Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Vibrio cholerae O1: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 126.96.36.199.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Vibrio cholerae O139: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsIntestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.BangladeshHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESJejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52Vibrio cholerae non-O1: A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Inbred BALB CRicin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 184.108.40.206.
"Thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor identified by high-throughput screening blocks cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion ... are affected by many different toxins. Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a toxin found in pufferfish, completely blocks sodium ion ... Much of the structure of the pores of ion channels has been elucidated from studies that used toxins to inhibit channel ... Abnormally-elevated CFTR function results in excessive fluid secretion. High-affinity CFTR inhibitors, such as CFTRinh-172 and ...
The most common cause of this type of diarrhea is a cholera toxin that stimulates the secretion of anions, especially chloride ... In those with severe dehydration, intravenous fluids may be required. Most cases; however, can be managed well with fluids by ... which leads to a passive loss of protein-rich fluids and a decreased ability to absorb these lost fluids. Features of all three ... Various toxins such as mushroom poisoning and drugs can also cause acute diarrhea. Chronic diarrhea can be the part of the ...
V. mimicus was isolated from cultures of stool specimens, and genes encoding cholera toxin were identified by polymerase chain ... These patients received intravenous fluid rehydration, bicarbonate infusions, and antibiotics, and recovered fully. The other ... V. mimicus, when carrying genes that encode cholera toxin, can cause severe watery diarrhea. Consumers and physicians should be ... and cholera toxin genes were not detected using PCR. D. MacEachern; J. McCullough; J. Duchin; M. Tran; K. MacDonald; A. Marfin ...
... described in 2013 that stimulation of colorectal organoids with cAMP-raising agonists such as forskolin or cholera toxin ... Whereas organoids from non-cystic fibrosis subjects swell in response to forskolin as a consequence of fluid transport into the ... transmembrane conductance regulator gene that encodes an epithelial ion channel necessary for healthy epithelial surface fluids ...
The combined effects result in rapid fluid loss from the intestine, up to 2 liters per hour, leading to severe dehydration and ... Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a ... Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is AB5 multimeric protein complex secreted ...
Timeline of cholera
Sjöqvist, A; Cassuto, J; Jodal, M; Lundgren, O. "Actions of serotonin antagonists on cholera-toxin-induced intestinal fluid ... "Cholera's seven pandemics". CBC News. May 9, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2016. Macpherson, John. On the Early Seats of Cholera in ... "Who first discovered cholera?". UCLA. Retrieved 13 December 2016. Felsenfeld, O. "A Review of Recent Trends in Cholera Research ... "Cholera - rising with the downpours". IRIN. Retrieved 13 December 2016. "Cholera in Ghana" (PDF). UNICEF. 15 November 2014. " ...
Sambhu Nath De
An experimental study of the action of cholera toxin. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 63: 707-717, 1951. De, S. N. Cholera: its pathology ... for replenishing the massive fluid loss in cholera patients, has saved innumerable lives, should be considered as a direct ... This new development was another reason why De could not continue his research on purification of cholera toxin. In 1978, the ... De's desire to purify the cholera toxin did not progress any further as the protein purification technology was not well ...
... a protein in the central nervous system and in the gut which inhibits intestinal hypersecretion induced by cholera toxin". ... "Molecular cloning and expression of a pituitary gland protein modulating intestinal fluid secretion". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (35): ... "Marked increase in cerebrospinal fluid ubiquitin in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease". Neuroscience Letters. 139 (1): 47-9. doi: ...
Toxins of this type include cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, Shiga toxin and heat-liable enterotoxin from E. coli. Once in the ... which causes the movement of massive amounts of fluid and electrolytes from the lining of the small intestine and results in ... AB5 toxin) By domain architecture of the toxin (for example, polymorphic toxins) By the ability of the toxin to endure in ... Other intracellular toxins do not directly inhibit protein synthesis. For example, Cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates, thereby ...
Nirmal Kumar Dutta
Dutta N. K., Panse N. V., Kulkarni D. R. (1959). "Role of cholera a toxin in experimental cholera". J. Bacteriol. 78: 594-5. ... "Diarrhea and accumulation of intestinal fluid in infant rabbits infected with Vibrio cholerae in an isolated jejunal segment". ... PMC 1843319 . Missing or empty ,url= (help) "Cholera Toxins: Immunogenicity of the Rabbit Ileal Loop Toxin and Related Antigens ... N. K. Dutta, N. B. Oza (1965). "A new approach to the treatment of cholera based on experimental evidence" (PDF). Br J Exp ...
Most strains of C jejuni produce a toxin (cytolethal distending toxin) that hinders the cells from dividing and activating the ... A cholera-like enterotoxin was once thought to be also made, but this appears not to be the case. The organism produces diffuse ... dehydrated children may require intravenous fluid treatment in a hospital. ... These infections were named cholera infantum, or summer complaint. The species was first isolated by Sir John McFadyean ...
History of emerging infectious diseases
Once ingested, the bacteria colonizes the intestinal tract of the host and produces a toxin which causes body fluids to flow ... The study showed that a series of genetic mutations in some people provide resistance to cholera toxin; but these mutations ... scientific representatives from 21 countries voted unanimously to resolve that cholera was caused by environmental toxins from ... "Cystic fibrosis heterozygote resistance to cholera toxin in the cystic fibrosis mouse model". Science. 266 (5182): 107-9. ...
Oral inactivated vaccines consisting of toxin antigen and whole cells, i.e. the licensed recombinant cholera B subunit (rCTB)- ... This increase in fluid buildup especially around the lungs impedes the functioning of the heart, causing an increase in blood ... Some strains of E. coli for example 0157:H7, can produce Shiga toxin (classified as a bioterrorism agent). This toxin causes ... the lesions the toxin leaves behind are the reason why bloody diarrhea is a symptom of an Shiga toxin producing E. Coli ...
The most common cause of this type of diarrhea is a cholera toxin that stimulates the secretion of anions, especially chloride ... intravenous fluids may be required. Most cases; however, can be managed well with fluids by mouth. Antibiotics, while ... Oral cholera vaccines in mass immunization campaigns (PDF). WHO. 2010. pp. 6-8. ISBN 978 92 4 150043 2. Archived (PDF) from the ... a b c Community Health Worker Training Materials for Cholera Prevention and Control Archived 20 October 2011 at the Wayback ...
