Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Altitude Sickness: Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.Mountaineering: A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.BoliviaExpeditions: Usually refers to planned scientific data-gathering excursions.Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.NepalAcetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)PeruIndians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.WingHypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Polycythemia: An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Decompression: Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Lagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Astronauts: Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)GeeseLepidium: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Travel Medicine: Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Cell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Athletic Performance: Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Frostbite: Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.Cyperaceae: The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.ColoradoTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Splenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Circulation Time: Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Cockatoos: Large crested BIRDS in the family Cacatuidae, found in Australia, New Guinea, and islands adjacent to the Philippines. The cockatiel (species Nymphicus hollandicus) is much smaller.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Phonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Melopsittacus: A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases: Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Rest: Freedom from activity.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)SulfonesOxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Weightlessness Simulation: Condition under normal Earth gravity where the force of gravity itself is not actually altered but its influence or effect may be modified and studied. (From ASGSB Bull 1992;5(2):27)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Electrophysiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.SwitzerlandVideo Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Accidents, AviationFresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Ranunculus: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Echolocation: An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Erythrocyte Volume: Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Space Motion Sickness: Disorder characterized by nausea, vomiting, and dizziness, possibly in response to vestibular disorientation or fluid shifts associated with space flight. (From Webster's New World Dictionary)Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Hypergravity: Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Manduca: A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Jet Lag Syndrome: A chronobiologic disorder resulting from rapid travel across a number of time zones, characterized by insomnia or hypersomnolence, fatigue, behavioral symptoms, headaches, and gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Cooper, Sleep, 1994, pp593-8)Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Octopamine: An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.Locusta migratoria: A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
  • The 25-day flight in Arizona was a triumph for Airbus' engineers, who had spent years balancing Zephyr's payload and power-consumption to boost its efficiency in the air. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Payload of an amateur high-altitude balloon for scientific purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their first flight just barely missed the 100,000 foot (30,000 meter) mark and carried a simple payload package of cameras and GPS instruments and allowed them to reach their goal of photographing the Earth's curvature. (hackaday.com)
  • Flight 2 had a similar payload but managed to blow through the 100K foot altitude, capturing stunning video of the weather balloon breaking. (hackaday.com)
  • Their most recent flight carried a more complex payload package, consisting of the usual camera and GPS but also a flight data recorder of their own devising, as well as a pair of particle detectors to measure the change in flux of subatomic particles with increasing altitude. (hackaday.com)
  • It is powered by twin turbofan engines and is designed to have an "efficient high-altitude loiter," to be easy to maneuver, and to sustain flight at altitudes as high as 60,000 feet for 14 hours with a payload of up to 2,000 pounds. (techtarget.com)
  • An additional payload will fly on both a parabolic flight and a suborbital launch vehicle, and another will fly on both a suborbital launch vehicle and a high-altitude balloon platform. (nasa.gov)
  • These payload flights are expected to take place now through 2015. (nasa.gov)
  • The system is being replaced with a new, more advanced multi-platform technology," said Dennis Walker, Chief of Payload Section, U-2 Branch, C2ISR Division at Robins Air Force Base, Ga. Walker attended the final flight of the mission system. (dvidshub.net)
