorescence (fr); fluorescencija (hr); Huỳnh quang (vi); Fluorescence ... Media in category "Fluorescence". The following 200 files are in this category, out of 339 total. ... Fluorescence in glow sticks that are yet to be activated.JPG 4,912 × 3,264; 2.31 MB. ... Chlorophyll fluorescence of Elodea canadensis under 405 nm light.jpg 6,016 × 4,000; 7.63 MB. ...
What is fluorescence microscopy?. Fluorescence microscopy is a non-destructive way of tracking or analyzing tissues, cells, or ... The Fluorescence Microscopy and Imaging Center provides intramural researchers with access to a variety of advanced imaging ...
Longworth J.W. (1983) Intrinsic Fluorescence of Proteins. In: Cundall R.B., Dale R.E. (eds) Time-Resolved Fluorescence ... FLUORESCENCE Lupin B.K. Vainshtein, E.G. I.D. Kuranova, V.V. N.I. Sosfenov, A.G. A.I. Grebenko, N.V. Y.V. Nekrasov, Dokl SSSR ... Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Biochemistry and Biology pp 651-725 , Cite as ... 2 We now know that a part of protein fluorescence is visible but difficult to see.3 Proteins largely fluoresce at 300-400nm in ...
Fluorescence imaging. Definition. Fluorescence imaging is the visualization of fluorescent dyes or proteins as labels for ... Non-invasive in vivo fluorescence imaging of apoptotic retinal photoreceptors *Francesca Mazzoni ...
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Radioisotope X Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Technical Reports Series No. 115, IAEA, ...
The intrinsic or natural fluorescence of proteins is perhaps the most complex area of biochemical fluorescence. Fortunately the ... Protein Fluorescence. Editors. * Joseph R. Lacowicz Series Title. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Series Volume. 6. ... The intrinsic or natural fluorescence of proteins is perhaps the most complex area of biochemical fluorescence. Fortunately the ... From the origins of biochemical fluorescence in the 1950s with Prof- sor G. Weber until the mid-1980s, intrinsic protein ...
These two proteins present very similar UV absorption and fluorescence... ... On the contrary, the fluorescence HSA and BSA spectra are not the sum of the emission fluorescence spectra of tyrosine and ... Wuite A., 1959, Effect of pH on fluorescence of tyrosine, tryptophan and related compounds, Biochem. J. 71: 217.Google Scholar ... Significant difference were recorder in the life time fluorescence decay of HSA and BSA, which showed T values of 2.3 and 4.5 ...
Increasing your fluorescence signal using pulsed excitation. Posted by Daniel Evanko , Categories: Microscopy & Imaging, Nature ... Light-induced damage to biological samples during fluorescence imaging is known to occur but receives too little attention by ... dramatically reduce photobleaching and increase the effective fluorescence signal in both single and multi-photon fluorescence ...
Fluorescence Microscopy News and Research. RSS Fluorescence microscopy is an imaging technique used to examine cells and their ... In this interview from SfN 2018, Michelle Gal explains the fluorescence illumination systems for fluorescence microscopy, ... Excelitas to showcase X-Cite fluorescence illumination products at the Digital Pathology & AI Congress Excelitas Technologies ... Excelitas Technologies to display X-Cite fluorescence illumination products at Neuroscience 2018 Excelitas Technologies Corp., ...
... is a recent technique used in the investigation and direct visualization of ... The intensity of fluorescence is determined for every single cell. Selective analysis of BiFC signals is achieved by performing ... The fluorescence intensities should be maintained at constant magnitude in order to prevent development of variation in the ... The efficiencies of fluorescence complementation are determined by the value obtained by division of the intensities of ...
An X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer is an x-ray instrument used for routine, relatively non-destructive chemical analyses ... What is X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). An X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer is an x-ray instrument used for routine, relatively ... Strengths and Limitations of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)? Strengths. X-Ray fluorescence is particularly well-suited for ... X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Instrumentation - How Does It Work?. The analysis of major and trace elements in geological materials ...
Point fluorescence spectroscopy, although playing a crucial role in the pioneering mechanistic development of fluorescence ... A recent addition to the fluorescence endoscopic imaging arsenal is the use of confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy, which ... Fluorescence and Spectral Imaging. Ralph S. DaCosta,1 Brian C. Wilson,1 and Norman E. Marcon2 ... a new and exciting development has been the use of exogenous fluorescence contrast probes that specifically target a variety of ...
Fluorescence Microscopes:. With fluorescence microscopy one is able to determine localization/co-localization as well as mean ... Fluorescence Microscopes:. With fluorescence microscopy one is able to determine localization/co-localization as well as mean ... The CAF Fluorescence Microscopy Unit houses fluorescence-based instruments for assessing the various properties of cells, ... Main Campus: Fluorescence Microscopy Unit. The unit on main campus specializes in confocal microscopy and other advanced ...
The inclusion of bacterial fluorescence imaging work into the UPPER/LOWER checklist may help better identify infection in ... all wounds positive for UPPER/LOWER were also positive for bacterial fluorescence. In 18 (41.9%) of the 43 wounds, fluorescence ... Fluorescence images were taken to detect wounds with high bacterial loads (, 104 CFU/g), indicated by the presence of red or ... Fluorescence imaging (FL) entails the use of a handheld, non-contact imaging device (MolecuLight i:X; MolecuLight Inc) to ...
... light-sheet fluorescence microscopy conference and workshop. The program will provide a combination of virtual and in-person ... such as widefield fluorescence, confocal and multiphoton imaging. However, none of these courses are specifically designed to ...
Multiparamter Fluorescence Detection and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (PIE-MFD/FCS) Single-molecule measurements can ... Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful tool to gain information about dynamics of biomolecules. However, the ... Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements can also be performed with this setup. Diffusion and kinetics of ... Our setup combines the techniques of pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) and multiparameter fluorescence detection (MFD) in ...
We provide specialised X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) services including a range of sample preparation facilities and the analysis of ... Our X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Laboratory in Adelaide offers a range of analytical services on a fee for service basis on most ... The application of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to elemental analysis at the CSIRO Land and Water Adelaide Laboratory goes back to ... We provide specialised X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) services including a range of sample preparation facilities and the analysis of ...
Light-induced damage to biological samples during fluorescence imaging is known to occur but receives too little attention by ...
... released its new INFINITY Fluorescence Series Bundle; a fluorescence microscopy imaging solution consisting of high-end ... Lumeneras INFINITY Fluorescence Series cameras have a new sleek black enclosure, and feature Sony CCD sensors to offer high ... The INFINITY Fluorescence Bundle is now shipping. For additional information on this product or any of Lumeneras INFINITY ... The INFINITY Fluorescence Series Bundle includes an INFINITY3 series camera, with feature-rich software packages to provide ...
To address this, we propose a content-adaptive representation of fluorescence microscopy images, the Adaptive Particle ... Developments in fluorescence microscopy1,2,3, labeling chemistry4, and genetics5 provide the potential to capture and track ... 3D fluorescence APR implementation. When implementing the APR, three design choices have to be made: First, one has to decide ... Adaptive particle representation of fluorescence microscopy images. *Bevan L. Cheeseman ORCID:,2 ...
