Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Small cylindrical pieces of metal used to enhance retention.
A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A complete denture replacing all the natural mandibular teeth and associated structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying mandibular bone.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A family of flukes (TREMATODA) characterized by a collar of spines at their anterior end. The body is elongated and is covered with spines, and the two suckers are usually close together. (Noble et al., Parasitology: the Biology of Animal Parasites, 6th ed, p183)
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
A genus comprised of spinner, spotted, and striped DOLPHINS, in the family Delphinidae. Schools of Stenella, that may number in the thousands, often associate with schools of TUNA, and are thus vulnerable to accidental harvesting.
Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.
That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Americium. A completely man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Am, atomic number 95, and atomic weight 243. Its valence can range from +3 to +6. Because of its nonmagnetic ground state, it is an excellent superconductor. It is also used in bone mineral analysis and as a radiation source for radiotherapy.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.

Aerodynamics of hovering flight in the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus. (1/1367)

Steady-state aerodynamic and momentum theories were used for calculations of the lift and drag coefficients of Plecotus auritus in hovering flight. The lift coefficient obtained varies between 3-1 and 6-4, and the drag coefficient between --5-0 and 10-5, for the possible assumptions regarding the effective angles of attack during the upstroke. This demonstrates that hovering flight in Plecotus auritus can not be explained by quasi-steady-state aerodynamics. Thus, non-steady-state aerodynamics must prevail.  (+info)

Temperature regulation and heat dissipation during flight in birds. (2/1367)

Core and skin temperature were measured by radiotelemetry in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) during 30 min flights in a wind tunnel. Core temperature was independent of ambient temperature from 0 to 28 degrees C. The temporal mean of the monitored core temperature during flight was 42-7 degrees C in one bird and 44-0 degrees C in another. These temperatures are 2-4 degrees C higher than the resting temperature in starlings, and are among the highest steady-state temperatures observed in any animal. Skin temperature on the breast was within a few degrees of core temperature. In some locations skin temperature was higher at low ambient temperatures than at intermediate ambient temperatures. An analysis of the data shows that a high core temperature does not function as an aid to head dissipation. On the contrary, insulation is adjusted to maintain a high temperature, presumably because it is necessary for flight. The increase in skin temperature at low ambient temperatures is believed to be a result of a decrease in heat flow through the breast feathers brought about by feather adjustments, to compensate for an unavoidable increase in heat flow in unfeathered or poorly feathered parts of the body.  (+info)

Phase-dependent presynaptic modulation of mechanosensory signals in the locust flight system. (3/1367)

In the locust flight system, afferents of a wing hinge mechanoreceptor, the hindwing tegula, make monosynaptic excitatory connections with motoneurons of the elevator muscles. During flight motor activity, the excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) produced by these connections changed in amplitude with the phase of the wingbeat cycle. The largest changes occurred around the phase where elevator motoneurons passed through their minimum membrane potential. This phase-dependent modulation was neither due to flight-related oscillations in motoneuron membrane potential nor to changes in motoneuron input resistance. This indicates that modulation of EPSP amplitude is mediated by presynaptic mechanisms that affect the efficacy of afferent synaptic input. Primary afferent depolarizations (PADs) were recorded in the terminal arborizations of tegula afferents, presynaptic to elevator motoneurons in the same hemiganglion. PADs were attributed to presynaptic inhibitory input because they reduced the input resistance of the afferents and were sensitive to the gamma-aminobutyric acid antagonist picrotoxin. PADs occurred either spontaneously or were elicited by spike activity in the tegula afferents. In summary, afferent signaling in the locust flight system appears to be under presynaptic control, a candidate mechanism of which is presynaptic inhibition.  (+info)

Assembly of thick filaments and myofibrils occurs in the absence of the myosin head. (4/1367)

