The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.
Precipitin tests which occur over a narrow range of antigen-antibody ratio, due chiefly to peculiarities of the antibody (precipitin). (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to "chaos" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.
Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Glucose in blood.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A family of microscopic freshwater EUKARYOTA, commonly known as golden algae. They share many features with the BROWN ALGAE but are planktonic rather than benthic. Though most are photosynthetic, they are not considered truly autotrophic since they can become facultatively heterotrophic in the absence of adequate light. In this state they can feed on BACTERIA or DIATOMS.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.

Down-regulation of the expression of PKC1 and SRB1/PSA1/VIG9, two genes involved in cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes flocculation. (1/113)

The cell wall integrity determinants PKC1 and SRB1/PSA1/VIG9 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were expressed under the control of the tightly regulated promoter pMET3. Substitution of the cell-cycle-regulated SRB1/PSA1 native promoter with pMET3 led to faster cell growth, larger cell volumes, and a twofold reduction of the steady-state SRB1/PSA1 mRNA level. In addition, the new pattern of expression of SRB1/PSA1 resulted in a dominant flocculation phenotype at all phases of batch growth. By contrast, expression of PKC1 from pMET3 increased the flocculation capacity of cells only at stationary phase. Methionine-mediated repression of either PSA1/SRB1 or PKC1 resulted in enhanced cell clumping. Cells in which both these genes had been replaced with their respective pMET3-regulated cassettes were highly flocculent under both expression and repression conditions. These results suggest that greater exposure of flocculin on the cell surface, caused by either cell wall distortion (through depletion of Pkc1p) or aberrant regulation of mannosylation (through constitutive production of Srb1p), results in an increased flocculation ability.  (+info)

Role of wall phosphomannan in flocculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2/113)

Treatment with 60% hydrofluoric acid (HF) removed most of the phosphorus and small amounts of mannan, glucan and protein from walls of two non-flocculent strains (NCYC366 and NCYC1004) and two flocculent strains (NCYC1005 and NCYC1063) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Organisms of all strains showed increased flocculating ability following HF treatment. Flocculation of untreated organisms of NCYC1005 and NCYC1063, and of HF-treated organisms of all four strains, declined appreciably when they were washed in deionized water, with or without EDTA, and the flocculation was measured in deionized water instead of in 0-05 M-sodium acetate containing Ca2+. Treatment with 1,2-epoxypropane also caused a decrease in the flocculating ability of these organisms. Extracting the lipids from organisms of strains NCYC366 and NCYC1004 had no effect on their flocculating ability, but decreased the flocculating ability of organisms of strains NCYC1005 and NCYC1063. pH-electrophoretic mobility curves of untreated and HF-treated organisms confirmed the loss of wall phosphate by HF treatment, and indicated that HF treatment had little effect on the content of protein carboxyl groups in the outer wall layers. Mannose at 0-22 M completely prevented floc formation by organisms of strain NCYC1063; but, even at 0-33 M, it had very little effect on floc formation by HF-treated organisms of strains NCYC366 and NCYC1063. Organisms of all four strains bound fluorescein-conjugated concanavalin A to the same extent after treatment with HF as before, but this treatment led to a greatly diminished binding of of fluorescein-conjugated antiserum raised against organisms of strain NCYC366. The results indicate that phosphodiester linkages in yeast-wall mannan are not involved in bride formation through Ca2+ during floc formation and that this arises principally through carboxyl groups.  (+info)

Involvement of outer-membrane proteins in the aggregation of Azospirillum brasilense. (3/113)

A bioassay was developed to investigate biological factors involved in the aggregation of Azospirillum brasilense strain Cd. Cells were grown for 24 h under aggregation-inducing and non-aggregation-inducing conditions (high and low C:N, respectively) and sonicated for 20 s. The cells were washed by centrifugation and resuspended in potassium phosphate buffer containing the two types of sonication extract. A greater extent of aggregation and higher flocculation were observed after 2-3 h incubation in the presence of sonicates from cells grown at high C:N (H-cells) compared to cells grown at low C:N. Flocculation did not occur after incubation of these cells in phosphate buffer. Boiled or proteinase K-treated sonicates originating from H-cells had lower aggregation-inducing capacity. After fractionation of the crude sonicate, both the outer-membrane protein (OMP) and the total membrane (mostly OMP) fractions possessed relatively high aggregation specific activities. The aggregation-inducing capacity of the OMP fraction strongly correlated with its protein concentration in the bioassay. Treatment of this fraction with proteinase K also decreased its aggregation-inducing activity. These findings suggest that OMPs are involved in the aggregation process of cells of A. brasilense.  (+info)

Flocculation of hyphae is associated with a deletion in the putative CaHK1 two-component histidine kinase gene from Candida albicans. (4/113)

In Candida albicans, three putative histidine kinase genes have been described thus far, including CaSLN1, CaNIK1/COS1 and CaHK1. The encoded proteins for C. albicans, CaSln1p and CaNik1p, which are similar to Sln1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Nik-1 from Neurospora crassa, seem to function in osmoregulation and morphogenesis, respectively. Recently, the isolation of CaHK1, a putative histidine kinase gene from C. albicans has been reported. In addition to the histidine and aspartyl domains located at its C-terminus as previously described, it is shown here that the N-terminal domain of Cahk1p contains a P-loop motif and a sequence which shows significant homology with the seven C-terminal domains of serine/threonine kinases. The Ser/Thr-homologous domains of Cahk1p could, in fact, correspond to its sensor sequence. CaHK1 has been mapped to chromosome 2 and gene deletion studies were undertaken to understand its function. Deltacahk1 mutants are phenotypically different from any other histidine kinase mutants thus far described either in C. albicans or in any other yeast or filamentous fungus. This study demonstrates that deltacahk1 mutants flocculate extensively in a gene-dosage-dependent manner under conditions which induce germ-tube formation, such as growth in medium 199 (pH 7.5). The flocculation occurs by an interaction along the hyphal surfaces, probably because of the altered expression of one or more hyphal-cell-surface components in the deltacahk1 mutants. These results indicate that CaHK1 could be involved in regulating their expression.  (+info)

Interactions between cationic liposomes and bacteria: the physical-chemistry of the bactericidal action. (5/113)

The bactericidal effect of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB), a liposome forming synthetic amphiphile, is further evaluated for Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus in order to establish susceptibilities of different bacteria species towards DODAB at a fixed viable bacteria concentration (2.5 x 10(7) viable bacteria/mL). For the four species, susceptibility towards DODAB increases from E. coli to S. aureus in the order above. Typically, cell viability decreases to 5% over 1 h of interaction time at DODAB concentrations equal to 50 and 5 microm for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. At charge neutralization of the bacterial cell, bacteria flocculation by DODAB vesicles is shown to be a diffusion-controlled process. Bacteria flocculation does not yield underestimated counts of colony forming units possibly because dilution procedures done before plating cause deflocculation. The effect of vesicle size on cell viability demonstrates that large vesicles, due to their higher affinity constant for the bacteria (45.20 m(-)) relative to the small vesicles (0.14 m(-)), kill E. coli at smaller DODAB concentrations. For E. coli and S. aureus, simultaneous determination of cell viability and electrophoretic mobility as a function of DODAB concentration yields a very good correlation between cell surface charge and cell viability. Negatively charged cells are 100% viable whereas positively charged cells do not survive. The results show a clear correlation between simple adsorption of entire vesicles generating a positive charge on the cell surfaces and cell death.  (+info)

Layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes on the surface of condensed DNA particles. (6/113)

DNA can be condensed with an excess of poly-cations in aqueous solutions forming stable particles of submicron size with positive surface charge. This charge surplus can be used to deposit alternating layers of polyanions and polycations on the surface surrounding the core of condensed DNA. Using poly-L-lysine (PLL) and succinylated PLL (SPLL) as polycation and polyanion, respectively, we demonstrated layer-by-layer architecture of the particles. Polyanions with a shorter carboxyl/backbone distance tend to disassemble binary DNA/PLL complexes by displacing DNA while polyanions with a longer carboxyl/backbone distance effectively formed a tertiary complex. The zeta potential of such complexes became negative, indicating effective surface recharging. The charge stoichiometry of the DNA/PLL/SPLL complex was found to be close to 1:1:1, resembling poly-electrolyte complexes layered on macrosurfaces. Recharged particles containing condensed plasmid DNA may find applications as non-viral gene delivery vectors.  (+info)

Enhancement of plant stem growth by flocculation of the antibiotic-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens S272, on the roots. (7/113)

The antibiotic-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, is assumed to be important in protecting plants from soilborne diseases. S. fluorescens S272, a hyper-producing strain of pyoluteorin (PT) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DG), had previously been isolated from soil. The present paper reported that the growth of water-cultivated Kaiware radish was promoted to 120-140% of its normal level by the coaddition of an S272 culture broth (0.01-1% v/v) and a polysaccharide flocculant (1-100 ppm) from Klebsiella pneumoniae H12. Tight adhesion of S272 cells to the root tissue was microscopically observed. The growth promotion is assumed to have been caused by antibiotic effects for the following two reasons: 1) PT (4 mg/l) and DG (24 mg/l) addition to a radish culture enhanced stem growth to 130% of the normal level; 2) a culture solution containing the S272 culture broth (0.01-1% v/v) markedly inhibited the decomposition of hypersensitive chrysanthemum leaves. A soil-cultivation experiment with Gomphrena globosa under natural conditions also exhibited enhanced stem length (160%) by coaddition of the S272 culture broth and H12 polysaccharide. These results suggest that polysaccharide-enhanced adhesion of P. fluorescens S272 cells might be useful for promoting plant growth through the increased antibiotic effect.  (+info)

Organic flocculation: an efficient second-step concentration method for the detection of viruses in tap water. (8/113)

A method is described for second-step concentration of viruses from water. This method, combined with an adsorption-elution method, yields a mean recovery of about 75%  (+info)