The fluorescence filter sets online catalog also includes HEX ULTRA Widefield Fluorescence Filter set for LED Light Sources, ... ULTRA Fluorescence Filter Set for LED Light Sources, and the TRITC ULTRA Widefield Fluorescence Filter Set for TRITC, TAMRA, ... the JOE ULTRA Widefield Fluorescence Set for LED Light Sources, and ROX ULTRA Fluorescence Filter Set for LED Light Sources, ... Alluxas New Online Catalog - Order Fluorescence Filter Sets for COVID-19 Testing and Other Real-Time qPCR Applications ...
... James H. Kaysen Ph.D. jhkaysen at Tue May 23 12:17:33 EST 1995 *Previous message ...
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Benefits of metal-enhanced fluorescence compared to traditional fluorescence include:. * Increased efficiency of fluorescence ... Discover how metal-enhanced fluorescence is changing traditional concepts of fluorescence This book collects and analyzes all ... Metal-enhanced fluorescence refers to the use of metal colloids and nanoscale metallic particles in fluorescence systems. It ... Geddes has extensive expertise in fluorescence spectroscopy, particularly in fluorescence sensing and metal-fluorophore ...
A fluorescence diagnosis endoscope system used to observe human tissue is provided. The system has a light source for ... Compact fluorescence endoscopy video system. US6899675. 15 Jan 2002. 31 May 2005. Xillix Technologies Corp.. Fluorescence ... and a fluorescence filter provided in front of said second imaging element, the fluorescence filter preventing transmission of ... Fluorescence endoscopy video systems with no moving parts in the camera. US20050166537 *. 3 Feb 2004. 4 Aug 2005. Geiger Gerard ...
Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy. Gerald Donnert, Jan Keller, Rebecca Medda, M. Alexandra ... Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy. Gerald Donnert, Jan Keller, Rebecca Medda, M. Alexandra ... Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy. Gerald Donnert, Jan Keller, Rebecca Medda, M. Alexandra ...
  • Fluorescence illumination and observation is the most rapidly expanding microscopy technique employed today, both in the medical and biological sciences, a fact which has spurred the development of more sophisticated microscopes and numerous fluorescence accessories. (
  • Unlike other modes of optical microscopy based on macroscopic specimen features, such as birefringence, fluorescence microscopy is capable of imaging the distribution of a single molecular species based solely on the properties of fluorescence emission. (
  • Reviewed in this article are key features of fluorescence microscopy such as detecting fluorescent objects that can be faintly visible or very bright relative to the background, as well as common problems with microscope configuration. (
  • The featured discussion is intended to aid in understanding the basics of light detection and to provide a guide for selecting a suitable detector for specific applications in fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Widefield fluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy rely on secondary fluorescence emission as an imaging mode, primarily due to the high degree of sensitivity afforded by the techniques. (
  • The featured resource is provided as a guide and reference tool for visitors who are exploring the large spectrum of specialized topics in fluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy. (
  • Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool combining the techniques of laser scanning microscopy with long wavelength multiphoton fluorescence excitation to capture high-resolution and 3-D images of specimens. (
  • When the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer ( FRET ) is applied to optical microscopy, it permits determination of the approach between two molecules within several nanometers. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy can be combined with contrast enhancing techniques such as DIC illumination to minimize the effects of photobleaching by locating a specific area of interest in a specimen using DIC . (
  • To minimize photobleaching, fluorescence microscopy can be combined with phase contrast illumination. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy can be used to find out where the fluorescent probe is bound to the chromosomes. (
  • Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy or FLIM is an imaging technique based on the differences in the exponential decay rate of the fluorophore from a sample. (
  • Stefan Hell and colleagues propose that the use of pulsed excitation with a delay of at least one microsecond between pulses can dramatically reduce photobleaching and increase the effective fluorescence signal in both single and multi-photon fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy is an imaging technique used to examine cells and their internal components. (
  • In this interview from SfN 2018, Michelle Gal explains the fluorescence illumination systems for fluorescence microscopy, offered by Excelitas technologies. (
  • Signs of neurodegenerative diseases, visible years before the emergence of clinical manifestations, can be detected during the examination of medical samples by means of fluorescence microscopy. (
  • The CAF Fluorescence Microscopy Unit houses fluorescence-based instruments for assessing the various properties of cells, particles or molecules of interest in a wide variety of samples. (
  • With fluorescence microscopy one is able to determine localization/co-localization as well as mean intensity of a molecule of interest and with some advancements in the techniques structural analysis on a nanoscale is now possible. (
  • The Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts is offering the first (of an anticipated annual) light-sheet fluorescence microscopy conference and workshop. (
  • a fluorescence microscopy imaging solution consisting of high-end scientific cameras, feature-rich software packages, and a 5-year warranty. (
  • The INFINITY Fluorescence Series Bundle includes an INFINITY3 series camera, with feature-rich software packages to provide customers with a complete imaging solution for fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Lumenera's Fluorescence Series cameras are fully integrated into Image-Pro Premier software with a custom Capture Interface, which gives fluorescence microscopy customers complete access to maximum frame rates, live image adjustments, and all the benefits available from INFINITY cameras. (
  • We demonstrate far-field fluorescence microscopy with a focal-plane resolution of 15-20 nm in biological samples. (
  • The reported performance of diffraction-unlimited fluorescence microscopy opens up a pathway for addressing fundamental problems in the life sciences. (
  • Now at Framos GmbH, the Infinity3 camera series from Lumenera Corp. is intended for fluorescence microscopy applications. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy of tissues , cells or subcellular structures is accomplished by labeling an antibody with a fluorophore and allowing the antibody to find its target antigen within the sample. (
  • Cells and tissues examined with synthetic fluorophores in fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy is an essential technique that allows scientists to visualise molecules (proteins, nucleic acids, ions, metabolites, carbohydrates and lipids), large structures and whole cells in fixed and living specimens as well as single molecules, assemblies and enzymes in vitro . (
  • Using multiple different imaging modalities, scientists have adapted fluorescence microscopy to advance our knowledge in all areas of biology and across length scales that range from tens of millimetres to a few nanometres. (
  • Localisation of molecules is only one of many readouts that scientists can obtain from fluorescence microscopy. (
  • a) In a primary immunofluorescence assay, an antibody that is directly conjugated to a fluorophore recognises its antigen, and its position is directly detected by fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Researchers and product developers are now able to implement our new procedure in quantitative wide-field fluorescence microscopy . (
  • Unlike other forms of microscopy that utilise reflected or scattered light, this means that very weak fluorescence signals - down to a single photon - can be detected. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy has enjoyed a renaissance over the last decade, partly driven by advances in light source and detector technologies and partly due to advances in labelling technologies such as fluorescent proteins that can tag specific proteins of interest using genetic engineering. (
  • Such fields include scanned beam fluorescence microscopy, scanned beam microlithography, nanofabrication, and optical digital information storage and retrieval. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy is an excellent method of studying material that can be made to fluoresce, either in its natural form (termed primary or autofluorescence ) or when treated with chemicals capable of fluorescing (known as secondary fluorescence ). (
  • However, the potential of this instrument was not realized for several decades, and fluorescence microscopy is now an important (and perhaps indispensable) tool in cellular biology. (