  • In addition to achieving its primary objectives, the vehicle also performed a large altitude excursion of 25,000 feet, limited only by the commercial airspace ceiling. (aerotechnews.com)
  • If you've flown to a location in a high altitude and your symptoms persist, your doctor will recommend that you return to a lower elevation level in a quick and safe manner. (healthline.com)
  • Although the actual figures are classified, THAAD missiles have an estimated range of 125 miles (200 km), and can reach an altitude of 93 miles (150 km). (wikipedia.org)
  • I'm currently working on a Class 3 project for Balls next year, which should reach an altitude of around 250,000ft if all goes as planned. (rocketryforum.com)
  • HOWEVER, I don't go from 2000′ to 9000′ [without] spending a few days at about 6000′ before moving higher. (rvtravel.com)
  • The only US-made platform in its class, Swift's flight team, performed a full-system check, validating the vehicle's configuration for high-altitude continuous surveillance missions. (yahoo.com)
  • The UVH - 170 unmanned helicopter of UAVOS continues to prove its value to mountainous areas operations by flying surveillance missions at an altitude of 16,400ft (5000m) . (geoconnexion.com)
  • In their initial flights they've racked up some successes and pushed the edge of space with interesting and varied missions. (hackaday.com)
  • With a range of several hundred kilometers, the MdCN is suitable for missions of destruction of infrastructure of high strategic value. (globalsecurity.org)
  • By making meaningful shifts between altitudes as needed within a given trajectory, World View's system may be able to support much longer balloon missions than previously possible. (aerotechnews.com)
  • Paul De León, campaign manager for NASA's Flight Opportunities program, agrees that this technology has the potential to enable missions to be more efficient. (aerotechnews.com)
  • That flight "only" reached 62,000 ft (19,000 meters) but managed to hitch a ride on the jet stream that nearly took the package out to sea. (hackaday.com)
  • 2018) Melanoma, thyroid cancer, and gynecological cancers in a cohort of U.S. flight attendants. (cdc.gov)
  • With longer stays at altitude, these symptoms improve in a process known as acclimatization. (medscape.com)
  • This article describes the various medical problems associated with ascent to high altitude, amelioration of altitude-related symptoms through acclimatization, and treatment of the disorders when they occur. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms of AMS occur in nearly everyone if the ascent to altitude is too rapid. (medscape.com)
  • Another early description from South America graphically portrays other symptoms in a severely affected altitude sojourner: "I got up and tried once more to go on but I was only able to advance one or two steps at a time, and then I had to stop, panting for breath, my struggles alternating with violent fits of nausea. (medscape.com)
  • This group defined AMS as follows: "In the setting of a recent gain in altitude, the presence of headache and at least one of the following symptoms: gastrointestinal (anorexia, nausea or vomiting), fatigue or weakness, dizziness or lightheadedness, difficulty sleeping. (medscape.com)
  • Few people experience significant symptoms below 7,000-8,000 ft (2130-2440 m), whereas most unacclimatized persons ascending to 10,000 ft (3,050 m) or higher experience at least a few symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms may begin after three to nine hours of flying at high elevations. (healthline.com)
  • Drinking alcohol or caffeinated beverages before and during your flight can also increase your chances of experiencing symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • Even lower elevations can be troublesome - so much so that a guide page for visitors to Colorado makes this note: "Visitors from lower elevations may feel a range of symptoms from the altitude, even at elevations as low as 5,000 ft. (rvtravel.com)
  • Gut microbiota composition in Himalayan and Andean populations and its relationship with diet, lifestyle and adaptation to the high-altitude environment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Challenge: Disease risk modeling can be an important tool for identifying areas of high transmission risk within and between animal populations, allowing for strategic allocation of limited resources for disease surveillance and prevention. (usgs.gov)
  • Acquiring a spatial understanding of the distributions of high risk populations is a critical first step in developing predictive disease transmission. (usgs.gov)
  • Growing populations place higher demands on water, while warmer winters and earlier springs reduce its supply. (pnas.org)
  • In new research published today in the journal Royal Society Open Science , an international team of scientists examine how high altitude and the associated limited available energy affects the growth of long bones in Himalayan populations. (eurekalert.org)
  • Estimated from NASA budget figures, the basic cost for an ER-2 is about $20,000/hr., or five times higher. (scaled.com)
  • BAE Systems and Prismatic have partnered to develop a solar-powered, high-altitude, long endurance unmanned aerial vehicle that can be used for surveillance and communications operations in remote areas. (executivebiz.com)
  • Through the collaboration with NASA , the successful flight trials took place at New Mexico's Spaceport America . (yahoo.com)
