Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain konjac glucomannan (MANNANS) and SEROTONIN.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A flour made of pulverized, dried fish or fish parts.
A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.
A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.
A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Allergic reaction to wheat that is triggered by the immune system.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.
The great peninsula of southwest Asia comprising most of the present countries of the Middle East. It has been known since the first millennium B.C. In early times it was divided into Arabia Petraea, the northwest part, the only part ever conquered, becoming a Roman province; Arabia Deserta, the northern part between Syria and Mesopotamia; and Arabia Felix, the main part of the peninsula but by some geographers restricted to modern Yemen. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p63)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
An unbranched glucan in starch.
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)
An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.
Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain pulicanadienes and other cytotoxic SESQUITERPENES.
Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.
A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.
A genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known for its mild calming effect and for the way cats are attracted to the aroma.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.
Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
A species of tapeworm (TAPEWORMS) infecting RATS and MICE but rarely causing disease in humans. Its life cycle involves RODENTS as the definitive host and BEETLES as the intermediate host.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
Material prepared from plants.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Eating other individuals of one's own species.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.
Protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in PINEAPPLE fruit juice and stem tissue. Enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.
Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The number of males per 100 females.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
The consumption of edible substances.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
Relating to the size of solids.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Nutritional physiology of animals.

Aleurone flour is a rich source of bioavailable folate in humans. (1/305)

With the use of novel milling technology, it has become commercially viable to isolate the aleurone layer of cells from wheat grain and to prepare a novel flour from this fraction that has a natural folate concentration of approximately 500 microgram/100 g. The aim of this study was to determine the relative bioavailability of natural folate from aleurone flour when ingested as a cereal. Using a series of randomized, short-term intervention trials with a cross-over involving eight men and eight women aged between 29 and 50 y, we compared the increment of plasma folate following ingestion of 1) 100 g wheat bran cereal (low folate control), 2) 100 g aleurone cereal, and 3) a tablet containing 500 microgram folic acid taken together with 100 g wheat bran cereal (high folate control). Folate absorption was measured by estimating the area under the plasma folate concentration versus time curve. The extent of increase in plasma folate over the 7-hour period following ingestion of aleurone cereal was more than fourfold greater than that observed following the wheat bran cereal (P < 0.0001) and not different from that observed following the 500 microgram folic acid tablet taken with wheat bran cereal. Differences were significant when data for males and females were analyzed separately (P < 0.001). This study has shown that cereal made from wheat aleurone flour is a good source of bioavailable, natural folate.  (+info)

Exposure-response relations of alpha-amylase sensitisation in British bakeries and flour mills. (2/305)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the levels of exposure to fungal alpha-amylase in British bakeries and flour mills, and to describe the relation between exposure to alpha-amylase and sensitisation to fungal alpha-amylase. METHODS: 495 personal flour dust samples were taken in seven British bakeries and flour mills and analysed for alpha-amylase with an immunoassay. Workers at the sites were asked to fill out questionnaires on work related symptoms, smoking history, and work history, and they were skin prick tested with common allergens and fungal alpha-amylase to assess sensitisation. RESULTS: Exposure to high concentrations of alpha-amylase occur in a few areas of British bakeries and flour mills, and there can be considerable differences in exposures to alpha-amylase between sites and between exposure groups, and even within similar exposure groups from different sites. Exposure to the highest concentrations of alpha-amylase was found in the dispensing and mixing areas of the bakeries (geometric mean (GM) 39.7 ng/m3). Exposure to alpha-amylase showed only a moderate correlation with concentrations of dust (r = 0.42) and flour aeroallergen (r = 0.46). The results also showed a relation between exposure to alpha-amylase and sensitisation to fungal alpha-amylase (prevalence ratio (PR) for medium exposure 3.9, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.8 to 20.2, PR for high exposure 9.9, 95% CI 2.8 to 34.6) compared with the low exposure category). Atopic subjects had an increased risk of sensitisation, but this was not significant. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that exposure to alpha-amylase is a considerable health risk in British bakeries and flour mills. A small proportion of workers are exposed to alpha-amylase at concentrations that result in high rates of sensitisation. A reduction in exposure to alpha-amylase is likely to reduce this risk.  (+info)

Health surveillance in milling, baking and other food manufacturing operations--five years' experience. (3/305)

The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of allergic respiratory disease and its outcome in terms of symptoms and jobs, across different flour-using industries. It uses the findings of a health surveillance programme in a large food organization over a five-year period. The population under surveillance consisted of 3,450 employees with exposure to ingredient dusts, of whom 400 were in flour milling, 1,650 in bread baking, 550 in cake baking and 850 in other flour-using operations. A total of 66 employees with either asthma or rhinitis symptoms attributable to sensitization to allergens in the workplace were identified. The majority of these (48/66) had become symptomatic prior to the commencement of the health surveillance programme in 1993. The incidence rates (per million employees per year) for those who developed symptoms between 1993 and 1997 were 550 for flour milling, 1,940 for bread baking, 0 for cake baking and 235 for other flour-using operations. The agent believed to be responsible for symptoms was most commonly grain dust in flour millers and fungal amylase in bread bakers. Wheat flour appeared to have a weaker sensitizing potential than these other two substances. In terms of outcome, at follow-up 18% of symptomatically sensitized employees had left the company. Two of the ex-employees retired through ill health due to occupational asthma. Of those still in employment, 63% described an improvement in symptoms, 32% were unchanged and 4% were worse than when first diagnosed. Over half the cases still in employment were continuing to work in the same job as at the time of diagnosis.  (+info)

Evaluation of selected high-starch flours as ingredients in canine diets. (4/305)

Cereal grains represent 30 to 60% of the DM of many companion animal diets. Once incorporated into a diet, the starch component of these grains can provide an excellent source of ME. However, crystallinity and form of starch are variable and can cause incomplete digestion within the gastrointestinal tract. Diets fed in this experiment included one of six high-starch flours as the main source of carbohydrate. The flours originated from barley, corn, potato, rice, sorghum, and wheat. The diets were extruded and kibbled. Starch fraction concentrations of flours consisted of nearly 100% rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) combined. Starch fraction concentrations of diets paralleled concentrations in flours. Flours varied widely in concentrations of CP, fat, starch, and total dietary fiber. Ileal OM and CP digestibilities were lowest for the potato flour treatment (74 and 64%, respectively). Ileal and total tract starch digestibilities were different (P<.05) among treatments; however, the starch component of all diets was nearly completely digested (>99%). Total tract digestibility of DM and OM was lowest for sorghum (80 and 84%, respectively) compared to all other diets. Crude protein digestibility was highest for corn (87%). Wet fecal weights tended (P<.08) to be greatest for dogs fed the barley treatment (175 g/d). However, dry fecal weights (dried at 55 degrees C) were greatest for dogs consuming the sorghum diet (51 g/d). Fecal scores were consistently greater (i.e., looser stools) for the barley treatment. Any of these flours could be used without negative effects on digestion at either the ileum or in the total tract. Fecal consistency data for dogs consuming the barley treatment indicate that diets containing large amounts (>50%) of barley may not be advantageous for dog owners who house their animals indoors for most of the day.  (+info)

Small bakeries--a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms, sensitization and dust exposure. (5/305)

This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and sensitization to dust components in 224 individuals in 18 small bakeries in Scotland. Each work practice in the bakeries was characterized by an assessment of dust exposure and assigned to a category with either a direct exposure to flour dust of an indirect exposure to flour dust. We found that work-related respiratory symptoms were significantly associated with specific IgE to wheat flour and amylase but not to exposure category (except for nasal/eye symptoms). However, specific IgE to wheat flour was significantly associated with exposure category. There was a higher prevalence of immunological sensitization, reporting of work-related respiratory symptoms and exposure to dust than in other studies and of the 144 personal dust sample results taken, 21 (14.6%) of the total exceeded 10 mg/m3, the substantial dust concentration as outlined by the COSHH Regulations. Follow-up of those with work-related asthma symptoms (questionnaire response) was inconclusive of the work-relatedness of their symptoms, although it did confirm respiratory morbidity.  (+info)

Dietary defatted sesame flour decreases susceptibility to oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. (6/305)

