Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Adenoma, Bile Duct: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Biliary Tract Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Bile Reflux: Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.Choledocholithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Choledochal Cyst: A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Wolffian Ducts: A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y: A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Enterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.Imino AcidsGlycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Portoenterostomy, Hepatic: Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.Lithiasis: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.1-Naphthylisothiocyanate: A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Portography: Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.Nasolacrimal Duct: A tubular duct that conveys TEARS from the LACRIMAL GLAND to the nose.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Sphincterotomy, Transhepatic: Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Ejaculatory Ducts: Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Gallbladder Diseases: Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin: A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)Duodenoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Caroli Disease: Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC). It consists of 2 types: simple Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation (ectasia) alone; and complex Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation with extensive hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL). Benign renal tubular ectasia is associated with both types of Caroli disease.Dehydrocholic Acid: A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.Lithotripsy, Laser: Fragmentation of CALCULI, notably urinary or biliary, by LASER.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Cholecystostomy: Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Rats, Inbred F344alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Cholecystography: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Vitelline Duct: The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Dilatation: The act of dilating.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Taurolithocholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Cholecystitis, Acute: Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Endolymphatic Duct: The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
... but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts approaching the porta hepatis and the extrahepatic ducts. In the ... In contrast, hepatocytes secrete bile through bile-acid dependent bile flow, which is coupled to canalicular secretion of bile ... Cholangiocytes are the epithelial cells of the bile duct. They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, ... Cholangiocytes act through bile-acid independent bile flow, which is driven by the active transport of electrolytes. ...
Multiple dilatations involving only the extrahepatic bile ducts. Type V: Cystic dilatation of intrahepatic biliary ducts ... The cause of these complications may be related to either abnormal flow of bile within the ducts or the presence of gallstones ... Choledochal cysts (a.k.a. bile duct cyst) are congenital conditions involving cystic dilatation of bile ducts. They are ... inflammation within the bile ducts caused by the spread of bacteria from the intestine into the bile ducts). Pancreatitis also ...
Within the liver, these ducts are termed intrahepatic bile ducts, and once they exit the liver they are considered extrahepatic ... Blood flows through the liver sinusoids and empties into the central vein of each lobule. The central veins coalesce into ... The cystic duct from the gallbladder joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. Bile either drains ... They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts ...
Patient information on extrahepatic bile duct tumors, from the National Cancer Institute. Cancer.Net: Bile Duct Cancer The ... Chronic inflammation and obstruction of the bile ducts, and the resulting impaired bile flow, are thought to play a role in ... those occurring in the ducts outside the liver are extrahepatic, and tumors occurring at the site where the bile ducts exit the ... Henson D, Albores-Saavedra J, Corle D (1992). "Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Histologic types, stage of disease, ...
American Cancer Society Detailed Guide to Bile Duct Cancer.. *Patient information on extrahepatic bile duct tumors, from the ... Chronic inflammation and obstruction of the bile ducts, and the resulting impaired bile flow, are thought to play a role in ... Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer, is a type of cancer that forms in the bile ducts.[2] Symptoms of ... ERCP image of cholangiocarcinoma, showing common bile duct stricture and dilation of the proximal common bile duct ...
Bile can flow in both directions between the gallbladder and the common bile duct and the hepatic duct. In this way, bile is ... "The gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts." Anatomy photo:38:14-0106 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Stomach, Spleen ... Accessory bile duct Digestive system diagram showing the cystic duct The gall-bladder and bile ducts laid open. The portal vein ... The cystic duct is the short duct that joins the gallbladder to the common bile duct. It usually lies next to the cystic artery ...
GGT is elevated because it leaks out from the bile duct cells due to pressure from inside bile ducts. In a later stage of ... These areas are known as bile lakes, and are typically seen only with extra-hepatic obstruction. Extrahepatic cholestasis can ... Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum. The two basic distinctions are an obstructive ... Canalicular bile plugs between individual hepatocytes or within bile ducts may also be seen, representing bile that has been ...