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Microbial flocculation is a good choice for harvest of microalgae biomass, which has gained extensive attention. There have been carried out massive studies in bacterial flocculation, many bacterial strains with flocculation activity were isolated and different types of bioflocculants were produced. However, harvest of algal biomass by bioflocculants which produced from actinomycete are deficiency. In this study, the bioflocculant from an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. hsn06 could be used to harvest Chlorella vulgaris biomass. Consecutive treatment with 20 mg·L− 1 bioflocculant and 5 mM CaCl2 for 5 min showed the highest flocculating activity. The bioflocculant was a nonprotein substance with thermal stability and pH stability, which can be used in comprehensive applications. Chemical analysis of the bioflocculant indicated that it is a small molecule substance of moderate polarity with containing triple bond and cumulated double bonds. Algal temperature, pH, and metal ions showed great effects on the
Algae have recently received much attention due to their potential as a source of clean biofuel. One of the key economic hurdles in the production of biofuel from algal feedstocks continues to be the harvesting process. Flocculation shows great potential for lowering the economic hurdle by providing a low energy, inexpensive method of separation. However, the mechanism of flocculation under varying environmental conditions is poorly understood. We aim to gain greater insight into the flocculation process by developing fundamental science-based models based on experimental measurements of floc formation and characteristics under a variety of environmental conditions (i.e., shear fields, flocculant addition, pH adjustment, etc.). Two critical conditions for flocculation with efficiencies above 90% with ferric chloride are identified for the freshwater alga Chlorella zofingiensis. First, a minimum amount of ferric chloride must be present in solution. The minimum amount of ferric chloride depends ...
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Flocculants, or flocculating agents, are chemicals that promote flocculation by causing colloids and other suspended particles in liquids to aggregate, forming a floc. Flocculants are used in water treatment processes to improve the sedimentation or filterability of small particles. For example, a flocculant may be used in swimming pool or drinking water filtration to aid removal of microscopic particles which would otherwise cause the water to be cloudy and which would be difficult or impossible to remove by filtration alone. Many flocculants are multivalent cations such as aluminium, iron, calcium or magnesium. These positively charged molecules interact with negatively charged particles and molecules to reduce the barriers to aggregation. In addition, many of these chemicals, under appropriate pH and other conditions, react with water to form insoluble hydroxides which, upon precipitating, link together to form long chains or meshes, physically trapping small particles into the larger floc. ...
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Article Poly-(acryl amine-co-dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride) graft starch flocculant for cleaning-up of wastewater. Graft starch flocculant (GSF) was synthesized by copolymerization of carboxymethylated soluble starch, acryl amine and dimethyldial...
Interpretive Summary: We are conducting research to find nonfood uses for animal by-products, such as blood, to help the animal processing industry supplement its income and provide renewable alternatives to products which are manufactured from natural gas or petroleum. We have found that beef blood and some of its component proteins are renewable flocculants with potential use in industrial processes and waste water treatment facilities. The flocculation activities of beef blood and one of its component proteins, hemoglobin, were measured under variations of salt concentration and acidity. The flocculation activities of beef blood and hemoglobin were compared to the activities of three nonrenewable commercial flocculants, and it was found that in some respects, beef blood and hemoglobin had equivalent or better activities. The results of this research will help promote the utilization of animal by-products as renewable flocculants. Technical Abstract: Polymeric flocculants are used extensively ...
What is the difference between Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment? Coagulation is a chemical process while flocculation is a physical process...
2018 Elsevier B.V. In this study, the influence of electrolytes on bentonite dispersions flocculated with different polyacrylamides varying in charge type, density and molecular weights has been investigated. The presence of electrolytes was found to induce profound impact on the flocculation behavior of bentonite-polyacrylamide dispersions, which was analyzed by means of residual turbidity, zeta potential and floc size distribution tests. Electrolytes enhanced the adsorption of anionic polyacrylamide chains on negative bentonite surface, while hindering adsorption of cationic polyacrylamides. Electric double layer compression and mediated flocculation by metal cations were the principle mechanisms involved in the improvement of flocculation behavior. High molecular weight and charge density variants greatly reduced the turbidity and negative zeta potential of dispersions for anionic polyacrylamides. Furthermore, charge density of metal ions was found to be a determining factor. Divalent salts ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Iron chloride flocculation of bacteriophages from seawater. AU - Poulos, Bonnie T.. AU - John, Seth G.. AU - Sullivan, Matthew. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Viruses influence ecosystem dynamics by modulating microbial host population dynamics, evolutionary trajectories and metabolic outputs. While they are ecologically important across diverse ecosystems, viruses are challenging to study due to minimal biomass often obtained when sampling natural communities. Here we describe a technique using chemical flocculation, filtration and resuspension to recover bacteriophages from seawater and other natural waters. The method uses iron to precipitate viruses which are recovered by filtration onto large-pore size membranes and then resuspended using a buffer containing magnesium and a reductant (ascorbic acid or oxalic acid) at slightly acid pH (6-6.5). The recovery of bacteriophages using iron flocculation is efficient (,90%), inexpensive and reliable, resulting in preparations ...
MIG1 overexpression causes flocculation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An important role of glutathione and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase in the supply of growth requirements during nitrogen starvation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Bacillus alvei NRC-14, a soil bacterial isolate, was found to exhibit multiple-adaptive response when exposed to abiotic stress factors. In the present study, chemical and flocculation properties of a viscous biopolymer flocculant produced by the strain under cold-shock stress are investigated.
Cationic polyelectrolyte flocculant agent for gathering together all solid matter in water treatment areas. Ideal for pools and wastewater treatment, and also recommended for fountains, dams, air conditioning cooling towers, decorative ponds, etc.
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Article Biodegradable flocculants: Power of natto. Just by adding and stirring (1 agent, 1 process) PG alpha 21Ca to polluted water, it separates supernatant water with better turbidity, BOD, and COD, and sediments in a short time. This high-mole...
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SNF (Australia) Pty Ltd is a wholly owned subsidiary of SNF SPCM, the worlds largest manufacturer of organic coagulants and flocculants.. We have an unrivalled understanding of customers requirements and through our extensive product research and development facilities, SNF (Australia) Pty Ltd has a continuous commitment to delivering the highest level of customer service and quality product support within the world of solid liquid separation technology.. SNF (Australia) Pty Ltd has a strong environmental policy and is committed to protecting the environment. We endeavour to carry out our activities with a minimum impact on pollution and resources.. With our environmental policy, extensive experience, innovative technology and ability to provide practical support to customers, we will continue to provide quality products and service.. ...
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The trash screen underflow slurry gravitates to the 25 m diameter high rate pre leach thickener along with pregnant solution from the counter current decant ccd circuitiluted flocculant and barren solution are added to the feed box of the thickener to assist in solids settling and thickeningive chat.
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WESTMAN, Johan O; TAHERZADEH, Mohammad J y FRANZEN, Carl Johan. Inhibitor tolerance and flocculation of a yeast strain suitable for second generation bioethanol production. Electron. J. Biotechnol. [online]. 2012, vol.15, n.3, pp.5-5. ISSN 0717-3458.. Background: Robust second generation bioethanol processes require microorganisms able to ferment inhibitory lignocellullosic hydrolysates. In this study, the inhibitor tolerance and flocculation characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCUG53310 were evaluated in comparison with S. cerevisiae CBS8066. Results: The flocculating strain CCUG53310 could rapidly ferment all hexoses in dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, while CBS8066 was strongly inhibited in this medium. In synthetic inhibitory media, CCUG53310 was more tolerant to carboxylic acids and furan aldehydes, but more sensitive than CBS8066 to phenolic compounds. Despite the higher tolerance, the increase in expression of the YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1 genes, known to confer resistance to ...
Membrane fouling is a critical limitation on the application of membranes to wastewater reuse. This work aims to understand the fouling phenomenon which occurs in ultrafiltration (UF; 17500 molecular weight cutoff (MWCO)) and nanofiltration (NF; 250 MWCO) membranes, with and without pretreatment. For this purpose, the molecular weight (MW) distribution of the organics has been used as a parameter to characterize the influent, the permeate, and the foulant on the membrane surface. The variation of foulant concentration on the membrane due to pretreatment of the influent by flocculation and/or adsorption was investigated in detail. With the UF membrane, the peak of the MW distribution of organics in the permeate depended on the pretreatment; for example, the weight-averaged MW (Mw) of 675 without pretreatment shifted down to 314 with pretreatment. In the case of the NF membrane, the Mw of organics in the permeate was 478 (without pretreatment) and 310 (with flocculation followed by adsorption). ...
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From a biological perspective, a dynamic model describing the cultivation and flocculation of a microorganism that uses two different kinds of nutrients (carbon source and nitrogen source) is proposed. For the proposed model, there always exists a boundary equilibrium, i.e., R h o d o p s e u d o m o n a s p a l u s t r i s -free equilibrium. Furthermore, under additional conditions, the model also has five positive equilibria at most, i.e., the equilibria for which carbon source, nitrogen source, R h o d o p s e u d o m o n a s p a l u s t r i s and flocculants are coexistent. The phenomena of backward and forward bifurcations are extensively discussed by using center manifold theory. The global stability of the boundary equilibrium of the proposed model is deeply investigated. Moreover, the local stability of the positive equilibrium and the uniform persistence of the proposed model are discussed. Under additional conditions, the global stability of the positive equilibrium is
An aqueous organic or inorganic suspension can be coagulated and then flocculated by flowing it past a shaped body comprising a mixture of water soluble multivalent metal coagulant and a water soluble organic polymeric flocculant in the form of substantially discrete particles. The surface of the shaped body is eroded by the flowing stream to form a solution of the coagulant in which the polymeric flocculant particles are entrained, and these subsequently dissolve into the suspension.
China is a major textile manufacturer in the world; as a result, large quantities of dyeing effluents are generated every year in the country. Textile dyeing effluents are distinguished by high levels of chrominance, chemical oxygen demand, and salinity.
polymer flocculant cation polyacrylamide pam chemicalcationic polyacrylamide coagulants flocculants, cationic. Water treatment chemical coagulant flocculant pam
The present invention provides a kind of methods for handling stainless steel acid cleaning waste water, are related to environment protection field.It the described method comprises the following steps: flushing water pH is adjusted to 1-2, be added first and fluorine agent and second is gone to go fluorine agent, be then allowed to stand, filter, obtain filter cake and filtrate;Filtrate pH is adjusted to 2-3, is added and removes ferric flocculant, be then allowed to stand, filter, obtain filter cake and filtrate;Filtrate pH is adjusted to 4-5, is added and removes chromium flocculant, be then allowed to stand, filter, obtain filter cake and filtrate;Filtrate pH is adjusted to 6-7, is added and removes nickel flocculant, be then allowed to stand, filter, obtain filter cake and filtrate;Filtrate pH is adjusted to 7-8, then through film process, concentrated water is handled through triple effect evaporation, then dope crystallisation by cooling carries out harmless treatment.Each element
Anion Coagulant And Flocculant For Drilling Mud SuppliersAlibaba offers 9 Anion Coagulant And Flocculant For Drilling Mud Suppliers, and Anion Coagulant And Flocculant For Drilling Mud Manufacturers, Distributors, Factor...
Liquid to be treated flows into a combined sedimentation and thickening tank. The upper part of this tank is a sedimentation zone in which the liquid passes through parallel flow paths between downwardly inclined separator plates below which the solids fall to the bottom of the tank into the thickening zone whereat the solids are stirred and removed by a suitable stirring and scraping device. The liquids flowing with the solids through the parallel paths are removed at the end of said paths and delivered directly to the top of the sedimentation zone thus leaving the thickening zone essentially flow-free. Flocculants may be added to the water to be treated in a separate flocculation compartment arranged upstream from the sedimentation compartment. A separate destabilization compartment may be provided upstream from the flocculation compartment. A square sedimentation zone may merge smoothly into a circular thickening zone. The thickening zone may extend beneath the flocculation compartment for
Flocculation Test Procedure Mineral Processing & MetallurgyA Flocculation Test Procedure is used to determine how much Flocculants need be added to solids in su
A bioflocculant-producing bacterium isolated from seawater was identified based on 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence to have 99% similarity to that of Halomonas sp. Au160H and the nucleotide sequence was deposited as Halomonas sp. OKOH (Genbank accession number is HQ875722). Influences of carbon source, nitrogen source, salt ions and pH on flocculating activity were investigated. The bioflocculant was optimally produced when glucose (87% flocculating activity) and urea (88% flocculating activity) were used as sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Also, initial pH of 7.0 and Ca2+ supported optimal production of the bioflocculant with flocculating activities of 87% respectively. Chemical analyses revealed the bioflocculant to be a polysaccharide.