  • Introduction to Fluorescence - Fluorescence microscopy is a rapidly expanding and invaluable tool of investigation. (
  • Apotome 3 significantly increases the axial resolution compared to conventional fluorescence microscopy: you obtain brilliant optical sections that allow 3D-rendering, even from thick specimens. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy meets all the essential requirements for laboratory examination even under constrained conditions of work. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy has proved to be a useful and very cost-effective procedure for disease surveillance and for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa, as well as noncommunicable diseases in hospital and outpatient care. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy is almost as simple to do as bright-field microscopy, and most often it is more specific. (
  • Laboratories should be more aware of the advantages of using fluorescence microscopy. (
  • At the light microscopy part of CCI the focus is on advanced fluorescence techniques. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy allows real-time monitoring of optical molecular probes for disease characterization, drug development, and tissue regeneration. (
  • However, when a biological sample is thicker than 1 mm, intense scattering of light would significantly degrade the spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. (
  • With the intense scattering signal, it becomes difficult to image a fluorescence probe distribution within a thick biological sample using the current fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy or FLIM is an imaging technique for producing an image based on the differences in the exponential decay rate of the fluorescence from a fluorescent sample. (
  • This report focuses on the Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. (
  • There are 15 Chapters to deeply display the global Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy market. (
  • Today laser scanning FLIM microscopy provides the most efficient detection of fluorescence signals although the sequential pixel acquisition leads to relatively long FLIM acquisition times. (
  • This is one major reason why fluorescence microscopy is enjoying a revival. (
  • Protein Localization by Fluorescence Light Microscopy: A Practical Approach has something to offer all microscopists, giving a solid grounding to the novice whilst extending the range of the experienced user. (
  • We report on a deep neural network (DNN) architecture, named fluorescence lifetime imaging network (FLI-Net) that is designed and trained for different classes of experiments, including visible FLI and near-infrared (NIR) FLI microscopy (FLIM) and NIR gated macroscopy FLI (MFLI). (
  • SRRF-Stream unlocks the means to perform real time super resolution microscopy on conventional modern fluorescence microscopes. (
  • Lowest fluorophore concentrations - There is an ongoing drive in fluorescence microscopy to push to lower and lower fluorophore concentrations in order not to perturb the physiology of the living cells being studied. (
  • Andor Technology (Andor), an Oxford Instruments company and world leader in scientific imaging and spectroscopy solutions, today announced the launch of the new ultrasensitive iXon Life Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) camera platform, exclusively for fluorescence microscopy. (
  • This method opens up new application vistas for fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy is a widely used method for studying cellular structures. (
  • Apex Market Reports, recently published a detailed market research study focused on the "Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Market" across the global, regional and country level. (
  • The report provides 360° analysis of "Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Market" from view of manufacturers, regions, product types and end industries. (
  • The research report analyses and provides the historical data along with current performance of the global PP Pipe industry, and estimates the future trend of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy on the basis of this detailed study. (
  • The study shares "Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy" performance both in terms of volume and revenue. (
  • The market research report explores the Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Market across the globe along with major regions and countries. (
  • Moreover, the research study classifies the Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Market based on major product types, application and end users industries of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy. (
  • Besides, the report also covers geographical segmentation for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Market. (
  • The competitive landscape of the global market for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy is determined by assessing the major industry participants, production capacity, production capacity utilization rate, Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Market's production chain, pricing by each manufacturer and the revenue generated by each manufacturer in the Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Market globally. (
  • The Global Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Market 2018 is further analyzed on the basis of product pricing, Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy production volume, data pertaining to demand and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy supply, and the revenue garnered by the product. (
  • The report provides upstream and downstream analysis covering major raw material used in manufacturing of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy along with detailed manufacturing sources. (
  • Various methodical tools such as investment returns, feasibility, SWOT analysis and market attractiveness analysis has been implemented in the research study to present a comprehensive, detailed study of the industry for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy across the world. (
  • The development of specific dyes, physiological probes and molecular probes (intrinsic and extrinsic) stimulated the widespread use of fluorescence microscopy in the life sciences. (
  • A major advance in fluorescence microscope is the development of multiphoton excitation microscopy. (
  • Brumberg EM (1959) Fluorescence microscopy of biological objects using light from above. (
  • Denk W, Strickler JH and Webb WW (1990) Two‐photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Hell SW and Wichmann J (1994) Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated‐emission‐depletion fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Over the past 15 years, however, a revolution in light microscopy has occurred through the development of fluorescence techniques that allow unprecedented ease, precision, and accuracy in locating, identifying, and recording data on the genetic makeup of biomedical samples. (
  • DNA or RNA sequences from appropriate, chromosome-specific probes are first labeled with reporter molecules, which are later identified through fluorescence microscopy. (
  • After washing and signal amplification, the specimen is screened for the reporter molecules by fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence imaging and fluorescent probes are indispensible tools in numerous fields of modern medicine and science, including molecular biology, biophysics, biochemistry, clinical diagnosis and analytical and environmental chemistry. (
  • Dr. J.R. Lakowicz is Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Maryland School of Medicine and Director of the Center for Fluorescence Spectroscopy. (
  • Dr. Lakowicz has published over 400 scientific articles, has edited numerous books, holds 16 issued patents, and is the sole author of the widely used text, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy , also published by Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, now in its Second Edition. (
  • The time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was performed with an experimental apparatus assembled in our laboratories, which is able of measuring the fluorescence decay in the range 2xl0 -10 10-2xl0 -8 sec. (
  • Point fluorescence spectroscopy, although playing a crucial role in the pioneering mechanistic development of fluorescence endoscopic imaging, does not seem to have a current function in endoscopy because of its nontargeted sampling and suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. (
  • Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements can also be performed with this setup. (
  • Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful tool to gain information about dynamics of biomolecules. (
  • With more than 190 papers and eighteen books to his credit, Dr. Geddes has extensive expertise in fluorescence spectroscopy, particularly in fluorescence sensing and metal-fluorophore interactions. (
  • Alexander Jablonski (1898-1980) - Born in the Ukraine in 1898, Alexander Jablonski is best known as the father of fluorescence spectroscopy. (