There are three main types of extra-hepatic biliary atresia: Type I: Atresia is restricted to the common bile duct. Type II: ... restore bile flow and reduce the level of jaundice. This is known as the Kasai procedure (after Morio Kasai, the Japanese ... When the liver is unable to excrete bilirubin through the bile ducts in the form of bile, bilirubin begins to accumulate in the ... "Choledochal cyst associated with extrahepatic bile duct atresia". Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons. 10 (1): ...
... common bile duct - comorbidity - compassionate use trial - complementary and alternative medicine - complete blood count (CBC ... extrahepatic - extrapleural pneumonectomy false-negative test result - false-positive test result - familial adenomatous ... flow cytometry - floxuridine - flt3L - fluconazole - flucytosine - fludarabine - fludeoxyglucose F 18 - fludrocortisone - ... bile duct - biliary - bilirubin - binding agent - bioavailable - biochanin A - biochemical reactions - biological response ...
... association with high serum bile acids, advanced pathology, and bile duct abnormalities". Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 42 ( ... Recommended flow rate: 1000 to 2000 ml/hour. Replacement Flow Rate According to medical criteria and same as in CVVHD Heparin ... Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) represents one of the more serious extrahepatic complications associated with liver dysfunction. ... With or without renal impairment it is recommended to use flow rates from 100 to 150 ml/min. Dyalisate Flow Rate Intermittent ...
Discrete localized enlargements of normal structures (ureters, blood vessels, intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary ducts, ... Bile acids, at high levels in the colons of humans eating a high fat diet, also cause DNA damage and contribute to colon cancer ... "Carcinogenicity of deoxycholate, a secondary bile acid". Arch. Toxicol. 85 (8): 863-71. doi:10.1007/s00204-011-0648-7. PMC ...
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates. Bile, required for the digestion of food, is secreted by the liver into passages that carry bile toward the hepatic duct, which joins with the cystic duct (carrying bile to and from the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct, which opens into the intestine. The biliary tree (see below) is the whole network of various sized ducts branching through the liver. The path is as follows: Bile canaliculi → Canals of Hering → interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right hepatic ducts merge to form → common hepatic ...
... , also known as choledocholithiasis, is the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct (thus choledocho- + lithiasis). This condition causes jaundice and liver cell damage. Treatment is by cholecystectomy and ERCP. Murphy's sign is commonly negative on physical examination in choledocholithiasis, helping to distinguish it from cholecystitis. Jaundice of the skin or eyes is an important physical finding in biliary obstruction. Jaundice and/or clay-colored stool may raise suspicion of choledocholithiasis or even gallstone pancreatitis. If the above symptoms coincide with fever and chills, the diagnosis of ascending cholangitis may also be considered. Greater than 70% of people with gallstones are asymptomatic and are found incidentally on ultrasound. Studies have shown that 10% of those people will develop symptoms within five years of diagnosis and 20% within 20 years. While stones can frequently pass through the common bile duct ...
PBC has an immunological basis, and is classified as an autoimmune disorder.[12] It results from a slow, progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, with the intralobular ducts and the Canals of Hering (intrahepatic ductules) being affected early in the disease.[13] This progresses to the development of fibrosis, cholestasis and, in some people, cirrhosis.[2]. Most people with PBC (,90 percent) have anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), an enzyme complex that is found in the mitochondria.[1] People who are negative for AMAs are usually found to be positive when more sensitive methods of detection are used.[14]. People with PBC may also have been diagnosed with another autoimmune disease, such as a rheumatological, endocrinological, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, or dermatological condition, suggesting shared genetic and immune abnormalities.[11] Common associations include ...