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Definition of flocculation reaction. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
This study investigated the improvement in dewaterability of activated sludge (ACS) and anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) through bioacidification approach using iron-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. ACS and ADS were treated with A. ferrooxidans culture with addition of different concentrations of energy substrate, in terms of Fe(2+):sludge solids ratio (0:1, 0.01:1, 0.05:1 and 0.1:1), and the dewaterability was assessed by determining the capillary suction time (CST), time to filter (TTF) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of the sludge. The results revealed that the levels of Fe(2+) significantly influenced the sludge acidification (pH⩽3). The CST, TTF and SRF values rapidly decreased in treated sludge, indicating that dewaterability of the sludge was significantly (p|0.05) improved than untreated sludge. This investigation clearly demonstrates that A. ferrooxidans culture, as biogenic flocculant, can be potentially used for improving the sludge flocculation,
Drinking Water Treatment. Disinfection of drinking water is vital to protect public health from waterborne diseases.. Water treatment and disinfection are such an important part of public health that the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has called it one of the ten greatest public health achievements of the 20th century.. To make untreated source water (e.g., lake and river water) safe to drink, water must be carefully treated using a combination of physical and chemical processes. Water treatment consists of removing organic material, particles, bacteria, and other contaminants and disinfection to kill or inactivate microorganisms. Our water treatment process includes: coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. The first step, coagulation and flocculation, consists of adding a chemical to the water that allows particles to bind together forming larger particles called floc. The floc then settles out in the sedimentation process. After the ...
Polyglutamic acid (PGA) is a polymer of the amino acid glutamic acid (GA). Gamma PGA has a wide number of potential uses ranging from food and medicine to water treatment.
Bentonite is a type of clay used as a weighting agent in water high in color and low in turbidity and mineral content. The bentonite joins with the small floc, making the floc heavier and thus making it settle more quickly ...
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Selective separation of haematite from alumina and silica/calcite was achieved through microbiologically induced flotation and flocculation in presence of Bacillus subtilis. Bacterial metabolites containing extracellular proteins were characterized from mineral-grown bacterial cell free extract. Bacteria can adhere to mineral surfaces and influence subsequent flotation of the minerals. Cells and metabolic products of bacteria were used in flotation, flocculation and adsorption studies on oxide minerals. Bacteria functions as a stronger depressant for haematite. Selective affinity of the bacterial cells towards the mineral surface was observed through adsorption studies. Bacterial byproduct like extracellular protein (EP) was isolated from bacteria. The protein profile of the EP of bacterial cells grown in presence and absence of minerals (haematite, corundum, quartz and calcite) was also studied. The role of such proteins in selective mineral separation was demonstrated through microbially ...
A separate tank, called a contact clarifier, provides hydraulic contact flocculation and surface storage clarification. This replaces traditional paddle flocculation and four hours of quiescent clarification. The sand filter which followed in the traditional system has been replaced by a more efficient multi-media filter.
2. R. Defay, I. Prigogine, and A. Bellemans, Surface Tension and Adsorption, Longmans, London, 1966, pp. 1f, 71f. 3. T. Davis, Statistical Mechanics of Phases, Interfaces and Thin Films, VCH Publishers, New York, 1996, p. 358. 4. C. -H. Kohler, and J. Seidel, Langmuir, 12, 5550- 5556, 1966. 5. J. Seidel, C. -H. Kohler, Langmuir, 12, 5557, 1966. 6. W. Adamson, Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982, pp. 216, 530, and 575. 7. J. Hunter, Foundations of Colloid Science, Vol. 9. D. H. , Adsorption from Solution at the Solid/Liquid Interface, Academic Press, London, 1983, p. 256. 10. J. Leja, Surface Chemistry of Froth Flotation, Plenum Press, New York, 1982, p. 370. 11. A. -H. Kohler, Colloid Polym. , 278, 911, 2000. -H. Kohler and S. Woelki Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg, Germany I. Introduction .................................................................. 44 II. The Diffuse Double Layer ...
nifloc 972, polyacrylamide, MW 2 X 106. The polymers were added as 0.1% solutions. Clays. Ca++-Montmorillonite M-20 was the clay used. Flocculation experiments. Flocculation was carried out using a jar test procedure in 1-L beakers. Agitation was at 100 r/min for 5 min., followed by a 25 r/min for 25 min. Samples were taken after 2 and after 30 .... Get Price ...
Verticillium dahliae gehört zu den bodenbürtigen Askomyceten. Dieser Pilz verursacht Welke-Erkrankungen und verfrühtes Altern in mehr als 200 verschiedenen, auch ökonomisch wichtigen Pflanzen. Verticillium kann im Boden ohne Wirtspflanze durch die Bildung von Mikrosklerotien bis zu 10 Jahre überleben. Wurzelexsudate induzieren die Auskeimung der Mikrosklerotien. V. dahliae infiziert seinen Wirt durch die Wurzel, besiedelt den Wurzelkortex und dringt dann in die Xylemgefäße ein. Die Infektion des Wirts durch pathogene Pilze erfordert Penetrations- und Kolonisierungsprozesse. Am Eindringen durch die Wurzeloberfläche sind adhäsive Proteine an verschiedenen Stellen der Wirt-Parasit-Interaktion beteiligt. Adhäsive Proteine sind in S. cerevisiae gut untersucht, während nur wenig über sie in V. dahliae bekannt ist. Der Adhäsions-Transkriptionsfaktor Flo8 aus Hefe reguliert die Expression der sogenannten „Flocculation-Gene wie zum Beispiel FLO1 und FLO11. Ein Stamm ohne FLO8 ist nicht in ...
1. No fining or filtration. It has long been reported that fining and filtration reduce hop flavor and aroma. To a large degree this makes sense. Hop compounds stick to cell walls of microorganisms, so removing those microorganisms removes those hop compounds as well. This is well established in scientific literature, and is also the mechanism of action of hops to inhibit bacterial growth in beer. Whether or not those hop compounds that are removed with yeast flocculation are good or bad is up for debate to some degree. But in the interest of keeping as many hop compounds in the beer as possible, these beers are not filtered or fined, and I suspect that their popularity is at least a decent indication that the hop compounds attached to non-flocculent yeast are not overtly off-putting, at least for these yeasts, or in this style. Filtration has always been avoided for almost all examples of highly rated IPA, even for the clear west coast style.. 2. Lots of late hops. The vast majority of the hops ...
As a flocculant, cationic polyacrylamide is mainly used in industrial solid-liquid separation processes, including sedimentation, clarification, concentration and sludge dewatering. The main using industries are: municipal sewage treatment, paper industry, food processing industry, petrochemical industry, metallurgical industry, mineral processing industry, dyeing industry and sugar industry.. Get Price ...
We developed a microsensor for the amperometric detection of dissolved hydrogen sulfide,H2S, in sedirnents and biofilms. The mlcrosensor exhibits a fast (tgOc 0.2 to 0.5 S) and linear response to H2S over a concentration range of 1 to ,l000 pm01 H2S-I and has a low stirring dependency of the microsensor signal (c1 to 2%). We used the new mlcrosensor to obtain the first microprofiles of H2S in an acidic lake sediment with a several cm thick flocculant surface layer. Despite the low pH of 4.6, a relative low SO,- level in the lake water, and a broad O2 respiration zone of ca 6 mm, we were able to measure H2S depth profiles in the sediment at a good resolution, that allowed for calculation of specific sulfate reduction and H2S oxidation activities. Such calculations showed highest sulfate reduction activity in the anoxic sediment down to ca 20 mm depth A comparison of calculated area1 rates of O2 consumption and sulfate reduction Indicated that sulfate reduction accounted for up to 13 % of total ...
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Really a nice article you shared. Thanks for it. We really need to clean our pools regularly. I think that one of the most annoying pool problems is cloudy water. It is very important to use a pool water clarifier. For example, I use it at least once a week. I also read in this article http://bestpooladviser.com/why-is-my-pool-cloudy-and-how-to-clear-cloudy-pool-water about chemical flocculant that helps in clearing of the pool at a very fast rate. But it engages a lot of hard labour and intensive workforce ...
Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) is a guanidine derivative that is used as a biocidal disinfectant, often in the form of its salt polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P). Studies have shown that PHMG in solution has fungicidal as well as bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The substance also has detergent, anti-corrosive, and flocculant properties and prevents biofouling. PHMG-P is a white powdered solid, and as all polyguanidine salts, readily soluble in water. Unlike the related polymer polyhexanide (PHMB), PHMG has been described as a relatively new compound with properties, potency, and effects being not yet fully recognized. Preliminary findings indicate that PHMG and its derivatives primarily rely on damaging the cell membrane by inhibiting the activity of cellular dehydrogenases. When PHMG is aerosolized and inhaled, it harms the lungs, causing death of the cells lining the bronchioles and widespread damage to alveoli, along with ...
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CHINAFLOC is a professional manufacturer and supplier of Acrylamide, Polyacrylamide and Flocculant in Qingdao, China. - Acrylamide Agents & Polyacrylamide Agents
Open full size. Gas bubble emissions from bottom sediments of Lake Baikal. Methane emissions from bottom sediments in Lake Baikal have been known for a long time. Even the first travelers, who visited the lake in the 17th century, noticed gas emissions. Later gas emissions in Baikal were explored by the East Siberian Branch of the Russian Imperial Geographical Society. A review of the available materials on gas seeps in Baikal is presented in the publication [Granin and Granina, 2002]. A new stage of research on gas seeps in Baikal started after the discovery of gas hydrates [Kuzmin et al., 1998] and mud volcanoes at the bottom of the lake [Van Rensbergen et al., 2002] at the turn of the 20th century.. Gas seeps are found in oceans, seas and freshwater bodies. To study gas seeps hydroacoustic methods are used, as they enable an extensive search due to the strong backscattering of sound from the bubbles of floating-up gas. To locate and monitor the activity of gas plumes a digital record of ...
The aim of present work was to assess the concentration levels as well as vertical distribution of indicator bacteria including total coliform, fecal coliform, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) in the marine environment (seawater and coastal sediments) and evaluate the correlation between indicator bacteria and some physicochemical parameters of surface sediments as well as seawaters. A total number of 48 seawater and sediment samples were taken from 8 stations (each site 6 times with an interval time of 2 weeks) between June and September 2014. Seawater and sediment samples were collected from 30 cm under the surface samples and different sediment depths (0, 4, 7, 10, 15, and 20 cm) respectively, along the Persian Gulf in Bushehr coastal areas. Based on the results, the average numbers of bacterial indicators including total coliform, fecal coliform, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as HPC in seawater samples were 1238.13, 150.87, 8.22 MPN/100 ml and 1742.91 CFU/ml,
The typical analysis of the active dried strain: Percent solids 93%-95% Living yeast cells 7 x 109 per gram of dry yeast Wild yeast < 1 per 106 yeast cells (Lysine method)* Bacteria < 1 per 106 yeast cells* -Finished product is released to the market only after passing a rigorous series of tests. *According to ASBC and EBC methods of analysis. Brewing Properties: -Quick start and vigorous fermentation, which can be completed in 5 days above 12°C. -High attenuation. -Fermentation rate, fermentation time and degree of attenuation is dependent on inoculation density, yeast handling, fermentation temperature and the nutritional quality of the wort. -Flocculent strain; settling can be promoted by cooling and use of fining agents and isinglass. -The aroma and taste are almost neutral and do not display off-flavours when properly handled. It may tend, because of flocculation, to slightly reduce hop bitter levels. -Best used at traditional lager temperatures (10-15ºC) after rehydration in the ...
In PaInT, the group of Prof. dr. ir. Arne Verliefde has built extensive expertise on physico-chemical treatment of drinking, waste- and process water, with a main focus on membrane filtration and filtration in general, adsorption, oxidation/reduction and traditional physico-chemical techniques such as coagulation/flocculation/dewatering.. ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2 was first isolated in 1985 from fermented food in Indonesia, which showed unusual flocculation properties even under normal cultivation (1-4). In our previous report, we constructed a draft genome sequence of the original IR-2 diploid strain, which comprised ∼300 contigs with a number of heterogenous variations on both chromosomes (5). To overcome these problems, we used consanguineous inbreeding to establish isogenic strain pairs from the IR-2 diploid with improved efficiency in sporulation and spore germination.. IR-2idA30 (MATa and MATα) is a representative isogenic (identical except for the mating-type region) strain pair that we established from the original IR-2 diploid by repetitious syngenesis (zygoses, sporulation, and haploid selection) as follows. To prevent homothallism, two HO genes were disrupted by kanMX (G418R) and bleMX (ZeocinR) using a traditional lithium acetate (LiAc) transformation method and homologous recombination (6, 7). After four ...
The adsorption of Pb ̄(2+), Cd ̄(2+)and Cr ̄(3+)ions respectively on the raw be ntonite and theconditions of flocculation of bentonite are studied in this paper.Combining the adsorption andflocculation,a new technology for treating wastewater is thus presented.When 0.04%of ben-tonite and 0.006%of PAC are added,93%of Pb ̄(2+) iOn can be removed from the low concentra-tion wastewater.
In this work, performances of coagulation and flocculation were tested for two different industrial effluents. Coagulation-Flocculation and activated carbon adsorption were applied for the remediation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), generated from oil sands operations in Alberta, Canada. OSPW is a complex mixture of suspended solids, various suspended and dissolved organic compounds. Alum and natural coagulant Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) were used as the coagulants, and the process was optimized to improve the removal of turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The maximum removal of 98% and 63% in turbidity and DOC from OSPW, respectively occurred at pH=6.32, with an alum dosage of 190.44 mg/L and activated carbon at 0.28 g/L. Whereas a comparable removal of turbidity and DOC from OSPW occurred at similar pH and carbon loading at a much higher dosage of 780 mg/L for natural coagulant. Adsorption on polymer seems to be the mechanism of removal of DOC from OSPW during coagulation. Natural