  • This book focuses on the practical aspects of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and discusses the requirements for a successful sample analysis, such as sample preparation, measurement techniques and calibration, as well as the quality of the analysis results. (
  • X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Laboratory Applications begins with a short overview of the physical fundamentals of the generation of X-rays and their interaction with the sample material, followed by a presentation of the different methods of sample preparation in dependence on the quality of the source material and the objective of the measurement. (
  • Fluorescence is used in many fields such as mineralogy , gemology , chemical sensors ( fluorescence spectroscopy ), dyes , biological detectors, and fluorescent lights . (
  • In this study, we used single-channel fluorescence spectroscopy of KcsA to directly observe the movement of each subunit and the temporal correlation between subunits. (
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of a nucleic acid sequence with a high degree of sequence complementarity . (
  • Fluorescence imaging is the visualization of fluorescent dyes or proteins as labels for molecular processes or structures. (
  • The efficiencies of fluorescence complementation are determined by the value obtained by division of the intensities of fluorescence complementation and the intensities of whole fluorescent protein in each cell. (
  • To improve detection of dysplasia in the gastrointestinal tract, a new and exciting development has been the use of exogenous fluorescence contrast probes that specifically target a variety of disease-related cellular biomarkers using conventional fluorescent dyes and novel potent fluorescent nanocrystals (i.e., quantum dots). (
  • This technology allows for the rapid and concurrent measurement of the physical and fluorescent parameters of 0.5-50µm particles, as they pass through a laser beam, giving information about the relative size, internal complexity and fluorescence intensity of the particles or cells of interest. (
  • The decay times of this fluorescence is of the order of nanoseconds since the duration of the light depends on the lifetime of the excited states of the fluorescent material, in this case anthracene or stilbene. (
  • The common fluorescent tube relies on fluorescence. (
  • Biological molecules can be tagged with a fluorescent chemical group (fluorophore) by a simple chemical reaction , and the fluorescence of the tag enables sensitive and quantitative detection of the molecule. (
  • The most striking example of fluorescence occurs when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum , and thus invisible to the human eye, while the emitted light is in the visible region, which gives the fluorescent substance a distinct color that can be seen only when exposed to UV light . (
  • NIST developed a procedure for characterizing the performance of a fluorescence microscope by benchmarking the detection threshold, saturation, and linear dynamic range to a physical artifact, such as a fluorescent material. (
  • Increasingly, however, fluorescence instrumentation aims to provide more information than just the distribution of specific fluorescent molecules. (
  • 1. A flexible sensor element useful in making fluorescence-optical measurements, said sensor element comprising a carrier membrane and an immobilized network structure integrated within said carrier membrane, said immobilized network structure including a fluorescent indicator material, said fluorescent indicator material being non-chemically bonded to said carrier membrane. (
  • The present invention relates to a sensor element for fluorescence-optical measurements, comprising a carrier membrane with fluorescent indicator material immobilized thereon. (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate a method based on macroscopic fluorescence imaging to enumerate adhering fluorescent bacteria on non-transparent substrata, real-time and under flow. (
  • To this end, a stepwise protocol is described to quantify adhesion of green-fluorescent-protein producing Staphylococcus aureus on polished and non-polished metal and polymer surfaces accounting for surface-enhanced-fluorescence on metal surfaces, quantified by the ratio of the single cell fluorescence observed for adhering and planktonic bacteria. (
  • A fluorescent substance is one possessing the property of fluorescence. (
  • Then they employed fluorescence fluctuation methods to examine the statistical significance of the fluorescent intensity pattern to quantify the degree of BiP localization or clustering. (
  • Fluorescence imaging uses high intensity illumination to excite fluorescent molecules in the sample. (
  • Fluorescence is an attractive approach because fluorescent molecules can be made sensitive to acid species. (
  • 3. The fluorescence detector of claim 1 , wherein the first mirror has a first side and a second side and the first side has a coating transmitting the excitation beam and reflecting the fluorescent beam formed thereon and the second side is transparent to the excitation beam and the fluorescent beam. (
  • 4. The fluorescence detector of claim 1 , wherein the first mirror has a first side and a second side and the first side has a coating transmitting the excitation beam formed thereon and the second side has a coating transmitting the excitation beam and reflecting the fluorescent beam. (
  • 6. The fluorescence detector of claim 5 , wherein the second mirror reflects part of the fluorescent beam having a first wavelength and transmits part of the fluorescent beam having a second wavelength. (
  • GIA did a formal study of the perception of fluorescence about 5 years ago and discovered that non-expert simply could not tell the difference between fluorescent diamonds, even in very wide ranges. (
  • Here the cell structures are labelled with fluorescent dyes that respond with fluorescence emission upon stimulation by light of a certain wavelength. (
  • Progress in the technical development over more than 100 years of instrument design and fluorescent probe synthesis has contributed to the continuing widespread utility of the fluorescence microscope. (
  • Recently, genetically expressed fluorescent proteins and quantum dots provide new research capabilities for the intravital fluorescence microscope. (
  • The reader will gain an understanding of the development of both the fluorescence microscope instrumentation and the field of fluorescent probe synthesis, development, limitations and applications to the life sciences. (
  • He proposed a new excitonic strategy to harvest triplet excitons by using materials with thermally activated delayed fluorescence as hosts for conventional fluorescent or phosphorescent dopants, leading to ideal OLEDs with low voltage, high efficiency, long lifetime and low efficiency roll‐off. (
  • A biological fluorescence diagnostic apparatus having a device for irradiating a biological tissue with light which excites the tissue to generate fluorescent light, and a device for taking a fluorescence image of the biological tissue passing through an ocular optical system of an endoscope. (
  • However, in many cases the substance may be fluorescent even if the organism is dead, thus fluorescence is still the preferred term. (
  • The idea is to locate the specific area of interest in a specimen using the technique (phase) then, without relocating the specimen, switch the microscope to fluorescence mode. (
  • At the end of the assay the tissue samples are visualized under a fluorescence microscope. (
  • In this process, the cells are initially analyzed using an epifluorescent microscope in order to check their fluorescence. (
  • Currently, many courses focus on general optical principles and the use of conventional microscope platforms, such as widefield fluorescence, confocal and multiphoton imaging. (
  • The figure shows the most common form of fluorescence microscope where excitation light is reflected by a dichroic beamsplitter and illuminates the field of view to produce fluorescence at a wavelength that is transmitted by the dichroic beamsplitter. (
  • The fluorescence microscope was devised in the early part of the twentieth century by August K hler, Carl Reichert, and Heinrich Lehmann, among others. (
  • What is more, the fluorescence microscope can reveal the presence of fluorescing material with exquisite sensitivity. (
  • Although the fluorescence microscope cannot provide spatial resolution below the diffraction limit of the respective specimens, the presence of fluorescing molecules below such limits is made remarkably visible. (
  • More recently, less expensive fluorescence microscopes have been developed, and accessories are now available that convert a bright-field microscope into a fluorescence microscope. (
  • In this letter, we propose a fluorescence tomographic method to reconstruct an optical molecular probe distribution using a standard fluorescence microscope on a thick biological sample. (
  • The base of this system is a fluorescence confocal microscope which is suitable for use in top level biological and biomedical research and surface analysis in material science applications. (
