Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Vibrio cholerae O1: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Vibrio cholerae O139: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsIntestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.BangladeshHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESJejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Vibrio cholerae non-O1: A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Inbred BALB CRicin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
  • Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in humans causes gastrointestinal diseases that are often followed by potentially fatal systemic complications such as acute encephalopathy and hemolytic-uremic syndrome ( 12 , 22 , 25 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • CTX is responsible for the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease can be spread even further by infected people using already dirty water sources to clean themselves or dispose of waste.SymptomsSymptoms include: watery diarrhoea vomiting leg crampsThe infection is often mild or without symptoms.Preventing CholeraPreventionThe best form of cholera prevention is to establish good sanitation and waste treatment systems. (brightkite.com)
  • In addition to the toxicity of MakA demonstrated with C. elegans, our studies revealed that upon infection of Zebrafish the toxin caused damage in particular to the intestinal system," explains Sun Nyunt Wai. (healthcanal.com)
  • Cholera is a serious and sometimes life-threatening infection that mainly affects people in developing countries, where clean water and other sanitation measures are hard to come by. (rchsd.org)
  • Using this disease model, we discovered a new role for cholera toxin (CT) during infection. (asm.org)
  • About 80 percent of people who contract the bacteria don't develop cholera symptoms and the infection resolves on its own. (bingj.com)
  • Contaminated water supplies are the primary source of cholera infection. (bingj.com)
  • Reduced fluid accumulation and colonization occurred during infection with ETEC expressing AIIBII in animal models. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Symptoms of cholera can begin as soon as a few hours or as long as five days after infection. (co.zm)
  • Cholera, a bacterial infection spread by contaminated water, strikes the region twice a year, hitting once in the dry season when river flow is low, and then again during the fall wet season, when heavy rains swell the rivers to overflowing, often flooding the low-lying Bengal Delta region. (nasa.gov)
  • He said, "The infection operates through a powerful toxin that causes the intestinal tract to secrete and not absorb body fluids. (nasa.gov)
  • The new Northwestern study suggests the strain with multi-signature toxin gene mutations may trigger a unique pattern of infection accounting for the severity of disease noted during the Haiti cholera outbreak. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • 1080 words - 5 pages Recently the UN was sued for 'bringing Cholera to Haiti' causing an outbreak that killed thousands. (brightkite.com)
  • 5. Unfortunately, in addition to the human toll wrought by cholera, economic costs are often a byproduct of an outbreak. (pbs.org)
  • Though cholera has been around for many centuries, the disease came to prominence in the 19th century, when a lethal outbreak occurred in India. (bingj.com)
  • The first cholera pandemic emerged out of the Ganges Delta with an outbreak in Jessore, India, in 1817, stemming from contaminated rice. (bingj.com)
  • Countries affected by war, poverty, and natural disasters have the greatest risk for a cholera outbreak. (bingj.com)
  • Some countries have cholera vaccines that can help protect people against cholera for a short while. (rchsd.org)
  • A better understanding of the structure and function of CT will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of cholera and may aid in the design of safe and effective vaccines against cholera and related diarrheas. (asm.org)
  • Cholera vaccines are available, but the surest method to prevent the bacteria's spread is through basic sanitation. (pbs.org)
  • Cholera vaccines are available, though they only offer roughly 65% immunity, according to WHO. (bingj.com)
  • It is believed that vaccines inducing anti-adhesin immunity to inhibit bacterial adherence and anti-toxin immunity to eliminate toxin activity would provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. (asm.org)
  • Data from this study demonstrated that K88ac fimbriae expressing LT and STa epitope antigens elicited neutralizing anti-toxin antibodies and anti-adhesin antibodies and suggested that E. coli fimbriae could serve as a platform for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines against ETEC. (asm.org)
  • Similarly, experimental anti-toxin vaccines using toxin antigens, mainly LT toxoids or LT B subunits, could not provide effective protection either. (asm.org)
  • Evidence indicated that LT antigen-based experimental vaccines provided protection against only LT-producing ETEC strains but not against ETEC strains that produce STa toxin ( 13 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • As more than two-thirds of human ETEC diarrheal cases and more than one-quarter of porcine ETEC diarrhea cases are caused by STa-producing ETEC strains ( 15 , 16 , 28 , 31 , 35 , 42 , 48 ), anti-toxin vaccines must also induce anti-STa immunity in order to provide effective protection against ETEC toxins. (asm.org)
  • Demonstration of the utility of protein-receptor recognition using planar optical waveguides is shown here by the detection of cholera toxin. (spie.org)
  • and the relation of pathogenesis to the outpouring of fluid, the clinical course, and treatment. (ajtmh.org)
  • Overall, our findings suggest that the infant rabbit model will enable pursuit of several new avenues for research on cholera pathogenesis, as well as serve as a vehicle for testing new therapeutics. (asm.org)
  • This study reveals a novel action of ISLQ as a potent CFTR inhibitor with therapeutic potential for treatment of cholera and polycystic kidney disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The El Tor strain was active in the seventh and most recent pandemic of cholera from 1960's-1970's, as well as in the early 1990's along with serotype O139, both displaying resistance to multiple drugs. (kenyon.edu)
  • Acute and memory immune responses following oral cholera vaccination in children are significantly lower than those observed following wild type disease. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Each of these forms of vitamin B3 is used for schizophrenia , hallucinations due to drugs, Alzheimer 's disease and age-related loss of thinking skills, chronic brain syndrome, depression , motion sickness, alcohol dependence, and fluid collection ( edema ). (webmd.com)