... , also known as extrahepatic ductopenia and progressive obliterative cholangiopathy, is a childhood disease of the liver in which one or more bile ducts are abnormally narrow, blocked, or absent. It can be congenital or acquired. As a birth defect in newborn infants, it has an incidence of one in 10,000-15,000 live births in the United States, and a prevalence of one in 16,700 in the British Isles. Biliary atresia is most common in East Asia, with a frequency of one in 5,000. The causes of biliary atresia are not well understood. Congenital biliary atresia has been associated with certain genes, while acquired biliary atresia is thought to be a result of an autoimmune inflammatory response, possibly due to a viral infection of the liver soon after birth. The only effective treatments[citation needed] are surgeries such as the Kasai procedure and liver transplantation. Play media Initially, the symptoms of biliary atresia are ...
... , also known as acute cholangitis or simply cholangitis, is an infection of the bile duct (cholangitis), usually caused by bacteria ascending from its junction with the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). It tends to occur if the bile duct is already partially obstructed by gallstones. Cholangitis can be life-threatening, and is regarded as a medical emergency. Characteristic symptoms include yellow discoloration of the skin or whites of the eyes, fever, abdominal pain, and in severe cases, low blood pressure and confusion. Initial treatment is with intravenous fluids and antibiotics, but there is often an underlying problem (such as gallstones or narrowing in the bile duct) for which further tests and treatments may be necessary, usually in the form of endoscopy to relieve obstruction of the bile duct. The word is from Greek chol-, ...
The biliary tract, (biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile. Bile consists of water, electrolytes, bile acids, cholesterol, phospholipids and conjugated bilirubin. Some components are synthesised by hepatocytes (liver cells), the rest are extracted from the blood by the liver. Bile is secreted by the liver into small ducts that join to form the common hepatic duct. Between meals, secreted bile is stored in the gall bladder. During a meal, the bile is secreted into the duodenum to rid the body of waste stored in the bile as well as aid in the absorption of dietary fats and oils. The biliary tract refers to the ...
The biliary tract refers to the path by which bile is secreted by the liver then transported to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. A structure common to most members of the mammal family, the biliary tract is often referred to as a tree because it begins with many small branches which end in the common bile duct, sometimes referred to as the trunk of the biliary tree. The duct, the branches of the hepatic artery, and the portal vein form the central axis of the portal triad. Bile flows in the direction opposite to that of the blood present in the other two channels. The system is usually referred to as the biliary tract or system, [2]and can include the use of the term "hepatobiliary" when used to refer just to the liver and bile ducts.[3] The name biliary tract is used to refer to all of the ducts, ...
The hepatic duct is part of the biliary tract that transports secretions from the liver into the intestines. It carries more volume in people who have had their gallbladder removed. It is an important anatomic landmark during surgeries such as gall bladder removal. It forms one edge of Calot's triangle, along with the cystic duct and the cystic artery. All constituents of this triangle must be identified to avoid cutting or clipping the wrong structure. There is some normal anatomic variation of the diameter. The common hepatic duct is about 6mm in diameter in adults, with some variation.[2] A diameter of more than 8 mm is regarded as abnormal dilatation, and is a sign of cholestasis.[3]. ...
... (also: major duct excision or Hadfield's procedure) is the surgical removal (excision) of all lactiferous duct under the nipple. The excision of a single duct is called microdochectomy, a mere incision of a mammary duct (without excision) is microdochotomy. Central duct excision is a standard treatment of in case there is nipple discharge which stems from multiple ducts or cannot be traced back to a single duct. It is also indicated if there is bloody nipple discharge in patients beyond childbearing age. Duct excision may be indicated for the treatment of recurrent breast abscess and mastitis, and the total removal of all ducts from behind the nipple has been recommended to avoid further recurrence. In particular if the patient wishes to preserve breastfeeding ability, the condition of the mammary duct system is investigated by means of galactography (ductography) or ductoscopy in order to determine whether the excision of a single duct (microdochectomy) would be ...
Lactiferous ducts are lined by a columnar epithelium supported by myoepithelial cells. When a woman is not lactating, the lactiferous duct is frequently blocked by a keratin plug. This plug helps to prevent bacteria from entering the duct in non-lactating women. Prior to 2005, it was thought within the areola the lactiferous duct would dilate to form the lactiferous sinus in which milk accumulates between breastfeeding sessions. However past studies have shown that the lactiferous sinus does not exist.[3] ...