  • The Nikon TiE is fully automated inverted widefield fluorescence microscope with builting Perfect Focus system and high-speed motorization. (
  • The fluorescence microscope (wide‐field, scanning, confocal, one‐photon excitation, multiphoton excitation) is an extremely useful and ubiquitous instrument in biological and medical laboratories. (
  • The fluorescence microscope provides enhanced contrast, single protein specificity and single molecule sensitivity. (
  • The fluorescence microscope can provide single molecule detection sensitivity. (
  • The fluorescence microscope can provide single protein selectivity. (
  • Advances in probe and microscope technology have led to the rapid development of techniques for fluorescence over the past decade. (
  • Optical highlighters generally display little or no initial fluorescence under excitation at the imaging wavelength, but increase their fluorescence intensity after activation by irradiation at a different wavelength. (
  • which allows one to view contrast between materials with different fluorescence decay rates (even if those materials fluoresce at exactly the same wavelength), and also produces images which show changes in other decay pathways, such as in FRET imaging . (
  • Enhancing Fluorescence with Sub-Wavelength Metallic Apertures ( Steve Blair and Jérôme Wenger ). (
  • Fluorescence is a luminescence that is mostly found as an optical phenomenon in cold bodies, in which the molecular absorption of a photon at a certain wavelength triggers the emission of another photon with a longer wavelength . (
  • Because fluorescence consists of photons at a longer wavelength than the excitation radiation, the fluorescence signal can be easily separated from the excitation light using a beamsplitter and/or filters. (
  • Often fluorescence signals are analysed spectroscopically, e.g. in terms of excitation or emission wavelength, fluorescence lifetime or polarisation, to provide information on the local fluorophore environment, to study interactions of biomolecules and to distinguish different contributions from complex mixtures of fluorophores- as often occur in the autofluorescence of unlabelled biological tissue. (
  • Simultaneously, the wavelength of the light emitted from the particles is measured to determine fluorescence. (
  • To achieve maximum fluorescence intensity, the fluorochrome is usually excited at the wavelength at the peak of the excitation curve, and the emission is selected at the peak wavelength (or other wavelengths chosen by the observer) of the emission curve. (
  • Fluorescence is the emission of visible light from a substance under the stimulation of radiation of a shorter wavelength. (
  • Normal fluorescence imaging, however, is only able to resolve feature sizes on the order of the wavelength of light - several hundred nanometers. (
  • The λ ex /λ em ratio is much more selective than the UV absorption wavelength, allowing the fluorescence detector to perform very specific and much more sensitive analyzes. (
  • Fluorescence, a phenomenon whereby a chemical excited at one light wavelength emits light at a different and usually longer wavelength, is used throughout the life sciences to study a wide variety of structures and intracellular activities. (
  • In order to generate enough excitation light intensity to furnish secondary fluorescence emission capable of detection, powerful light sources are needed such as mercury or xenon arc (burner) lamps. (
  • To observe fluorescence, one of these pathways must be by spontaneous emission of a photon. (
  • On the contrary, the fluorescence HSA and BSA spectra are not the sum of the emission fluorescence spectra of tyrosine and tryptophan, but they are mainly constituted by the tryptophan fluorescence with a poor contribution arising from tyrosine. (
  • Allowing for relaxation of the triplet state between subsequent excitation-depletion cycles yields an up to 30-fold increase in total fluorescence signal as compared with reported stimulated emission depletion illumination schemes. (
  • Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation . (
  • d) An example of a triple bandpass excitation filter, dichroic beamsplitter and emission filter set that can be used in a filter cube, coupled with separate emission and excitation filters to perform three‐colour fluorescence images. (
  • Steady state and time resolved fluorescence analysis provide molecular and electronic information, and can be used to investigate emission colour, band gap properties, luminescence quantum yields, inter- and intra-molecular interactions, and carbon nanotube size and chirality. (
  • The IBAC 2 is a real-time optical sensor that counts individual airborne particulates and provides the ability to discriminate a biological agent based on elastic scattering and fluorescence emission. (
  • Because photobleaching, a very poorly understood phenomenon, leads to a dramatic loss of fluorescence emission intensity in most specimens, controlling the artifact is critical in order to successfully capture satisfactory images. (
  • Time points were taken in two-minute intervals using a fluorescence filter combination with bandwidths tuned to excite the three fluorophores simultaneously while also recording the combined emission signals. (
  • In the frequency domain wide-field FLIM can be implemented with sinusoidally modulated excitation light and the fluorescence lifetime can be determined by measuring the phase of the resulting fluorescence emission, which will be modulated at the same frequency. (
  • Fluorescence occurs when an excited molecule, atom, or nanostructure, relaxes to a lower energy state (possibly the ground state) through emission of a photon. (
  • Excited chlorophyll dissipates the absorbed light energy by driving photosynthesis (photochemical energy conversion), as heat in non-photochemical quenching or by emission as fluorescence radiation. (
  • The application of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to elemental analysis at the CSIRO Land and Water Adelaide Laboratory goes back to the early days of XRF spectrometry. (
  • The purpose of the X-ray clinic is to combine theoretical and practical application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. (
  • Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry is also used a tool for quantification of gold and platinum metallic drugs used in anti-cancer therapy. (
  • Learn the basic concepts of fluorescence, a member of the ubiquitous luminescence family of processes in which susceptible molecules emit light from electronically excited states created by either a physical, mechanical, or chemical mechanism. (
  • Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) is a recent technique used in the investigation and direct visualization of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and interaction between proteins and other macro-molecules that are essential for survival of cells. (
  • Single-molecule conditions are ensured by using picomolar sample concentrations, so that single molecules diffusing through the confocal volume cause bursts in the detected fluorescence intensity. (
  • Diffusion and kinetics of fluorescently labeled molecules cause fluctuations of the measured fluorescence intensity. (
  • For example, fluorescence is useful for lighting and tagging molecules in analytical chemistry and biochemistry. (
  • UC fluorescence by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) follows a mechanism involving two kinds of molecules as sensitizer and emitter. (
  • Examining specimens labeled with molecules that absorb light and emit fluorescence. (
  • Fluorescence is an intrinsic property of some molecules and proteins that causes them to absorb and then emit light at given wavelengths. (
  • Fluorescence imaging systems are built to excite molecules and then collect the emitted photons. (
  • Fluorescence molecular imaging is a very popular method to study biological molecules, pathways, and events in living cells and tissues. (
  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Fluorescence Detector is based on the property that certain organic molecules have of being able to emit light radiation after excitation by UltraViolet or Near Visible radiation. (
  • Fluorescence in the life sciences is a way of tracking biological molecules. (
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence is light re-emitted by chlorophyll molecules during return from excited to non-excited states. (
  • These aHL channels have been characterized using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer signals from vesicle-encapsulated guanine-rich DNA that folds in a G-quadruplex motif as well as from the Rep helicase-DNA system. (
  • These techniques, which are almost universally employed in both the medical and biological sciences, have spurred the development of more sophisticated microscopes and numerous fluorescence accessories. (
  • This monograph focuses on modern femtosecond laser microscopes for two photon imaging and nanoprocessing, on laser tweezers for cell micromanipulation as well as on fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) in Life. (
  • In the past, the high cost of fluorescence microscopes has prevented the wider application of this method. (