Cholera toxin Thompson FL, Gevers D, Thompson CC, Dawyndt P, Naser S, Hoste B, Munn CB, Swings J (2005). "Phylogeny and ... Patients who cannot tolerate oral fluid replacement may require intravenous fluid therapy. Although most Vibrio species are ... Filippo Pacini isolated micro-organisms he called "vibrions" from cholera patients in 1854, because of their motility. See ... Pathogenic Vibrio species include V. cholerae (the causative agent of cholera), V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus. V. ...
C3 toxin of C. botulinum; and Diphtheria toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Histone code Cell signaling PARP-1 Cholera toxin ... subsequent activation of intracellular cyclic AMP stimulates the release of fluid and ions from intestinal epithelial cells. ... It is also the basis for the toxicity of bacterial compounds such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and others. The first ... cholera of vibrio cholera; heat-labile enterotoxin of E.Coli; Exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Pertussis toxin of B. ...
In 1999 the drug was reported to improve the symptoms of cholera toxin induced diarrhoea in mice. SP-303 was eventually named ... The mechanism seems to be selective as other channels involved in intestinal fluid secretion, namely sodium and potassium ... "A novel plant-derived inhibitor of cAMP-mediated fluid and chloride secretion". The American Journal of Physiology. 276 (1 Pt 1 ...
Galleria mellonella are influenced by cholera toxin and its B-subunit". Results in Immunology. 2 (Supplement C): 54-65. doi: ... NDR1 is also believed to be involved in cell wall adhesion to the plasma membrane and fluid retention of the cell. In addition ... "Arabidopsis NDR1 Is an Integrin-Like Protein with a Role in Fluid Loss and Plasma Membrane-Cell Wall Adhesion". Plant ...
Fluids. The most common error in caring for patients with cholera is to underestimate the speed and volume of fluids required.[ ... The cholera toxin (CTX or CT) is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A ... "Cholera's seven pandemics". CBC. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ... Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. *. "Cholera". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ...
Fluid balance is key. Profuse sweating can increase the need for electrolyte (salt) replacement. Water intoxication (which ... While instances of cholera, typhoid and diarrhea were reduced, other problems emerged due to polluted groundwater. Sixty ... Water may also be unacceptable due to levels of toxins or suspended solids. Globally, in 2015, 89% of people had access to ... This can result in infectious diseases, such as gastroenteritis, cholera, and typhoid, among others. Reduction of waterborne ...
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
Cholera: ADP-ribosylation caused by cholera toxin results in increased production of cyclic AMP which in turn opens the CFTR ... Mutations of the CFTR gene affecting chloride ion channel function lead to dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport in the ... and mice carrying a single copy of mutant CFTR are resistant to diarrhea caused by cholera toxin. The most common mutations ... Kavic SM, Frehm EJ, Segal AS (1999). "Case studies in cholera: lessons in medical history and science". Yale J Biol Med. 72 (6 ...
Type III, intracellular toxins or A/B toxins interfere with internal cell function and include shiga toxin, cholera toxin, and ... Once severe sepsis worsens to the point where blood pressure can no longer be maintained with intravenous fluids alone, then ... Toxins produced by pathogens cause an immune response; in gram-negative bacteria these are endotoxins, which are bacterial ... This means that intravenous fluid administration alone is not enough to maintain a patient's BP. Diagnosis of septic shock is ...
Specimens that are normally sterile, such as blood, urine or spinal fluid, are cultured under conditions designed to grow all ... For instance, Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, and V. parahaemolyticus, have 2 chromosomes each. In fact, 10% of all ... Aronson AI, Shai Y (2001). "Why Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxins are so effective: unique features of their mode of ... Many bacteria can move using a variety of mechanisms: flagella are used for swimming through fluids; bacterial gliding and ...
For example, fluorophores conjugated to cholera-toxin B-subunit, which binds to the raft constituent ganglioside GM1 is used ... Singer, S. J.; Nicolson, Garth L. (1972). "The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes". Science. 175 (4023): 720 ... the fluid membrane will dissolve while the lipid rafts may remain intact and could be extracted. Because of ... according to the Singer-Nicolson fluid mosaic model, published in 1972. However, membrane microdomains were postulated in the ...
It is thought to be some combination of the following: Retarding the expulsion of fluids into the digestive system by irritated ... It was originally sold as a remedy for infant diarrhea by Norwich Pharmacal Company under the name "Bismosal: Mixture Cholera ... lining through inhibition of prostaglandin G/H synthase 1/2 Reduction in hypermotility of the stomach Binding of toxins ... Stimulation of absorption of fluids and electrolytes by the intestinal wall (antisecretory action) As a salicylate, reducing ...
... pleural fluid, and synovial fluids. It can be found in low concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (but at high ... Amikacin can decrease the effect certain vaccines, such as the live BCG vaccine (used for tuberculosis), the cholera vaccine, ... The effect of amikacin is increased when used with drugs derived from the botulinum toxin, anesthetics, neuromuscular blocking ... Infants also tend to have a larger volume of distribution due to their higher concentration of extracellular fluid, where ...
William Brooke O'Shaughnessy
... for what was to become intravenous fluid and electrolyte-replacement therapy in the treatment of cholera. O'Shaughnessy ... As chemical examiner he developed methods for forensic studies for detecting arsenic poisoning as well as botanical toxins ( ... In 1831, at the age of 22, as a result of his analysis of the blood of cholera victims, O'Shaughnessy laid the foundation, ... Moon, J. B. (1967). "Sir William Brooke O'Shaughnessy: The foundations of fluid therapy and the Indian telegraph service". New ...
"J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 20 (1): 44. doi:10.1186/1678-9199-20-44. PMC 4197285. PMID 25320574.. ... Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, other viral haemorrhagic fevers. Prevention. Coordinated medical services, ... The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals. Spread may ... It is believed that between people, Ebola disease spreads only by direct contact with the blood or other body fluids of a ...
