Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ion Pumps: A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
However, in biological systems, such as the head, current is usually created by the flow of ions, which may be positively or ... current flow is created by the motion of negatively charged electrons, which actually flow from cathode to anode. ... negatively charged-positive ions will flow towards the cathode; negative ions will flow toward the anode. The device may ... When these electrodes are placed in the region of interest, the current induces intracerebral current flow. This current flow ...
However, when place in neural tissue the opening of an ion channel results in the net flow of ions into the cell from the ... This is due to the random movement of ions in the medium and electrons in the electrode. ... In a simple fluid, with no biological component present, there would be slight fluctuations in the measured potential ... A local field potential (LFP) is an electrophysiological signal generated by the summed electric current flowing from multiple ...
Inside the ion source, the reagent gas is present in large excess compared to the analyte. Electrons entering the source will ... Fales HM, Milne GW, Pisano JJ, Brewer HB, Blum MS, MacConnell JG, Brand J, Law N (1972). "Biological applications of electron ... analyte sprayed with high flow rates of nitrogen and the aerosol spray is subjected to a corona discharge to create ions. ... ions are produced through the collision of the analyte with ions of a reagent gas that are present in the ion source. Some ...
These then flow across the wire to the second electrode, which acts as an electron sink. From here they pass to an oxidizing ... It is the equivalent of the oxygen sink at the end of the electron transport chain, external to the biological cell. The ... Mediator-free MFCs are less well characterized, such as the strain of bacteria used in the system, type of ion-exchange ... Most MFCs use an organic electron donor that is oxidised to produce CO2, protons and electrons. Other electron donors have been ...
... is the science and branch of physiology that pertains to the flow of ions (ion current) in biological tissues ... Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber" [see the etymology of "electron"]; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; ... This is important because many of the ion channels in the membrane of a neuron are voltage-gated ion channels, which open only ... This configuration is the "cell-attached" mode, and it can be used for studying the activity of the ion channels that are ...
A particle accelerator generating high energy protons, electrons or charged ions. Biological samples can be irradiated using ... A related technique, functional magnetic resonance imaging, reveals the pattern of blood flow in the brain and can show which ... This is due to the high relative biological effectiveness of alpha radiation to cause biological damage after alpha-emitting ... The activity of biological and astronomical systems inevitably generates magnetic and electrical fields, which can be measured ...
The flow of electrons changes the redox state of the protein, resulting in a conformational change and pK shift of the ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (52): 50311-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M209166200. PMID 12381726. "Entrez Gene: NDUFB11 NADH ... ionizable side chain, which pumps four hydrogen ions out of the mitochondrial matrix. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... It transfers electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ...
3 Na+ ions out of the cell and 2 K+ ions inward per ATP hydrolyzed, for the Na+/K+ exchanger. Transmembrane ATPases harness the ... Some such enzymes are integral membrane proteins (anchored within biological membranes), and move solutes across the membrane, ... cause a net flow of charge, but others do not. These are called "electrogenic" and "nonelectrogenic" transporters, respectively ... mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that ...
On the cellular level, the dephosphorylation of ATPases determines the flow of ions into and out of the cell. Proton pump ... See Role of dephosphorylation in disease Other molecules besides ATP undergo dephosphorylation as part of other biological ... providing the greater photosynthesis process with all of the electrons needed to produce ATP. Photosystem II is particularly ... Phosphatase removes phosphate groups by hydrolysing phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free ...
... an electron transport chain pumps H+ ions in the thylakoid spaces through thylakoid membranes. The energy from the electron ... Lipid bilayers of biological membranes, however, are barriers for ions. This is why energy can be stored as a combination of ... The flow of protons back into the matrix of the mitochondrion via ATP synthase provides enough energy for ADP to combine with ... These molecules pass electrons to an electron transport chain, which uses the energy released to create a proton gradient ...
The high energy electron realsed from P700 to ps1 flow down in a cyclic pathway. In cyclic electron flow, the electron begins ... providing the energy for hydrogen ions (H+) to be pumped into the thylakoid space. This creates a gradient, making H+ ions flow ... The principle that biological macromolecules catalyze a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction if and only if a ... The deficit of electrons is replenished by taking electrons from another molecule of water. The electrons transfer from ...
Electric current consists of a flow of electrons. In metals there are many electron energy levels near the Fermi level, so ... In biological membranes, currents are carried by ionic salts. Small holes in cell membranes, called ion channels, are selective ... More technically, the free electron model gives a basic description of electron flow in metals. ... The electrons are bumped to the conduction energy band by thermal energy, where they flow freely, and in doing so leave behind ...