  • It is also taken by mouth for schizophrenia , hallucinations due to drugs, Alzheimer's disease and age-related loss of thinking skills, chronic brain syndrome, muscle spasms , depression , motion sickness , alcohol dependence , blood vessel swelling linked with skin lesions, and fluid collection ( edema ). (medicinenet.com)
  • However, carriers do not experience the effects of this disease, and they may not experience the effects of cholera, either. (listverse.com)
  • Although cholera was a public health problem in the United States and Europe a hundred years ago, modern sanitation and the treatment of drinking water have virtually eliminated the disease in developed countries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anyone can get cholera, but infants, children, and the elderly are more likely to die from the disease because they become dehydrated faster than adults. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mediated transepithelial fluid secretion by human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease epithelium in vitro" Kidney Int. 50: 208-218, 1996. (patentgenius.com)
  • Cholera is a disease that can incite populations to panic. (britannica.com)
  • Cholera is an intestinal disease that is the archetype of waterborne illnesses. (britannica.com)
  • Dr. Gabriel said the CF gene protected carriers against cholera because it blocked the same molecular pathway used by the disease toxin to cause diarrhea. (nytimes.com)
  • 596 words - 2 pages Cholera: A Disease of Poverty Cholera is an infectious intestinal disease common in Southern Asia. (brightkite.com)
  • 2805 words - 11 pages Asiatic cholera is a deadly disease it is believed that it's carried by a micro organism called cholera morbus. (brightkite.com)
  • This disease attacked Cardiff during the 19th century cholera started because of a problem with the water system in many areas in Cardiff. (brightkite.com)
  • It's without question one of the most emotional depictions of love, but what separates it from similar novels is its suggestion that lovesickness is a literal disease, a plague comparable to cholera. (brightkite.com)
  • Novel action of the chalcone isoliquiritigenin as a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitor: potential therapy for cholera and polycystic kidney disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Is cholera a disease? (yahoo.com)
  • How can cholera disease be spread? (yahoo.com)
  • Cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. (yahoo.com)
  • The potential function of distal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (dCSF-CNs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) development is poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • Cholera is a life-threatening diarrheal disease that is thought to have afflicted human populations for several thousand years ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • This information may improve our understanding of the disease process itself, as well as illuminate the role of the toxin in studies of signal transduction and G-protein function. (asm.org)
  • It was till this period that scientists developed the urge to study how this deadly disease was being transmitted, British biologist John Snow, who's considered one of the fathers of modern epidemiology, carefully mapped cholera cases in the Soho area of London. (co.zm)
  • He convinced officials to remove the pump handle, immediately dropping the cholera cases in the area, later he published his discovery on the mode of transmission of the disease through contaminated water and food. (co.zm)
  • Cholera is a bacteria that has learned how to survive in the environment," said Shafiqul Islam, a Tufts University researcher who is studying the disease. (nasa.gov)
  • Cholera is a bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable diarrhea. (nasa.gov)
  • While the link between copepods and cholera was clear, they did not know what factors allowed copepods to multiply and spread the disease from ocean waters into drinking water. (nasa.gov)
  • Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (1843-1910), German physician and microbiologist, founder of modern bacteriology, identified the specific causative agents of TB, cholera, and anthrax and gave experimental support for the concept of infectious disease basing such discoveries on animal and human experimentation (Figure 1). (embs.org)
  • The cholera strain that transferred to Haiti in 2010 has multiple toxin gene mutations that may account for the severity of disease and is evolving to be more like an 1800s version of cholera, reports a new Northwestern Medicine study. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • All SLTs that have been investigated are A-B subunit protein toxins, whose A subunits possess N-glycosidase activity against 28S rRNA and cause inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A, enzymatic, P01555 ), and five copies of the B subunit (part B, receptor binding, P01556 ), denoted as AB 5 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding the mechanisms used by pathogens and toxins to adhere and invade human cells could lead to the development of new strategies for preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases . (omicsonline.org)
  • 2013 words - 8 pages The Impact of Cholera in Zambia, Africa Many people in advanced industrialized nations are often unaware of infectious diseases that plague underdeveloped countries. (brightkite.com)
  • Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transepithelial electrical measurements, isotope flux measurements in Ussing chambers, fluid movement in isolated ileal sacs and electrical measurements in patch clamp studies were used to study the effect of glucose on active chloride and fluid secretion in mouse small intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells. (physiology.org)
  • The study uses rectal swabs from randomly selcted households with confirmed cholera cases, and that samples were. (ebscohost.com)
  • LT is an A-B subunit protein toxin, closely related to cholera toxin. (nih.gov)
  • By contrast, the ctxAB mutant with an additional deletion in the actin-cross-linking repeats-in-toxin (RTX) toxin gene ( rtxA ) caused a less severe pathology and decreased serum levels of proinflammatory molecules interleukin (IL)-6 and murine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2. (rupress.org)
  • Using a combination of electron microscopy and light microscopy with molecular genetic methods we obtained evidence that this protein toxin is transported through the channel of the flagellum filamentous structure", Sun Nyunt Wai explains. (healthcanal.com)
  • Both toxins bind receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and insert an enzymatic subunit that modifies a G protein associated with the adenylate cyclase complex. (asm.org)
  • Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and single-molecule tracking experiments revealed that protein domains remain laterally fluid in the curved regions. (upenn.edu)