Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Ophthalmodynamometry: Measurement of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels. It is used also for the determination of the near point of convergence (CONVERGENCE, OCULAR). (From Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Susac Syndrome: A rare disorder consisting of microangiopathy of brain, retina, and inner ear ARTERIOLES. It is characterized by the clinical triad of encephalopathy, BRANCH RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION and VERTIGO/hearing loss.Ciliary Arteries: Three groups of arteries found in the eye which supply the iris, pupil, sclera, conjunctiva, and the muscles of the iris.Retinal DiseasesFluorophotometry: Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Glaucoma, Neovascular: A form of secondary glaucoma which develops as a consequence of another ocular disease and is attributed to the forming of new vessels in the angle of the anterior chamber.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Ganglionectomy: Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Sneddon Syndrome: A systemic non-inflammatory arteriopathy primarily of middle-aged females characterized by the association of livedo reticularis, multiple thrombotic CEREBRAL INFARCTION; CORONARY DISEASE, and HYPERTENSION. Elevation of antiphospholipid antibody titers (see also ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME), cardiac valvulopathy, ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and chronic ischemia of the extremities may also occur. Pathologic examination of affected arteries reveals non-inflammatory adventitial fibrosis, thrombosis, and changes in the media. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p861; Arch Neurol 1997 Jan;54(1):53-60)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Myography: The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Rhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Paracentesis: A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Choroid Diseases: Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Fluorometry: An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.Methyldopa: An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. Its primary clinical use is as an antihypertensive agent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eisenmenger Complex: A condition associated with VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT and other congenital heart defects that allow the mixing of pulmonary and systemic circulation, increase blood flow into the lung, and subsequent responses to low oxygen in blood. This complex is characterized by progressive PULMONARY HYPERTENSION; HYPERTROPHY of the RIGHT VENTRICLE; CYANOSIS; and ERYTHROCYTOSIS.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Blood-Retinal Barrier: A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Erythrosine: A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Eosine I Bluish: A red fluorescein dye used as a histologic stain. It may be cytotoxic, mutagenic, and inhibit certain mitochondrial functions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Uveal Diseases: Diseases of the uvea.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Photofluorography: The photography of images produced on a fluorescent screen by X-rays.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Organomercury Compounds: Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Lissamine Green Dyes: Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
  • Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed an epiretinal membrane (ERM) OD and OS and thickening of the outer nuclear layer in the area of retinal whitening OD (Figures 1D and 1H ). (healio.com)
  • She was treated with panretinal photocoagulation for peripheral retinal ischemia and pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage. (healio.com)
  • Medical history was notable for prominent pulmonary hypertension and severe shortness of breath, but no symptomatic coronary artery disease, dizziness, or syncope. (omicsonline.org)
  • Retinal whitening that corresponds to the area of ischemia is the most notable finding. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was treated with panretinal photocoagulation for peripheral retinal ischemia and pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage. (healio.com)
  • Optic coherence tomography imaging showed increased retinal thickness due to edema caused by ischemia. (hindawi.com)
  • Biousse V, Newman N. Retinal and optic nerve ischemia. (medscape.com)
  • Reperfusion of retinal ischemia in retinal occlusive vasculitis with nicotinic acid and infliximab in Adamantiades-Behcet's disease. (stanford.edu)
  • To describe a case of ischemic retinal vasculitis in Adamantiades-Behcet disease (ABD) that demonstrated significant resolution of retinal ischemia following treatment with nicotinic acid and infliximab.Observations: A 12-year-old male with a history of recurrent oral ulcers, fevers, and failure to thrive was admitted to the hospital with fever, oral and perirectal mucositis, and poor oral intake one month before presentation to uveitis clinic. (stanford.edu)
  • Three months later, his BCVA improved to 20/70 OU with slight improvement of retinal ischemia on FA. (stanford.edu)
  • However, three months after beginning nicotinic acid therapy, FA revealed significant improvement of his retinal ischemia OU. (stanford.edu)
  • Conclusion: To our knowledge, the index report is the first to show that nicotinic acid may improve retinal ischemia in vaso-occlusive retinal vasculitis and be an integral part of the treatment regimen of this sight-threatening condition. (stanford.edu)