... is also important for its photoemissive properties, converting light to electron flow. It is used in photoelectric ... Caesium fluoride enjoys a niche use in organic chemistry as a base[23] and as an anhydrous source of fluoride ion.[88] Caesium ... Early Biological Effects". Radiation Research. 50 (3): 629-648. Bibcode:1972RadR...50..629R. doi:10.2307/3573559. JSTOR 3573559 ... used as a source of positive ions in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). ...
In biological organisms, ion channels regulate the flow of ions (for example, sodium, calcium, potassium) across the membrane ... Quantum Theory of the Electron Liquid. Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-521-82112-6. Jørgen Rammer (2007). Quantum ... The net flow out of some volume V (which can have an arbitrary shape but fixed for the calculation) must equal the net change ... At position r at time t, the distribution of charge flowing is described by the current density: J ( r , t ) = ρ ( r , t ) v d ...
... and could modulate electron flow between these redox centers.[16] Proton transfer[edit]. To fully reduce the quinone in SQR, ... a mechanism of electron transfer and proton conduction during ubiquinone reduction". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 ( ... SdhC mutations can lead to decreased life-span, increased production of superoxide ions, hereditary paraganglioma and ... Electron tunneling[edit]. After the electrons are derived from succinate oxidation via FAD, they tunnel along the [Fe-S] relay ...
The flow of electrons changes the redox state of the protein, resulting in a conformational change and pK shift of the ... Chemico-Biological Interactions. 178 (1-3): 94-8. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2008.10.040. PMC 2896744 . PMID 19027726. Voet D, Voet JG, ... ionizable side chain, which pumps four hydrogen ions out of the mitochondrial matrix. Decreased expression of NDUFA9 is ... The electrons are transferred through a series of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters in the prosthetic arm and finally to coenzyme Q10 ...
Photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and green algae splits water into hydrogen ions and electrons. The electrons are transported ... Melis found that depleting the amount of sulfur available to the algae interrupted its internal oxygen flow, allowing the ... The biological hydrogen production with algae is a method of photobiological water splitting which is done in a closed ... Competitive drainage of electrons by oxygen in algal hydrogen production. Economics must reach competitive price to other ...
... inhibiting ion flow and leading to paralysis. nAChRs contain two binding sites for snake venom neurotoxins. Progress towards ... The twist-like motion is in agreement with time-resolved electron microscopic analysis of the acetylcholine receptor pore that ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (14): 12406-12417. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110320200. PMID 11790782. Love, R. A.; Stroud, R. M. ( ... The ion channel diameter was shown to increase with this motion, although neither the twist nor the increase in channel ...
... to store electrons when a current is applied at an ion-selective membrane. Anthraquinones are also used as laxatives such as in ... Annals of Biological Research. 1 (2): 174-184. Kaixiang Lin; et al. "Alkaline quinone flow battery". Science. 349 (6255): 1529- ... Many quinones are stable in multiple redox states; as such they can absorb electrons when appropriate counterions are available ... As such, 2,6-dihydroanthraquinone can be used as a negative electrolyte reservoir in an alkaline flow battery (opposite ...
... with reperfusion open mPTP allowing hydrogen ions to flow from the mitochondrial matrix into the cytosol. The hydrogen flux ... The generated ROS, which are formed from electrons leaking from the electron transport chain of the mitochondria, first act ... Intralipid is also widely used in optical experiments to simulate the scattering properties of biological tissues. Solutions of ... Myocardial damage with the resumption of blood flow after an ischemic event is termed "reperfusion injury". The mitochondrial ...
... a FIB setup uses a focused beam of ions instead. FIB can also be incorporated in a system with both electron and ion beam ... 2012). "Correlative Light-Ion Microscopy for Biological Applications". Nanoscale. 4: 2851-2854. doi:10.1039/c2nr30431g. CS1 ... In a gallium LMIS, gallium metal is placed in contact with a tungsten needle, and heated gallium wets the tungsten and flows to ... Most widespread instruments are using liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), especially gallium ion sources. Ion sources based on ...
1D7W). The nitrite ion also binds tightly, forming low-spin heme. One of the first well-characterized mutants of EPX was a G→A ... This mechanism appears to operate only in the absence of one-electron donors. [Fe(IV)=O...Por•+] + H2O2 → [Fe(III)...Por] + O2 ... In a clinical setting, deficiencies of leukocyte enzymes are conveniently studied by optical flow cytometry. Specific ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (42): 28629-40. doi:10.1074/jbc.m801196200. PMC 2661412 . PMID 18694936. van Dalen, CJ ...
... electrons, forming positive ions. The free electrons are spread over the entire solid, which is held together firmly by ... current is carried by the flow of electrons", but in semiconductors, current can be carried either by electrons or by the ... Many natural (or biological) materials are complex composites with remarkable mechanical properties. These complex structures, ... Mathematically, the potential of the ion cores can be treated by various models, the simplest being the nearly free electron ...