  • Usa: The Use Of High Altitude Photography By Nasa. (britishpathe.com)
  • The Eclipse Ballooning Project Having learned of the Eclipse Ballooning Project set to take place today across the USA, a team at NASA couldn't miss the opportunity to harness the high-flying project for their own experiments. (raspberrypi.org)
  • Additional commercial suborbital flight vendors under contract to NASA, including XCOR and Whittinghill, also will provide flight services. (nasa.gov)
  • Burt Rutan and his team at Scaled Composites are part of a new generation of explorers who are sparking the imagination of a huge number of people worldwide and ushering in the birth of a new industry of privately funded manned space flight. (collectspace.com)
  • Further details of SpaceShipOne's history-making flight are expected to be posted to Scaled Composites website later this week. (collectspace.com)
  • Scaled Composites in Mojave, California, a subsidiary of Wyman Gordon, is flight testing the HALO/Proteus "proof of concept" airplane at full scale, and its sister company, Scaled Technology Works in Montrose, Colorado, will type-certify the airplane through the Federal Aviation Administration and will be the series producer of the airplane. (isoc.org)
  • SpaceX called off an attempted launch of its Falcon 9 rocket in California today (Feb. 21) due to strong high-altitude winds, according to the company's CEO, Elon Musk. (space.com)
  • As far as predicting where it lands, there's https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winds_aloft and a bunch of services that will predict the landing site for you. (hackaday.com)
  • Winds are faster and more consistent the higher one climbs, maxing out in the jet streams at five miles and above. (yale.edu)
  • How do you keep them aloft for long periods of time in high winds without having to perform frequent, costly maintenance? (yale.edu)
  • The decision to adhere to the original flight plan was announced early this afternoon on the basis of new weather reports indicating that the clouds and gusty winds at White Sands should move out of the area by Monday. (nytimes.com)
  • The forecast is for high-altitude clouds, light breezy winds and only occasional gusts. (nytimes.com)
  • The 27-hour flight out of Page, Ariz., continued into California before maneuvering into westerly winds to guide the vehicle back toward Arizona. (aerotechnews.com)
  • The flight time was two hours and the climb rate over 1m/s was from 13,120ft to 16,400ft (4000m to 5000m). (geoconnexion.com)
  • Join us on Wednesday at noon Pacific time for the high-altitude ballooning Hack Chat ! (hackaday.com)
  • Chewing gum the entire time you are changing altitudes helps by causing you to swallow often. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In some high altitude areas, alternative methods of evacuation-though they may take more time-may ultimately be a better choice for the safety of your evacuees. (hospitalitylawyer.com)
  • I was disappointed the next time I flew, a European flight, because I expected a repeat of my walking-like-normal but it didn't happen. (thisisms.com)
  • I very much trust Kate, as the altitude is unlocked on his system, and giving the data and coordinates real time is a nice feature, is there any other trackers that'll work at these altitudes? (rocketryforum.com)
  • Try to reduce your time working on very long flights, flights at high latitudes, or flights which fly over the poles. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to its recording functions, the Inspire 2 also features advanced flight capabilities, including a top speed of 58 mph, 27 minutes of flight time, FPV capabilities, and more. (bhphotovideo.com)
  • With the two included LiPo batteries onboard, up to 27 minutes of flight time can be had on a full charge. (bhphotovideo.com)
  • Hernandez was in the right place and the right time when a rare Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15UTI made a pass at low altitude through a western canyon. (theaviationist.com)
  • So your dose can be relatively insignificant, yet at the same time if you doctor doesn't take more strict precautions, their dose could easily end up 100x or 1000x higher over the course of a year. (scienceblogs.com)
  • While in-flight caterers can source any protein requested, your choices should reflect your galley reheating equipment, length of flight, time of day of flight, and any personal or religious dietary restrictions. (universalweather.com)
  • The seven-day test flight of the re-usable winged spaceship is now set to end at 2:27 P.M. Eastern standard time on a desert landing strip at the White Sands Missile Range in southern New Mexico. (nytimes.com)
  • At a news conference this afternoon, Harold M. Draughon, a flight director, said, ''At the present time, we have every intention of having the end of the mission Monday. (nytimes.com)
  • The solar-powered Zephyr, which just flew for 25 days straight, flies so high for so long that in many ways it's more like an orbital spacecraft-but it costs just $6 million. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Cold Gas Testing of a Thrust Optimized Parabolic Nozzle in a High Altitude Simulation Chamber'' Journal of Propulsion and Power , Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 1238-1246, 2011. (nal.res.in)