  • Given that the immunopathological process in SS induces retinal ischemia, it is conceivable that abnormal blood vessel development may occur in affected individuals. (ovid.com)
  • The long term effect of these management strategies in preventing the progression of retinal ischemia and preserving vision is not well understood and needs to be further studied. (hindawi.com)
  • The main concern with retinal vasculitis is the risk of developing vasooclusion and retinal ischemia that can lead to serious sight threatening manifestations. (hindawi.com)
  • Different causes of retinal vasculitis carry variable risks of developing retinal ischemia ranging from being common in presumed tuberculous retinal vasculitis and Behçet's disease to a more rare association in sarcoidosis and multiple sclerosis (Table 1 ) [ 3 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The pathogenesis of ischemia in retinal vasculitis is not clear but is suggested to be either thrombotic or obliterative secondary to the infiltration of inflammatory cells (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • 1 - 4 This damage to the vasculature results in ischemia, promoting a cascade of molecular processes including upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1, which in turn upregulates cytokines and growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which further contribute to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier. (dovepress.com)
  • The Diabetic Retinopathy Study used a protocol consisting of seven standard 30-degree photos for acquisition of images of the retinal periphery in a systematic manner. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
  • Zerumbone ameliorates retinal damage by blocking advanced glycation end products and their receptor system in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. (mdpi.com)
  • Zerumbone displayed similar characteristics to fenofibric acid in reducing retinal vascular permeability and leukostasis in diabetic rats. (mdpi.com)
  • Fundus photographs showed that large retinal vessel diameters were decreased in zerumbone-treated diabetic rats. (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, treatment of diabetic rats with zerumbone attenuates the severity of retinal inflammation and angiogenesis, via inhibition of p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. (mdpi.com)
  • At 2 months of diabetes, insulin-deficient diabetic control rats exhibited significant increases in retinal prostaglandin E 2 , superoxide, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2, and leukostasis within retinal microvessels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Diabetic patients treated with aspirin due to rheumatoid arthritis were judged to have less retinopathy than expected ( 1 , 2 ), and treatment of diabetic dogs with moderate-dose aspirin over a 5-year period significantly reduced the number of retinal hemorrhages and acellular capillaries that developed ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 9 Neutralizing VEGF in diabetic rats inhibits blood-retinal barrier breakdown in a dose-dependent manner. (dovepress.com)
  • Diabetic and non-diabetic patients demonstrate similar fluorescein pharmacokinetics in the plasma. (sgpharma.com)
  • However, CRAOs in patients who have a cilioretinal artery have better visual prognosis, usually recovering to 20/50 vision or better in over 80% of eyes. (rsnallc.com)
  • Even though the American Academy of Ophthalmology published these guidelines a few years ago, "many ophthalmologists and retinal specialists do not manage them appropriately," Richards said. (healio.com)
  • A 16-year-old girl with underlying congenital pulmonary atresia and an intact ventricular septum was referred for ophthalmology assessment at day six after a left pulmonary artery stenting procedure. (cureus.com)
  • With that heritage as a strong foundation, the practice utilizes the most modern treatment techniques, featuring the latest in diagnostic and surgical equipment for general ophthalmology and retinal disease management and surgery. (ccteyes.com)
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can increase the volume of oxygen delivered to the ischemic retinal tissue until spontaneous or assisted reperfusion occurs. (ceemjournal.org)
  • Ischemic retinal vasculitis can be idiopathic or secondary to systemic disease such as in Behçet's disease, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. (hindawi.com)
  • A doctor may also order a test of your blood's sedimentation rate, and a temporal artery biopsy may be useful if giant cell arteritis is suspected. (rsnallc.com)
  • The supraorbital artery branches from the OA as it passes over the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical Applications of the Photopic Negative Response to Optic Nerve and Retinal Diseases. (ebscohost.com)
  • Retinal hemangioblastoma is one of the most common tumours, and when it appears near the optic nerve, its treatment is challenging and risky. (bmj.com)
  • Vision usually remains good but transient vision loss may be reported if the retinal hemorrhages involve the fovea and parafoveal areas. (arizona.edu)
  • CAR is a paraneoplastic disorder in which the aberrant expression of retinal antigens in tumor cells, generates cross-reacting auto-antibodies which finally lead to apoptosis of the photoreceptor cells and subsequent retinal dysfunction. (neuroophthalmology.ca)