The first facies consists of stratified silty sand which fines upward, transitionally, into pebbly mud. Several successions, each approximately 0.6 m thick, comprise a proximal meltwater facies thought to have been deposited in a shallow (, 10 m) submarine-fan environment. Both the positive (lobe shape) morphology of the exposure and the inferred depositional processes support this view. Underflow currents, either high-concentration turbidity currents or grain flows, are thought to have deposited the silty sand while flocculation, settling from turbid overflow and/or interflow plumes, and ice rafting were responsible for pebbly mud deposition. Such inferences are based on textural analysis and observations of sedimentary structures. The rhythmic interbedding is explained by invoking seasonal fluctuations of meltwater discharge. This caused a variation of depositional process in areas proximal to meltwater input into the basin.--Modified journal abstract. ...
Red Star Montrachet yeast, is a great strain for full-bodied red and white wines. Ferments strongly, has a high-alcohol tolerance, and can be used in an environment without good temperature control. Good yeast choice for Chardonnay, Merlot, Syrah, and Zinfandel. Ideal Temp Range: 59-95F (15-35C) | Alcohol Tolerance: 15% | Flocculation: Low
A review of the current literature concerning retention is presented. The current models for flocculation are discussed. Methods for the measurement of retention are outlined and the procedure employed is detailed. The goal of this work was to study the effective o molecular weight and charge density of cationic starch on its effectiveness as a retention aid. Two molecular weight starches were reacted to give three charge densities. Each cationic starch was studied at three addition levels, each at three shear levels. The results of the retention tests are discussed in terms of starch loading, nitrogen loading, molecular weight, and shear resistance. The results indicate that higher molecular weight gives better retention and shear stability. By increasing charge loading, the effect of molecular weight can be overcome. The results also indicate that there is an optimum charge loading for high retention and shear stability.
Citrus cranks out orange and lemon aromas along with some tropical fruit. Use this strain at high temps for big ester production. A wild saccharomyces strain, it will get a bit funky without the worries of a brettanomyces strain. Temp: 67-80F, 19-27C // Flocculation: Low // Attenuation:74-78% Liquid Yeast Shipping Up C
From Mexico City, this yeast produces clean lager beer, with a crisp finish. Good for Mexican style light lagers, as well as dark lagers. High attenuation. Attenuation: 70-78% Flocculation: Medium Ideal Fermentation Temperature Range: 50-55°F Alcohol Tolerance: Medium *NOTE:*During summer months, we include complimenta
Polyquaternium-74 is a synthetic high performance conditioning polymer whose flocculation and deposition characteristics enable it to match or outperform traditional conditioning polymers in detangling, overall hair conditioning, shine enhancement and buildup reduction when combined, as shown here, with a submicron dimethicone emulsion. Benefits are noted for 2-in-1 shampoo formulations.
Red Star Premier Blanc Dry Wine Yeast- Red Star Pasteur Blanc Red Star UCD #595 Species : Wine Fermentation Temp Range (°F) : 59-86 Apparent Attenuation Range (%) : n/a Flocculation : Medium-Low Alcohol Tolerance : 13-15% Pitching/Fermentation : It w
Ready to attack your IPA, Barbarian produces stone fruit esters that work great when paired with citrus hops. Barbarian will give you what you need for an exceptionally balanced IPA. Temp: 62-70F, 16-21C // Flocculation: Medium // Attenuation: 73-74%
The most used electron donors include hydrogen gas and reduced sulfur compounds i.e. elemental sulfur sulfide and thiosulfate. Plain sedimentation is the cheapest method to isolate S 0 bio although flocculation filtration extraction and flotation have shown higher efficiency due to the the relatively high cost low solubility and
A method for removing a gas from a site comprising placing cells having gas vesicles under conditions that induce the cells to float to a surface of an aqueous medium, harvesting the cells from the surface of the medium, lysing the cells, separating the gas vesicles from the lysed cells, crosslinking the gas vesicles with a crosslinking agent, loading a gas with a lowered partial pressure for the compound to be removed into the gas vesicles, and placing the gas vesicles such that the gas compound is removed from the site. Harvesting gas-vesicle-containing cells is achieved by placing the cells under conditions that induce the cells to rise to the surface of an aqueous medium-such as darkness, exponential growth stage, flocculation, or dissolved gas flotation-then collecting the cells from the surface of the medium. Gas vesicles are isolated by lysing the cells and separating the gas vesicles from the lysate. Once the gas vesicles are isolated, they can be modified, such as by crosslinking with
While drinking milk (or better while seeing the milk Im gonna drink) a question came up to my mind:. Why does the milk sometimes flake, even if not in contact with some other substances?. I guess the correct term to use is flocculation, at least this is the word that raises up when talking about cheese production. I just learned the word casein. However, my question is not about cheese production.. My question is also not about flaking milk when poured into a cup of coffee which seems to be dependent on the acidity of the coffee. But casein is again the keyword.. I think the answer to my actual question will also contain the word casein, but heres the scenario:. I open a milk carton for the first time. This package doesnt have any hole and the shelf life isnt reached yet. I pour the milk into a clean cup and then observing some flakes at top of the milk.. What I was told as a child, when curiously asking, flaking is an indicator that the milk is getting acid. And in that case the keyword ...
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Background/Aims: In vitro constant calcitriol [1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub|] inhibits healthy individuals T lymphocyte proliferation at supraphysiological concentrations. In contrast, among hemodialysis patients, intravenous 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| pulse therapy of secondary hyperparathyroidism has been shown to be even immunostimulatory. We studied the effect of in vitro constant and intermittent 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| on lymphocyte antigen response of hemodialysis patients. Methods: Twelve hemodialysis patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/l) or tetanus toxoid (TT; 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Lf/l, limit of flocculation) for 7 days. Constant 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| was added to all cultures at concentrations of 0, 10|sup|-10|/sup| or 0.25 × 10|sup|-9|/sup| mol/l (0, 42 and 105 ng/l) and to half of the cultures additionally as a 0.75 × 10|sup|-9|/sup| mmol/l (315-ng/l)
DOI 10.24411/1728-323X-2018-16016 Section Ecology Title ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND CONTAMINATION OF THE WATER BODIES BOTTOM SEDIMENTS IN THE NORTH-EASTE...
Xylan removal by bacterial pretreatments has been confirmed to increase the digestibility of biomass. Here, an effective xylan removal technique has been developed to enhance the digestibility of wheat straw and simultaneously produce bioflocculants by a cellulase-free xylanase-secreting strain, Pseudomonas boreopolis G22. The results indicated that P. boreopolis G22 is an alkaliphilic strain which can secrete abundant amounts of xylanase. This xylanase had activity levels of 2.67-1.75 U mL−1 after an incubation period of 5-25 days. The xylanase showed peak activity levels at pH 8.6, and retained more than 85% relative activity in the pH range of 7.2-9.8. After 15 days of cultivation, the hemicellulose contents of the wheat straw were significantly decreased by 32.5%, while its cellulose contents were increased by 27.3%, compared to that of the control. The maximum reducing sugars released from the 15-day-pretreated wheat straw were 1.8-fold higher than that of the untreated wheat straw, under optimal
Eastern Cape premier Phumulo Masualle is helping to raise awareness of cancer in the province through his support of the annual Algoa FM Big Walk for Cancer, which is being held in partnership with the Eastern Cape Department of Health.
Many utility providers face growing problems with the disposal of the wastewater sludges (residuals) that are created as part of the wastewater treatment
List of settlers under the direction of Benjamin Osler (Cape Archives CO 6138/2,31); Muster-roll and Log of HM Store Ship Weymouth (Public Record Office, London); Special Commissioner William Haywards notes (Cape Archives CO 8543). Richard Eva in the sailing list is referred to as James Eva in Special Commissioner Haywards notes. *Osler had a large family of 10 children, and informed the Colonial Department that he planned to leave three or four of the youngest with their friends at home until he had established himself at the Cape. Only four children were entered on the official list, but it appears that at least three others did in fact emigrate with their parents. Susannah Osler, aged 20, is known to have married John Colman of Cocks party a month after the Weymouth reached Algoa Bay, and when Benjamin Osler died in 1821 his widow was left on the location with six dependent children - a son of 15 and five daughters between 4 and 14. Joseph Richards, who according to the sailing list ...
SULFATEQ™ removes sulphate to less than 300 mg/l and converts it into hydrophilic (non-clogging) elemental sulphur. In addition, it recovers valuable metals such as copper, nickel and zinc as marketable metal sulphides. Lime treatment for sulphate removal no longer meets the authorities requirements for sulphate concentrations or total dissolved solids. Reverse osmosis and ion exchange do not completely solve the problem either. They merely concentrate the pollutants, whereas SULFATEQ™ converts the pollutants into a valuable product. The typical range for the application of SULFATEQ™ is an influent sulphate concentration of 1,000-25,000 mg/l and a pH level of 2-8. SULFATEQ™ is used as a standalone installation or as the final treatment at a lime-gypsum plant. The power of this technology lies in its ability to solve multiple problems with one installation: sulphate removal and simultaneous metal recovery.
Waters exiting the flocculation basin may enter the sedimentation basin, also called a clarifier or settling basin. It is a ... Coagulation and flocculation. See also: particle aggregation. One of the first steps in most conventional water purification ... After coagulation and flocculation processes, water flows to DAF tanks where air diffusers on the tank bottom create fine ... In fact, coagulation and flocculation processes are ongoing once the metal salt coagulants are added.[8]:74-5 ...
This can lead to uncontrolled flocculation, i.e. pigment particles are in direct contact with each other and can only be ... "Controlled flocculation". ebooks.byk.com. Retrieved 2020-01-30. v t e. ...
"Coagulation - Flocculation". SSWM University. Retrieved 26 June 2020. "Household Water Treatment Guide". Centre for Affordable ... Also referred to as "Conventional" Treatment Coagulation for flocculation. Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolytes - to ... they are then put into some type of Flocculation Basin, where slow turning or mixing of the water, mixes the chemicals together ... Primary coagulant such as ferric sulfate and a coagulant aid cationic polymer being flash-mixed before it enters a Flocculation ...
Micellar flocculation. Gel formation. Each step follows a different kinetic pattern, the limiting step in milk-clotting being ... Kinetics of the secondary phase: Micelle flocculation". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 29 (5): 590-600. doi:10.1002/bit. ... pattern of the second step of the milk-clotting process is influenced by the cooperative nature of micellar flocculation, ...
Einstein-Smoluchowski relation Flocculation Smoluchowski factor Williams spray equation Smoluchowski, Marian (1916). "Drei ... Thomas, D.N.; Judd, S.J.; Fawcett, N. (1999). "Flocculation modelling: a review". Water Research. 33 (7): 1579-1592. doi: ... flocculation. The distribution of particle size changes in time according to the interrelation of all particles of the system. ... "Kinetic Model for the Simultaneous Processes of Flocculation and Coalescence in Emulsion Systems". Journal of Colloid and ...
This process is called coagulation or flocculation. Research suggests that in Australia, aluminium sulfate used this way in ... "Conventional Coagulation-Flocculation-Sedimentation". Safe Drinking Water is Essential. National Academy of Sciences. Archived ...
These can be supplied in dry or liquid form for use in the flocculation process. The most common liquid polyacrylamide is ... Clarifying agents are used to remove suspended solids from liquids by inducing flocculation (the solids begin to aggregate ... Flocculants, or flocculating agents (also known as flocking agents), are chemicals that promote flocculation by causing ... "Conventional Coagulation-Flocculation-Sedimentation". Safe Drinking Water is Essential. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved ...
Coagulation Flocculation Grachev, Mikhail A; Vadim V Annenkov; Yelena V Likhoshway (April 2008). "Silicon nanotechnologies of ...
Flocculation is often too expensive for large operations. Alum and ferric chloride are other chemical flocculants. In froth ... Algae can be harvested using microscreens, by centrifugation, by flocculation and by froth flotation. Interrupting the carbon ... D. Bilanovic; A. Sukenik; G. Shelef (1988). "Flocculation of microalgae with cationic polymers. Effects of medium salinity". ...
The impacts of flocculation on the removal of DOC from coastal waters are highly variable with some studies suggesting it can ... Abiotic DOC flocculation is often observed during rapid (minutes) shifts in salinity when fresh and marine waters mix. ... Flocculation changes the DOC chemical composition, by removing humic compounds and reducing molecular size, transforming DOC to ... POC can be degraded to form DOC; DOC can become POC by flocculation. Inorganic and organic carbon are linked through aquatic ...
Hubbe, Martin (2007). "Flocculation of colloids or of fiber slurries". North Carolina State University. Retrieved 16 Apr 2011. ...
This phenomenon is also referred to as coagulation or flocculation and such a suspension is also called unstable. Particle ... This situation is referred to as bridging flocculation. When particle aggregation is solely driven by diffusion, one refers to ... Electrical double layer Emulsion Flocculation Gel Nanoparticle Particle deposition Peptization Reaction rate Settling ...
Typical treatment processes include coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. High molecular weight synthetic organic ...
It is an early flocculation test for syphilis. Precipitate formation takes place in a serum by the addition of a solution of ...
See 4.2 Posology and method of administration (flocculation). Occipital nerve stimulation may be highly effective when other ...
The maximum strength benefits of flocculation are achieved when polymers cover a surface area equivalent to half the polymer ... Such interactions are called bridging flocculation because a single polymer chain is linked to multiple soil particles. ... Alternatively, polymer molecules that bond with multiple clay particles promote flocculation. Hydrogel networks can result in ... Alternatively, under different conditions, polymers can enhance flocculation. Particle aggregates are held together more ...