Structural proteins confer stiffness and rigidity to otherwise-fluid biological components. Most structural proteins are ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ... various toxins, and digestive/metabolic enzymes obtained from slaughterhouses. In the 1950s, the Armour Hot Dog Co. purified 1 ...
ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Central nervous system navs - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
For example, Clostridium tetani releases a toxin that paralyzes muscles, and staphylococcus releases toxins that produce shock ... Diarrheal diseases are caused by many different organisms, including cholera, botulism, and E. coli to name a few. See also: ... A sample taken from potentially diseased tissue or fluid is then tested for the presence of an infectious agent able to grow ... In the mid-19th century John Snow and William Budd did important work demonstrating the contagiousness of typhoid and cholera ...
The oral cholera vaccine, while effective for prevention of cholera, is of questionable use for prevention of TD. A 2008 ... Adequate fluid intake (oral rehydration therapy) is therefore a high priority. Commercial rehydration drinks are widely ... Mechanisms of action vary: some bacteria release toxins which bind to the intestinal wall and cause diarrhea; others damage the ... The oral cholera vaccine, while effective for cholera, is of questionable use for traveler's diarrhea. Preventive ...
... botulinum toxin may be quantitated by immunoassay of human biological fluids; serum levels of 12-24 mouse LD50 units per ... Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... Microbial toxins. References. *^ a b c d e f g Montecucco C, Molgó J (June 2005). "Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an ... Toxin production. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ...
... even more toxin is released. It takes up to several days for the toxin to be neutralized from the body by using continuous ... Infected fluid from the meninges then passes into the spinal cord, causing symptoms including stiff neck, fever and rashes. The ... This is due to the release of toxins into the blood that break down the walls of blood vessels. A rash can develop under the ... In this case, bacterial toxins rupture blood vessels and can rapidly shut down vital organs. Within hours, patient's health can ...
Traditional Chinese medicine
Their palpable manifestations are all bodily fluids: tears, sputum, saliva, gastric acid, joint fluid, sweat, urine, etc. ... It is believed that this treatment is for almost any ailment including cholera. The red spots and bruising ... and naturally occurring toxins, which can cause illness, exacerbate pre-existing poor health or result in death. Botanical ... "津液包括各脏腑组织的正常体液和正常的分泌物，胃液、肠液、唾液、关节液等。习惯上也包括代谢产物中的尿
2007). The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump: John Snow and the Mystery of Cholera. Los Angeles:University of California ... When chlorine is inhaled at concentrations greater than 30 ppm, it reacts with water and cellular fluid, producing hydrochloric ... During the Paris cholera outbreak of 1832, large quantities of so-called chloride of lime were used to disinfect the capital. ... 2003). Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine. New York:Oxford University. ...
Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... Symptomatic and supportive care tailored to the severity of the liver disease may include intravenous fluids with dextrose, ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Nevertheless, they appear much less capable of causing mutagenesis than the unmetabolized toxin. ...
Type III, intracellular toxins or A/B toxins interfere with internal cell function and include shiga toxin, cholera toxin, and ... FluidsEdit. Because lowered blood pressure in septic shock contributes to poor perfusion, fluid resuscitation is an initial ... Septic shock may be defined as sepsis-induced low blood pressure that persists despite treatment with intravenous fluids. ... Recently, severe damage to liver ultrastructure has been noticed from treatment with cell-free toxins of Salmonella. Unless ...
... botulinum toxin may be quantitated by immunoassay of human biological fluids; serum levels of 12-24 mouse LD50 units per ... Microbial toxins. References. *^ a b c d e f g Montecucco C, Molgó J (June 2005). "Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an ... Toxin production. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ... Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of problems. Muscle spasticity. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of ...
Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea. At the time ... Transmission can occur when: body fluids are exchanged during sexual activity, e.g., HIV; blood is exchanged by contaminated ... Phages were heralded as a potential treatment for diseases such as typhoid and cholera, but their promise was forgotten with ...
Tüümus - Vikipeedia
Effects of climate change on human health
... causing cholera outbreaks. As flooding increases there is also an increase in cholera epidemics as the flood waters that ... One of these toxin producing algae is Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta. This species produces a substance called domoic acid which ... such as the use of oral or intravenous fluids for rehydration. ... The warming oceans are becoming a breeding ground for toxic algae blooms (also known as red tides) and cholera. As ...
He called it contagium vivum fluidum. The question of whether the agent was a "living fluid" or a particle was however ... Ivanovsky reported a minuscule infectious agent or toxin, capable of passing the filter, may be being produced by a bacterium.[ ... and concluded it infectious-replicating in the host-and thus not a mere toxin. ...
Cholera toxin B subunit: an efficient transmucosal carrier-delivery system for induction of peripheral immunological tolerance ...
Brain fluid shifts following spaceflight. Volume of cosmonauts brain ventricles increased by an average of 12% after ... Cholera toxin B subunit: an efficient transmucosal carrier-delivery system for induction of peripheral immunological tolerance ... Cholera toxin B subunit: an efficient transmucosal carrier-delivery system for induction of peripheral immunological tolerance ... Cholera toxin B subunit: an efficient transmucosal carrier-delivery system for induction of peripheral immunological tolerance ...
Cholera | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine | Alternative
This topic contains 17 study abstracts on Cholera indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Zinc, Polyphenols, ... A natural stevia-derived compouind prevents cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion.Feb 01, 2008. ... Sweet fennel seed extract and its major components can drastically inhibit cholera toxin production in various V. cholerae ... Apple polyphenol may reduce the adverse effects of the immunization adjuvant cholera toxin. Jul 30, 2009. ...