Plant glucosides possess antioxidative properties due to their ability to scavenge free radicals. Sesame seeds contain a class of these compounds, the sesaminol glucosides. To evaluate their antioxidative activity in vivo, we fed rabbits diets containing 1% cholesterol (Chol) with or without 10% defatted sesame flour (DSF) (containing 1% sesaminol glucosides) for 90 d. We determined the susceptibility of their tissues to oxidation ex vivo as well as serum total cholesterol (TC), phospholipid (PL), triglyceride (TG) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Serum TC, HDL-C, PL and TG levels were unaffected by the addition of DSF. The HDL-C in the Chol + DSF group was greater than in the Chol group at 45 d. Both were greater than in the groups that did not consume cholesterol. Liver TC and TG were significantly lower in rabbits fed the diet containing DSF plus 1% cholesterol than in those fed 1% cholesterol alone. Lipid peroxidation activity, measured as 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), was lower in the liver (P < 0.05) and serum (P = 0.06) of rabbits fed DSF plus cholesterol than in rabbits fed the cholesterol diet. Although we did not detect sesaminol glucosides in peripheral tissues, we observed abundant quantities of sesaminol in rabbits fed DSF, the principal metabolite. Our findings suggest that feeding DSF to rabbits does not protect cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia, but may decrease susceptibility to oxidative stress in rabbits fed cholesterol, perhaps due to the antioxidative activity of sesaminol.  (+info)

Quantification of the dose of inhaled flour: relation with nonspecific bronchial and immunological reactivities. (7/305)

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific bronchial reactivity and respective nonspecific bronchial and immunological reactivities. Twenty-one patients underwent bronchial challenges with lactose and flour. The aerosol of particles was generated by a computer-controlled aerosolizer. Specific bronchial challenge results were expressed as the provocative dose of flour (PDf) that caused a 20% or 15% decrease in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). For each subject, the decrease in FEV1 observed during the challenge with flour was compared with the calculated lower limit of the 99.7% confidence interval for the lactose challenge. The subjects also underwent a nonspecific challenge with methacholine and a measurement of the specific immunoglobulin E against wheat. The inhalation of lactose did not significantly affect FEV1. Nine subjects had high reactivity to wheat flour with a PDf20 <400 microg. Five subjects had intermediate reactivity: FEV1 fell by <20% but by significantly more than that in the test with lactose. For 7 subjects, there was no significant change in FEVI for inhaled doses of flour over 1390 microg. The results for specific bronchial challenge were significantly correlated with those for the methacholine test (p<0.02). Positive skin tests and specific immunoglobulin E against wheat were observed more frequently in the high reactivity group. Specific bronchial challenge can be performed safely to establish precise dose-response curves. The provocative dose of flour causing a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second is useful for evaluating the degree of specific reactivity but is not suitable in cases of intermediate reactivity in which comparison with the lactose test is necessary. Specific reactivity is probably a function of immunological and nonspecific bronchial reactivities.  (+info)

Folic acid and neural tube defects. Good news at last! (8/305)

QUESTION: I read last year that Canada has followed the United States in fortifying flour with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects. Do we know yet whether this strategy is working? ANSWER: In Canada, flour is fortified with folic acid to a level of 0.15 mg/100 g. Although a mandatory date was set for November 1, 1998, most if not all companies implemented the change on or before January 1, 1998. Recent figures from the United States, where the deadline for fortification was January 1998, show that by March 1999, mean folate levels in flour doubled, substantially decreasing the risk for neural tube defects.  (+info)

Respiratory hypersensitivity can be diagnosed through medical history, physical examination, and allergy testing. Treatment options include avoidance of allergens, medication, such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunotherapy, which involves exposing the person to small amounts of the allergen over time to build up their tolerance.

Some people with respiratory hypersensitivity may experience more severe symptoms, such as asthma, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is important for individuals with respiratory hypersensitivity to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and prevent complications.

There are several types of food hypersensitivity, including:

1. Food Allergy: An immune system reaction to a specific food that can cause symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Common food allergies include reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, milk, eggs, wheat, and soy.
2. Non-Allergic Food Hypersensitivity: Also known as non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity, this type of reaction does not involve the immune system. Symptoms can include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headaches. Common culprits include gluten, dairy, and high-FODMAP foods.
3. Food Intolerance: A condition where the body cannot properly digest or process a specific food. Symptoms can include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gas. Common food intolerances include lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption, and celiac disease.
4. Food Aversion: An emotional response to a specific food that can cause avoidance or dislike of the food. This is not an allergic or physiological reaction but rather a psychological one.

The diagnosis of food hypersensitivity typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as skin prick testing or blood tests. Treatment options for food hypersensitivity depend on the type and severity of the reaction and may include avoidance of the offending food, medication, or immunotherapy.

Types of Wheat Hypersensitivity:

1. Celiac Disease: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the small intestine when gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, is consumed. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss.
2. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS): This condition is similar to celiac disease but does not involve an autoimmune response or intestinal damage. Symptoms can include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fatigue.
3. Wheat Allergy: An immune system reaction to one or more proteins found in wheat, which can cause symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, stomach cramps, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, anaphylaxis can occur, which is a life-threatening reaction that requires immediate medical attention.

Symptoms of Wheat Hypersensitivity:

1. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting are common gastrointestinal symptoms of wheat hypersensitivity.
2. Skin symptoms: Hives, itching, and skin rashes can occur as a result of an allergic reaction to wheat.
3. Respiratory symptoms: Wheat allergy can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, runny nose, and difficulty breathing.
4. Cardiovascular symptoms: Some individuals with wheat hypersensitivity may experience cardiovascular symptoms such as a rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and collapse.
5. Neurological symptoms: In rare cases, wheat allergy can cause neurological symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating.

Diagnosis of Wheat Hypersensitivity:

1. Medical history: A thorough medical history is essential to diagnose wheat hypersensitivity. Symptoms, dietary habits, and any known allergies or medical conditions should be taken into account.
2. Physical examination: A physical examination can reveal signs of an allergic reaction such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
3. Allergy testing: Skin prick testing or blood tests can confirm the presence of IgE antibodies against wheat proteins, which is a hallmark of wheat allergy.
4. Elimination diet: An elimination diet involves removing wheat from the diet for a period of time and then reintroducing it to assess for any adverse reactions.
5. Food challenge: A food challenge involves giving the individual a small amount of wheat in a controlled medical setting to assess for any adverse reactions.

Treatment and Management of Wheat Hypersensitivity:

1. Avoidance: The most effective treatment for wheat hypersensitivity is avoidance of wheat-containing foods.
2. Antihistamines: Antihistamines can help alleviate symptoms such as hives, itching, and difficulty breathing.
3. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids can reduce inflammation and swelling associated with an allergic reaction.
4. Epinephrine injection: In severe cases of anaphylaxis, epinephrine injection may be necessary to stabilize the individual.
5. Allergen immunotherapy: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) or oral immunotherapy (OIT) can help desensitize the individual to wheat proteins over time, reducing symptoms and the risk of anaphylaxis.
6. Nutritional counseling: Individuals with wheat hypersensitivity may require nutritional counseling to ensure they are getting enough essential nutrients while avoiding wheat-containing foods.
7. Monitoring: Regular monitoring of symptoms and the effectiveness of treatment is crucial to managing wheat hypersensitivity.

It's important to note that individuals with wheat hypersensitivity should carry an EpiPen or other epinephrine injectors with them at all times in case of an emergency. Additionally, they should be aware of the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis and seek medical attention immediately if they experience any of these symptoms.

In the medical field, hymenolepiasis is often diagnosed using a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs to kill the tapeworms and relieve symptoms.

Preventive measures for hymenolepiasis include avoiding contaminated food and water, washing hands and fruits and vegetables thoroughly before eating them, and cooking food thoroughly especially pork and wild game meats.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

Prevalence: Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide, affecting approximately 1.6 billion people, with women being more likely to be affected than men.

Causes: The main cause of iron deficiency anemia is a diet that does not provide enough iron. Other causes include:

* Poor absorption of iron from the diet
* Increased demand for iron due to growth or pregnancy
* Blood loss due to menstruation, internal bleeding, or surgery
* Chronic diseases such as kidney disease, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis

Signs and symptoms: The signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia may include:

* Fatigue and weakness
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Headaches
* Cold hands and feet

Diagnosis: Iron deficiency anemia is diagnosed based on a physical exam, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

* Complete blood count (CBC) to check for low red blood cell count and low hemoglobin level
* Serum iron and transferrin tests to check for low iron levels
* Ferritin test to check for low iron stores

Treatment: Treatment of iron deficiency anemia involves correcting the underlying cause, which may include:

* Dietary changes to increase iron intake
* Iron supplements to replenish iron stores
* Addressing any underlying causes such as bleeding or malabsorption

Complications: Iron deficiency anemia can lead to complications such as:

* Heart failure
* Increased risk of infections
* Poor cognitive function and development in children

Prevention: Preventing iron deficiency anemia involves consuming enough iron through a balanced diet, avoiding foods that inhibit iron absorption, and addressing any underlying causes. It is also important to maintain good overall health, including managing chronic conditions such as bleeding or malabsorption.