  • But on all of our microscopes the fluorescence imaging can be combined with other contrast techniques, such as brightfield, phase contrast or DIC. (
  • Fluorescence lifetime may be measured in the frequency or time domains and implemented in wide-field or laser scanning microscopes. (
  • Subsequently the development of convenient and relatively low-cost TCSPC electronics, e.g. 4,5 , for laser scanning confocal and two-photon fluorescence scanning microscopes has stimulated the widespread uptake of FLIM. (
  • Fluorescence in several wavelengths can be detected by an array detector, to detect compounds from HPLC flow. (
  • By labelling different proteins with fluorophores emitting at different wavelengths, spectrally-resolved fluorescence images can be used to provide information about temporal and spatial colocalisation of the different labelled proteins, which can provide insights into molecular processes. (
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence from green foliage, for example, is produced at the red and far-red wavelengths. (
  • The intrinsic or natural fluorescence of proteins is perhaps the most complex area of biochemical fluorescence. (
  • In comparison, it has been easier to interpret the fluorescence data from labeled proteins because the fluorophore density and locations could be controlled so the probes did not interact with each other. (
  • These two proteins present very similar UV absorption and fluorescence spectra. (
  • When these two proteins interact, both the segments re-associate resulting in re-formation of the fluorophore and fluorescence at the sites of interface. (
  • b) In a FRAP experiment, a region is photobleached and the fluorescence recovery is measured to generate curves like what is shown in (c). (c) Before photobleaching, the fluorescence is 100%, and the immediate recovery of fluorescence over the first 20 s shows the reassociation of proteins with the bleached structure. (
  • Biophotonics techniques, especially those involving fluorescence, are widely used in proteomics to characterize the in vitro interactions between proteins in high-throughput mode. (
  • They found through a bootstrapping method that the pattern of fluorescence in the cells was heterogeneous to an extent that would be extremely unlikely by random chance, and showed using the Number and Brightness (N&B) technique that the degree of clustering of BiP on unfolded proteins under induced stress differed significantly from that in the homeostatic ER. (
  • Fluorescence lifetime depends on the local micro-environment of the fluorophore, thus precluding any erroneous measurements in fluorescence intensity due to change in brightness of the light source, background light intensity or limited photo-bleaching. (
  • In this work, the structural change dynamics of Cu(I) bis(phenanthroline) complexes with substituents at the 4,7-positions of the ligands were investigated using femtosecond fluorescence upconversion measurements. (
  • In the future, the Goddard team expects that fluorescence measurements will complement existing measures of "greenness" in a variety of ways. (
  • In the near term, awareness of the fluorescence signal should help atmospheric scientists refine measurements of carbon dioxide and methane from the GOSAT mission. (
  • In measurements of quantitative fluorescence, the researcher collects specific, measurable information. (
  • In this work, we demonstrate the capability of using lipid vesicles biofunctionalized with protein channels to perform single-molecule fluorescence measurements over a biologically relevant temperature range. (
  • Lipid vesicles can serve as an ideal nanocontainer for single-molecule fluorescence measurements of biomacromolecules. (
  • The permeability of the biofriendly nanocontainer over a wide range of temperature would be effectively applied to other surface-based high-throughput measurements and sensors beyond the single-molecule fluorescence measurements. (
  • To use measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence to analyse photosynthesis, researchers must distinguish between photochemical quenching and non-photochemical quenching (heat dissipation). (
  • The intensity of fluorescence is determined for every single cell. (
  • Measurement of the intensity of fluorescence is accomplished using several imaging software. (
  • The fluorescence intensity drops as the temperature rises. (
  • The apparatus further has a television camera unit including a television camera for taking an ordinary endoscopic observation image passing through the ocular optical system, and a television camera with an image intensifier for taking a fluorescence observation image passing through the ocular optical system after amplifying the light intensity of the image. (
  • Fluorescence level of dark-adapted sample when a high intensity pulse has been applied. (
  • Additionally the dye highly qualifies to be applied in flow cytometry (FACS), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and many more. (
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provides researchers with a way to visualize and map the genetic material in an individual's cells, including specific genes or portions of genes. (
  • Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ), in its simplest form, can be used to identify as many labeled features as there are different fluorophores used in the hybridization. (
  • To study their prognostic impact and association with kidney cancer phenotype, a tissue microarray with 1,809 cancers was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for 8p21 copy numbers. (
  • Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the detection of bladder transitional-cell carcinoma: A multi-center clinical study based on Chinese population. (
  • To evaluate the diagnostic value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in bladder cancer. (
  • Clinical evaluation of two consecutive UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization tests to detect intravesical recurrence of bladder cancer: a prospective blinded comparative study in Japan. (
  • We evaluated the use of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization tests to detect the intravesical recurrence of bladder cancer during follow-up after a transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). (
  • Detection of Bladder Cancer in Urine Sediments by a Novel Multicolor Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (Quartet) Test. (
  • We aimed to design a multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test referred to as the quartet test for the detection of bladder cancer in urine. (
  • The aim of the present study was to estimate the diagnostic value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of tumor cells in voided urine specimens for detecting upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). (
  • We compared PTEN immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PTEN fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the largest existing radical prostatectomy cohort with clinical follow-up data. (
  • The nuclei were stained with Sytox Green (green fluorescence), while the mucus of goblet cells and the filamentous actin in the brush border were stained with Alexa Fluor 350 wheat germ agglutinin (blue fluorescence) and Alexa Fluor 568 phalloidin (red fluorescence), respectively. (
  • Diamonds which fluoresce blue in UV light may have a yellow tint to them in UV free white light which is cancelled by the blue fluorescence in (daylight) conditions. (
  • This term describes near-colourless to light yellow diamonds with a strong blue fluorescence, stones that were actively sought by merchants thanks to their appealing 'ice' effect. (
  • It was later observed that strong blue fluorescence was a quality sometimes found in hazy stones, a fact that that led dealers in the 1970s to offer what they termed 'milky Ds' (diamonds with a colour grade of D, very strong blue fluorescence, low transparency) at significantly reduced prices. (
  • Light-induced damage to biological samples during fluorescence imaging is known to occur but receives too little attention by researchers. (
  • A recent addition to the fluorescence endoscopic imaging arsenal is the use of confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy, which provides real-time optical biopsy for the first time. (
  • This study evaluated the utility of incorporating real-time bacterial fluorescence imaging into the UPPER/LOWER checklists to enhance identification of infection in wounds. (
  • These results suggest that the UPPER/LOWER checklist and fluorescence imaging work in a complementary manner to effectively identify wounds with high bacterial burden at the point-of-care. (
  • Lumenera's INFINITY3 series cameras have proven to excel in fluorescence imaging - even under challenging conditions," said Eric Ramsden, Product Manager at Lumenera Corporation. (
  • NPs are promising candidates for fluorescence imaging and as nanothermometry agents. (
  • Imaging with laser excitation and pinhole detection of fluorescence. (
  • Imaging resolution has been limited to a diffraction limit based on the nature of our ability to collect fluorescence light through the objective, but new techniques have allowed for imaging to almost arbitrary precision. (