Niacin: MedlinePlus Supplements
For reducing fluid loss caused by cholera toxin: 2 grams daily has been used. ... Rabbani GH, Butler T, Bardhan PK, Islam A. Reduction of fluid-loss in cholera by nicotinic acid: a randomized controlled trial ... Effect of nicotinic acid on cholera-induced fluid movement and unidirectional sodium fluxes in rabbit jejunum. Johns Hopkins ... An infection of the intestines that causes diarrhea (cholera). Taking niacin by mouth seems to reduce diarrhea in people with ...
micro Unit 3 Flashcards by Lauren Parr | Brainscape
cholera toxin (encoded by phage), = A:B5 similar to E. coli LT. - pili: co-regulated w/ toxin. helps bacteria remain in ... travelers diarrhea: watery diarrhea, like cholera; * usually self-limiting -> treat w/ fluids or peptobismol. =only sm. ... 2. Shiga toxin hemolytic uremic syndrome (inactivates protein synthesis by depurinating A residue on 28S ribosomal RNA). ... bacteriophage carries shiga toxin genes. 3. large plasmid (type III secretion system) internalize. 4. hemolysin. 5. F-actin ...
NIACIN AND NIACINAMIDE VITAMIN B3: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD
For reducing fluid loss caused by cholera toxin: Niacin 2 grams daily. ... Rabbani GH, Butler T, Bardhan PK, Islam A. Reduction of fluid-loss in cholera by nicotinic acid: a randomized controlled trial ... Comparative effects of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on cholera toxin-induced secretion in rabbit ileum. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res ... and fluid collection (edema).. Some people use niacin or niacinamide for acne, leprosy, attention deficit-hyperactivity ...
NIACIN AND NIACINAMIDE VITAMIN B3: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD
For reducing fluid loss caused by cholera toxin: Niacin 2 grams daily. ... and fluid collection (edema).. Some people use niacin or niacinamide for acne, leprosy, attention deficit-hyperactivity ... and to reduce the diarrhea associated with cholera. Niacin is also used for preventing positive urine drug screens in people ... disorder (ADHD), memory loss, arthritis, preventing premenstrual headache, improving digestion, protecting against toxins and ...
Niacin And Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) Information | Evidenced-Based Supplement Guide on MedicineNet.com
For reducing fluid loss caused by cholera toxin: 2 grams daily has been used. ... Diarrhea from an infection called cholera. Taking niacin by mouth seems to control the loss of fluid due to cholera. ... and fluid collection (edema).. Some people take niacin by mouth for acne, leprosy, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder ( ... and to reduce the diarrhea associated with cholera. Niacin is also taken by mouth to for preventing positive urine drug screens ...
JCI - Small-molecule correctors of defective ΔF508-CFTR cellular processing identified by high-throughput screening
Micro - Basic Bacteriology (Exotoxins & Endotoxins) Flashcards by Quita Kilgore | Brainscape
Cholera toxin; Increase fluid secretion; Overactivates adenylate cyclase (increasing cAMP) by permanently activating Gs ... Heat-labile toxin (LT) from Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (4) Cholera toxin from Vibrio cholerae (5) Pertussis toxin from ... Heat-stable toxin (ST) (2) Bacillus anthracis - Edema factor (3) Vibrio cholerae - Cholera toxin ... 1) Heat-labile toxin (LT) - Increase fluid secretion, Overactivates adenylate cyclase (increasing cAMP) increased Cl- ...
Travel Medicine: Travel Vaccines, Cholera, Malaria & Other Risks
The cholera toxin can causes the cells in the intestines to pour out life-threatening amounts of fluid. The excess water loss ... Cholera is an infection caused by bacteria (Vibrio cholerae) that look like curved rods when viewed under the microscope. The ... Cholera spreads when human waste contaminates water and food. Because it takes high numbers of bacteria to cause infection, the ... Cholera is most common in areas that have poor sanitation, with faulty sewage systems or contaminated drinking water. Asia, ...
Chinese Herbal Medicine | Encyclopedia.com
... in Traditional Herbal Medications and Confirmation by Synthesis of Factors That Inhibit Cholera Toxin-Induced Fluid ... Eliminates toxins; increases physical stamina. Schisandra (wu. wei zu). Prevents fluid loss, e.g., excessive sweating, runny. ... fluids (all body fluids other than blood, such as saliva, spinal fluid, sweat, etc.), and qi. ... Fluids (all body fluids other than blood, such as saliva, spinal fluid, sweat, etc.), and qi. ...
JCI - Coordinated epithelial NHE3 inhibition and barrier dysfunction are required for TNF-mediated diarrhea in vivo
Thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor identified by high-throughput screening blocks cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion. ... Cholera toxin is shown as a positive control. (B) BSA flux was measured in control animals, after the addition of 20 μM ... This closed loop was then filled with 5 μM cholera toxin in PBS or an equivalent volume of PBS. After a 20-minute incubation, ... cellular responses of polarized T84 intestinal epithelial cells are dependent on production of cholera toxin and the RTX toxin ...
Drug-Resistance Mechanisms in Vibrio cholerae O1 Outbreak Strain, Haiti, 2010 - Volume 17, Number 11-November 2011 - Emerging...
... but only toxin-producing serogroups O1 and O139 cause epidemic cholera. The primary treatment for cholera is rehydration with ... oral or intravenous fluids (2). For severe cases, antimicrobial agents may reduce the volume and duration of diarrhea (1,2). ... Chin CS, Sorenson J, Harris JB, Robins WP, Charles RC, Jean-Charles RR, The origin of the Haitian cholera outbreak strain. N ... CHOLERA IN HAITI Dispatches. Drug-Resistance Mechanisms in Vibrio cholerae O1 Outbreak Strain, Haiti, 2010 On This Page ...
Frontiers | A Comprehensive Review of the Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Clinical Effects of the Neutral Endopeptidase...
Thus, excessive fluid secretion from the gut is a pathophysiological hallmark of diarrhea. Racecadotril inhibited cholera toxin ... In a feline cholecystitis model racecadotril inhibited fluid secretion in a naloxone-sensitive manner, but did not block fluid ... Acetorphan prevents cholera-toxin-induced water and electrolyte secretion in the human jejunum. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. ... in which cholera toxin was administered by segmental perfusion directly into the proximal jejunum (Hinterleitner et al., 1997 ...