উলফিয়ান বাহিকা (ইংরেজি: Wolffian duct), যা উলফিয়ান ডাক্ট, আরকিনেফ্রিক ডাক্ট (archinephric duct), লেইডিগের ডাক্ট (Leydig's duct), মেসোনেফ্রিক ডাক্ট (mesonephric duct), বা নেফ্রিক ডাক্ট (nephric duct) নামেও পরিচিত। এটি একটি জোড়া অঙ্গ যা এমব্রায়োজেনেসিসের সময় মানুষসহ অন্যান্য স্তন্যপায়ী প্রাণীতে দেখা যায়। পুরুষের ক্ষেত্রে এটি উলফিয়ান বডি (মেসোনেফ্রোস) ও ক্লোকাকে সংযুক্ত করে, এবং পুরুষ প্রজনন তন্ত্রের অ্যানলেজ হিসেবে কাজ ...
Treoninske i glutamatne proteaze nisu bile poznate do 1995 i 2004, respektivno. Mehanizam raskidanja peptidne veze obuhvata korak u kome nukleofil napada peptidnu vezu. Nukleofil je bilo aminokiselina peptidaze (cistein, serin, treonin) ili molekul vode kod aspartat-, metalo- i glutamatne proteaze. Jedan način formiranja nukleofila je putem katalitičke trijade, gde se histidinski ostatak koristi za aktivaciju serina, cisteina, ili treonina. ...
Treoninske i glutamatne proteaze nisu bile poznate do 1995 i 2004, respektivno. Mehanizam raskidanja peptidne veze obuhvata korak u kome nukleofil napada peptidnu vezu. Nukleofil je bilo aminokiselina peptidaze (cistein, serin, treonin) ili molekul vode kod aspartat-, metalo- i glutamatne proteaze. Jedan način formiranja nukleofila je putem katalitičke trijade, gde se histidinski ostatak koristi za aktivaciju serina, cisteina, ili treonina. ...
Multiple dilatations involving only the extrahepatic bile ducts. Type V: Cystic dilatation of intrahepatic biliary ducts ... The cause of these complications may be related to either abnormal flow of bile within the ducts or the presence of gallstones ... Choledochal cysts (a.k.a. bile duct cyst) are congenital conditions involving cystic dilatation of bile ducts. They are ... inflammation within the bile ducts caused by the spread of bacteria from the intestine into the bile ducts). Pancreatitis also ...
Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They ... Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and ... and almost all bile acids in the bile duct therefore exist in a glycine conjugated form (PMID:16949895 ). More specifically, ... Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, ...
The model of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and hepatic ischemia reperfusion was the same as previously reported [14]. A ... had reported that a low dose of PGE1 infusion could improve hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flow in the extrahepatic ... The extrahepatic cholestatic model was induced by common bile duct ligation. After seven days, rats were subjected to ischemia ... Animals underwent bile duct ligation for 7 days and were randomly divided into two groups: the normal saline (NS, ) control ...
The increased pressure of the intramural component of the bile duct results in direction of the bile flow from the liver into ... and neck and connects with the bile duct via the cystic duct. Its function is to store and concentrate bile and secrete a ... The interlobular ducts unite further to form lobar or bile ducts that exit the liver parenchyma as a variable number of hepatic ... Bile Formation, Flow, and Pathophysiologic Alterations. Bile is a slightly alkaline, isotonic solution that consists of water, ...
Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a problem with the flow of bile:. *Gallstones, which can increase ... Short Description: Benign neoplasm of extrahepatic bile ducts Long Description: Benign neoplasm of extrahepatic bile ducts This ... extrahepatic (bile) duct. C24.0. C78.89. D01.5. D13.5. D37.6. D49.0. »gall duct (extrahepatic). C24.0. C78.89. D01.5. D13.5. ... common (bile) duct. C24.0. C78.89. D01.5. D13.5. D37.6. D49.0. »cystic (bile) duct (common). C24.0. C78.89. D01.5. D13.5. D37.6 ...