Flocculation basins use temperature to condense unsafe particles together. Setting tanks are then used to perform sedimentation ...
Biomass and flocculation characteristics of Picochlorum oklahomensis and Nannochloropsis oculata. Oklahoma State University, ... "Effect of Processing Parameters on Flocculation of Picochlorum oklahomensis". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 91 ...
... this provides an effective steric barrier that prevents flocculation. This crowding effect is accompanied by a decrease in ... are subjected to a repulsive force in order to keep them separated from one another and lowers the likelihood of flocculation. ...
These filters contain three stages: flocculation, clarification and filtration. Typical rapid gravity filters contain filter ...
This results in significant enhancement of the flocculation rate. This allows water treatment plants to greatly improve the ...
Helms, JR; Mao, J; Schmidt-Rohr, K; Abdulla, H; Mopper, K (2013). "Photochemical flocculation of terrestrial dissolved organic ...
The charge density makes it well suited for flocculation. PolyDADMAC polymers were first prepared and studied in 1957 by ...
... such as flocculation, filtration and flotation. C. vulgaris is seen as a promising source of bioenergy. It may be a good ...
Yeast flocculation#Process Davey ME, O'toole GA (December 2000). "Microbial biofilms: from ecology to molecular genetics". ...
Furthermore, the gum prevents flocculation of the pigment particles. Acrylic painting techniques History of painting Ink wash ...
ISBN 978-1-57444-482-7. Flocculation Smoluchowski coagulation equation Einstein-Smoluchowski relation v t e. ...
Bratby, John (2006). Coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater treatment (2nd ed.). London: IWA Publ. ISBN ...
Flocculation is improved with optimum polymer dosage, polymer dilution and mixing. The pH of the feed slurry must also be ... Sludge conditioning is the addition of chemicals to promote flocculation of particles to form a thickened sludge and to promote ... Dewatering can be promoted by the addition of surfactant and flocculation is achieved via the addition of high molecular weight ... find the optimum value for each conditioning parameter as too much polymer or mixing can have a negative impact on flocculation ...
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process by which colloidal particles come out of suspension to sediment under the ... IUPAC definition Flocculation (in polymer science): When a sol is colloidally unstable (I.e., the rate of aggregation is not ... In colloid chemistry, flocculation refers to the process by which fine particulates are caused to clump together into a floc. ... Flocculation is widely employed to measure the progress of curd formation in the initial stages of cheese making to determine ...
These flocculation phenotypes differ in the time of the onset of flocculation and the sugar inhibition of flocculation. The ... Yeast flocculation typically refers to the clumping together (flocculation) of brewing yeast once the sugar in a wort has been ... Brewers yeast flocculation has been the subject of many reviews. Flocculation has been defined as the reversible, non-sexual ... While flocculation (clumping and settling) occurs at this time, this flocculation occurs as a result of changes in ...
Cephalin-cholesterol flocculation,, laboratory test for the nonspecific measurement of blood globulins, a group of proteins ... Cephalin-cholesterol flocculation, laboratory test for the nonspecific measurement of blood globulins, a group of proteins that ...
Definition of flocculation reaction. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... flocculation reaction. Definition: a form of precipitin reaction in which precipitation occurs over a narrow range of antigen: ...
flocculation synonyms, flocculation pronunciation, flocculation translation, English dictionary definition of flocculation. v. ... flocculation. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. floc·cu·late. (flŏk′yə-lāt′). v. floc·cu·lat·ed, floc ... Such methods include flocculation, flotation, electro-flocculation, membrane filtration, coagulation, electrochemistry, ion ... Flocculation - definition of flocculation by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/flocculation ...
Main article: Yeast flocculation. In the brewing industry flocculation has a different meaning. It is a very important process ... Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process in which colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, ... Flocculation (in polymer science): When a sol is colloidally unstable (I.e., the rate of aggregation is not negligible) then ... Flocculation (except in polymer science). Process of contact and adhesion whereby dispersed molecules or particles are held ...
Flocculation reaction definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ... flocculation reaction. floccose, flocculant, floccular, flocculate, flocculation, flocculation reaction, floccule, flocculent, ... A precipitin test characterized by a flocculent precipitate of antigen and antibody.flocculation test ...
... in ... This research aims to investigate the dynamics of flocculation and sinking rate of the SPM by studying floc formation ... mixing in combination of estuarine hydrodynamics provide a special physico-chemical conditions which favors the flocculation of ...
The computer program ZB2 was used to study simulated coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. The effect of the initial ... An attempt was made to explain this inconsistency referring to the coagulation-flocculation theory. The simulation program ZB2 ... may provide a basis for developing "local" programs simulating coagulation-flocculation, which can be successfully applied at ...
Find flocculation technology articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... Impact of heating method on the flocculation process using thermosensitive polymer Flocculation process based on water soluble ... Flocculation-Flotation vs. MBR for High MLSS Secondary Clarification Abstract Rendering plants produce high strength wastewater ... Coagulation-flocculation for lignin removal from wastewater - a review Industrial discharge has tremendously increased ...
Hustedt H., Krützfeldt R., Papamichael N. (1989) Fast Downstream Processing of Proteins by Flocculation and Liquid Extraction. ... can often be increased considerably by using flocculation, mechanical cell disruption and liquid extraction. A further ...
Flocculation usually results in changes of size, morphology, and settling velocity of sediment particles and finally changes of ... The process of flocculation and sedimentation was simulated based on population balance modeling (PBM) and computational fluid ... Furthermore, the visual process of flocculation and sedimentation was directly created by the simulation results and is in good ... The results showed that flocculation is a dynamic and nonlinear process containing aggregation, breakage, reaggregation, and ...
The general objective of this study is to identify parameters that might control the flocculation behavior of phosphatic clays ... Flocculation & Dewatering Proc Eng Found Conf Palm Coast Florida 1/10-15/88 PP 263-278 :263-278 ... The general objective of this study is to identify parameters that might control the flocculation behavior of phosphatic clays ... Flocculation & Dewatering, Proc. Eng. Found. Conf., Palm Coast, Florida, 1/10-15/88, PP. 263-278 ...
Find coagulation and flocculation articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... coagulation and flocculation Articles. Related terms for "coagulation and flocculation ": coagulation articles , flocculation ... Coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater treatment Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking ... Prediction of coagulation and flocculation processes using ANN models and fuzzy regression Coagulation and flocculation are two ...
R. F. P. Pereira, A. J. M. Valente, H. D. Burrows, M. L. Ramos, A. C. F. Ribeiro, and V. M. M. Lobo, "Flocculation and ... To initiate the flocculation and adsorption process 250 mL of aluminium sulphate solution of a known concentration doped with ... M. Porras and F. I. Talens, "Removal of 2,4-d from aqueous solutions by micellar flocculation," Separation Science and ... Flocculation of Micelles and Adsorption of Pyrethrin. Each working solution for aluminium sulphate was initially dosed with ...
This is achieved by employing a yeast cultures: flocculation, adhesion, sedimentation, flotation, and cropping characteristics ... This review will only focus on brewers yeast flocculation characteristics. ... Figure 6. (A) Helms sedimentation flocculation test-co-flocculation [28,29]; (B) ale yeast co-flocculation-2-L cylinder wort ... Figure 6. (A) Helms sedimentation flocculation test-co-flocculation [28,29]; (B) ale yeast co-flocculation-2-L cylinder wort ...
... can be used to represent the shear flocculation of silica slurry. A GA was successfully used to determine three parameters (A, ... This study also showed that the shear flocculation of silica slurry is dependent on at least two variables; the agitation rate ... It was also observed that shear-flocculation had two phases; rapid floc growth during the initial stage and equilibrium, ... This investigation has demonstrated that the population balance model, developed for polymer flocculation, can be used to ...
For flocculation, the mean velocity gradient was selected as 20 second^sup -1^, and the value of GT was selected as 30 000, ... Coagulation and flocculation tests were conducted using two sets of test jars operating in parallel, with a control jar in each ... Rapid-mix and flocculation speeds and times were calculated as described previously. The rapid-mixing speed of 160 r/min for ... Enhanced coagulation and flocculation by ferric chloride and anionic polymer can increase the dissolved metal removal ...
Flocculation and Loss of Potency of Human NPH Insulin. Edward A Benson, James W Benson, Paul N Fredlund, Robert S Mecklenburg, ... Flocculation and Loss of Potency of Human NPH Insulin. Edward A Benson, James W Benson, Paul N Fredlund, Robert S Mecklenburg, ... Flocculation and Loss of Potency of Human NPH Insulin Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Diabetes ... experienced unusual and unexplained elevation in blood glucose concentration for several days before flocculation was observed ...
Flocculation:. Flocculation refers to the ability of yeast to aggregate and form large flocs and then drop out of suspension. ... Co-Flocculation:. Co-flocculation can occur when a flocculent and a non-flocculent strain are used together. The combination of ... It is very important to understand the basics of flocculation and what affects it because the flocculation and sedimentation ... Clarification / Flocculation Clarification:. Clarification of beer involves many factors from biochemical to mechanical. A ...
... the influence of flow shear on sediment flocculation has been paid great attention by many researchers (this flocculation ... that have been verified to play important roles in promoting flocculation of cohesive sediment, ... Investigation on flocculation phenomenon of cohesive fine-grained sediment has been a important part of sediment dynamics. ... this flocculation pattern has been termed as "orthokinetic flocculation" in most of published literatures). Among many ...
Other factors such as pH, temperature, and salinity can induce flocculation or influence flocculation rates. ... Flocculation is a process where a solute comes out of solution in the form of floc or "flakes." The term is also used to refer ... Flocculation & sedimentation is widely employed in the purification of drinking water as well as sewage treatment, stormwater ... In chemistry: flocculation-gentle agitation that promotes collision between these small aggregates to form floc, it will large ...
Browse fuzing.com to find Flocculation chitosan sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters, factories ... Flocculation chitosan. You May Also Be Interested In: chitosan close up flocculation macromolecule This kind of chitosan is ... Flocculation Chitosan have above characteristics, and is a product of natural, nonpoisonous, safe and harmless etc. ... As a kind of flocculant, the flocculation mechanism is mainly: Linking function: The flocculent molecule combines many granule ...
... a dynamic model describing the cultivation and flocculation of a microorganism that uses two different kinds of nutrients ( ... Keywords: dynamic model; flocculation; global stability; uniform persistence dynamic model; flocculation; global stability; ... Wang, W.; Ma, W.; Yan, H. Global Dynamics of Modeling Flocculation of Microorganism. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 221. ... From a biological perspective, a dynamic model describing the cultivation and flocculation of a microorganism that uses two ...
... a process known as flocculation. In an automobile tyre, flocculation means higher energy losses and greater fuel consumption. ... The flocculation process is even slower: Df = 2 10-15 cm2s-1 (sample 1) and 9 10-16 cm2s-1 (sample 2). These results ... demonstrate that flocculation in this system is governed by a diffusion mechanism. To measure such effects on a macroscopic ...
American Water Works Association; James Edzwald: Water Quality & Treatment: A Handbook on Drinking Water, Sixth Edition. COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2011 1999), AccessEngineering Export ...
A simple and efficient method for concentration of ocean viruses by chemical flocculation.. John SG, Mendez CB, Deng L, Poulos ... Here, we develop a new technique to recover viruses from natural waters using iron-based flocculation and large-pore-size ... This Fe-based virus flocculation, filtration and resuspension method (FFR) is efficient (, 90% recovery), reliable, inexpensive ... A simple and efficient method for concentration of ocean viruses by chemical flocculation ...
... and flocculant selection that will result in effective flocculation for a given algae strain. The flocculation model developed ... Flocculation shows great potential for lowering the economic hurdle by providing a low energy, inexpensive method of separation ... Experimental data for Chlorella zofingiensis are used to develop a predictive flocculation model based on the surface ... Critical Conditions for High Efficiency Flocculation of Freshwater Algae with Ferric Chloride. Source: IfS - Institute for ...
... buy latest coagulation and flocculation experiment direct from 67 coagulation and flocculation experiment Factories. ... coagulation and flocculation experiment. All coagulation and flocculation experiment wholesalers & coagulation and flocculation ... sedimentation and flocculation coagulants and anticoagulants coagulation and anticoagulation flocculation experiment coagulants ... Some of the solutions we employ are listed below; Chemical and Physical Coagulation and Flocculation The addition of chemicals ...
Our mathematical analysis exploits the fact that flocculation is fast compared to biological growth, a common hypothesis in ... How flocculation can explain coexistence in the chemostat Bart Haegeman 1 Alain Rapaport 1 Détails. ... How flocculation can explain coexistence in the chemostat. Journal of Biological Dynamics, Taylor & Francis Open, 2008, 2 (1), ... Our mathematical analysis exploits the fact that flocculation is fast compared to biological growth, a common hypothesis in ...
  • Flocculation is also used during cheese wastewater treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simulation program ZB2 may provide a basis for developing "local" programs simulating coagulation-flocculation, which can be successfully applied at wastewater treatment plants. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. (environmental-expert.com)
  • How can aspen plus be used to simulate flocculation and coagulation in wastewater treatment? (cheresources.com)