Frontiers | Genetically encoded optical sensors for monitoring of intracellular chloride and chloride-selective channel...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Cholera. Its Pathology and Pathogenesis
... the possible role of a cholera toxin; the mechanism of infection; and the relation of pathogenesis to the outpouring of fluid, ... pathology and treatment of cholera resulting from studies during the 1958-59 epidemic in Bangkok, Thailand. The description of ... This is a very well written text divided into eight chapters dealing with a definition of cholera; its origin; its behavior in ... the possible role of a cholera toxin; the mechanism of infection; and the relation of pathogenesis to the outpouring of fluid, ...
Protein Conjugates-Section 14.7 | Thermo Fisher Scientific - CL
Cholera Toxin Subunit B Cholera toxin comprises two subunits, A and B, arranged in an AB5 conformation. Subunit A is an ADP- ... Chapter 14-Fluorescent Tracers of Cell Morphology and Fluid Flow. *Chapter 15-Assays for Cell Viability, Proliferation and ... All of Molecular Probes cholera toxin subunit B conjugates are prepared from recombinant cholera toxin subunit B, which is ... Cholera toxin subunit B and its conjugates are established as superior tracers for retrograde labeling of neurons.. Cholera ...
Programmed reduction of ABC transporter activity in sea urchin germline progenitors | Development
... a marker of fluid-phase endocytosis, and cholera toxin B (n=3×5×4), a marker of GM1 found in lipid rafts. (B) MIPs showing ... Cholera toxin B uptake from 20-40 minutes showed similar trends, with the micromeres internalizing an average of 158 endosomes ... Tetramethylrhodamine dextran and cholera toxin B uptake experiments indicate that micromeres have higher rates of bulk and raft ... Whalley et al., 1995) and cholera toxin B experiments were modified from those of Alford et al. (Alford et al., 2009). Eggs ...
Vibrio | Cholera | Serotype
with deleted toxin gene.. An ideal cholera vaccine is yet to be found.. Treatment:-. i) Prompt & adequate replacement of fluid ... due to secretion of cholera toxin.. Cholera toxin- it is an enterotoxin, produced when vibrio. multiplies on epithelial cell ... need for parenteral fluids.. National reference centre for cholera is located in-. National Institute of Cholera & Enteric ... Ctx A, Ctx B- for 2 subunits of cholera toxin,. Tcp- toxin corregulated pilus.. Gene complex,. acf- accessory colonization ...
Bacteria Associated with Foodborne Diseases - IFT.org
The cholera toxin causes massive fluid loss from cells lining the intestinal tract, and the familiar rice-water stool. Diarrhea ... Shigella toxin and the pathogenesis of shigellosis. In "Microbial Toxins and Diarrheal Diseases," ed. E. Evered and J. Whelan, ... Foodborne botulism results from the consumption of food in which C. botulinum has grown and produced toxin. The toxin is ... Foodborne bacterial intoxication is caused by the ingestion of food containing preformed bacterial toxin, such as the toxins ...
Raffaele Capasso - Google Scholar Citations
The Vibrio cholerae vieSAB Locus Encodes a Pathway Contributing to Cholera Toxin Production | Journal of Bacteriology
Intestinal fluid accumulation induced by oral challenge with Vibrio cholerae or cholera toxin in infant mice. Infect. Immun. 15 ... and production of cholera toxin (CT), an ADP-ribosylating toxin, to cause the severe diarrheal disease cholera. CT and TCP are ... The Vibrio cholerae vieSAB Locus Encodes a Pathway Contributing to Cholera Toxin Production. Anna D. Tischler, Sang Ho Lee, ... The genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), ctxAB, are coregulated with those for other Vibrio cholerae virulence factors by a ...
Use of automated sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B...
Cholera toxin is the principal factor causing the profuse intestinal fluid secretion that is characteristic of cholera. The DNA ... Three types of cholera toxin B subunit gene (ctxB) were identified. Genotype 1 was found in strains of classical biotype ... All base changes correspond to an amino acid substitution in the B subunit of the cholera toxin. Heterogenicity in the B ... Use of automated sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B ...
Jay Thiagarajah, MD, PhD | Boston Children's Hospital
Thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor identified by high-throughput screening blocks cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion. ... Prevention of toxin-induced intestinal ion and fluid secretion by a small-molecule CFTR inhibitor. Gastroenterology. 2004 Feb; ... Progesterone stimulation of fluid absorption by the rat uterine gland. Reproduction. 2002 May; 123(5):633-8. View abstract ... CFTR pharmacology and its role in intestinal fluid secretion. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2003 Dec; 3(6):594-9. View abstract ...
Quantification of the leucocyte influx into rabbit ileal loops induced by strains of Salmonella typhimurium of different...
The bacterial factor may or may not be the antigen related to cholera toxin, described previously. ... Fluid secretion was never observed in the absence of leucocyte influx, but leucocyte influx per se did not induce fluid ... The phenotype of the challenge inoculum influenced fluid secretion; young log-phase organisms induced fluid secretion with a ... Strains fell into two groups on the basis of their leucotactic potential: "virulent" strains (which induced fluid secretion) ...
The human CFTR protein expressed in CHO cells activates aquaporin-3 in a cAMP-dependent pathway: study by digital holographic...
Ferrioxamine-Mediated Iron(III) Utilization bySalmonella enterica | Applied and Environmental Microbiology
The positive control loops (containing cholera toxin) contained 15 to 20 ml of accumulated fluid. No accumulated fluid or ... The negative and positive controls consisted of 1 ml of sterile phosphate-buffered saline and 1 mg of cholera toxin in 1 ml of ... Salmonellosis: in retrospect and prospect Microbial toxins and diarrhoeal disease. 1985 175 192 Pitman London, United Kingdom ... which allows measurement of intestinal colonization and fluid secretion, while the latter model is widely used as a model for ...
Efficacy of a food plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine. - PubMed - NCBI
Following intraileal injection with CT, the plant-immunized mice showed up to a 60% reduction in diarrheal fluid accumulation ... Efficacy of a food plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine.. Arakawa T1, Chong DK, Langridge WH. ... Transgenic potatoes were engineered to synthesize a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) pentamer with affinity for GMI-ganglioside. ... The cytopathic effect of cholera holotoxin (CT) on Vero cells was neutralized by serum from mice immunized with transgenic ...