... the extrahepatic duct flows into the cystic duct, which conveys bile to and from the gallbladder. In the extrahepatic duct, the ... Hepatic ducts carry bile out of the liver and join together forming the common bile duct also known as extrahepatic bile duct. ... Bosco, C., & Díaz, E. (2018). Telocytes in the Submucosa of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct. Asian Journal of Biology, 6(2), 1-4. ... It then traverses the wall of the duodenum and deliver bile into its lumen. In species with a gallbladder, ...
... begins in the first few weeks of life with impaired bile flow due to the progressive obliteration of extrahepatic bile ducts; ... Arrowheads point to arterial vessels that follow extrahepatic bile ducts. Microscopically (E-H), bile ducts of WT Balb/c mice ... segment atresia of extrahepatic bile ducts (thin arrows). In contrast, IFN-γ-/- mice displayed gallbladders distended with bile ... and extrahepatic bile ducts maintained lumenal continuity with the duodenum. In keeping with a central role for IFN-γ in duct ...
This study was a retrospective analysis using a registry of cancer patients with unresectable extrahepatic malignant bile duct ... Bile flow around the cholelithiasis may depend on the size, number, and location of gallstones. Therefore, theoretically, ... contrast injection into the pancreatic duct or gallbladder, cystic duct invasion by the tumor, and occlusion of the cystic duct ... The occlusion of the opening of the cystic duct by the tumor or stent placement causes insufficient bile drainage, which can be ...
Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is slowed or blocked. ... Extrahepatic cholestasis occurs outside the liver. It can be caused by:. * Bile duct tumors ... Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is slowed or blocked. ... Fogel EL, Sherman S. Diseases of the gallbladder and bile ducts. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ...
It refers to abnormalities of the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts without anomalies of the gall bladder wall in ... Total hepatic blood flow is normal or decreased; however, hepatic arterial flow is increased after portal venous obstruction. ... angulation of ducts; displacement of ducts and stones in the common bile duct; and focal narrowing dilations, irregular walls, ... Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is defined as obstruction of the extrahepatic portal vein without involvement of ...
Most bile duct cancers cannot be completely removed by surgery. Other treatments include radiation, chemotherapy, and ... Treatment of bile duct cancer depends on where the cancer has formed and if it can be removed by surgery (resectable) or not ( ... Anatomy of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Extrahepatic bile ducts are small tubes that carry bile outside of the liver. They are ... Cysts in the bile ducts (cysts block the flow of bile and can cause swollen bile ducts, inflammation, and infection). ...
Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer. Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer. Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer. Unresectable ... Participant Flow Hide Participant Flow Recruitment Details Key information relevant to the recruitment process for the overall ...
post-natal destruction of extrahepatic bile ducts with resultant injury and fibrosis of intrahepatic bile ducts. more in ... systemic retention of biliary constituents as result of failure of formation or flow of bile ... failure of formation of bile at hepatocyte level - elevated transaminases and indirect bilirubin ...
It is formed where the ducts from the liver and gallbladder are joined. ... A tube that carries bile from the liver and the gallbladder through the pancreas and into the duodenum (the upper part of the ... It is part of the biliary duct system. Enlarge Anatomy of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Extrahepatic bile ducts are small tubes ... and the common bile duct (distal region). Bile is made in the liver and flows through the common hepatic duct and the cystic ...
Anatomy of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Extrahepatic bile ducts are small tubes that carry bile outside of the liver. They are ... Cysts in the bile ducts (cysts block the flow of bile and can cause swollen bile ducts, inflammation, and infection). ... Extrahepatic bile duct cancer: The extrahepatic bile duct is made up of the hilum region and the distal region. Cancer can form ... Resectable Distal Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer. Treatment of resectable distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer may include the ...