  • These processes being both cheaper and more efficient for large particles, the addition of flocculation agents, which aim at aggregating as many particles as possible, is a crucial part of the wastewater treatment process. (anton-paar.com)
  • Flocculation is a dominant process in aquatic environments, fundamental to water and wastewater treatment systems. (nhbs.com)
  • The numerical simulations compared well with the results of the jar-test flocculation experiments using latex microspheres, suggesting the applicability of the curvilinear-fractal-breakage modeling system for the process simulation of the flocculation units used in water and wastewater treatment. (naturalsciences.be)
  • A coagulation-flocculation process was applied to wastewater of paint and construction chemicals producing factory in Turkey. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In addition to determining the effectiveness of these aids in removing both suspended solids and phosphorus, a systematic testing of the variables normally encountered in the coagulation-flocculation process was performed. (usgs.gov)
  • However, in practice in the treatment plant, there are only two steps in the coagulation/flocculation process - the water first flows into the flash mix chamber, and then enters the flocculation basin. (vccs.edu)
  • The primary purpose of the coagulation/flocculation process is the removal of turbidity from the water. (vccs.edu)
  • The end product of a well-regulated coagulation/flocculation process is water in which the majority of the turbidity has been collected into floc , clumps of bacteria and particulate impurities that have come together and formed a cluster. (vccs.edu)
  • clarification needed] Coagulation and flocculation are important processes in water treatment with coagulation aimed to destabilize and aggregate particles through chemical interactions between the coagulant and colloids, and flocculation to sediment the destabilized particles by causing their aggregation into floc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The product of the mixing intensity and mixing time is used to describe flocculation processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrochemical Fenton process, flocculation and advanced oxidation processes, activated carbon and low cost adsorbent (Eslami et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Coagulation and flocculation are important processes in water treatment with coagulation to destabilize particles through chemical reaction between coagulant and colloids, and flocculation to transport the destabilized particles that will cause collisions with floc. (wikipedia.org)
  • An experimental study combining biological treatment with flocculation (F) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology was conducted, separately and in combination, seeking to increase insight into the capability of such treatment processes to remove emerging contaminants (ECs). (environmental-expert.com)
  • The CFD-PBM combination is an effective method to solve the processes of flocculation and multiphase flow simultaneously [ 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Coagulation and flocculation are two main processes used to integrate colloidal particles into larger particles and are two main stages of primary water treatment. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Coagulation and flocculation processes are only needed when colloidal particles are a significant part of the total suspended solid fraction. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Among the currently employed chemical unit processes in the treatment of wastewaters, coagulation-flocculation has received considerable attention for yielding high pollutant removal efficiency. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The Clarisolve® mPAA polymer is a stimulus-responsive flocculation polymer designed specifically to enable a simpler clarification of high density cell culture monoclonal antibody (mAb) processes, and provides an alternative to centrifugation for these challenging bioreactor harvests when used in combination with Clarisolve® depth filters. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The quantitative relationships derived for the four measurements of the extent of flocculation should be of direct assistance to the sanitary engineer in evaluating the effectiveness of specific coagulation processes. (caltech.edu)
  • In this study, we determined the removal of a prototype human norovirus (Norwalk virus, NV) by bench-scale alum coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for norovirus assays. (iwaponline.com)
  • After determining optimum conditions for the coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes in terms of turbidity reduction, jar tests were performed using the same waters seeded with test viruses. (iwaponline.com)
  • The removal of NV by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes based on RT-PCR assay in this study was 1.5 log 10 , which was similar to that of PV1 and a little lower than that of coliphage MS2 (2 log 10 ) based on the same RT-PCR assay. (iwaponline.com)
  • Overall, the results of this study suggest that human noroviruses can be appreciably reduced by a properly-operated coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes and the contamination of drinking water by noroviruses should be controlled by conventional water treatment processes with conventional physico-chemical processes and disinfection. (iwaponline.com)
  • While new developments in sampling, microscopy, molecular science, and modeling permit increasingly revealing investigations into flocculation processes and floc structure, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge related to many aspects of this phenomenon. (nhbs.com)
  • The book focuses on physical and chemical aspects, and on the growing importance of biological processes for flocculation. (nhbs.com)
  • Flocculation in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems" offers a unique perspective by interrelating the study of flocculation in freshwater, saltwater, and engineered systems with the methods, theories, and principles of flocculation processes. (nhbs.com)
  • Flocculation describes the processes of aggregate formation and breakup. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • As I mentioned above, the chemistry of coagulation/flocculation consists of three processes - flash mix, coagulation, and flocculation. (vccs.edu)
  • Coagulation and flocculation processes are used to facilitate the elimination of suspended solids and colloids by gathering these together to form floc. (suezwaterhandbook.com)
  • The flocculation and clotting are two processes within the water clarification stage. (chinafloc.com)
  • The flocculation process is preceded by coagulation, so we often speak of coagulation-flocculation processes. (chinafloc.com)
  • chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light . (wikipedia.org)
  • Once flocculation is completed, the water is eligible to undergo separation processes. (differencebetween.com)
  • In general the methods used include physical process such as filtration and sedimentation , biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge , chemical process such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The surface water received at the Simly and Khanpur treatment plants, passes through flocculation , sedimentation, filtration, disinfection before reaching the consumers, he added. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To achieve the goals of this study, the following tests are conducted: (1) mineralogical analysis, (2) chemical analysis of water and solids, and (3) flocculation tests followed by determination of settling rate, filtration rate, and cake resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • The aggregate resulting from flocculation adsorbs organic compounds from the solution it forms in [ 4 ], allowing the removal of small molecules by filtration instead of expensive membrane separations. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we develop a new technique to recover viruses from natural waters using iron-based flocculation and large-pore-size filtration, followed by resuspension of virus-containing precipitates in a pH 6 buffer. (nih.gov)
  • Common assessments based on gross mass, such as total suspended solids (TSS) even if carried out properly, provide limited insight as to the potential viability of particle separation mechanisms such as sedimentation, straining, hydrodynamic separation, filtration mechanisms, Brownian or shear coagulation, and flocculation. (epa.gov)
  • Although flocculation reagents such as acids or polymers can help reduce the filtration area needed to clarify these streams, some chemicals can negatively affect the stability of mAbs or leave high residual levels post-flocculation. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The Clarisolve® mPAA polymer, used in conjunction with Clarisolve® depth filters as a pre-treatment solution, reduces the area needed for depth filtration while providing consistent performance in terms of flocculation capability and impurity removal. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Within the wastewater cleaning process flocculation agents or coagulants, are added in order to induce aggregation of particulate matter, to easily be removed by filtration, sedimentation or flotation. (anton-paar.com)
  • The extent of flocculation was highly molecular weight dependent: the high-molecular-weight PEl species produce the larger aggregates, the greater turbidity reductions, and the higher filtration flow rates. (caltech.edu)
  • The flocculation is a process by which, with the addition of substances called flocculant, the colloidal substances in the water stick together, facilitating subsequent filtration and decantation. (chinafloc.com)
  • has built extensive expertise on physico-chemical treatment of drinking, waste- and process water, with a main focus on membrane filtration and filtration in general, adsorption, oxidation/reduction and traditional physico-chemical techniques such as coagulation/flocculation/dewatering. (ugent.be)
  • Here we describe a technique using chemical flocculation, filtration and resuspension to recover bacteriophages from seawater and other natural waters. (elsevier.com)
  • Flocculation is high, and the beer will clear well without filtration. (wyeastlab.com)
  • In civil engineering, and in the earth sciences, flocculation is a condition in which clays, polymers or other small charged particles become attached and form a fragile structure, a floc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among his topics are the origin of charge at interfaces and structure of the electrical double layer, Van der Waals attraction, the adsorption of surfactants at the liquid/liquid interface, polymers and polymeric surfactants and their association, and the flocculation of sterically stabilized dispersions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Flocculation process based on water soluble polymers as flocculating agents is still intensively researched nowadays, despite the introduction of these materials about fifty years ago. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Compared with other flocculation polymers, the flocculation with the Clarisolve® mPAA polymer is less dependent on the dosage of the polymer, which increases robustness and results in a wide-dosing window. (emdmillipore.com)
  • No. 08/991,103 entitled 'Water Continuous Methyl Acrylate Emulsion Polymers For Improved Flocculation Of Red Mud In The Bayer Process' filed on Dec. 12, 1997, by inventors Radhakrishnan Selvarajan and Everett C. Phillips. (google.com)
  • In the process of treating sewage sludge generally employed acrylamide polymers similar to those used in the flocculation of water with doses much higher than this, such that the free monomer of acrylamide is incorporated into the water if the recirculation is being carried out, increasing the concentration of acrylamide in the treated water, this could even exceed the value regulations (0.1μg / l). (chinafloc.com)
  • In coagulation, the process involves the utilization of a coagulant that has the ability to destabilize the charged particles which are nonsettlable whilst flocculation involves a similar destabilization process that is achieved through physical mixing and by adding organic polymers . (differencebetween.com)
  • We aim to gain greater insight into the flocculation process by developing fundamental science-based models based on experimental measurements of floc formation and characteristics under a variety of environmental conditions (i.e., shear fields, flocculant addition, pH adjustment, etc. (aiche.org)
  • The change in dependence of flocculant dose on algae concentration suggests a shift in dominant flocculation mechanism. (aiche.org)
  • When the conditions of sufficient flocculant and negative algae surface charge are met, flocculation efficiencies greater than 90% are achieved. (aiche.org)
  • The model allows prediction of solution conditions (i.e., pH, ionic content, charge ratios) and flocculant selection that will result in effective flocculation for a given algae strain. (aiche.org)
  • Drinking Water Treatment Flocculation Polyacrylamide Flocculant , Find Complete Details about Drinking Water Treatment Flocculation Polyacrylamide Flocculant,Polyacrylamide Flocculant,Flocculation Polyacrylamide Flocculant,Drinking Water Treatment Polyacrylamide Flocculant from Electronics Chemicals Supplier or Manufacturer-Yixing Bluwat Chemicals Co., Ltd. (shorelinechurch.co.za)
  • Anionic Polymer Flocculant & Polyacrylamide Powder Anionic Polyacrylamide in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) The performance of anionic polyacrylamide flocculants in thickening, flocculation and rheological regulation plays an important role in oil production. (shorelinechurch.co.za)
  • The flocculation characteristics in 0.25% (w/v) kaolin suspensions was compared with some of thecommercial flocculants available in markets,and the results demonstrated the synthesized cationic flocculation has superiority as a novel flocculant. (scirp.org)
  • abstract = "The effect of polyelectrolyte molecular weight, charge density and dose on the flocculation of Microfibrillated Cellulose (MFC) was investigated. (monash.edu)
  • Research on the Dynamic Characteristics in the Flocculation Process of Mineral Processing Tailings Abstract: Abandoned mineral management has become an important global issue, and the collection, recycling, and disposal of mineral processing tailings (MPT) is critical in both mining engineering and environmental protection. (cartaeweb.it)
  • Agglomeration (except in polymer science) Coagulation (except in polymer science) Flocculation (except in polymer science) Process of contact and adhesion whereby dispersed molecules or particles are held together by weak physical interactions ultimately leading to phase separation by the formation of precipitates of larger than colloidal size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process by which colloidal particles come out of suspension to sediment under the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, flocculation is a mixing technique that promotes agglomeration and assists in the settling of particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • 14 H2O → 2 Al(OH)3(s) + 6 H+ + 3 SO42- + 8 H2O During flocculation, gentle mixing accelerates the rate of particle collision, and the destabilized particles are further aggregated and enmeshed into larger precipitates. (wikipedia.org)
  • During flocculation, gentle mixing accelerates the rate of particle collision, and the destabilized particles are further aggregated and enmeshed into larger precipitates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flocculation usually results in changes of size, morphology, and settling velocity of sediment particles and finally changes of bed topography of reservoirs and estuaries. (hindawi.com)