We investigated the importance of the myosin head in thick filament formation and myofibrillogenesis by generating transgenic Drosophila lines expressing either an embryonic or an adult isoform of the myosin rod in their indirect flight muscles. The headless myosin molecules retain the regulatory light-chain binding site, the alpha-helical rod and the C-terminal tailpiece. Both isoforms of headless myosin co-assemble with endogenous full-length myosin in wild-type muscle cells. However, rod polypeptides interfere with muscle function and cause a flightless phenotype. Electron microscopy demonstrates that this results from an antimorphic effect upon myofibril assembly. Thick filaments assemble when the myosin rod is expressed in mutant indirect flight muscles where no full-length myosin heavy chain is produced. These filaments show the characteristic hollow cross-section observed in wild type. The headless thick filaments can assemble with thin filaments into hexagonally packed arrays resembling normal myofibrils. However, thick filament length as well as sarcomere length and myofibril shape are abnormal. Therefore, thick filament assembly and many aspects of myofibrillogenesis are independent of the myosin head and these processes are regulated by the myosin rod and tailpiece. However, interaction of the myosin head with other myofibrillar components is necessary for defining filament length and myofibril dimensions.  (+info)

The role of orientation flights on homing performance in honeybees. (5/1367)

Honeybees have long served as a model organism for investigating insect navigation. Bees, like many other nesting animals, primarily use learned visual features of the environment to guide their movement between the nest and foraging sites. Although much is known about the spatial information encoded in memory by experienced bees, the development of large-scale spatial memory in naive bees is not clearly understood. Past studies suggest that learning occurs during orientation flights taken before the start of foraging. We investigated what honeybees learn during their initial experience in a new landscape by examining the homing of bees displaced after a single orientation flight lasting only 5-10 min. Homing ability was assessed using vanishing bearings and homing speed. At release sites with a view of the landmarks immediately surrounding the hive, 'first-flight' bees, tested after their very first orientation flight, had faster homing rates than 'reorienting foragers', which had previous experience in a different site prior to their orientation flight in the test landscape. First-flight bees also had faster homing rates from these sites than did 'resident' bees with full experience of the terrain. At distant sites, resident bees returned to the hive more rapidly than reorienting or first-flight bees; however, in some cases, the reorienting bees were as successful as the resident bees. Vanishing bearings indicated that all three types of bees were oriented homewards when in the vicinity of landmarks near the hive. When bees were released out of sight of these landmarks, hence forcing them to rely on a route memory, the 'first-flight' bees were confused, the 'reorienting' bees chose the homeward direction except at the most distant site and the 'resident' bees were consistently oriented homewards.  (+info)

Mechanical versus physiological determinants of swimming speeds in diving Brunnich's guillemots. (6/1367)

For fast flapping flight of birds in air, the maximum power and efficiency of the muscles occur over a limited range of contraction speeds and loads. Thus, contraction frequency and work per stroke tend to stay constant for a given species. In birds such as auks (Alcidae) that fly both in air and under water, wingbeat frequencies in water are far lower than in air, and it is unclear to what extent contraction frequency and work per stroke are conserved. During descent, compression of air spaces dramatically lowers buoyant resistance, so that maintaining a constant contraction frequency and work per stroke should result in an increased swimming speed. However, increasing speed causes exponential increases in drag, thereby reducing mechanical versus muscle efficiency. To investigate these competing factors, we have developed a biomechanical model of diving by guillemots (Uria spp.). The model predicted swimming speeds if stroke rate and work per stroke stay constant despite changing buoyancy. We compared predicted speeds with those of a free-ranging Brunnich's guillemot (U. lomvia) fitted with a time/depth recorder. For descent, the model predicted that speed should gradually increase to an asymptote of 1.5-1.6 m s-1 at approximately 40 m depth. In contrast, the instrumented guillemot typically reached 1.5 m s-1 within 10 m of the water surface and maintained that speed throughout descent to 80 m. During ascent, the model predicted that guillemots should stroke steadily at 1.8 m s-1 below their depth of neutral buoyancy (62 m), should alternate stroking and gliding at low buoyancies from 62 to 15 m, and should ascend passively by buoyancy alone above 15 m depth. However, the instrumented guillemot typically ascended at 1.25 m s-1 when negatively buoyant, at approximately 1.5 m s-1 from 62 m to 25 m, and supplemented buoyancy with stroking above 25 m. Throughout direct descent, and during ascent at negative and low positive buoyancies (82-25 m), the guillemot maintained its speed within a narrow range that minimized the drag coefficient. In films, guillemots descending against high buoyancy at shallow depths increased their stroke frequency over that of horizontal swimming, which had a substantial glide phase. Model simulations also indicated that stroke duration, relative thrust on the downstroke versus the upstroke, and the duration of gliding can be varied to regulate swimming speed with little change in contraction speed or work per stroke. These results, and the potential use of heat from inefficient muscles for thermoregulation, suggest that diving guillemots can optimize their mechanical efficiency (drag) with little change in net physiological efficiency.  (+info)