InfectionEpidemicsSmall intestineOutbreakVaccinesCause choleraEnterotoxinSubunit of the cholera toxinSuppressed cholera toxin-inducedDetection of Cholera ToxinStoolIntravenousIntestinesPathogenesisTreatment of choleraSaltsLost fluidsO139VaccineDiseaseSubunitsIntestinal Secretion2020EnterotoxinsInduceDiseasesSeven to 14 daysImmunitySecretion in mouseConfirmed cholera casesProtein
- Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in humans causes gastrointestinal diseases that are often followed by potentially fatal systemic complications such as acute encephalopathy and hemolytic-uremic syndrome ( 12 , 22 , 25 , 26 ). (asm.org)
- CTX is responsible for the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection. (wikipedia.org)
- The disease can be spread even further by infected people using already dirty water sources to clean themselves or dispose of waste.SymptomsSymptoms include: watery diarrhoea vomiting leg crampsThe infection is often mild or without symptoms.Preventing CholeraPreventionThe best form of cholera prevention is to establish good sanitation and waste treatment systems. (brightkite.com)
- In addition to the toxicity of MakA demonstrated with C. elegans, our studies revealed that upon infection of Zebrafish the toxin caused damage in particular to the intestinal system," explains Sun Nyunt Wai. (healthcanal.com)
- Cholera is a serious and sometimes life-threatening infection that mainly affects people in developing countries, where clean water and other sanitation measures are hard to come by. (rchsd.org)
- Using this disease model, we discovered a new role for cholera toxin (CT) during infection. (asm.org)
- About 80 percent of people who contract the bacteria don't develop cholera symptoms and the infection resolves on its own. (bingj.com)
- Contaminated water supplies are the primary source of cholera infection. (bingj.com)
- Reduced fluid accumulation and colonization occurred during infection with ETEC expressing AIIBII in animal models. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Symptoms of cholera can begin as soon as a few hours or as long as five days after infection. (co.zm)
- Cholera, a bacterial infection spread by contaminated water, strikes the region twice a year, hitting once in the dry season when river flow is low, and then again during the fall wet season, when heavy rains swell the rivers to overflowing, often flooding the low-lying Bengal Delta region. (nasa.gov)
- He said, "The infection operates through a powerful toxin that causes the intestinal tract to secrete and not absorb body fluids. (nasa.gov)
- The new Northwestern study suggests the strain with multi-signature toxin gene mutations may trigger a unique pattern of infection accounting for the severity of disease noted during the Haiti cholera outbreak. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- seven pandemics (countrywide or worldwide epidemics) of cholera have been recorded between 1817 and 2003. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In the past two centuries, seven pandemics (global epidemics) of cholera have carried the disease to countries around the world. (britannica.com)
- Dr. Gabriel suggested that in the great cholera epidemics that have struck humanity over the centuries, carriers of the CF gene would have had a better chance of surviving than would people who had the normal gene complement. (nytimes.com)
- Cholera epidemics also sometimes happen after a disaster (like an earthquake or flood) if people are living in tent cities or other places without running water or proper sanitation systems. (rchsd.org)
- First, the main cholera toxin that causes the diarrhea acquired genetic changes that converted the toxin to a form similar to that produced by strains prevalent during the historic cholera epidemics of the 1800s. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Following intraileal injection with CT, the plant-immunized mice showed up to a 60% reduction in diarrheal fluid accumulation in the small intestine. (nih.gov)
- This pathogen enters its human host through contaminated food and water, passes through the gastric acid barrier, and colonizes the relatively sterile environment of the small intestine, where it produces cholera toxin (reviewed in reference 20 ). (asm.org)
- In the small intestine, the rapidly multiplying bacteria produce a toxin that causes a large volume of water and electrolytes to be secreted into the bowels and then to be abruptly eliminated in the form of watery diarrhea. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The majority of this fluid is absorbed during fairly rapid passage through the small intestine. (springer.com)
- Volume flow relationship during transport of fluid through the human small intestine. (springer.com)
- However, the deadly effects of the disease are the result of a potent toxin called CTX that the bacterium produce in the small intestine. (yahoo.com)
- Upon entry into enterocytes by endocytosis and following reduction and translocation, CT-A1 ADP-ribosylates a regulatory G-protein (Gsα), which leads to constitutive activation of adenylate cyclase, increased intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP, and secretion of fluid and electrolytes into the lumen of the small intestine ( 12 ). (asm.org)
- When a person consumes infected food or water, cholera bacteria attach themselves to the small intestine and begin multiplying. (pbs.org)
- The disease's deadly effects are the result of a strong toxin known as CTX that is produced by these bacteria in your small intestine. (bingj.com)
- 1080 words - 5 pages Recently the UN was sued for 'bringing Cholera to Haiti' causing an outbreak that killed thousands. (brightkite.com)
- 5. Unfortunately, in addition to the human toll wrought by cholera, economic costs are often a byproduct of an outbreak. (pbs.org)
- Though cholera has been around for many centuries, the disease came to prominence in the 19th century, when a lethal outbreak occurred in India. (bingj.com)
- The first cholera pandemic emerged out of the Ganges Delta with an outbreak in Jessore, India, in 1817, stemming from contaminated rice. (bingj.com)
- Countries affected by war, poverty, and natural disasters have the greatest risk for a cholera outbreak. (bingj.com)
- Some countries have cholera vaccines that can help protect people against cholera for a short while. (rchsd.org)
- A better understanding of the structure and function of CT will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of cholera and may aid in the design of safe and effective vaccines against cholera and related diarrheas. (asm.org)
- Cholera vaccines are available, but the surest method to prevent the bacteria's spread is through basic sanitation. (pbs.org)
- Cholera vaccines are available, though they only offer roughly 65% immunity, according to WHO. (bingj.com)
- It is believed that vaccines inducing anti-adhesin immunity to inhibit bacterial adherence and anti-toxin immunity to eliminate toxin activity would provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. (asm.org)
- Data from this study demonstrated that K88ac fimbriae expressing LT and STa epitope antigens elicited neutralizing anti-toxin antibodies and anti-adhesin antibodies and suggested that E. coli fimbriae could serve as a platform for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines against ETEC. (asm.org)