... mathematical modelling of flow patterns and concentrations, as well as quantitative predictions of the biological environment ... In amperometric biosensors, an enzyme-catalyzed redox reaction causes a redox electron current that is measured by a working ... Electrophoresis has been used to fractionate small ions, charged organic molecules, proteins, and DNA. Electrophoresis and ... For continuous-flow separation, the general idea is to apply a field at an angle to the flow direction to deflect the sample ...
Plasma, often called the fourth state of matter, is an ionized gas containing positive ions and negative ions or electrons, but ... The gas flow also serves to generate a region where room air is in contact with and diffusing in to the noble gas, which is ... Whereas for surface modification and biological decontamination both low-pressure and atmospheric pressure plasmas can be used ... on the one hand and ions, electrons and reactive chemical species, primarily radicals, on the other. Besides surgical plasma ...
Photosynthetic reaction centre proteins are main protein components of photosynthetic reaction centres of bacteria and plants. The photosynthetic apparatus in non-oxygenic bacteria consists of light-harvesting protein-pigment complexes LH1 and LH2, which use carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll as primary donors. LH1 acts as the energy collection hub, temporarily storing it before its transfer to the photosynthetic reaction centre (RC). Electrons are transferred from the primary donor via an intermediate acceptor (bacteriophaeophytin) to the primary acceptor (quinine Qa), and finally to the secondary acceptor (quinone Qb), resulting in the formation of ubiquinol QbH2. RC uses the excitation energy to shuffle electrons across the membrane, transferring them via ubiquinol to the cytochrome bc1 complex in order to establish a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used by ATP synthetase to form ATP. The core complex is anchored in the cell membrane, consisting of one unit ...
The electron transport chain consists of a series of redox reactions in which electrons are transferred from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. The underlying force driving these reactions is the free energy (energy available to do work) of the reactants and products. Any reaction that decreases the overall free energy of a system will happen. ATP synthase is an enzyme found among all domains of life. It is powered by a transmembrane proton electrochemical gradient. This is the result of the series of redox reactions.[2] What the electron transport chain does is produce this gradient.[3][4] The free energy is used to drive ATP synthesis. ...
... works by using energy-releasing chemical reactions to drive energy-requiring reactions: The two sets of reactions are said to be coupled. This means one cannot occur without the other. The flow of electrons through the electron transport chain, from electron donors such as NADH to electron acceptors such as oxygen, is an exergonic process - it releases energy, whereas the synthesis of ATP is an endergonic process, which requires an input of energy. Both the electron transport chain and the ATP synthase are embedded in a membrane, and energy is transferred from electron transport chain to the ATP synthase by movements of protons across this membrane, in a process called chemiosmosis.[2] In practice, this is like a simple electric circuit, with a current of protons being driven from the ...
... is the enzyme that converts fumarate to succinate, and is important in microbial metabolism as a part of anaerobic respiration. Succinate + acceptor <=> fumarate + reduced acceptor Fumarate reductases can be divided into two classes depending on the electron acceptor: Fumarate reductase (quinol) (EC 1.3.5.4) The membrane-bound enzyme covalently linked to flavin cofactors, which is composed of 3 or 4 subunits, transfers electrons from a quinol to fumarate. This class of enzyme is thus involved in the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Fumarate reductase (NADH) (EC 1.3.1.6) The enzyme is monomeric and soluble, and can reduce fumarate independently from the electron transport chain. Tielens, A.G., van Hellemond, J.J. (1998). "The electron transport chain in anearobically functioning eukaryotes". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1365: 71-78. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Camarasa; et al. (2007). "Role in anaerobiosis of ...
... s also exist in the structure of solid metals. Metallic structure consists of aligned positive ions (cations) in a "sea" of delocalized electrons. This means that the electrons are free to move throughout the structure, and gives rise to properties such as conductivity. In diamond all four outer electrons of each carbon atom are 'localized' between the atoms in covalent bonding. The movement of electrons is restricted and diamond does not conduct an electric current. In graphite, each carbon atom uses only 3 of its 4 outer energy level electrons in covalently bonding to three other carbon atoms in a plane. Each carbon atom contributes one electron to a delocalized system of electrons that is also a part of the chemical bonding. The delocalized electrons are free to move throughout the plane. For this ...
Often, cases where complexes have more than 18 valence electrons are attributed to electrostatic forces - the metal attracts ligands to itself to try to counterbalance its positive charge, and the number of electrons it ends up with is unimportant. In the case of the metallocenes, the chelating nature of the cyclopentadienyl ligand stabilizes its bonding to the metal. Somewhat satisfying are the two following observations: cobaltocene is a strong electron donor, readily forming the 18-electron cobaltocenium cation; and nickelocene tends to react with substrates to give 18-electron complexes, e.g. CpNiCl(PR3) and free CpH. In the case of nickelocene, the extra two electrons are in orbitals which are weakly metal-carbon antibonding; this is why it often participates in reactions where the M-C bonds are broken and the electron ...