There are several types of NTDs, including:

1. Anencephaly: A severe form of NTD where a large portion of the neural tube does not develop, resulting in the absence of a major part of the brain and skull.
2. Spina Bifida: A type of NTD where the spine does not close properly, leading to varying degrees of neurological damage and physical disability.
3. Encephalocele: A type of NTD where the brain or meninges protrude through a opening in the skull.
4. Meningomyelocele: A type of NTD where the spinal cord and meninges protrude through a opening in the back.

Causes and risk factors:

1. Genetic mutations: Some NTDs can be caused by genetic mutations that affect the development of the neural tube.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain chemicals, such as folic acid deficiency, has been linked to an increased risk of NTDs.
3. Maternal health: Women with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or obesity, are at a higher risk of having a child with NTDs.

Symptoms and diagnosis:

1. Anencephaly: Severely underdeveloped brain, absence of skull, and often death shortly after birth.
2. Spina Bifida: Difficulty walking, weakness or paralysis in the legs, bladder and bowel problems, and intellectual disability.
3. Encephalocele: Protrusion of brain or meninges through a opening in the skull, which can cause developmental delays, seizures, and intellectual disability.
4. Meningomyelocele: Protrusion of spinal cord and meninges through a opening in the back, which can cause weakness or paralysis in the legs, bladder and bowel problems, and intellectual disability.

Treatment and management:

1. Surgery: Depending on the type and severity of the NTD, surgery may be necessary to close the opening in the skull or back, or to release compressed tissue.
2. Physical therapy: To help improve mobility and strength in affected limbs.
3. Occupational therapy: To help with daily activities and fine motor skills.
4. Speech therapy: To help with communication and language development.
5. Medications: To manage seizures, pain, and other symptoms.
6. Nutritional support: To ensure adequate nutrition and growth.
7. Supportive care: To help manage the physical and emotional challenges of living with an NTD.


1. Folic acid supplements: Taking a daily folic acid supplement during pregnancy can help prevent NTDs.
2. Good nutrition: Eating a balanced diet that includes foods rich in folate, such as leafy greens, citrus fruits, and beans, can help prevent NTDs.
3. Avoiding alcohol and tobacco: Both alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to an increased risk of NTDs.
4. Getting regular prenatal care: Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider during pregnancy can help identify potential problems early on and reduce the risk of NTDs.
5. Avoiding infections: Infections such as rubella (German measles) can increase the risk of NTDs, so it's important to avoid exposure to these infections during pregnancy.

It's important to note that not all NTDs can be prevented, and some may be caused by genetic factors or other causes that are not yet fully understood. However, taking steps to maintain good health and getting regular prenatal care can help reduce the risk of NTDs and improve outcomes for babies born with these conditions.

There are several types of rhinitis, including:

1. Allergic rhinitis: This type of rhinitis is caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. Symptoms include sneezing, congestion, runny nose, and itchy eyes.
2. Viral rhinitis: This type of rhinitis is caused by a viral infection and can be accompanied by symptoms such as fever, headache, and fatigue.
3. Bacterial rhinitis: This type of rhinitis is caused by a bacterial infection and can be treated with antibiotics. Symptoms include thick yellow or green discharge from the nose and facial pain.
4. Non-allergic rhinitis: This type of rhinitis is not caused by an allergic reaction and can be triggered by factors such as hormonal changes, medications, or environmental irritants. Symptoms include postnasal drip and nasal congestion.

Rhinitis can be diagnosed through a physical examination of the nose and sinuses, as well as through tests such as a nasal endoscopy or imaging studies. Treatment for rhinitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, or antibiotics, as well as lifestyle changes such as avoiding allergens or using saline nasal sprays. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities in the nose and sinuses.

Foodborne diseases, also known as food-borne illnesses or gastrointestinal infections, are conditions caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. These diseases can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can be present in food products at any stage of the food supply chain.

Examples of common foodborne diseases include:

1. Salmonella: Caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
2. E. coli: Caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli, this disease can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia.
3. Listeria: Caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this disease can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and stiffness in the neck.
4. Campylobacter: Caused by the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
5. Norovirus: This highly contagious virus can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
6. Botulism: Caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, this disease can cause symptoms such as muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, and difficulty swallowing.

Foodborne diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including stool samples, blood tests, and biopsies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention is key to avoiding foodborne diseases, and this includes proper food handling and preparation practices, as well as ensuring that food products are stored and cooked at safe temperatures.

Types of occupational dermatitis include:

1. Contact dermatitis: This occurs when the skin comes into contact with an allergen or irritant substance, such as chemicals, metals, or plants.
2. Irritant contact dermatitis: This is caused by exposure to substances that can cause inflammation and damage to the skin, such as detergents, cleaning products, or chemicals.
3. Allergic contact dermatitis: This occurs when the skin comes into contact with an allergen, causing an immune response and inflammation. Common allergens include nickel, chromate, and fragrances.
4. Photoallergic contact dermatitis: This is caused by exposure to certain substances that react with sunlight to produce a skin reaction.
5. Urticaria and angioedema: These are hives and swelling that can occur as a result of exposure to certain substances or conditions, such as food, insect bites, or infections.

Symptoms of occupational dermatitis can vary depending on the type of condition and the severity of exposure. They may include:

* Redness and inflammation
* Itching and burning sensations
* Blisters or sores
* Dry, scaly skin
* Flaking or peeling skin
* Skin thickening or pigmentation

Diagnosis of occupational dermatitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and patch testing to identify specific allergens or irritants. Treatment may involve avoiding exposure to the allergen or irritant, topical creams or ointments, oral medications, or immunotherapy.

Prevention of occupational dermatitis includes implementing safety measures such as wearing protective clothing and equipment, using gloves and barrier creams, and following proper hygiene practices. Employers can also take steps to reduce exposure to potential allergens or irritants by modifying work processes, providing education and training, and establishing a healthy work environment.

In conclusion, occupational dermatitis is a common condition that affects millions of workers worldwide. It can cause significant discomfort, impaired quality of life, and lost productivity. By understanding the causes and symptoms of occupational dermatitis and taking steps to prevent and treat it, employers and employees can work together to create a safer and healthier work environment.

Some of the key features of immediate hypersensitivity include:

1. Rapid onset of symptoms: Symptoms typically occur within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen.
2. IgE antibodies: Immediate hypersensitivity is caused by the binding of IgE antibodies to surface receptors on mast cells and basophils.
3. Mast cell and basophil activation: The activation of mast cells and basophils leads to the release of histamine and other chemical mediators that cause symptoms.
4. Anaphylaxis: Immediate hypersensitivity can progress to anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction that requires immediate medical attention.
5. Specificity: Immediate hypersensitivity is specific to a particular allergen and does not occur with other allergens.
6. Cross-reactivity: There may be cross-reactivity between different allergens, leading to similar symptoms.
7. Prevention: Avoidance of the allergen is the primary prevention strategy for immediate hypersensitivity. Medications such as antihistamines and epinephrine can also be used to treat symptoms.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

1. Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat
2. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
3. Abdominal cramps
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Rapid heartbeat
6. Feeling of impending doom or loss of consciousness

Anaphylaxis is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and physical examination. Treatment for anaphylaxis typically involves administering epinephrine (adrenaline) via an auto-injector, such as an EpiPen or Auvi-Q. Additional treatments may include antihistamines, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy.

Prevention of anaphylaxis involves avoiding known allergens and being prepared to treat a reaction if it occurs. If you have a history of anaphylaxis, it is important to carry an EpiPen or other emergency medication with you at all times. Wearing a medical alert bracelet or necklace can also help to notify others of your allergy and the need for emergency treatment.

In severe cases, anaphylaxis can lead to unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

The primary symptoms of celiac disease include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and bloating. However, some people may not experience any symptoms at all, but can still develop complications if the disease is left untreated. These complications can include malnutrition, anemia, osteoporosis, and increased risk of other autoimmune disorders.

The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown, but it is believed to be triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The disease is more common in people with a family history of celiac disease or other autoimmune disorders. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of blood tests and intestinal biopsy, and treatment involves a strict gluten-free diet.

Dietary management of celiac disease involves avoiding all sources of gluten, including wheat, barley, rye, and some processed foods that may contain hidden sources of these grains. In some cases, nutritional supplements may be necessary to ensure adequate intake of certain vitamins and minerals.

While there is no known cure for celiac disease, adherence to a strict gluten-free diet can effectively manage the condition and prevent long-term complications. With proper management, people with celiac disease can lead normal, healthy lives.