  • This method has already been implemented by several universities and companies, and is proven to improve the reproducibility of wide-field fluorescence imaging . (
  • On the other hand, fluorescence-based imaging studies often show that protein activity is regulated through large protein complexes that transiently form at specific sites in the cell. (
  • Combined, the 1588 Advanced Imaging Modalities (AIM) Platform + SPY Fluorescence technology allow surgeons to visualize anatomy and blood flow during a variety of minimally invasive and open procedures. (
  • The SPY Portable Handheld Imager (SPY-PHI) utilizes SPY Fluorescence Imaging Technology, and allows surgeons to visualize blood flow in vessels and related tissue perfusion during plastic, microsurgical, reconstructive and gastrointestinal procedures. (
  • 1 With its sensitivity, specificity, noninvasiveness, and cost-effectiveness, fluorescence molecular imaging is widely applied in preclinical and clinical applications. (
  • The scientists just published an article (" Fast fit-free analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging via deep learning ") in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that described and demonstrated a new technique for fluorescence lifetime imaging of tissue and cells in a fast and comprehensive manner, thus laying the groundwork for use in a clinical setting. (
  • Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) provides unique quantitative information in biomedical and molecular biology studies but relies on complex data-fitting techniques to derive the quantities of interest. (
  • The researchers' success brings the field closer to being able to use fluorescence lifetime imaging in a clinical setting in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a particular drug on a person's individual cancer cells, a key tool needed to enable precision medicine. (
  • In the past, PTB has developed several approaches to detect rheumatoid alterations of finger joints by fluorescence imaging which were subsequently evaluated with clinical partners. (
  • 2002) Biomedical applications of fluorescence lifetime imaging. (
  • Mental-Enhanced Fluorescence: Progress Towards a Unified Plasmon-Fluorophore Description ( Kadir Aslan and Chris D. Geddes ). (
  • Only after a series of essential devices became available more than 30 years ago, did quantitative spectroscopic studies on protein fluorescence begin. (
  • From the origins of biochemical fluorescence in the 1950s with Prof- sor G. Weber until the mid-1980s, intrinsic protein fluorescence was more qualitative than quantitative. (
  • Example fluorescence amplification curves from a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. (
  • What Is Quantitative Fluorescence? (
  • Quantitative fluorescence is the exhibition of radiation emitted in a specimen. (
  • All of these quantitative fluorescence techniques can offer new insight into what a structure is, how it functions, and what it contains. (
  • Pathology labs may use quantitative fluorescence for the evaluation of some specimens. (
  • It is possible to analyze quantitative fluorescence images with advanced computer programs to extract more data and generate meaningful results. (
  • Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometer is a method used for fast quantitative multi element trace analysis. (
  • An X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer is an x-ray instrument used for routine, relatively non-destructive chemical analyses of rocks, minerals, sediments and fluids. (
  • 3. The X-ray fluorescence spectrometer as claimed in claim 1, wherein the aperture of the primary X-ray limiting diaphragm is of a substantially round shape with a portion thereof blocked. (
  • 5. The X-ray fluorescence spectrometer as claimed in claim 1, further comprising a rotary mechanism for rotating the sample. (
  • 0002] The present invention relates to an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer having an optical system by so-called parallel beam method. (
  • The new maps, based on data collected in 2009 from a spectrometer aboard a Japanese satellite called the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), show sharp contrasts in plant fluorescence between seasons. (
  • Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is mainly designed to meet the demand in the field of regulated areas namely observing of catalyzer elements in pharmaceutical production or detection of metal contamination, quality check in the food industry and new product development. (
  • Depending on geographic region, total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometer market is segmented into seven key regions: North America, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Asia Pacific, Japan, and Middle East & Africa. (
  • North America held largest share in the total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometer market followed by Europe, Japan and Asia Pacific owing to rise in research & development activities and government support by allocation of fund at various institutes and developed healthcare infrastructure. (
  • The developing nations in Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa hold huge potential for growth in the total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometer market, due to increase in the awareness about new technology among healthcare providers, rising per capita income and living standards along with increase healthcare expenditure. (
  • Gemstones , minerals , fibers , and many other materials which that be encountered in forensics or with a relationship to various collectibles may have a distinctive fluorescence or may fluoresce differently under short-wave ultraviolet, long-wave ultraviolet, or X-rays . (
  • Certain minerals have a characteristic fluorescence pattern when hit with white light or ultraviolet light. (
  • Semen stains, for example, may be identified by their characteristic fluorescence under ultraviolet light examination. (
  • To investigate established pterygia using our newly developed ultraviolet fluorescence photography (UVFP) system. (
  • One of the most surprising types of fluorescence is when a substance absorbs ultraviolet light that cannot be seen by the human eye, but gives off visible light. (
  • Our setup combines the techniques of pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) and multiparameter fluorescence detection (MFD) in order to gain as much information as possible about every single molecule. (
  • Relaxation from S 1 can also occur through interaction with a second molecule through fluorescence quenching . (
  • Relaxation from an excited state can also occur through transferring some or all of its energy to a second molecule through an interaction known as fluorescence quenching. (
  • If the detector in a digital camera is off, for example, it may fail to collect fluorescence in some parts of the specimen, or could generate a false reading. (
  • Microfluidic integration on detector arrays for absorption and fluorescence micro-spectrometers", 2003, Journal of Scienctific Instruments, Elsevier Science, Sensors and Acturators A, vol. 104, pp.25-31. (
  • An ultra small fluorescence detector capable of detecting in real time reaction undergoing in a micro chamber having a predetermined volume and disposed on a microfluid chip is provided. (
  • Accordingly, the fluorescence detector is designed such that light emitted by a light source is focused between a first mirror and an objective lens. (
  • 2. The fluorescence detector of claim 1 , wherein the excitation beam is collected by the first lens so as to produce a focal point (F) in front of the objective lens. (
  • [6] The recorded fluorescence decay histogram obeys Poisson statistics which is considered in determining goodness of fit during fitting. (
  • Due to different molecular configurations of the emitters, multiple triplet states were detected and happen to drive one thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) with very short lifetime of the order of nanoseconds. (
  • Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (TADF-OLEDs) comprehensively introduces the history of TADF, along with a review of fundamental concepts. (
  • Now, you have a chance to win a free spot in one of our upcoming Intraoperative Fluorescence Workshops in 2018. (
  • Epi-fluorescence, or incident light fluorescence, has now become the method of choice in many applications and comprises a large part of this tutorial. (
  • When a population of fluorophores is excited by an ultrashort or delta pulse of light, the time-resolved fluorescence will decay exponentially as described above. (
  • The fluorescence filter sets online catalog also includes HEX ULTRA Widefield Fluorescence Filter set for LED Light Sources , the JOE ULTRA Widefield Fluorescence Set for LED Light Sources , and ROX ULTRA Fluorescence Filter Set for LED Light Sources , the Texas Red ® ULTRA Fluorescence Filter Set for LED Light Sources, and the TRITC ULTRA Widefield Fluorescence Filter Set for TRITC, TAMRA, and all associated fluorophores. (
  • Explore the light paths in Nikon's SMZ1500 stereomicroscope equipped for fluorescence illumination using an intermediate tube and external lamphouse. (