NADH is oxidized into NAD+, H+ ions, and electrons by an enzyme. FADH2 is also oxidized into H+ ions, electrons, and FAD. As those electrons travel farther through the electron transport chain in the inner membrane, energy is gradually released and used to pump the hydrogen ions from the splitting of NADH and FADH2 into the space between the inner membrane and the outer membrane (called the intermembrane space), creating an electrochemical gradient.. This electrochemical gradient creates potential energy (see potential energy § chemical potential energy) across the inner mitochondrial membrane known as the proton-motive force. As a result, chemiosmosis occurs, and the enzyme ATP synthase produces ATP from ADP and a phosphate group. This harnesses the potential energy from the concentration gradient formed by the amount of H+ ...
... is a Gram-negative pleomorphic bacterium. It has been isolated from marine environments, as well as from anaerobic sandstone in the Morrison Formation in New Mexico. S. putrefaciens is also a facultative anaerobe with the ability to reduce iron and manganese metabolically; that is, it can use iron and manganese as the terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain (in contrast to obligate aerobes which must use oxygen for this purpose). It is also one of the organisms associated with the odor of rotting fish, as it is a marine organism which produces trimethylamine (hence the species name putrefaciens, from putrid). In both solid and liquid media, S. putrefaciens is often recognizable by its bright pink color. On solid media, the colonies are round, fast-growing, and pink. The organism is also fast-growing in liquid media, and there will give the liquid an overall pink hue. On blood agar plates, the colonies are typically convex and large, with a brown ...
With today's electron optics, electron beam widths can routinely go down to a few nanometers. This is limited mainly by aberrations and space charge. However, the feature resolution limit is determined not by the beam size but by forward scattering (or effective beam broadening) in the resist, while the pitch resolution limit is determined by secondary electron travel in the resist.[13][14] This point was driven home by a 2007 demonstration of double patterning using electron beam lithography in the fabrication of 15 nm half-pitch zone plates.[15] Although a 15 nm feature was resolved, a 30 nm pitch was still difficult to do due to secondary electrons scattering from the adjacent feature. The use of double patterning allowed the spacing between features to be wide enough for the secondary electron scattering to be significantly reduced. The forward scattering can be ...
Cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide 7A2, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the COX7A2 gene. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the electron transfer from reduced cytochrome c to oxygen. This component is a heteromeric complex consisting of 3 catalytic subunits encoded by mitochondrial genes and multiple structural subunits encoded by nuclear genes. The mitochondrially encoded subunits function in electron transfer, and the nuclear-encoded subunits may function in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This nuclear gene encodes polypeptide 2 (liver isoform) of subunit VIIa and the polypeptide 2 is present in both muscle and nonmuscle tissues. In addition to polypeptide 2, subunit VIIa includes polypeptide 1 (muscle isoform), which is present only in muscle tissues, and a related protein, present in all tissues. This gene may have several pseudogenes. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... , also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 /ˌkoʊˌkjuːˈtɛn/, CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone). It is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail. This fat-soluble substance, which resembles a vitamin, is present in all respiring eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, which generates energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body's energy is generated this way.[1][2] Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements-such as the heart, liver, and kidney-have the highest CoQ10 concentrations.[3][4][5] There are three redox states of CoQ10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), semiquinone (ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced ...
... are groups of organisms, divided in relation to the nutrition mode according to the sources of energy and carbon, needed for living, growth and reproduction. The sources of energy can be light and organic or inorganic compounds; the sources of carbon can be of organic or inorganic origin. The terms aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation do not refer to primary nutritional groups, but simply reflect the different use of possible electron acceptors in particular organisms, such as O2 in aerobic respiration, or nitrate (NO3−), sulfate (SO42−) or fumarate in anaerobic respiration, or various metabolic intermediates in fermentation. Because all ATP-generating steps in fermentation involve modifications of metabolic intermediates instead of the use of an electron transport chain fermentation is often referred to as substrate-level phosphorylation. Phototrophs: Light is absorbed in photo receptors and transformed into ...
The Rutherford model of the nuclear atom (1911) showed that the exterior of an atom is occupied by electrons, which suggests that electrons are responsible for the interaction of atoms and the formation of chemical bonds. In 1916, Gilbert N. Lewis explained valence and chemical bonding in terms of a tendency of (main-group) atoms to achieve a stable octet of 8 valence-shell electrons. According to Lewis, covalent bonding leads to octets by the sharing of electrons, and ionic bonding leads to octets by the transfer of electrons from one atom to the other. The term covalence is attributed to Irving Langmuir, who stated in 1919 that "the number of pairs of electrons which any given atom shares with the adjacent atoms is called the covalence of that atom".[8] The prefix co- means "together", so that a co-valent bond means that the atoms share a valence. Subsequent to that, it is now more common to speak of ...