1. Anemia: Folic acid plays a critical role in the production of red blood cells, so a deficiency can lead to anemia, which can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
2. Birth defects: Folic acid is crucial for fetal development during pregnancy, and a deficiency can increase the risk of birth defects such as spina bifida and cleft palate.
3. Heart disease: Folic acid helps to regulate homocysteine levels in the blood, which are associated with an increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
4. Neurological problems: Folic acid is important for the health of the nervous system, and a deficiency can lead to neurological problems such as cognitive impairment, mood disturbances, and seizures.
5. Poor wound healing: Folic acid is necessary for the production of collagen, which is important for wound healing. A deficiency can lead to slow or poor wound healing.
6. Increased risk of cancer: Some studies suggest that a folic acid deficiency may increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as colon cancer.
7. Hair loss: Folic acid is important for hair growth, and a deficiency can lead to hair loss.
8. Skin problems: Folic acid is important for skin health, and a deficiency can lead to skin problems such as dry, flaky skin and mouth sores.
9. Mood changes: Folic acid plays a role in the production of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that regulate mood. A deficiency can lead to mood changes such as depression and anxiety.
10. Fatigue: Folic acid is important for energy metabolism, and a deficiency can lead to fatigue and weakness.

Folic acid deficiency can be caused by a number of factors, including:

1. Poor diet: A diet that is low in folate-rich foods can lead to a deficiency.
2. Malabsorption: Certain medical conditions such as celiac disease and Crohn's disease can lead to malabsorption of folic acid.
3. Pregnancy and lactation: Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding have a higher need for folic acid, and may be at risk for deficiency if they do not consume enough.
4. Alcoholism: Heavy alcohol consumption can interfere with the absorption of folic acid.
5. Certain medications: Some medications, such as antacids and proton pump inhibitors, can interfere with the absorption of folic acid.

To diagnose a folic acid deficiency, a healthcare provider may perform a physical exam, take a medical history, and order blood tests to measure folic acid levels. Treatment for a folic acid deficiency typically involves dietary changes and supplements. Dietary changes may include consuming more folate-rich foods, such as leafy green vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. Supplements may include folic acid tablets or liquid supplements. In severe cases of deficiency, injections of folic acid may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect a folic acid deficiency, as untreated deficiencies can lead to serious health problems.


* Dietary deficiency due to a lack of animal products in the diet
* Malabsorption due to gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn's disease or celiac disease
* Pernicious anemia, an autoimmune condition that affects the absorption of vitamin B12 in the gut.
* Surgical removal of part of the small intestine
* Certain medications such as metformin and proton pump inhibitors


* Fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath
* Pale skin and mouth sores
* Difficulty walking or balance problems
* Numbness or tingling sensations in the hands and feet
* Memory loss and depression
* Poor appetite and weight loss


* Blood tests to measure vitamin B12 levels and other related markers such as homocysteine
* Physical examination and medical history to identify risk factors or signs of deficiency


* Dietary changes to include more animal products such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products.
* Vitamin B12 supplements in the form of tablets, lozenges, or injections.
* Addressing underlying conditions that may be contributing to the deficiency such as gastrointestinal disorders.


* Consuming animal products as part of a balanced diet
* Avoiding medications that can interfere with vitamin B12 absorption.

There are several types of hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Type I hypersensitivity: This is also known as immediate hypersensitivity and occurs within minutes to hours after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from immune cells, leading to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Examples of Type I hypersensitivity reactions include allergies to pollen, dust mites, or certain foods.
2. Type II hypersensitivity: This is also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity and occurs within days to weeks after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the immune system producing antibodies against specific proteins on the surface of cells, leading to their destruction. Examples of Type II hypersensitivity reactions include blood transfusion reactions and serum sickness.
3. Type III hypersensitivity: This is also known as immune complex hypersensitivity and occurs when antigens bind to immune complexes, leading to the formation of deposits in tissues. Examples of Type III hypersensitivity reactions include rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
4. Type IV hypersensitivity: This is also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity and occurs within weeks to months after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Examples of Type IV hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

The diagnosis of hypersensitivity often involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and elimination diets or challenges. Treatment depends on the specific type of hypersensitivity reaction and may include avoidance of the allergen, medications such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunomodulatory therapy.

Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:

1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

The most common type of colitis is ulcerative colitis, which affects the rectum and lower part of the colon. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis can include:

* Diarrhea (which may be bloody)
* Abdominal pain and cramping
* Rectal bleeding
* Weight loss
* Fever
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting

Microscopic colitis is another type of colitis that is characterized by inflammation in the colon, but without visible ulcers or bleeding. The symptoms of microscopic colitis are similar to those of ulcerative colitis, but may be less severe.

Other types of colitis include:

* Infantile colitis: This is a rare condition that affects babies and young children, and is characterized by diarrhea, fever, and vomiting.
* Isomorphic colitis: This is a rare condition that affects the colon and rectum, and is characterized by inflammation and symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis.
* Radiation colitis: This is a condition that occurs after radiation therapy to the pelvic area, and is characterized by inflammation and symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis.
* Ischemic colitis: This is a condition where there is a reduction in blood flow to the colon, which can lead to inflammation and symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea.

The diagnosis of colitis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

* Colonoscopy: This is a test that uses a flexible tube with a camera on the end to visualize the inside of the colon and rectum.
* Endoscopy: This is a test that uses a flexible tube with a camera on the end to visualize the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
* Stool tests: These are tests that analyze stool samples for signs of inflammation or infection.
* Blood tests: These are tests that analyze blood samples for signs of inflammation or infection.
* Biopsy: This is a test that involves taking a small sample of tissue from the colon and examining it under a microscope for signs of inflammation or infection.

Treatment for colitis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as:

* Aminosalicylates: These are medications that help to reduce inflammation in the colon and relieve symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. Examples include sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) and mesalamine (Asacol).
* Corticosteroids: These are medications that help to reduce inflammation in the body. They may be used short-term to control acute flares of colitis, or long-term to maintain remission. Examples include prednisone and hydrocortisone.
* Immunomodulators: These are medications that help to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation. Examples include azathioprine (Imuran) and mercaptopurine (Purinethol).
* Biologics: These are medications that target specific proteins involved in the inflammatory response. Examples include infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira).

In addition to medication, lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications and stress management techniques may also be helpful in managing colitis symptoms. Surgery may be necessary in some cases where the colitis is severe or persistent, and involves removing damaged portions of the colon and rectum.

It's important to note that colitis can increase the risk of developing colon cancer, so regular screening for colon cancer is recommended for people with chronic colitis. Additionally, people with colitis may be more susceptible to other health problems such as osteoporosis, osteopenia, and liver disease, so it's important to work closely with a healthcare provider to monitor for these conditions and take steps to prevent them.

Some common types of lung diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.