- Similarly, experimental anti-toxin vaccines using toxin antigens, mainly LT toxoids or LT B subunits, could not provide effective protection either. (asm.org)
- Evidence indicated that LT antigen-based experimental vaccines provided protection against only LT-producing ETEC strains but not against ETEC strains that produce STa toxin ( 13 , 14 ). (asm.org)
- As more than two-thirds of human ETEC diarrheal cases and more than one-quarter of porcine ETEC diarrhea cases are caused by STa-producing ETEC strains ( 15 , 16 , 28 , 31 , 35 , 42 , 48 ), anti-toxin vaccines must also induce anti-STa immunity in order to provide effective protection against ETEC toxins. (asm.org)
- Less commonly, the bacteria that cause cholera are found in brackish rivers and coastal waters. (rchsd.org)
- Uncooked fruits, vegetables, and other foods can also contain the bacteria that cause cholera . (bingj.com)
- While many diseases are spread primarily by human transmission, the bacteria that cause cholera lurk in the environment, breaking out and sickening people only when a specific mix of conditions appears. (nasa.gov)
- The virulence factor predominantly responsible for this watery diarrhea is cholera toxin (CT), * a powerful enterotoxin encoded by the ctxA and ctxB genes carried on the transmissible prophage CTXΦ ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
- Prevention and reversal of cholera enterotoxin effects on rabbit jejunum by nicotinic acid. (springer.com)
- Structure and function of cholera toxin and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. (asm.org)
- The recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the heat-labile enterotoxin has provided an opportunity to examine and compare the correlations between structure and function of the two toxins. (asm.org)
Subunit of the cholera toxin1
Suppressed cholera toxin-induced1
Detection of Cholera Toxin1
- Zinc supplementation significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea and stool output in children with cholera. (greenmedinfo.com)
- 2. Monsur's gelatin taurocholate trypticase tellurite agar (G.T.T.A)-ph-8.5, useful for cholera and other vibrios isolation from stool. (scribd.com)
- CFTR activator increases intestinal fluid secretion and normalizes stool output in a mouse model of constipation. (childrenshospital.org)
- V. mimicus was isolated from cultures of stool specimens, and genes encoding cholera toxin were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all three ill persons who submitted specimens. (cdc.gov)
- To confirm a diagnosis of cholera, doctors may take a sample of stool or vomit or rectal swab to examine for signs of the bacteria. (rchsd.org)
- Yet because they shed cholera bacteria in their stool for seven to 14 days, they can still infect others through contaminated water. (yahoo.com)
- The appearance and chemical composition of the rabbit diarrheal fluid were comparable to those of the "rice-water stool" produced by cholera patients. (asm.org)
- A doctor can confirm that you have cholera by identifying bacteria in a stool sample. (bingj.com)
- However, when a person has ingested food or water containing large amounts of cholera bacteria, some will survive to infect the intestines. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Of diagnostic and clinical significance, there is a paucity of anatomic pathology in the intestines of patients with cholera ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
- This bacterium produces a potent toxin that binds to the walls of the intestines. (rchsd.org)
- The bacteria, which are found in fecal-contaminated food and water and in raw or undercooked seafood, produce a toxin that affects the intestines causing diarrhea, vomiting, and severe fluid and electrolyte loss. (infoplease.com)
- and the relation of pathogenesis to the outpouring of fluid, the clinical course, and treatment. (ajtmh.org)
- Overall, our findings suggest that the infant rabbit model will enable pursuit of several new avenues for research on cholera pathogenesis, as well as serve as a vehicle for testing new therapeutics. (asm.org)
Treatment of cholera1
- Do not swim or fish in polluted waterTreatmentCholera can be simply and successfully treated by immediate replacement of the fluid and salts lost through diarrhea. (brightkite.com)
- The goal of treatment is to replace all the fluids and salts lost through diarrhea and vomiting. (rchsd.org)
- The safest and the most effective treatment for acute diarrhoea is still to give enough fluid to replace the water and salts lost in stools. (rehydrate.org)
- When the bacteria attaches to the small intestine's walls, your body begins to secrete large amounts of water that lead to diarrhea and rapid loss of fluids and salts. (bingj.com)
- Heterogenicity in the B subunit could have implications for vaccine development and diagnostic tests for cholera toxin and antitoxin. (asm.org)
- Efficacy of a food plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine. (nih.gov)
- Because cholera isn't a problem in the United States, the vaccine is not offered here. (rchsd.org)
- These variants may be useful as tools for additional studies on the cell biology of toxin action and/or as attenuated toxins for adjuvant or vaccine use. (asm.org)
- Acute and memory immune responses following oral cholera vaccination in children are significantly lower than those observed following wild type disease. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Each of these forms of vitamin B3 is used for schizophrenia , hallucinations due to drugs, Alzheimer 's disease and age-related loss of thinking skills, chronic brain syndrome, depression , motion sickness, alcohol dependence, and fluid collection ( edema ). (webmd.com)
- It is also taken by mouth for schizophrenia , hallucinations due to drugs, Alzheimer's disease and age-related loss of thinking skills, chronic brain syndrome, muscle spasms , depression , motion sickness , alcohol dependence , blood vessel swelling linked with skin lesions, and fluid collection ( edema ). (medicinenet.com)
- However, carriers do not experience the effects of this disease, and they may not experience the effects of cholera, either. (listverse.com)
- Although cholera was a public health problem in the United States and Europe a hundred years ago, modern sanitation and the treatment of drinking water have virtually eliminated the disease in developed countries. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Anyone can get cholera, but infants, children, and the elderly are more likely to die from the disease because they become dehydrated faster than adults. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mediated transepithelial fluid secretion by human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease epithelium in vitro" Kidney Int. 50: 208-218, 1996. (patentgenius.com)
- Cholera is a disease that can incite populations to panic. (britannica.com)
- Cholera is an intestinal disease that is the archetype of waterborne illnesses. (britannica.com)
- Dr. Gabriel said the CF gene protected carriers against cholera because it blocked the same molecular pathway used by the disease toxin to cause diarrhea. (nytimes.com)