  • Fluorescence is an optical phenomenon wherein a material emits light in response to some external stimulus. (
  • Fluorescence is a tool that allows evidence that would normally be invisible to come to light. (
  • The fluorescence image is formed by the action of the two lenses, known as the objective lens, which captures the light from the sample, and the tube lens that forms a real image at the camera. (
  • Glow-in-the-dark' light (phosphorescence) is not as bright as fluorescence but lasts much longer. (
  • The new findings help confirm previous lab and field experiments that suggest chlorophyll fluorescence should taper off in the fall as the abundance of green foliage declines and stress increases as a result of lower temperatures and less favorable light conditions. (
  • In plants, fluorescence is not something that you can see with your naked eye because background light overwhelms it," explained Joiner, the lead author of the paper. (
  • Fluorescence is different than bioluminescence, the chemically-driven mechanism lightning bugs and many marine species use to glow without exposure to light. (
  • For decades, scientists have measured fluorescence in plants by exposing leaves to laser beams that, like black light, make fluorescence more apparent. (
  • There is little background light at the line they focused on -- at about 770 nanometers -- which made it possible to distinguish the faint fluorescence signal. (
  • The light produced is called fluorescence. (
  • SPY-PHI's modalties include: white light, SPY Fluorescence Mode, Overlay Fluorescence Mode and Color-Segmented Fluorescence Mode. (
  • Combine fluorescence signal information with vivid white light images in real-time. (
  • However, after propagating over a few hundred micrometers, fluorescence light would become highly diffusive. (
  • When these electrons return to the ground state, light is emitted and this process is called fluorescence . (
  • We then put it under a UV light and sure enough it had slight fluorescence. (
  • What you're seeing may not be fluorescence at all but just a reflection from the UV light. (
  • Image: The GIA's fluorescence scale, showing diamonds illuminated in natural light and under a UV light. (
  • Fluorescence is the light given off by certain substances when it absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation . (
  • When the light source is removed, the fluorescence stops occurring. (
  • In addition, epi-fluorescence light sources were difficult to align for uniform illumination. (
  • Submicroscopic structures in the diamonds cause them to emit a visible light, a fluorescence, which is commonly blue in colour. (
  • In most cases, prices are lowered when a colourless or near-colourless diamond fluoresces under UV light, due to a common perception that fluorescence has a negative effect on the appearance of diamonds. (
  • It is estimated that around 50% of all diamonds have fluorescence that can be seen in special conditions e.g. under a long wave UV lamp, while around 10% fluoresce strongly enough to make a noticeable difference to the colour of the diamond when viewed in sunlight or incandescent (low UV) light. (
  • An optical path switching system which includes a reflective surface is selectively inserted and withdrawn from the optical path of light passing through the ocular optical system so as to selectively produce ordinary and fluorescence images in the television camera unit. (
  • 2. A biological fluorescence diagnostic apparatus according to claim 1, said path switching optical system selectively transmitting light passing through the ocular optical system of the endoscope to an image pickup surface of either of said two television cameras. (
  • 3. A biological fluorescence diagnostic apparatus according to claim 2, said path switching optical system further comprising a reflecting optical system in which light passing through the ocular optical system along a first optical axis is reflected twice so as to travel in a direction having a second optical axis parallel to the first optical axis, whereby the optical axes of said two television cameras are disposed parallel to each other. (
  • 4. A biological fluorescence diagnostic apparatus according to claim 2, wherein said path switching optical system comprises a roof-type reflecting member capable of being selectively inserted into and withdrawn from an optical path of light passing through the ocular optical system of the endoscope, wherein said roof-type reflecting member reflects an image such that right and left portions of said image are not interchanged. (
  • Transferring a leaf from dark into light increases the proportion of closed PSII reaction centres, so fluorescence levels increase for 1-2 seconds. (
  • This is the fluorescence in the absence of photosynthetic light. (
  • The field of fluorescence continues to grow steadily, both in fundamental aspects and applications in a highly interdisciplinary area (analytical, physical and organic chemistry, molecular sciences, biology, biomedicine and medical research. (
  • Guiding readers from the basics to state-of-the-technology applications, this book is recommended for all chemists, physicists, and biomedical engineers working in the field of fluorescence. (
  • The first FLIM experiments with biological samples were demonstrated using time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) 3 , which involves exciting the sample at sufficiently low excitation power such that the fluorescence photons can be detected one at a time and their arrival times recorded in a histogram that provides the fluorescence decay profile. (
  • such two-photon absorption is not referred to as fluorescence. (
  • It offers researchers the opportunity to modify the basic properties of fluorophores in both near- and far-field fluorescence formats. (
  • The tutorial is designed to randomly alter photobleaching rates for individual fluorophores upon reloading, so that clicking on the Shutter button repeatedly will demonstrate how the image appears as the fluorescence bleaching rate changes for each of the color signals. (
  • Personally, I think people put WAY too much emphasis on diamond fluorescence. (
  • The subject of diamond fluorescence has been hotly debated in recent years, with trade opinion divided regarding its effect on the appearance and value of diamonds. (
  • There are five levels of diamond fluorescence described by the GIA: None (i.e. no fluorescence), faint, medium, strong, very strong. (
  • 2 We now know that a part of protein fluorescence is visible but difficult to see. (
  • In the rapidly expanding fields of cellular and molecular biology, widefield and confocal fluorescence illumination and observation is becoming one of the techniques of choice. (
  • all wounds positive for UPPER/LOWER were also positive for bacterial fluorescence. (
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence offers a more direct window into the inner workings of the photosynthetic machinery of plants from space. (
  • With chlorophyll fluorescence, we should be able to tell immediately if plants are under environmental stress -- before outward signs of browning or yellowing of leaves become visible," said Elizabeth Middleton, a NASA Goddard-based biologist and a member of the team that created the maps. (
  • As these processes are complementary processes, the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence is an important tool in plant research with a wide spectrum of applications. (
  • This variable rise in chlorophyll fluorescence rise is due to photosystem II. (
  • Heat dissipation cannot be totally stopped, so the yield of chlorophyll fluorescence in the absence of non-photochemical quenching cannot be measured. (
  • Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence. (
  • Fluorescence Illuminators enable examination of large specimens in stereomicroscopy. (
  • This interactive tutorial explores variations in photobleaching rates in single, dual, and multiply labeled fluorescence specimens. (
  • Using commercial TCSPC equipment a fluorescence decay curve can be recorded with a time resolution down to 405 fs. (
  • Significant difference were recorder in the life time fluorescence decay of HSA and BSA, which showed T values of 2.3 and 4.5 nanoseconds, respectively. (
  • For each pixel in the field of view, the fluorescence decay constant, τ, is calculated and the results are plotted in a fluorescence lifetime map. (
  • This technical hurdle has been addressed through the use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and quantification of persister levels in the resulting sorted fractions. (
  • NO Measurement in Diesel Spray Flame Using Laser Induced Fluorescence," SAE Technical Paper 970874, 1997, . (
  • Metal-enhanced fluorescence refers to the use of metal colloids and nanoscale metallic particles in fluorescence systems. (
  • More recently, it has been discovered that very small particles of certain semiconductor materials also fluoresce, and the color of the fluorescence is dependent only on the size of the particles. (
  • Particularly important to the future of science, in 1845 Herschel reported the first observation of the fluorescence of a quinine solution in sunlight. (