These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Bean flour is a flour produced from pulverized dried or ripe beans. Garbanzo and fava bean flour is a flour mixture with a high ... "Strong flour" or "hard flour" has a higher gluten content than "weak" or "soft" flour. "Brown" and wholemeal flours may be made ... Koreans also use acorn flour to make dotorimuk. Almond flour is made from ground almonds. Amaranth flour is a flour produced ... self-rising flour, and cake flour including bleached flour. The higher the protein content the harder and stronger the flour, ...
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... whose caterpillars are a pest of flour: Ephestia kuehniella (Mediterranean flour moth, Indian flour moth) Plodia interpunctella ... The term flour moth refers to certain small moths of the family Pyralidae (snout moths, waxmoths), ... They can easily be distinguished by their forewing coloration: the Mediterranean flour moth has light grey forewings with tiny ...
Rolling of atta dough Roti cooking in a tandoor Paratha Puri A chakki mill used to make atta Chapati Maida flour "Atta". ... Atta/Ata (Urdu: آٹا; Hindi: आटा, Bengali: আটা, romanized: Āṭā) or chakki atta is a wholemeal wheat flour, originating from the ... Atta - Indian Wholewheat Flour ( Panghal, Anil; Chhikara, Navnidhi; Khatkar, B.S. (2019). "Characterisation of ... It is the most widespread flour in the Indian subcontinent. Whole common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is generally used to make ...
... higher fiber relative to other flours, no gluten, and a higher proportion of protein than other flours. Gram flour is in ... Gram flour or kadala maavu is a pulse flour made from a variety of ground chickpea called Bengal gram or kaala chana. It is a ... Roasted gram flour is also used to thicken several noodle soup dishes, including mohinga and ohn no khao swè. Gram flour is ... Gram flour, which is called pe hmont (ပဲမှုန့်, lit. 'bean flour') in Burmese, is commonly used in Burmese cuisine. Roasted ...
... (Zea mays var. amylacea) is a variety of corn with a soft starchy endosperm and a thin pericarp. It is primarily ... The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, and sweet corn. Dickerson, George W. ( ... used to make corn flour.[clarification needed] This type, frequently found in Aztec and Inca graves, is widely grown in the ...
... is a lake in Cook County, Minnesota, in the United States. Flour Lake was named from the fact government surveyors ... List of lakes in Minnesota U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Flour Lake Warren Upham (1920). ...
... is a day school novel for young adults, written by Anne Fine and published by Hamilton in 1992. It features a ... Some libraries report the title Flour babies and the boys of Room 8. The story centres around Simon Martin, a pupil in class 4C ... Cartright, and thinks that they will get to kick the flour babies to bits at the end. Mr. Cartright decides to pick another ... Simon becomes fond of his flour baby, while the others complain. Simon reflects on his own childhood: his Dad left home when ...
... on Mireille Flour's discography on Discogs Joseph Jongen (1873-1953): Concerto pour harpe et ... Mireille Flour (29 April 1906 in Marseille - 1984 was a French classical harpist, naturalised Belgian. After studying at the ... She established the "Quatuor de harpes Mireille Flour", which enjoyed a fairly significant success. Her very extensive ... conservatoire de Marseille, then the conservatoire de Paris for half a century, Flour was a striking figure of the harp in ...
Flour is a common food ingredient made from wheat, rice, or other starchy sources. Flour may also refer to: Flour (band), a ... wood pulverized until it is of the consistency of flour Flour Lake, a lake in Minnesota Flour Bakery, owned by Joanne Chang All ... Look up flour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... an album by Australian band Screamfeeder Rock flour, fine ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Flour. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
Media related to Flour tortillas at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Flour tortilla at Wikimedia Commons Flour Tortilla at ... The flour tortilla is a much more recent invention. It is said by some that flour tortillas originated in the northern Mexican ... Flour tortillas were also very popular in Tex-Mex food and plates like fajitas. Flour tortilla with beans and eggs was very ... A flour tortilla (/tɔːrˈtiːə/, /-jə/) or wheat tortilla is a type of soft, thin flatbread made from finely ground wheat flour. ...
A flour sack or flour bag is a bag or sack for flour. Large bulk bags as well as smaller consumer sizes are available. A wide ... Flour is often shipped from the miller to bakeries, institutions and other bulk uses. Sizes range from 10 kg to 100 kg. One ... Flour can also be made from other grains, roots, nuts, etc. Packaging engineers and food scientists need to understand the ... When insect infestation is noted, one method of stopping further growth is to freeze the sacks of flour for several days. ...
... is commercially produced and sold in stores in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. Coca flour is primarily used ... Coca flour is also used as a capsulized food supplement as it contains all natural properties of the whole coca leaf including ... Coca flour is made from whole ground dried coca leaves harvested from the coca plant, Erythroxylum coca or Erythroxylum ... Safe Food - Coca flour (CS1 Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with short description, Short description is different from ...
... patent barley flour is a finer barley flour that is ground to a greater degree compared to fine barley flour. Barley flour is ... adding malted barley flour to wheat flour results in a moister product than would wheat flour alone. Malted barley flour that ... Patent barley flour is a finer flour that is ground to a greater degree compared to fine barley flour. It is prepared from ... Barley flour is a flour prepared from dried and ground barley. Barley flour is used to prepare barley bread and other breads, ...
... can be mixed with sugar and salt to create a powdered version of peanut butter. Since peanut flour has had most of ... Peanut flour is made from crushed, fully or partly defatted peanuts. Peanut flour, depending on the quantity of fat removed, is ... Light roast: Light roast 12% fat is lightest in roast, aroma and in flavor of all of the peanut flours offered. It is used in ... Both roasts are used when a strong peanut flour is wanted in the culinary dish. The dark roast 12% fat is less in flavor than ...
... is flour made from the milling of apple pomace, a mix of about 54% pulp, 34% peels, 7% seeds, 4% seed cores, and 2 ... "Apple flour". Retrieved 2020-02-14. "Apple flour is the fiber-rich baking staple of the future , Well+Good". ... It is also called "apple pomace flour," which may contain higher amounts of dietary fiber than refined white flour. " ... v t e (All stub articles, Food stubs, Apple dishes, Flour). ...
It is called a "strong" flour to distinguish it from other, weaker flours. The flour strength is indicated by the value of the ... A weak flour has a W value lower than 170, while the manitoba has a W value higher than 350. This type of flour takes its name ... Manitoba flour, a name chiefly used in Italy, is a flour of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) originating in the Canadian ... Mills often use it to 'cut' other flours, thus increasing the total W coefficient of flour. The dough made with Manitoba will ...
Hike in prices of flour, sharp - The Fiji Times 15 November 2007 Flour/Sharp prices to drop - Fiji Broadcasting February 19, ... Sharp flour is made from hard wheat. It is a term used by millers in Fiji and is in common usage throughout the populace as ... evidenced by newspaper reports whenever the price of flour changes, with the new price of sharp listed. Sharp is used as an ...
La cathédrale Saint-Pierre sur Halle aux bleds sur Église Saint-Vincent sur www.saint- ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint-Flour (Cantal). Tourism office website Picture of Saint-Flour Cathedral This ... "Probability Summer School Saint-Flour/École d'Eté de Probabilités de Saint-Flour". Université Clermont Auvergne. ... was born at Saint-Flour. The annual École d'Eté de Probabilités de Saint-Flour has resulted in a series of volumes concerning ...
A flour dresser is a mechanical device used in grain mills for bolting or flour extraction which is the process of separating ... The flour produced from the grain is further separated by size through sifting (or bolting). A centrifugal reel or flour ... A brush moving across the outside of the cylinder removes the flour and keeps the cloth functioning. A flour dresser is ... 307-308 The milling of grain into flour has been termed the oldest continuously conducted industry in the world.: 303 Flour ...
... as some people were hoarding flour in order to drive up prices. This shortage of flour broke the principle that required the ... The Flour War refers to a wave of riots from April to May 1775, in the northern, eastern, and western parts of the Kingdom of ... The Flour War can be seen as a prelude to the French Revolution. These events can be interpreted as a reaction against the ... The Flour War was in line with previous wheat fluctuations, and ushered in the wheat riots of Year II. During the period before ...
Thus, it is separated to ensure longer shelf life of the flour. In contrast to enriched flour, whole wheat flour contains both ... The Flour Fortification Initiative" (PDF). In Popper, Lutz (ed.). Future of Flour (PDF). sec. "Flour Fortification". ISBN 978-3 ... White flour became adopted in many cultures because it was thought to be healthier than dark flours during the late Middle Ages ... Enriched flour is flour with specific nutrients returned to it that have been lost while being prepared. These restored ...
... (Turkish: Un kurabiyesi) is a kind of Turkish cookie that is made from butter, sunflower oil (or another mild ... Flour kurabiye is a variant of kurabiye. Acıbadem kurabiyesi Osmania Biscuit ... and-flour-cookies.html v t e (Turkish pastries, Cookies, All stub articles, Confectionery stubs, Shortbread). ... flavored oil), baking powder, and the namesake ingredient flour. Generally, vanilla powder (commonly used as a substitute for ...