  • The results showed that flocculation is a dynamic and nonlinear process containing aggregation, breakage, reaggregation, and rebreakage between particles, microflocs, and macroflocs. (hindawi.com)
  • Flocculants , or flocculating agents , are chemicals that promote flocculation by causing colloids and other suspended particles in liquids to aggregate, forming a floc. (wikidoc.org)
  • Flocculation is the process of agglomerating small particles into fragile networks of larger particles called flocs. (chemtradelogistics.com)
  • Standard reagents and procedures employed in the Bozicevich Trichinella bentonite flocculation test (BFT) were used, the bentonite particles being coated with the sonicated antigen of Entamoeba histolytica strain DKB. (ajtmh.org)
  • During flocculation, a process of gentle mixing brings the fine particles formed by coagulation into contact with each other. (vccs.edu)
  • A Flocculation Test Procedure is used to determine how much Flocculants need be added to solids in suspension (slurry or pulp) to cause the individual particles to collect in the form of flocs. (cartaeweb.it)
  • Aug 20, 2014 Optimizing the addition of flocculants for recycling mineral-processing wastewater flocculation using an anionic polymer was tested for recycling mineral-processing wastewater, as a major issue in mineral-processing wastewater recycling is to reduce suspended particles. (cartaeweb.it)
  • Coagulation and flocculation steps are important aspects in the context of water treatment since it allows the separation of suspended particles present in water effectively. (differencebetween.com)
  • Yeast flocculation is distinct from agglomeration ('grit' formation), which is irreversible and occurs most commonly in baker's yeast when strains fail to separate when resuspended. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast strains have different levels of flocculation characteristics from non-flocculent (1007 German Ale) to highly flocculent (1968 London ESB). (wyeastlab.com)
  • Although various mutant strains of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe exhibit non-sexual flocculation, little is known about the mechanistic basis for this phenomenon, nor have genes encoding the implicated flocculin been identified. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we systematically screened an array of transcription factor deletion and overexpression strains for flocculation and performed microarray expression profiling and ChIP-chip analysis to identify the flocculin target genes. (prolekare.cz)
  • To elucidate the influence of biofilm formation versus flocculation on the yeast-fungus coimmobilization, a screening of selected strains from the Viticulture and Enology Department collection at the University of California, Davis, was carried out, and their ability to flocculate and form biofilm was quantified. (ajevonline.org)
  • Eighteen yeast strains capable of flocculation and biofilm formation were identified in this screening. (ajevonline.org)
  • Strains displaying differential capabilities in flocculation or biofilm formation and two control strains were further evaluated for their ability to specifically immobilize with P. chrysogenum . (ajevonline.org)
  • Seven strains exhibiting different patterns of flocculation and biofilm formation were identified. (ajevonline.org)
  • Also provided herein are exemplary cyanobacterial strains having flocculation properties for production of a biomass. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Expression of FLOw in otherwise non-flocculating strains led to strong flocculation. (chalmers.se)
  • Despite the length of the gene, the cassette containing FLOw could be easily amplified and transformed into yeast strains of different genetic background, leading to strong flocculation in all cases tested. (chalmers.se)
  • The accepted mechanism of flocculation involves a protein-carbohydrate model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Co-flocculation between Kluyveromyces and Schizosaccharomyces has been shown to be by a "lectinic" mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental Study on Mechanism of Flocculation in Yangtze Estuary. (scirp.org)
  • These results demonstrate that flocculation in this system is governed by a diffusion mechanism. (esrf.eu)
  • However, the mechanism of flocculation under varying environmental conditions is poorly understood. (aiche.org)
  • The three objectives of this study were to determine the primary mechanism involved in the flocculation of a colloid with an oppositely charged polymer, to determine quantitative correlations between four commonly-used measurements of the extent of flocculation, and to record the effect of varying selected system parameters on the degree of flocculation. (caltech.edu)
  • Although the radii of gyration of the five PEI species investigated were found to be large enough to form interparticle bridges, the low surface site coverage at optimum flocculation doses indicates that the predominant mechanism of flocculation is adsorption coagulation. (caltech.edu)
  • Molecular mechanism of flocculation s. (ugent.be)
  • We studied the flocculation mechanism at the molecular level by determining the atomic structures of N-Flo1p and N-Lg-Flo1p in complex with their ligands. (ugent.be)
  • Therefore, the extended flocculation mechanism is based on the self-interaction of Flo proteins and this interaction is established in two stages, involving both glycan-glycan and protein-glycan interactions. (ugent.be)
  • We have focused on the flocculation mechanism and its role. (ugent.be)
  • Therefore, flocculation is an important mechanism to enhance long-term yeast survival. (ugent.be)
  • We suggest intracellular biomass flocculation is a key mechanism of killing for cationic, amphipathic AMPs, which may explain why most AMPs require micromolar concentrations for activity, show significant selectivity for killing bacteria over mammalian cells, and finally, why development of resistance to AMPs is less prevalent than developed resistance to conventional antibiotics. (deepdyve.com)
  • Lastly, low reflocculation and maximum flocculation occurred at half polymer surface coverage for CPAM-MFC flocs, corresponding to a bridging mechanism. (monash.edu)
  • Overexpression of mbx2 + and deletion of rfl1 + resulted in strong flocculation and transcriptional upregulation of gsf2 + / pfl1 + and several other putative flocculin genes ( pfl2 + -pfl9 + ). (prolekare.cz)
  • This mixing in combination of estuarine hydrodynamics provide a special physico-chemical conditions which favors the flocculation of fine sediment mentioned as Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). (tudelft.nl)
  • Flocculation is a special phenomenon for fine sediment or silt in reservoirs and estuaries. (hindawi.com)
  • Flocculation (floc) of fine sediments is a research focus in the theory of sediment movement mechanics. (hindawi.com)
  • Many phenomena of the settling velocity of sediment, such as sediment topography of the estuary (sediment barrier), the formation of non-Newtonian fluid, huge sediment-carrying capacity, and pulp rivers, are related to the flocculation of fine sediment [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Investigation on flocculation phenomenon of cohesive fine-grained sediment has been a important part of sediment dynamics. (scirp.org)
  • Brownian motion, flow shear and differential settling) that have been verified to play important roles in promoting flocculation of cohesive sediment, the influence of flow shear on sediment flocculation has been paid great attention by many researchers (this flocculation pattern has been termed as "orthokinetic flocculation" in most of published literatures). (scirp.org)
  • Among many researches regarding orthokinetic flocculation, the dynamical equation developed by Smoluchowski in 1917 (we called it as Smoluchowski equation hereafter) has been widely adopted as an origin and basement for theoretically analyzing sediment flocculation under a shear flow. (scirp.org)
  • In this paper, we attempt to summarize these results, hopefully providing the theoretical research of sediment orthokinetic flocculation with some references. (scirp.org)
  • Preliminary Study on the Effect of NaCl on Fine Sediment Flocculation and Settling in Still Water. (scirp.org)
  • The significance of understanding the flocculation and PSD of expansive clays is also discussed in terms of sediment transport under different aquatic environments. (springer.com)
  • In order to determine the influence of increased cohesive sediment loads on the estuarine system it is necessary to understand how flocculation affects the fate and transport of cohesive sediment. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Suspended sediment concentration, salinity and turbulent shear rates have been identified as key drivers of estuarine flocculation. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Wolanski EJ and Gibbs RJ (1995) Flocculation of suspended sediment in the Fly River Estuary, Papua New Guinea. (aims.gov.au)
  • Hydrophobic flocculation applied in mineral processing can be traced back to 1950s when emulsion flotation was presented to proce ss m anganese ores in fine size range (McCarrol, 1954). (cartaeweb.it)
  • Conventional approaches to treating oily wastewater have included gravity separation and skimming, dissolved air flotation (DAF), de-emulsification, coagulation and flocculation. (watertechonline.com)
  • The picture is complicated by changes in cell surface hydrophobicity and CO2 driven shear which confounds flocculation measurements often erroneously solely attributed to zymolectin interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • While flocculation (clumping and settling) occurs at this time, this flocculation occurs as a result of changes in hydrophobicity and a decline in shear due to which is in turn to low CO2 evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research aims to investigate the dynamics of flocculation and sinking rate of the SPM by studying floc formation mechanisms, floc composition and shear rate. (tudelft.nl)
  • Mathematical modelling of shear flocculation using a genetic algorithm. (cdc.gov)
  • This investigation has demonstrated that the population balance model, developed for polymer flocculation, can be used to represent the shear flocculation of silica slurry. (cdc.gov)
  • For different hydrodynamic conditions, higher shear rate promotes the flocculation of Ca-montmorillonite, but breaks the Na-montmorillonite flocs. (springer.com)
  • A lower shear rate, breakage rate constant, a higher collision efficiency, and initial particle concentration would result in larger aggregates in a flocculation system. (naturalsciences.be)
  • Micellar flocculation may also involve the formation of complexes since large cationic complexes may be expected within the Stern layer due to the high Al 3+ concentration [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A comprehensive study was made of the flocculation of dispersed E. coli bacterial cells by the cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI). (caltech.edu)
  • 14] Larsson, A. and Wall, S. (1998) Flocculation of cationic amylopectin starch and colloidal silicic acid. (scirp.org)
  • The equilibrium adsorption of pyrethrin onto aggregates formed by the flocculation of micelles of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) with aluminium sulphate is reported. (hindawi.com)
  • We have investigated the equilibrium adsorption of pyrethrin onto aggregates formed by the flocculation of micelles of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) with aluminium sulphate. (hindawi.com)
  • Flocculation ability, high adsorption activity, floc formation and deposition of fast. (nccecojustice.org)
  • Adsorption and flocculation behavior of two series of synthetic polycations was investigated in dispersions of silica and polystyrene latices with various particle size and surface charge densities. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Since formation of multilayers upon adsorption was also excluded, the difference in adsorption and flocculation behavior was related to the more compact conformation of hydrophobically associating derivatives in solution and at the interface. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The adsorption of Pb ̄(2+), Cd ̄(2+)and Cr ̄(3+)ions respectively on the raw be ntonite and theconditions of flocculation of bentonite are studied in this paper.Combining the adsorption andflocculation,a new technology for treating wastewater is thus presented.When 0.04%of ben-tonite and 0.006%of PAC are added,93%of Pb ̄(2+) iOn can be removed from the low concentra-tion wastewater. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Obtained results indicate that polyacrylamide requirements for flocculation of phosphatic clays depend, generally, on the initial polymer and solid concentration and water chemistry. (cdc.gov)
  • It was found that complex formation between the cation and an anionic polyacrylamide is not in itself sufficient to reduce flocculation performance. (shorelinechurch.co.za)
  • Nonionic polyacrylamide is a high polymer with the high molecular weight and the low ion exponent, which has the function of flocculation, dispersal, thickening, bonding, film forming, gelatin and colloidal stability. (shorelinechurch.co.za)
  • Flocculation behavior of soil colloids is closely related to freshwater quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general objective of this study is to identify parameters that might control the flocculation behavior of phosphatic clays. (cdc.gov)
  • The flocculation behavior of coal, quartz and clay was studied by measuring the turbidity of the supernatant liquid after one hour of settling. (cartaeweb.it)
  • In colloid chemistry, flocculation refers to the process by which fine particulates are caused to clump together into a floc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the visual process of flocculation and sedimentation was directly created by the simulation results and is in good agreement with the results of the previous experiments. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study is to apply the PBM to the flocculation and sedimentation process in three dimensions. (hindawi.com)
  • However, it was also determined that this model is not very sensitive to the aforementioned parameters and is a very general model that requires refinement to better describe the flocculation process. (cdc.gov)
  • The definition of flocculation is, "reversible, asexual and calcium dependent process by which cells adhere to form flocs. (wyeastlab.com)
  • It is very important to understand the basics of flocculation and what affects it because the flocculation and sedimentation process is the easiest and least expensive way to get bright beer. (wyeastlab.com)
  • Flocculation is a process where a solute comes out of solution in the form of floc or "flakes. (wikidoc.org)
  • Modified Polyacrylamides can be supplied in dry or liquid form for use in the flocculation process. (wikidoc.org)
  • Sometimes, however, aggregates migrate inside the rubber to form coarser, weakly bound clusters called agglomerates, a process known as flocculation. (esrf.eu)
  • The flocculation process is even slower: D f = 2 10 -15 cm 2 s -1 (sample 1) and 9 10 -16 cm 2 s -1 (sample 2). (esrf.eu)
  • Yeast flocculation is a very complex process that depends on the expression of specific flocculation genes such as FLO1 , FLO5 , FLO8 , FLO11 , and Lg- FLO1 . (mbaa.com)
  • Polymer-aided flocculation is defined in this study as the coagulation and flocculation process which is accomplished by using alum in conjunction with a small dosage of polymer. (iwaponline.com)
  • Real textile effluents treatment using coagulation/flocculation followed by electrochemical oxidation process and. (shorelinechurch.co.za)
  • How do coagulation and flocculation fit into the water treatment process? (vccs.edu)
  • In theory and at the chemical level, coagulation and flocculation is a three step process, consisting of flash mixing, coagulation, and flocculation. (vccs.edu)