Critical biological processes such as energy generation and signal transduction are driven by the flow of electrons and ions ... The recent advances in the synthesis of de novo and protein nanostructures for transmembrane ion and electron transport and the ... Title: Crossing Over: Nanostructures that Move Electrons and Ions Across Cellular Membranes ... Accepted Manuscript: Crossing Over: Nanostructures that Move Electrons and Ions Across Cellular Membranes ...
Negative charge carriers would be Cl, hydroxal ions, phosphates, sulphates, and electrons to name few. When electrons or any ... The voltage differential created by the device is thought to produce a gradient flow of ions, primarily calcium, potassium, and ... If the reader has a biological background, and wonders how to integrate frequency devices into existing practice, they may find ... By gaining or loosing electrons, our bodies utilize many different charge carriers. For example, metallic ions such as K, Na, ...
Chemiosmosis is the process by which chemical ions move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration ... electrons flow through the electron transport chain. This reoccurring flow of protons and electrons releases energy. This ... During this movement, hydrogen ions diffuse across a biological membrane using a transport protein, specifically ATP synthase. ... A: Alterations to the electron-based ionic or covalent bonds between ions or atoms happen during a chemical change. Such ...
This is a demonstration of how biological membranes can be understood using electrical models. We also demonstrate procedures ... CURRENT is carried by electrons, which have a negative charge. In biological systems, current is carried by IONS, which may ... By convention, current flows from positive to negative (although of course electrons actually move the other way). ... The active region of the nerve cell, where ions enter, acts as a voltage source; current flows from this region along the ...
However, in biological systems, such as the head, current is usually created by the flow of ions, which may be positively or ... current flow is created by the motion of negatively charged electrons, which actually flow from cathode to anode. ... negatively charged-positive ions will flow towards the cathode; negative ions will flow toward the anode. The device may ... When these electrodes are placed in the region of interest, the current induces intracerebral current flow. This current flow ...
... control of metal ion concentrations in cells; electron-transfer chemistry; atom and group transfer chemistry; protein tuning of ... First half of term focuses on fundamental biological processes and tools/analyses needed by biological engineers, and the ... Topics include cellular architecture, energetics, and growth; evolution and gene flow; population and community dynamics; water ... Biological Chemistry II - 7.80 (Spring) (12 units) A. Y. Ting, E. Nolan Advanced treatment of biochemical mechanisms that ...
... and transition metal ions. In biological solutions, it is stabilised by forming complexes. ... Nitric oxide (NO) is an important determinant of local blood flow and is formed by the action of NO synthase (NOS) on the semi- ... NO has an unpaired electron and, as such, reacts very rapidly with other free radicals, certain amino acids, ... The biological action of inhaled nitric oxide. NO is a naturally occurring colourless and odourless gas. In biological ...
Fluo-3 indicators are widely used in flow cytometry and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. More recently, Fluo-3, AM has been ... Instruments, such as FLIPR and FlexStationTM have enabled high throughput measurement of calcium for GPCR and ion channel ... Most of these fluorescent indicators are derivatives of BAPTA, chelators that incorporate a photo-induced-electron transfer ( ... calcium measurement is critical in numerous biological investigations. Fluorescent probes that show spectral responses upon ...
Mass spectra were recorded in the m/z range 50-650 with electron ionization (70 eV) in the positive ion mode. Each biological ... and the ion source was adjusted to 250°C. Pure helium was used as the carrier gas at a constant flow of 1 ml/min. The oven ... The result is lower level of NADP+, which is the primary electron acceptor in photosystem I (PSI); O2 reduction is accelerated ... Mass spectra were registered in reflectron positive ion mode. The peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) data were submitted to ...
According to the researcher, biological activity is based on differences in the concentrations of molecules, ions or electrons ... in distinct regions that produce a flow in a certain direction, allowing the occurrence of cellular respiration, photosynthesis ... In addition to the intrinsic interest of Europas habitability and the existence of biological activity there, the study is ... and so on-are important sources of chemical imbalance and potential factors of biological transduction, i.e., transformation of ...
... ions or electrons in distinct regions which produce a flow in a certain direction, allowing the occurrence of cellular ... According to the researcher, the basis for all biological activity known to Earth are the chemical gradients, i.e., differences ... In addition to the intrinsic interest of Europas habitability and the existence of biological activity there, the study is ... biological transduction, i.e., transformation of the imbalance into biologically useful energy, Galante said. These ...