"Graham Flour: A Study of the Physical and Chemical Differences Between Graham Flour and Imitation Graham Flours". USDA Bureau ... White wheat flour 12.5% protein; Graham flour 12.1%; Entire wheat flour 11.9% . Iacobbo, Karen; Iacobbo, Michael (2004). ... only slightly less than white wheat flour and essentially the same as whole wheat flour. Graham flour is available at health ... Graham flour is a type of coarse-ground flour of whole wheat named after Sylvester Graham. It is similar to conventional whole- ...
... , also known as pumpkin fruit flour is a type of flour made from dried pumpkin flesh, excluding the stem, and ... Additionally, pumpkin flour is a gluten-free flour which makes it suitable for people with coeliac disease, and it has been ... It has also been recognized as a potential additive to conventional wheat flour for producing composite flour with increased ... Sun-dried pumpkin flour has a shelf-life of about 11.5 months. Aziah, A.A. Noor; Komathi, C.A. (1 September 2009). " ...
The Flour Bridge (Russian: Мучной мост) is a bridge across the Griboyedov Canal in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The bridge got its ... which were built in the 18th century and also gave their name to the nearby Flour Alley. The first bridge at this place was ... name from the flour warehouses located nearby, ...
... is whole grain flour produced by the traditional process of grinding grain between two millstones. This is in ... The Hard Truth About Stoneground Flour (Flour, Flour mills). ... In the USA flour only has to 'pass between stones' once during ... What is the difference between stoneground and wholemeal flour? Cooking with regular and stoneground flour Nutritional ... The inclusion of more bran and intact wheatgerm in the flour means that it is often credited with significant health benefits. ...
... differs from true flours made from grains by being composed mainly of protein rather than starches and dietary ... "Cricket Flour Recipes , Cricket Flours". Retrieved 25 April 2019. "Are People Allergic to Eating Insects?". (Articles with a ... smoothies Cricket flour can be utilized as a complete replacement for flour. The taste is described as very nutty, and foods ... with cultivated cricket flour and oat People with shellfish allergies may need to use caution when consuming cricket flour. ...
... is carried out from the system via meltwater streams, where the particles travel in suspension. Rock flour particles ... Rock flour, or glacial flour, consists of fine-grained, silt-sized particles of rock, generated by mechanical grinding of ... Rock flour, artificial or natural, is a source of plant micronutrients (minerals trace elements) widely used in organic farming ... When flows of the flour are extensive, a distinct layer of a different colour flows into the lake and begins to dissipate and ...
... called flour bombing. Flour bombs and flour bombing are a classic protest method, along with the throwing of eggs and overripe ... Flour bomb is a fragile container (e.g. a paper bag) filled with flour for the purpose to be thrown at a person or object to ... The effect of flour bombs is made worse by the inclusion of eggs, or containers of other liquid, making the removal of the ... A New Zealand All Blacks player was felled by one of the flour bombs. On 19 May 2004, during Prime Minister's Questions, two ...
Learn about a Salmonella outbreak linked to flour. ... Keep raw flour, dough, and batter separate from foods that ... Do not use any recalled flour. Throw it away or return it to where you bought it. *If you stored recalled flour in another ... Do not bake or cook recalled flour.. *Follow the recipe or package instructions for cooking or baking flour that hasnt been ... Always bake or cook food made with any brand of raw flour, like cookie dough or cake batter, before eating it. ...
... nutty flavor of chestnut flour allows these easy gluten-free and wheat-free crepes to complement both savory and sweet fillings ... Chestnut flour makes very unique crepes that happen to be both gluten- and wheat-free. The smoky, nutty flavor of the chestnut ... Chestnut Flour Crepes (Gluten- and Wheat-Free). Be the first to rate & review! ... Sprinkle in the chestnut flour 1/4 cup at a time, mixing well to avoid lumps, until batter is a liquid consistency. Whisk ...
Creating a liquid adhesive from flour and water allows you to join paper together. The homemade glue aids in the creation of ... Pour the flour mixture into the boiling water. Reduce the heat and gently boil the solution for 2 to 3 minutes until it ... Creating a liquid adhesive from flour and water allows you to join paper together. The homemade glue aids in the creation of ... Place 1/4 cup of all-purpose flour and 1 cup of cold water in a bowl. Stir the ingredients until smooth. ...
Does anyone know how to make flour from wheat sprouts? My sprouts are ready, but I dont know if I need to dry them first and ... making wheat sprout flour. 2247 Views 3 Replies 4 Participants Last post by cobluegirl, Aug 13, 2006. ... 2c whole wheat flour. 2 cups wheat germ.. put sprouts through a meat grinder, using a fine blade, or process in a blender. in a ... To make flour from sprouted grains, it works best to only let the sprouting proceed until you can barely see the sprout first ...
... at BellaOnline ... 1 cup brown rice flour 1 cup white rice flour. 2/3 cup potato ... The following recipe is a fabulous replacement for regular flour. Just use an equal amount of this flour blend in your recipes ... 2 cups gluten-free flour blend (see below for a great blend!). 2.5 cups certified gluten-free oat flour. 1 tsp baking powder. 1 ... I tried changing the oven temperature, adding more flour, less flour, making the dough cold first. I tried all kinds of tricks ...
... explains why you should sift flour and when you dont need to sift flour or other dry ingredients for dessert. ... Types of Flour Sifters The two most common products for getting the lumps out of dry ingredients are a flour sifter or a fine- ... Certain types of flour, such as pastry or cake flour, are naturally lighter because they have a lower protein count than all- ... Martha Stewart Collection Deluxe Flour Sifter This handheld flour sifter uses a hand clamp to move dry goods through the thin, ...
The page you requested: turun-bakery-flour Does not exist. Please check your info and try again! ...
Alex came up with it for fun after reading the ingredient list on Cup4Cup flour (developed by Lena Kwak and chef Thomas Keller ... It mimics all-purpose flour in recipes, so you can use it as a gram-for-gram substitute anywhere. ... What if you had a gluten-free flour that worked in any recipe as a gram-for-gram substitute for all-purpose flour? That was the ... What if you had a gluten-free flour that worked in any recipe as a gram-for-gram substitute for all-purpose flour? That was the ...
The flour recalled in…. Continue Reading CDC says rare O26 outbreak sourced to flour is over, but continue to beware ... is recalling some of its Pillsbury flour because of bacterial contamination. This time the pathogen is E. coli and the flour is ... Grocers say Pillsbury flour has been recalled because of Salmonella risk. By Coral Beach on March 10, 2019. ... recalls Pillsbury flour from ADM; multistate E. coli outbreak continues. By Coral Beach on June 17, 2019. ...
Get real time updates on the Flour Industry with the latest reports, critical insights and stats from official sources. ... Flour, Rice And Malt Global Market Report 2023 April 2023 $ 4000 Prepared Flour Mixes Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact ... Precooked Corn Flour Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis By Product Type and Application January 2022 ... Flour Industry 2023. View Trends, Analysis and Statistics.. Rely on our Market Intelligence platform to get the latest trends ...
... even when they involve a bag of flour. E! News ... Kim Kardashian Flour-Bombed During Red Carpet Event. Amanda ... Kourtney KardashianClassy to flour bomb my sister at her charity event helping women. I wonder if they would have dared thrown ... even when they involve a bag of flour. ... interviews on the red carpet and dumped an entire bag of flour ...
Buy Waitrose DOrg Self Raising Brown Flour online from Waitrose today. Free delivery - T&Cs apply ... View all in Self Raising Flour. Organic self-raising brown flour made with a mix of white flour and fine wheat bran. Cultivated ... INGREDIENTS: Organic fortified wheat flour (wheat flour, calcium carbonate*, iron*, niacin*, thiamin*), raising agents* ( ... Flour is a raw ingredient and must be cooked or baked before eating. ...
For 25 years our Seed to Seal® quality commitment has been both a promise to you and a reflection of our sense of global stewardship and accountability. We believe you want only the best for your family and yourself-products that are genuine, free from harmful synthetics, and of unmatched purity. Our proprietary Seed to Seal promise is our pledge to you, the earth, and ourselves that Young Living products will be the best available, now and always.. Seed to Seal and its three pillars-Sourcing, Science, and Standards-are infused into every aspect of our exacting essential oil production processes, both on our own farms and our carefully curated family of partner farms. Seed to Seal is infused into our painstaking quality testing and retesting to ensure that your family enjoys the purest essential oil products on the planet. Ultimately, Seed to Seal is infused into everything we do. We know that for us-and for you-simply nothing else will do.. ...
3 cups all-purpose flour found at Hannaford Supermarket. Add to online shopping list or grocery cart for Hannaford To Go. ...
On floured surface, roll out small balls of dough to desired thickness. Brown each in a cast-iron fry pan or on griddle. ...
Heres a look at the health benefits of almond flour and why its better than most other flours. ... Almond flour is a popular flour made from ground almonds. ... Coconut Flour. Like wheat flours, coconut flour has more carbs ... Almond flour can replace wheat flour at a 1:1 ratio. Because almond flour lacks gluten, baked products made with it are denser ... Both almond flour and coconut flour are gluten-free, but coconut flour is more difficult to bake with, as it absorbs moisture ...
... and nutritional contents for Chestnut Flour and over 2,000,000 other foods at MyFitnessPal ...