  • Flocculation or floculation is a significant process widely utilized in water treatment operations, including purification of drinking water, sewage water treatment, storm water treatment and treatment of various other industrial wastewater streams. (cartaeweb.it)
  • One of such controlled forms of cellular adhesion in yeast that occurs preferentially in the liquid environments is a process of asexual aggregation of cells which is also referred to as flocculation. (abertay.ac.uk)
  • Despite this commercial interest, limited information is available about the onset of flocculation and the various factors that may be responsible in the process. (abertay.ac.uk)
  • This paper presents an experimental study to evaluate, using a laser particle size analyzer under varying flow conditions, the intrinsic PSD of two expansive clays, a Ca- and a Na-montmorillonite and the influence of biological, chemical, and hydrodynamic factors on their flocculation and PSD. (springer.com)
  • The influence of salinity is different for the two clays: the particle size of the Na-montmorillonite increases with salinity, which is caused by flocculation resulting from the suppressed electrical double layer, while that of the Ca-montmorillonite is slightly reduced owing to the decreased basal spacing and cation exchange. (springer.com)
  • The performance of a commercial flocculation agent on wastewater from the brown coal (lignite) mining industry was studied by laser diffraction using an Anton Paar Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). (anton-paar.com)
  • The particle size distribution, quantified by volume-weighted D50 values, shifted to larger sizes with increasing concentrations of flocculation agent. (anton-paar.com)
  • Here we demonstrate the suitability of PSA instruments to assess the performance of such flocculation agents, by measuring the particle size changes in response to increasing concentrations of flocculation agent. (anton-paar.com)
  • Using parameters of NT (total particle number for a given size increment) and Lnv (particle volume mean size for a given size increment or gradation) based on measured data from laser diffraction analyses, the coagulation and flocculation kinetics of particulate matter will be examined. (epa.gov)
  • Water quality parameters, such as the range of pH, ionic strength, and particle loadings, impact coagulation, and flocculation of anthropogenic particulate matter will be examined. (epa.gov)
  • Flocculation dynamics accounting for both particle coagulation and aggregate breakage was simulated mathematically by using modified sectional modeling techniques. (naturalsciences.be)
  • However, flocculation cannot occur if particle collisions are suppressed by electrostatic interactions. (horiba.com)
  • This increases the number of particle collisions and therefore the rate of flocculation. (horiba.com)
  • The timing during growth and the causes of onset of yeast flocculation are of commercial interest to the brewing industry, as flocculation can determine the degree of attenuation of the wort. (abertay.ac.uk)
  • Thorough attenuation, temperature tolerance, and good flocculation make this an easy strain to work with. (wyeastlab.com)
  • Good quantitative comparisons were also found to exist between the reduction in refiltration time and the reduction of the total colloid surface area caused by flocculation. (caltech.edu)
  • These flocculation phenotypes differ in the time of the onset of flocculation and the sugar inhibition of flocculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • these treatments are also responsible for removing the fraction of organic matter "capable of flocculation" (macromolecules, and especially most humic acids responsible for colouring water), some heavy metals, more generally, the fraction of micro-pollutants associated with these suspended solids and colloidal macromolecules (including viruses, that are almost always carried by the suspended solids and colloids found in water). (suezwaterhandbook.com)
  • We identified five transcription factors that displayed novel roles in the activation or inhibition of flocculation (Rfl1, Adn2, Adn3, Sre2, and Yox1), in addition to the previously-known Mbx2, Cbf11, and Cbf12 regulators. (prolekare.cz)
  • Flocculation also effects fermentation performance and beer flavor. (wyeastlab.com)
  • Controlled floc formation or flocculation at the end of fermentation is of great importance in the brewing industry since it is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly technique for separating yeast cells from the final beer. (mbaa.com)
  • Among these genes, Lg- FLO1 is the most effective gene for brewing beer because Lg-Flo1 protein recognizes not only mannose but also glucose and maltose, and it contributes to flocculation at the end of fermentation. (mbaa.com)
  • Strong flocculation can improve the inhibitor tolerance and fermentation performance of yeast cells in second generation bioethanol production. (chalmers.se)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Flo8 controls expression of some of the genes involved in non-sexual flocculation. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, comparisons between the flocculation transcriptional-regulatory networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. pombe indicate substantial rewiring of transcription factors and cis-regulatory sequences. (prolekare.cz)
  • Two critical conditions for flocculation with efficiencies above 90% with ferric chloride are identified for the freshwater alga Chlorella zofingiensis . (aiche.org)
  • Above 0.5 g/L algae, the amount of ferric chloride required for effective flocculation is independent of algae concentration. (aiche.org)
  • An evaluation of two commonly used coagulation-flocculation aids (alum and ferric chloride) was conducted for the supernatant overflow from settling cones used to treat the effluent from microscreen filters in an intensive recirculating aquaculture system. (usgs.gov)
  • Dewatering of Phosphatic Clays--role of Polymer Flocculation. (cdc.gov)
  • Overexpression of the pfl + genes singly was sufficient to trigger flocculation, and enhanced flocculation was observed in several combinations of double pfl + overexpression. (prolekare.cz)
  • In particular, what are the signals that trigger flocculation? (abertay.ac.uk)
  • A simple and efficient method for concentration of ocean viruses by chemical flocculation. (nih.gov)
  • To get an idea of the complexities involved in clarification, we will look at several factors that affect yeast flocculation, but first we will define flocculation. (wyeastlab.com)
  • For various industrial wastewater flocculation sedimentation, sedimentation and clarification treatment, such as iron and steel plant wastewater, electroplating. (fnxradio.com)
  • Flocculation Chitosan have above characteristics, and is a product of natural, nonpoisonous, safe and harmless etc. (fuzing.com)
  • All three biopolymers, xanthan gum, guar gum, and chitosan, can facilitate flocculation through long-range polymer bridging and short-range ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding, and Coulomb force. (springer.com)
  • Among the pfl1 + genes, only loss of gsf2 + abrogated the flocculent phenotype of all the transcription factor mutants and prevented flocculation when cells were grown in inducing medium containing glycerol and ethanol as the carbon source, thereby indicating that Gsf2 is the dominant flocculin. (prolekare.cz)
  • In contrast, the mild flocculation of adn2 + or adn3 + overexpression was likely mediated by the transcriptional activation of cell wall-remodeling genes including gas2 + , psu1 + , and SPAC4H3.03c. (prolekare.cz)
  • These results reveal that flocculation in S. pombe is regulated by a complex network of multiple transcription factors and target genes encoding flocculins and cell wall-remodeling enzymes. (prolekare.cz)
  • In the search for novel flocculation genes resulting in strong flocculation, we discovered a DNA sequence, FLONF, that gives NewFlo phenotype flocculation in S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D. (chalmers.se)
  • Louis Pasteur is erroneously credited with first describing flocculation of brewer's yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brewer's yeast flocculation has been the subject of many reviews. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review will only focus on brewer's yeast flocculation characteristics. (mdpi.com)
  • The brewer's yeast genome encodes a "Flo" flocculin family responsible for flocculation. (mbaa.com)
  • The Flocculation of Fine-Grained Sediments in Estuarine Waters. (scirp.org)
  • The flocculation dynamics of cohesive sediments in the St. Lucia and Mfolozi estuaries, South Africa. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • IUPAC definition Flocculation (in polymer science): When a sol is colloidally unstable (I.e., the rate of aggregation is not negligible) then the formation of aggregates is called flocculation or coagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a sol is colloidally unstable (I.e., the rate of aggregation is not negligible) then the formation of aggregates is called flocculation or coagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flocculation has been defined as the reversible, non-sexual aggregation of yeast cells that may be dispersed by specific sugars or EDTA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mathematical model of flocculation came into focus, when Witten and Sander [ 7 ] first established the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model. (hindawi.com)
  • Flocculation is an inherent characteristic of yeasts involving asexual aggregation of cells into flocs that separate rapidly from the medium (reviewed recently in [1] , [2] ). (prolekare.cz)
  • It has been suggested that zymolectin interactions between the protein and mannan moities results in the flocculation phenotype with Ca2+ ions required for the correct conformation of the zymolectins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantify the kinetics of coagulation and flocculation in urban runoff as a function of entrained residence time and physical/chemical parameters. (epa.gov)
  • Firstly NewFlo flocculation is inhibited by mannose, glucose and maltose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modelling of Flocculation Using a Population Balance Equation. (scirp.org)
  • The newly identified flocculin Gsf2 in fission yeast was not only required for non-sexual flocculation but was also required for adhesion and filamentous growth through recognition of galactose residues on cell surface glycoconjugates. (nih.gov)
  • Experimental data for Chlorella zofingiensis are used to develop a predictive flocculation model based on the surface characteristics of a given alga that is expected to apply to any freshwater algae species. (aiche.org)
  • Both coagulation-flocculation aids also exhibited excellent settling characteristics, with the majority of the floc quickly settling out in the first 5 min. (usgs.gov)
  • Successful quantitative comparisons were made between changes in suspension turbidity with flocculation and corresponding changes in aggregate size distribution. (caltech.edu)
  • In addition to removing turbidity from the water, coagulation and flocculation is beneficial in other ways. (vccs.edu)
  • Flocculation refers to the ability of yeast to aggregate and form large flocs and then drop out of suspension. (wyeastlab.com)
  • This non-sexual flocculation was Ca(2+) -dependent, and was inhibited by addition of galactose, but not by mannose, glucose or sucrose. (nih.gov)
  • The strength of flocculation increases with the size of the flocculation protein and is strain dependent. (chalmers.se)
  • In chemistry: flocculation-gentle agitation that promotes collision between these small aggregates to form floc, it will large enough to settle. (wikidoc.org)
  • Home Materials Science Forum Chemistry of Interfaces The Effect of Polymer Bridging on the Flocculation. (scientific.net)
  • Flocculation has often been observed in marine and estuarine environments as well [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Flocculation is thus the initial step leading to further ageing of the emulsion (droplet coalescence and the ultimate separation of the phases). (wikipedia.org)
  • due to changing rohwasserbeschaffenheiten the establishment of a separate partial flow treatment within the existing filter hall, consisting of a pre-treatment (iron removal and entmanganung) and a subsequent flocculation with subsequent separation via an ultrafiltration membrane is provided. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Flocculation shows great potential for lowering the economic hurdle by providing a low energy, inexpensive method of separation. (aiche.org)
  • In addition, electron microscope examination of the seam of agglutination between E. coli cells flocculation by PEI revealed tightly- bound cells, with intercellular separation distances of less than 100-200 Å in most instances. (caltech.edu)
  • Flocculation is a common separation technique in the biotechnology, petroleum, pulp and paper, and mining industries. (cartaeweb.it)
  • Environmental and economic consequences of flocculation include sedimentation and contaminant transport, which can bring about habitat destructions and affect human health via deterioration of source waters. (nhbs.com)
  • The dye was removed due to the interaction with the polysaccharide starch and flocculation phenomenon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 4] Ibrahim, S.S. and Abdel-khalek, N.A. (1992) The action of different types of corn starch on the flocculation of phosphate slimes. (scirp.org)
  • The action differs from precipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely suspended, under the form of a stable dispersion, in a liquid and are not truly dissolved in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical precipitation by coagulation and flocculation by divalent metal salts is a century old and proven technology. (redorbit.com)
  • This revealed that flocculation of the pore lining clays had occurred, due to the invasion of the very high salinity brine, producing significant pore throat bridging and plugging. (onepetro.org)
  • Identification of a galactose-specific flocculin essential for non-sexual flocculation and filamentous growth in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (nih.gov)
  • In dispersed clay slurries, flocculation occurs after mechanical agitation ceases and the dispersed clay platelets spontaneously form flocs because of attractions between negative face charges and positive edge charges. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study investigates flocculation by measuring how the floc size distribution and settling velocities of flocs vary with the key drivers. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The flocculation mechanisms, size, strength and type of flocs formed were quantified using static conditions, driven by gravity sedimentation through gel point measurements and dynamic conditions through Focussed Beam Reflectance Measurements (FBRM). (monash.edu)
  • Flocculation involves the formation of flocs. (differencebetween.com)
  • Provided herein are exemplary methods for production of biomass with a cyanobacterial isolate having auto-flocculation properties. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 1. A method for production of biomass with a cyanobacterial isolate having auto-flocculation properties, the method comprising:isolating a cyanobacterial strain having a 16S ribosomal RNA sequence corresponding to SEQ. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The EDM brings download flocculation as a malicious harmonic definition, and further labours Novel thus into RCMP and popular firms. (prigsbee.com)
  • The applicability of microsieve technology together with coagulation and flocculation for advanced phosphorus removal was investigated. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Flocculation and mixing speed played only a minor role in the removal efficiencies for both orthophosphates and suspended solids. (usgs.gov)