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts ... BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile ... Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a ... Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and ...
extrahepatic ducts right and left hepatic ducts. proper hepatic duct. cystic duct. common bile duct. collumnar w/occasional ... venous flow portal v -> interlobar v -> interlobular v -> distribuiting v (perilobular v) -> inlet veule -> sinusoids -> ... may modify bile by additional bicarb secretion. surrounded by smooth m @ porta hepatis -> narrowing of ducts can be see in ... transition from cnaliculus to interlobular bile ducts. basal surface attached to hepatocytes. flattened to cuboidal epithelium ...
Extrahepatic bile duct. Complications of OLTX can be mechanical or nonmechanical. Not surprisingly, postoperative mechanical ... Collateralization explains how, in some patients, intrahepatic flow can be present in the setting of complete extrahepatic ... extensive extravasation of bile from ischemic ducts. This type of bile duct injury is caused by either severe hepatic artery ... Although large vessels and bile ducts must be ligated, control of hemorrhage and bile leakage from the cut surface is possible ...
... extensive extravasation of bile from ischemic ducts. This type of bile duct injury is caused by either severe hepatic artery ... Collateralization explains how, in some patients, intrahepatic flow can be present in the setting of complete extrahepatic ... Although large vessels and bile ducts must be ligated, control of hemorrhage and bile leakage from the cut surface is possible ... Bile leak after hepatic transplantation: cholangiographic features, prevalence, and clinical outcome. Radiology. 1994 Aug. 192( ...
Lymphoma Flow Cytometry. *Lymphoma Polymerase Chain Reaction. *M *Magnesium. *Mast Cell Tumor Prognostic Panel ...
An intra- or extrahepatic block of bile flow or bile ducts resulting in increased serum bilirubin, which can lead to jaundice. ... Hepatology An intra- or extrahepatic block of bile flow or bile ducts resulting in ↑ serum BR, ergo jaundice. cholestasis. ... An arrest in the flow of bile; cholestasia due to obstruction of bile ducts is accompanied by formation of plugs of inspissated ... Biliary - Of bile or of the gallbladder and bile ducts that transport bile and make up the biliary system or tract. ...
Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction (EHBDO). *Vitamin K deficiency linked to severe intra- or extrahepatic cholestasis (blockage ... Portosystemic Vascular Anomaly (PSVA), causing insufficient blood flow to the liver. Diagnosis. You will need to give a ... of the bile ducts) or steatorrhea (fat in the feces due to trouble digesting fat since enzymes the liver makes are lacking). ... bile. The fluid created by the liver that helps food in the stomach to be digested. ...
Within the liver, these ducts are termed intrahepatic bile ducts, and once they exit the liver they are considered extrahepatic ... Blood flows through the liver sinusoids and empties into the central vein of each lobule. The central veins coalesce into ... The cystic duct from the gallbladder joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. Bile either drains ... They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts ...
BILE DUCTS: No intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile duct dilation.. Extrahepatic bile duct diameter where visualized: 3 mm. ... The main portal vein is patent with appropriate direction of flow on color Doppler.. GALLBLADDER: Normal. No gallstones, sludge ... BILE DUCTS: No intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile duct dilation. GALLBLADDER: Normal.. PANCREAS: Normal. No main pancreatic duct ...
IMAGE: This image shows a section of obstructed extrahepatic bile duct in a neonatal mice. It exhibits residual expression of ... When a baby has biliary atresia, this flow is blocked. Bile becomes trapped inside the liver, quickly causing liver damage and ... Biliary atresia is a rare disease of the liver and bile ducts that occurs in infants. Liver cells produce a liquid called bile ... To further demonstrate whether MMP-7 damages bile duct tissues, the researchers used a pharmacologic inhibitor of the protein ...
  • The cause of these complications may be related to either abnormal flow of bile within the ducts or the presence of gallstones Direct hyperbilirubinemia They were classified into 5 types by Todani in 1977. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choledochal cysts are treated by surgical excision of the cyst with the formation of a roux-en-Y anastomosis hepaticojujenostomy/ choledochojujenostomy to the biliary duct. (wikipedia.org)
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