Organic Cotton Reusable bulk food bag, Set of 3, reusable grocery bag, bulk bin, nut milk bag, flour bag, bag with ties $36.18 ... Organic Cotton Reusable bulk food bag, Set of 5, reusable grocery bag, nut milk, bulk bin, flour bag, bag with ties $59.91 ... Organic Cotton Reusable bulk food bag, Set of 3, reusable grocery bag, bulk bin, nut milk bag, flour bag, bag with ties ad ... Organic Cotton Reusable bulk food bag, reusable grocery bag, bulk bin, flour bag, nut milk bag, bag with ties $12.84 ...
Posts about flour written by Jason Weisberger ... salmonella Gold Medal flour recalled for possible salmonella ...
A flour moth infestation can be identified by either the presence of the small flour moths (Indian Meal Moth, Mediterranean ... Flour Moths. A flour moth infestation can be identified by either the presence of the small flour moths (Indian Meal Moth, ... Flour & Pantry Moth Traps Flour & Pantry moths are attracted to dry foodstuffs and birdseed. The lure attracts male moths, ... Recommended Steps to Control Flour and Pantry Moths. Dispose of any infested food and store all grain products in dry, tightly ...
Whole grain ingredients and seeds include brown rice flour, oat flour and ground flax for tummy friendly fiber and satisfying ... Arrowhead Mills Organic Oat Flour Description. * Its Simple: No Short-Cuts, Just 100% Commitment To Quality and 30G Whole ... Other Ingredients: Organic whole grain oat flour. May contains traces of wheat. ...
... flour blog offers natural treatments for over 250 diseases and ailments. Try them out and see if they work for you. ... Edibles: Whole Grain Flour NaturalCures Jul 28, 2019. 0 Type: Whole Grain Flours Description: Flours can be made from milling ... Description: Mesquite meal, or flour, is made by grinding the seeds and pods of the mesquite tree into rather coarse granules, ...
Semolina Flour. In stock at a low price and ready to ship same day from WebstaurantStore. ... semolina flour. This versatile flour is ideal for making dried pastas, couscous, or Italian-style breads. Or, cook slowly with ... Milled from the endosperm of durum wheat into a finely ground flour, it has a coarse texture with a nutty, sweet flavor. ... Typically, it has a pale yellow color, due to the presence of carotenoids in the flour. With its high gluten and protein ...
People risk their lives to get free flour as prices of basic food items have rocketed in recent months ... One person was killed and eight others injured during a stampede for free flour in Charsadda on Thursday, the first day of the ... A woman, clad in burqa, carries a sack of flour, purchased at a subsidised rate from a truck along a road in the northwestern ... a man died and four others were injured when a wall they were sitting on collapsed as crowds amassed for free flour. ...
Shop for White Lily Self Rising Flour (5 lb) at Fred Meyer. Find quality baking goods products to add to your Shopping List or ... One Five lb bag of White Lily Self Rising Flour. *This self ringing flour is bleached, enriched, and made from 100% soft red ... Enriched Bleached Flour (Wheat Flour, Niacin, Reduced Iron, Thiamin Mononitrate, Riboflavin, Folic Acid), Leavening (Baking ... A southern tradition since 1883, this White Lily Flour is bleached, enriched, and made from 100% soft winter wheat for a light ...
We use potato flours extensively in our breads. ... One tablespoon of potato flour to two cups of wheat flour will ... So what flour should I buy?. Buy flours for their intended uses "bread flour for breads and pastry flours for pastries plus all ... Dominant on grocery store shelves are bread flours, all-purpose flours, and cake and pastry flours. Bread flours have a high ... All-purpose flour is usually in the eight to ten percent range and cake flour is less than that.. A typical bread flour (this ...
This homemade self rising flour recipe is a super simple recipe most of us never think to make. Most of us already have these ... Homemade Self-Rising Flour Recipe. Here is our easy self-rising flour recipe. Some recipes call for self rising flour, but ... Read about the difference between self rising flour, cake flour and all purpose flour. ... Here is our easy self-rising flour recipe. Some recipes call for self rising flour, but theres no reason to go out and buy it ...
creamy cheesecake studded with a swirl of raspberry coulis. serves 10-12
... this almond flour pie crust is an excellent choice. It uses just four ingredients ... Almond Flour vs. Almond Meal. Both almond flour and almond meal are made from ground almonds, but there are two subtle ... The recipe is entirely grain-free because almond flour isnt a type of milled flour, rather it is simply finely ground almonds ... Since an almond flour pie crust doesnt contain any gluten, it cannot be rolled and shaped in the same ways as a traditional ...
  • Certain types of flour, such as pastry or cake flour , are naturally lighter because they have a lower protein count than all-purpose flour. (
  • This article explores the health benefits of almond flour and whether it's a better alternative to other types of flour. (
  • Before we begin to examine types of flour, let's understand gluten. (
  • Flour fortification: reporting accomplishments. (
  • This report summarizes the current state of wheat flour fortification in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (
  • ABSTRACT This paper presents the trend of spina bifida and other neural tube defects in Oman after the nationwide implementation of folate supplementation of pregnant women in 1990 and the fortification of wheat flour with iron and folate in 1996. (
  • The reduction in spina bifida rates in Oman could be linked to the start of flour fortification but not the supplementation programme. (
  • Always bake or cook food made with any brand of raw flour, like cookie dough or cake batter, before eating it. (
  • Keep raw flour, dough, and batter separate from foods that won't be cooked. (
  • I tried changing the oven temperature, adding more flour, less flour, making the dough cold first. (
  • On floured surface, roll out small balls of dough to desired thickness. (
  • Milled from the endosperm of durum wheat into a finely ground flour, it has a coarse texture with a nutty, sweet flavor. (
  • The recipe is entirely grain-free because almond flour isn't a type of milled flour, rather it is simply finely ground almonds. (
  • Silica flour, a finely ground crystalline silica, was nominated for toxicological testing via dermal and oral routes of exposure by the National Toxicology Program based on evidence that occupational exposure has been associated with a higher incidence of autoimmune diseases. (
  • Silica flour, a finely ground crystalline silica, was nominated for toxicological testing via dermal and oral routes of exposure by a private individual based on evidence that occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica is associated with a higher incidence of autoimmune diseases. (
  • RÉSUMÉ Cet article présente la tendance du spina bifida et d'autres malformations du tube neural à Oman, après la mise en place au niveau national de la supplémentation en acide folique chez les femmes enceintes en 1990, et l'enrichissement de la farine de blé en fer et en acide folique en 1996. (
  • Follow the recipe or package instructions for cooking or baking flour that hasn't been recalled. (
  • The following recipe is a fabulous replacement for regular flour. (
  • When a recipe calls for sifting flour, confectioners' sugar , or cocoa powder , it may seem like an extraneous step, but it is actually the key to super light and fluffy baked goods. (
  • You will never see sifting flour for tempura batter in a recipe," she says. (
  • If you switch from bleached to unbleached flour in your bread recipes, be aware that the two flours may exhibit different performance characteristics and you may need to make minor changes in the recipe. (
  • Here is our easy self-rising flour recipe. (
  • You just adjust the self-rising flour recipe to make more or less for the amount you need. (
  • of salt in this recipe seems like a lot but remember many recipes call for 2 cups flour usually which means you are only using 1 tsp. (
  • For example if you make muffins with 2 cups of flour and the recipe makes 12 you divide that 2 tsp of salt by 12 and as you can imagine each serving will have a very small amount. (
  • On April 28, 2023, General Mills voluntarily issued a nationwide recall of 2-pound, 5-pound, and 10-pound bags of Gold Medal Bleached and Unbleached All-Purpose Flour with "Better if Used By" dates of March 27, 2024, and March 28, 2024. (
  • In yellow cakes or chocolate cakes, we use unbleached pastry flour. (
  • Since an almond flour pie crust doesn't contain any gluten, it cannot be rolled and shaped in the same ways as a traditional flour-based pastry crust. (
  • As I usually tell people with most gluten free recipes they will not be exactly the same as using regular flour. (
  • Chestnut flour makes very unique crepes that happen to be both gluten- and wheat-free. (
  • The smoky, nutty flavor of the chestnut flour complements both savory and sweet fillings. (
  • Sprinkle in the chestnut flour 1/4 cup at a time, mixing well to avoid lumps, until batter is a liquid consistency. (
  • What's the Purpose of Sifting Flour and Other Dry Ingredients When Baking? (
  • Some recipes will measure ingredients by weight , rather than by volume, and sifted flour will clock in at a different weight than un-sifted flour. (
  • The two most common products for getting the lumps out of dry ingredients are a flour sifter or a fine-mesh sieve. (
  • It's super easy to make your own self rising flour in just a few minutes using regular all-purpose flour and a few other ingredients! (
  • Self rising flour can be used to make a lot of different recipes, but if you keep a lot more on hand than you use, the baking ingredients can get old and it can lose its potency. (
  • This easy self-rising flour recipes uses simple ingredients you already have at home! (
  • There are numerous other small-scale growers and millers, such as Uncle Aidan's wholemeal flour that is grown in Ballyhamilton Farms and stoneground locally at an authentic water mill at Ballyminane Mills, Co Wexford, and also Donal Creedon at Macroom Mills produces stoneground flour from wheat grown in Kildare and Meath. (
  • Chlorine is the common bleaching agent used to whiten flour (though some millers use benzoyl peroxide). (