- 596 words - 2 pages Cholera: A Disease of Poverty Cholera is an infectious intestinal disease common in Southern Asia. (brightkite.com)
- 2805 words - 11 pages Asiatic cholera is a deadly disease it is believed that it's carried by a micro organism called cholera morbus. (brightkite.com)
- This disease attacked Cardiff during the 19th century cholera started because of a problem with the water system in many areas in Cardiff. (brightkite.com)
- It's without question one of the most emotional depictions of love, but what separates it from similar novels is its suggestion that lovesickness is a literal disease, a plague comparable to cholera. (brightkite.com)
- Novel action of the chalcone isoliquiritigenin as a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitor: potential therapy for cholera and polycystic kidney disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Is cholera a disease? (yahoo.com)
- How can cholera disease be spread? (yahoo.com)
- Cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. (yahoo.com)
- The potential function of distal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (dCSF-CNs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) development is poorly understood. (nih.gov)
- Cholera is a life-threatening diarrheal disease that is thought to have afflicted human populations for several thousand years ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- This information may improve our understanding of the disease process itself, as well as illuminate the role of the toxin in studies of signal transduction and G-protein function. (asm.org)
- It was till this period that scientists developed the urge to study how this deadly disease was being transmitted, British biologist John Snow, who's considered one of the fathers of modern epidemiology, carefully mapped cholera cases in the Soho area of London. (co.zm)
- He convinced officials to remove the pump handle, immediately dropping the cholera cases in the area, later he published his discovery on the mode of transmission of the disease through contaminated water and food. (co.zm)
- Cholera is a bacteria that has learned how to survive in the environment," said Shafiqul Islam, a Tufts University researcher who is studying the disease. (nasa.gov)
- Cholera is a bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable diarrhea. (nasa.gov)
- While the link between copepods and cholera was clear, they did not know what factors allowed copepods to multiply and spread the disease from ocean waters into drinking water. (nasa.gov)
- Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (1843-1910), German physician and microbiologist, founder of modern bacteriology, identified the specific causative agents of TB, cholera, and anthrax and gave experimental support for the concept of infectious disease basing such discoveries on animal and human experimentation (Figure 1). (embs.org)
- The cholera strain that transferred to Haiti in 2010 has multiple toxin gene mutations that may account for the severity of disease and is evolving to be more like an 1800s version of cholera, reports a new Northwestern Medicine study. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- All SLTs that have been investigated are A-B subunit protein toxins, whose A subunits possess N-glycosidase activity against 28S rRNA and cause inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
- The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A, enzymatic, P01555 ), and five copies of the B subunit (part B, receptor binding, P01556 ), denoted as AB 5 . (wikipedia.org)
- bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins , endotoxins , enterotoxins , neurotoxins , and toxic enzymes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Enterotoxins, including ST and LT toxins ( 17 , 18 , 33 ), disrupt host fluid homeostasis and cause fluid and electrolyte hypersecretion through activation of adenyl cyclase (by LT) or guanylate cyclase (by STa) in small intestinal epithelial cells ( 19 , 23 ). (asm.org)
- strains which did not induce fluid secretion failed to induce a significant leucocyte influx. (nih.gov)
- Fluid secretion was never observed in the absence of leucocyte influx, but leucocyte influx per se did not induce fluid secretion. (nih.gov)
- Cholera toxin (CT) may induce uncontrolled firing in recurrent networks of secretomotor neurons in the submucous plexus. (chalmers.se)
- In this study, an ETEC fimbrial adhesin was used as a platform to express LT and STa for adhesin-toxin fusion antigens to induce anti-toxin and anti-adhesin immunity. (asm.org)
- The ganglioside GM1 binds cholera toxin (CT) on host cells and carries it retrograde from the plasma membrane (PM) through endosomes, the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to induce toxicity. (upenn.edu)
- Understanding the mechanisms used by pathogens and toxins to adhere and invade human cells could lead to the development of new strategies for preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases . (omicsonline.org)
- 2013 words - 8 pages The Impact of Cholera in Zambia, Africa Many people in advanced industrialized nations are often unaware of infectious diseases that plague underdeveloped countries. (brightkite.com)
- Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
Seven to 14 days1
- Everyone is susceptible to cholera, with the exception of infants who derive immunity from nursing mothers who have previously had cholera. (yahoo.com)
- It becomes evident that both anti-toxin immunity, including anti-LT and anti-ST immunity, and anti-adhesin immunity are needed for broadly effective protection against ETEC-associated diarrhea ( 36 ). (asm.org)
- Anti-toxin immunity and anti-adhesin immunity can be simultaneously induced by adhesin-toxin chimeric antigens. (asm.org)
- However, no adhesin-toxin chimeric antigens have been constructed for stimulation of both anti-LT and anti-STa anti-toxin immunity. (asm.org)
Secretion in mouse1
- Transepithelial electrical measurements, isotope flux measurements in Ussing chambers, fluid movement in isolated ileal sacs and electrical measurements in patch clamp studies were used to study the effect of glucose on active chloride and fluid secretion in mouse small intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells. (physiology.org)
Confirmed cholera cases1
- LT is an A-B subunit protein toxin, closely related to cholera toxin. (nih.gov)
- By contrast, the ctxAB mutant with an additional deletion in the actin-cross-linking repeats-in-toxin (RTX) toxin gene ( rtxA ) caused a less severe pathology and decreased serum levels of proinflammatory molecules interleukin (IL)-6 and murine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2. (rupress.org)
- Using a combination of electron microscopy and light microscopy with molecular genetic methods we obtained evidence that this protein toxin is transported through the channel of the flagellum filamentous structure", Sun Nyunt Wai explains. (healthcanal.com)
- Both toxins bind receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and insert an enzymatic subunit that modifies a G protein associated with the adenylate cyclase complex. (asm.org)
- Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and single-molecule tracking experiments revealed that protein domains remain laterally fluid in the curved regions. (upenn.edu)