... ground-breaking results were obtained on interactions between electrons and ions, on internal energy flow in molecular systems ... we are constructing a new electrospray-ion source that delivers gas-phase biological molecular ions that will be exposed to the ... ASTRID could uniquely accelerate heavy ions and electrons. The special ability to accelerate and store ions made ASTRID a world ... How Is an Electron Detached from a Negatively Charge Ion? This is among the most classical problems in atomic physics and the ...
... and the biological transport of ions for channel proteins. I will explain difference between Euler system and Euler-Poisson ... The Kaehler Ricci flow on Fano manifold We show the convergence of the Kaehler Ricci flow on every 2-dimensional Fano manifold ... In a joint work with A. Ionescu and Y. Deng, we consider a compressible fluid of electrons in 2D, subject to its own ... Uniqueness of Ricci flow solutions on noncompact manifolds Abstract: Ricci flow is an important evolution equation of ...
... ion chromatograph, fluorometers, flow injection analyzer, photometers, particle counter, autoclave, water baths, incubators, ... Laboratory equipment includes a new JEOL scanning electron microscope, balances, teaching and research grade microscopes, ... Hancock Biological Station - Facilities: Natural Resources. *Hancock Biological Station - HBS Summer Program: Online ... Biological Collections Several outstanding collections of flora and fauna of western Kentucky are maintained by the Department ...
The physical principles governing ion flow in biological neurons share interesting similarities to electron flow through MOSFET ... Constraints from Biological Computation. For biological systems, the communication is primarily communicating events, or action ... similar to biological levels), leading to lower, classically measured SNR levels, typical of biological systems. For example, ... looking through a biological channel. Because the similarities between biological and silicon channels are utilized, the ...
... ions or biomacromolecules such as proteins for biological studies. ... the flows were stopped, and the microchannels were rinsed with PBS at a flow rate of 10-15 μL min−1. The in situ fabricated CM- ... 4 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of (a) CM, (b) CM-np25, (c) pCM25, (d) CM-np200, and (e) pCM200: (i) whole ... both under continuous flow at a flow rate of 1 μL min−1. The middle channel was filled with PBS buffer and maintained in static ...
As biological water occupies 70% of the cell volume, it is capable of releasing a huge amount of electrons into the cytosol. ... Action potentials, osmotic flows, energy transduction, and the stabilization of proteins are driven by ion concentration ... Ion-specific effects are widespread, but nowhere are more critically manifested than at the fluid interfaces of biological ... Because coherent water is excited water with a plasma of almost free electrons, it can easily transfer electrons to molecules ...
But astrophysicists talk about them in euphemisms: solar winds, rains of electrons, impacts of ions, clouds of ionized ... Our artistry and the tools weve made with it have enabled us to reach out from the inheritance of our biological origins to ... The aurora--a glowing vacuum--seems spooky and unreal. To produce the aurora, electric currents flow in empty tubes that ... But our perceptions are no longer confined to biological senses operating on the surface of a stony planet. Most of our ...
Transistors that control electron flow are the foundation of electronic gadgets, but human bodies and all other living things ... Ions open and close channels in the cell membrane to pump things in and out of the cell. Animals, for example, use ions to flex ... rather than electron - flow. The scientists at the University of Washington (UW) who built the novel semiconductor say that ... You are here: Home › Technology › Bio Inspired › News › Proton-based transistor could control biological processes ...
Electrophysiology is the science and branch of physiology that pertains to the flow of ions in biological tissues and, in ... Electron microscope. Diagram of a transmission electron microscope An electron microscope (EM) is a type of microscope that ... The electron microscope uses electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses to control the electron beam and focus it to form an ... to the study of biological molecules, cells and tissue. Bioelectromagnetics. Biological phenomena[edit] Short-lived electrical ...
... and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, Global Edition,Karen C. Timberlake,9781292096193,Chemistry,General, Organic ... Writing Formulas with Polyatomic Ions, Using Half-Lives, Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas, Determination of Polarity of a Molecule ... EXPANDED! Guides to Problem Solving (GPS) use unique color-coded flow charts, coordinated with parallel solutions of worked ... General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, Global Edition. 9781292275635 General, Organic, and Biological ...
... current flow is via electrons and holes. This latter requirement means that ion-to-electron (or vice versa) transduction is ... electrical signals in biological systems are dominated by ion and proton flows whilst semiconductors are intrinsically " ... The quest for smaller and faster computing has focused on controlling the flow of electrons and holes in nanoscale molecular ... Concerning the detection of ions or biological molecules in aqueous solutions, a water-stable operation of OFET sensor elements ...
"Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Mimics of Biological Ion Channels," Amiri, H.; Shepard, K.*; Nuckolls, C.*; Hernández Sánchez, ... "Ligand Field Strength Mediates Electron Delocalization in Octahedral [(HL)2Fe6(L)m]n+ Clusters," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2105, 137, ... "Materials Platforms for Non-Aqueous Flow Batteries with High Coulombic Efficiency and Stable Cycling," Milton, M.; Cheng, Q.; ... "Maximizing electron exchange in a [Fe3] cluster," Hernández Sánchez, R.; Bartholomew, A.; Powers, T.; Ménard, G.; Betley, T. A ...
Cryo focussed ion beam scanning electron microscope for correlative functional studies of biological systems in situ by ... Cell sorting flow cytometry for the study of live cell, cell surface and intracellular processes ... Focused ion beam and scanning electron microscope for 3D reconstruction of large volumes in neurobiology, cell biology and nano ... Modern cryo-electron microscopy with direct electron detection at the University of Leeds ...
By contrast, electronic systems use multicore central processing units to control the flow of electrons through insulated metal ... The mechanism of biological activity remains unknown. The lack of availability of the natural products has impaired more in- ... Human metabolism uses ion gradients across insulated membranes to simultaneously process slow analog chemical reactions and ... By contrast, electronic systems use multicore central processing units to control the flow of electrons through insulated metal ...
  • The electrons produced during oxidation are transferred directly to an electrode or, to a redox mediator species. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • My particular focus is to understand at a fundamental level how anode respiring bacteria transfer electrons from their cells onto an electrode," Popat says, "as well as to design new systems that are both economical and efficient. (phys.org)
  • The term is typically applied in contexts where a chemical reaction is to take place, such as one involving the transfer of an electron at a battery electrode. (bionity.com)
  • It is assumed that the influx of free electrons absorbed into the body through direct contact with the Earth likely neutralize ROS and thereby reduce acute and chronic inflammation [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Through direct contact or through perspiration-moistened animal skins used as footwear or sleeping mats, the ground's abundant free electrons were able to enter the body, which is electrically conductive [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Bruker Daltonics' micrOTOF-Q II is configured with an Apollo ion source followed by an ion transfer stage which guides the ions into an analytical quadrupole and collision cell for accumulation of parent/fragment ions prior to mass analysis in the Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer. (edu.au)
  • The peptide sequence covered by the fragment ions in the spectrum is shown in the inset. (waters.com)
  • As with the LTQ the micrOTOF-Q II is connected to a split-less Nano-Flow Liquid Chromatography system for Reversed Phase pre-separation of sample to reduce complexity when analysed by the Mass Spectrometer. (edu.au)
  • He said blood flows almost frictionlessly because it has a charge and the blood vessels have the same charge. (thunderbolts.info)
  • However, when place in neural tissue the opening of an ion channel results in the net flow of ions into the cell from the extracellular medium, or out of the cell into the extracellular medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trying to understand the complex workings of a biological cell by teasing out the function of every molecule within it is a daunting task. (scienceblog.com)
  • These embedded proteins create pores that act as channels for ions, mimicking the pores in a biological cell. (scienceblog.com)
  • A microbial fuel cell (MFC), a biological fuel cell, is a bio-electrochemical system that utilizes a bacterial interactions between bacteria and bacteria. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • The first MFCs, demonstrated in the early 20th century, used to mediator a chemical that transfers electrons from the bacteria in the cell to the anode. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • An MFC is a unique kind of battery part electrochemical cell, part biological reactor. (phys.org)
  • As the ions flow into the flagellar cell, the rotor in the basal body revolves at up to 300 revolutions per second, so that the flagellar filament revolves like a propeller and causes the bacterium to move forward. (nanowerk.com)
  • for example, 3 Na+ ions out of the cell and 2 K+ ions inward per ATP hydrolyzed, for the Na+/K+ exchanger. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are often due to ion gradients , particularly proton gradients , and can represent a type of potential energy available for work in a cell. (bionity.com)
  • Ion channels act as gates that allow or block the flow of specific ions into and out of the cell. (slideserve.com)
  • C. E. Dow, H. A. van den Berg, D. I. Roper and A. Rodger (2015) Biological insights from a simulation model of the critical FtsZ accumulation required for prokaryotic cell division. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • To shepherd the ions through, the receptor widens the diameter of its channel, and a specialized channel pore lining ushers the ions into the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because the wavelength of the electron beam is so small, electron microscopes can achieve magnifications many thousands of times greater than standard light microscopes. (pdx.edu)
  • So until recently, scientists like Reichow relied on X-ray crystallography in which biological samples are crystalized and imaged using an X-ray beam. (pdx.edu)
  • So the researchers instead created this far simpler system whose performance they could understand in terms a handful of basic properties, including the size of the droplets, the concentration of the aqueous solutions, and the number of ion channels in the barrier between the two cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • In biological systems, ion flows are responsible for many essential biochemical activities. (editage.com)