  • Whether you use a traditional flour sifter with a hand crank or a fine-mesh sieve, this baking technique serves a dual purpose. (
  • Williams says you can always use a large whisk if you don't have a flour sifter or sieve because it will still work hard to break up any lumps in the batter. (
  • Williams prefers using a sieve because it can take more volume than a flour sifter. (
  • This handheld flour sifter uses a hand clamp to move dry goods through the thin, fine mesh, allowing you to create a light, lump-free batter or frosting. (
  • Martha Stewart Collection Deluxe Flour Sifter, $20.99, . (
  • Use a sifter to separate any larger pieces that remain and repeat until all of the almonds are transformed into flour. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of sieved buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour supplementation on lipid profile and glucose tolerance. (
  • Almond flour is not the same as almond meal, despite the fact that their names are sometimes used interchangeably. (
  • Almond meal is made by grinding almonds with their skins intact, resulting in a coarser flour. (
  • Both almond flour and almond meal are made from ground almonds, but there are two subtle differences of note. (
  • Almond flour is made from blanched almonds (where the skins have been removed) while almond meal includes almonds with skin, leaving dark flecks. (
  • Almond flour is also ground more finely than products labeled almond meal. (
  • Tempura batter is a light and airy batter made with just flour and seltzer water. (
  • The larvae are attracted to damp or moldy grain products, but are also found in cereals, crackers, flour, and other products made from grain. (
  • Flour, bread, and some cereals are fortified with iron. (
  • One, you get a lot of air in the flour, so you get a light crumb," says Odette Williams, baker and author of Simple Cake: All You Need to Keep Your Friends and Family in Cake ( $13.99, ). (
  • In a cake, we don't want chewiness so we use a low protein content flour. (
  • All-purpose flour is usually in the eight to ten percent range and cake flour is less than that. (
  • The only bleached flour that we use is bleached cake flour when we want to obtain the pure white texture we prefer in white cakes. (
  • James Kelly of Ballymore Organics in Ballymore Eustace, Co Kildare is selling 5kg of stoneground organic flour which he grows, dries, mills and packages himself for €20 with free delivery. (
  • Some of these flours may not contain enough protein to make truly bubbly sourdough or yeast bread, but you can add some imported "strong" flour to them, or else accustom yourself to less leavened bread without an excess of baguette-type holes in it. (
  • But it also helps to distribute dry goods such as flour, cocoa powder, baking powder , and salt more evenly, Williams adds. (
  • The Mosse family, who have been milling wheat for seven generations in Bennetsbridge, Co Kilkenny produce a range of Irish-grown wheat, rye and spelt flour under The Little Mill brand. (
  • Whether store-bought or homemade, almond flour should be stored in an airtight container in the refrigerator. (
  • Ahead, we're explaining when to sift flour and are sharing two of our favorite products to help you get the job done. (
  • A flour moth infestation can be identified by either the presence of the small flour moths (Indian Meal Moth, Mediterranean Moth, Almond Moth, or Raisin Moth) flying in or near areas where food is stored, or in the form of the small worm larvae in cereal and bread products. (
  • If you don't mind the ivory or cream color of products made with unbleached flour, by all means use that. (
  • The general population is exposed dermally to silica flour through its use as an abrasive additive in soaps, skin care products, and paints, and orally exposed through its use in toothpastes and as a filler in numerous pharmaceuticals. (
  • However, the general population is exposed dermally and orally through the use of silica flour in an array of industrial and consumer products. (
  • These results show that the flour is a viable alternative for the energy enrichment of diets , contributing to the development of new products, the reduction of the disposal of these residues and consequently to the minimization of the environmental impact . (
  • Almond flour is made from ground almonds . (
  • The process involves blanching almonds in boiling water to remove the skins, then grinding and sifting them into a fine flour. (
  • Almond flour is made from blanched almonds that are ground and sifted into a fine flour. (
  • Conversely, almond flour is low in carbs yet high in healthy fats and fiber . (
  • Description: Mesquite meal, or flour, is made by grinding the seeds and pods of the mesquite tree into rather coarse granules, similar in texture to date sugar or sucanat. (
  • Type: Whole Grain Flours Description: Flours can be made from milling most whole grains. (
  • A southern tradition since 1883, this White Lily Flour is bleached, enriched, and made from 100% soft winter wheat for a light texture and delicious taste. (
  • Gluten is made of the proteins found in wheat flour and gives bread its structure, strength, and texture. (
  • We can buy flour made with soft Southern wheat or hard winter wheat. (
  • Some recipes call for self rising flour, but there's no reason to go out and buy it pre-made. (
  • Most people don't think to make your own self-rising flour, but it is easier and cheaper than buying it pre-made at the store. (
  • In the present study, 12 human volunteers replaced part of their cereal intake at lunch by a preparation made from 100 g sieved buckwheat flour for a period of 4 weeks. (
  • Add more water or flour to adjust the consistency as needed. (
  • Pulse until a flour-like consistency is achieved. (
  • Take away our liberty and livelihoods but leave us access to flour, water and a pinch of salt for sourdough bread. (
  • Blended with leavening and salt, White Lily Self-Rising Flour is ideal for making light-textured, flaky biscuits, pastries and bread loaves. (
  • How important is salt to self rising flour? (
  • salt if you use the self raising flour you don't need to add the salt. (
  • In a large bowl, combine the almond flour with the salt. (
  • Wash any bowls, utensils, and surfaces that touched raw flour with warm water and soap. (
  • To make flour from sprouted grains, it works best to only let the sprouting proceed until you can barely see the sprout first emerging, if the sprout gets too long the conversion has changed the grain to the point that it doesn't work well as flour (seems to not have any starch left, won't absorb much moisture, hard to bake with). (
  • This versatile flour is ideal for making dried pastas, couscous, or Italian-style breads. (
  • Many store breads use bleached flour to obtain the whiteness that we associate with commercial white bread. (
  • Fortunately, almond flour is both wheat-free and gluten-free, making it a great alternative for baking for those who can't tolerate wheat or gluten. (
  • The 660 ruined grain mills scattered throughout the country are testament to the fact that Ireland produced its own flour for thousands of years, and we can do so again, as evidenced by the handful of pioneering farmers who are trialling traditional Irish wheat varieties to show how our climate can produce the high-protein "strong" flour that is needed for sourdough and yeast baking. (
  • A typical bread flour (this one happens to be a General Mills flour) has 12% protein, 75% carbohydrates, one percent fat, less than one percent ash, and 14% moisture. (
  • Patients and methods: This study was carried out at flour mills in Sohag Governorate. (
  • Combine 1 part all-purpose flour with 2 parts cold water in a bowl. (
  • Stir the solution to combine the flour with the water. (
  • Almond flour is naturally gluten-free, making it a great alternative to wheat flour for those who have celiac disease or a wheat intolerance. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Flour. (
  • It also explains why it is so hard to make bread from rice, potato, rye, or oat flour and why wheat flour has to be added to these to make bread "only wheat has enough protein to make bread. (
  • If you stored recalled flour in another container, throw the flour away and wash the container thoroughly with warm water and soap before using it again. (
  • Wash your hands with warm water and soap before and after using raw flour. (
  • Creating a liquid adhesive from flour and water allows you to join paper together. (
  • Place 1/4 cup of all-purpose flour and 1 cup of cold water in a bowl. (
  • Pour the flour mixture into the boiling water. (
  • When water is mixed with flour, the protein in the flour absorbs moisture. (
  • Conclusion: Flour mill workers in Sohag Governorate, like grain workers elsewhere, were at an increased risk of developing pulmonary symptoms, a strong association exists between exposure to * Corresponding author. (
  • flour dust and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and functional impairments of the lungs. (
  • Almond flour may also provide more health benefits than traditional wheat flour, such as reducing "bad" LDL cholesterol and insulin resistance ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • In earlier studies, we demonstrated that supplementing the daily diet with 100 g whole buckwheat flour raised the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)/cholesterol ratio and improved glucose tolerance. (
  • Among several fruits , mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), it aroused the interest of producers and consumers due to its attractive sensory characteristics and health beneficial properties (high nutritional value and presence of bioactive substances), thus, this work evaluates the nutritional factors of the flour residue of mangaba processing that is despised by the food industry , and the influence of temperature on its production . (
  • However you use it, this semolina flour makes a great addition to any commercial kitchen! (
  • Studies of silica flour to date have focused almost exclusively on respiratory exposures. (
  • In your grocery store, you may find either bromated flour or flour that has not been bromated. (
  • Almond flour is readily available in grocery stores in the baking aisle or gluten-free sections. (
  • A handful of pioneering farmers are trialling traditional Irish wheat varieties to show how our climate can produce high-protein flour. (