  • Shepard, whose lab is a leader in the development of engineered solid-state systems interfaced to biological systems, notes that despite its overwhelming success, CMOS solid-state electronics is incapable of replicating certain functions natural to living systems, such as the senses of taste and smell and the use of biochemical energy sources. (columbia.edu)
  • Biochemical and molecular biological studies support the existence of a vesicular transport system in chloroplasts. (pnas.org)
  • 2005). As a result of these studies, the BioTran project undertook a pilot study to examine the influences of biofilm growth by growing the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa aerobically on groundwater flowing though crushed diorite taken from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden (West et al. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Several outstanding collections of flora and fauna of western Kentucky are maintained by the Department of Biological Sciences. (murraystate.edu)
  • Av. Libertad 5460 - Corrientes - Argentina 2 School of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences. (issuu.com)
  • After joining the Dept. of Biological Sciences at Florida State University, he began patch-clamp studies of nAChR's in Xenopus myocytes, collaborated with Tony Auerbach then in Puerto Rico attempting noise analysis on glutamate and AChR channels in crustacean muscle (work that somehow made its way to JGP), and with Alan Neely began initial work with adrenal chromaffin cells. (rupress.org)
  • The method was pioneered by co-author Joachim Frank, PhD, professor of biochemistry and molecular biophysics and of biological sciences at CUMC. (eurekalert.org)
  • In metals and semiconductors the charge carriers are primarily electrons, whereas in liquids the charge is carried predominantly by ions. (xcellancetech.com)
  • Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth's surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. (mdpi.com)
  • In the course of their metabolic activity, these bacteria strip electrons from organic waste. (phys.org)
  • Environmental biotechnology is a rapidly developing discipline in which disparate fields including microbiology, bioinformatics, chemistry, genomics, materials science, and engineering join together to harness biological entities including bacteria for the purpose of helping society. (phys.org)
  • In the course of their microbial metabolism, the bacteria act as catalysts for converting the organic substrate into CO2, protons, and electrons. (phys.org)
  • The anode-respiring bacteria are able to oxidize organic pollutants, such as those found in waste streams, and transfer the electrons to the anode. (phys.org)
  • In the latest work, the team focused on building a highly powerful cathode to pair up with the anode, said Belcher, the Germeshausen Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering. (bio-medicine.org)
  • consequently, calcium measurement is critical in numerous biological investigations. (hum-molgen.org)
  • Most of these fluorescent indicators are derivatives of BAPTA, chelators that incorporate a photo-induced-electron transfer (PET) system responsive to calcium. (hum-molgen.org)
  • Instruments, such as FLIPR and FlexStationTM have enabled high throughput measurement of calcium for GPCR and ion channel research. (hum-molgen.org)
  • Past studies have shown that the rhythmic wave of muscle contractions that push waste along the worm intestine is carefully regulated by signals captured in rising and falling levels of positively charged calcium ions. (eurekalert.org)
  • This potential is predicted theoretically either by the Nernst equation (for systems of one permeant ion species) or the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation (for more than one permeant ion species). (bionity.com)
  • The most abundant multiply charged precursor ion ([M+7H] 7+ at m/z 482.3) was selected using the quadrupole to undergo low energy CID in the Transfer Triwave region of the instrument. (waters.com)
  • The recent advances in the synthesis of de novo and protein nanostructures for transmembrane ion and electron transport and the mechanistic understanding underlying this transport are described. (osti.gov)
  • Transmembrane ATPases or transmembrane proteins with ATPase domains are often used for making and utilizing ion gradients. (bionity.com)
  • In a simple fluid, with no biological component present, there would be slight fluctuations in the measured potential difference around an equilibrium point, this is known as the thermal noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the current study, the researchers captured the AMPA receptor in action, as glutamate activates the receptor to allow ions to flow through its channel and initiate signaling in the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Through several grants from the Carlsberg Foundation, it has been possible to establish a unique world-class facility for research on molecular ions with radiation from the Danish synchrotron ASTRID2. (carlsbergfondet.dk)
  • Gradually, the scientific focus of ASTRID shifted towards the use of accelerated electrons emitting high energy synchrotron radiation. (carlsbergfondet.dk)
  • A PET scanner detects this radiation and therefore can be used to map out brain activity in real time, which is a direct measure of blood flow. (encyclopedia.com)
  • radiation that is difficult to absorb (e.g., neutrino flow) is correspondingly difficult to detect. (encyclopedia.com)
  • With our new findings, we can now, for the first time, visualize how the neurotransmitter glutamate opens glutamate receptor ion channels," said Alexander Sobolevsky, PhD, associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biophysics at Columbia and senior author of the paper. (eurekalert.org)
  • The biological function of Ghrelin is known to stimulate the brain to increase appetite and favor the accumulation of lipids in visceral fatty tissue. (waters.com)