Wing rotation and the aerodynamic basis of insect flight. (7/1367)

The enhanced aerodynamic performance of insects results from an interaction of three distinct yet interactive mechanisms: delayed stall, rotational circulation, and wake capture. Delayed stall functions during the translational portions of the stroke, when the wings sweep through the air with a large angle of attack. In contrast, rotational circulation and wake capture generate aerodynamic forces during stroke reversals, when the wings rapidly rotate and change direction. In addition to contributing to the lift required to keep an insect aloft, these two rotational mechanisms provide a potent means by which the animal can modulate the direction and magnitude of flight forces during steering maneuvers. A comprehensive theory incorporating both translational and rotational mechanisms may explain the diverse patterns of wing motion displayed by different species of insects.  (+info)

Flight speed and body mass of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaginae) during foraging. (8/1367)

Aerodynamic theory predicts that minimum power (Vmp) and maximum range (Vmr) flight speeds increase when the body mass of an individual animal increases. To evaluate whether foraging bats regulate their flight speed within a fixed speed category relative to Vmp or Vmr, I investigated how the natural daily changes in body mass caused by feeding affected the flight speed of neotropical nectar-feeding bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) within a strictly defined, stereotyped behavioural context. Individual bats were maintained in a flight tunnel (lengths of five different types 14-50 m) with a fully automated feeding, weighing (using an electronic balance at the roost) and flight speed measuring system. Flight speeds were measured during normal nocturnal foraging activity by an undisturbed bat while it flew between the two ends of the flight tunnel to obtain food from two computer-controlled nectar-feeders. For a comparison of flight enclosure measurements with field data, flight speeds were also obtained from unrestrained bats foraging in their natural environment (Costa Rica). Foraging flight speeds spanned a range of at least a factor 3 within a single species, which demonstrates the wide range of speeds possible to these animals. Significant, positive correlations between flight speed and the natural individual variability in body mass were found in nearly all cases, with body mass exponents ranging between 0.44 and 2.1. Bats flying at normal speeds were therefore not near their upper limit of muscle power. The most reliable measurements of speed increase with mass (with individual mass changes of up to 30%) were close to the increase theoretically predicted for Vmp and Vmr for an individual bat (with constant wing span and area), which should vary as M0.42, where M is mass. This provides evidence that the glossophagine bats attemped to maintain their flight speed within a fixed speed category relative to Vmp or Vmr during foraging. Among differently sized species of glossophagine bat (N=4), flight speeds V varied with V=20M0.23, in agreement with the mass exponent of 0.21 expected from aerodynamic models for interspecific variation. In addition to the mass effect, at least five other variables significantly influenced flight speed. (1) Both mean and maximum flight speeds increased with the length and the cross-sectional area of the flight tunnel. Mean (maximum) flight speeds of 11-12 g Glossophaga soricina bats (in m s-1) were 4.6 (5.3) over a 7 m and 7. 3 (10.5) over a 50 m flight path. (2) The flight speed range adopted by a bat during one night could vary significantly between nights, independently of body mass and the effect of the size of the flight enclosure. (3) Bats flew significantly faster under illumination than in darkness. This effect was shown (i) by bats kept under natural ambient illumination that initiated foraging during the twilight phase of the evening, (ii) when bats continued to feed into the light phase directly after the dark-light transition in the laboratory and (iii) during foraging under constant, artificial illumination. (4) After a period of rest, the initial flight speed during a foraging bout was significantly increased by 25%, but declined to the mean level within 20 s of activity. (5) Flight speed could differ significantly between foraging (flight from feeder to feeder) versus non-foraging (flight from end to end of the enclosure without visiting the feeders) flights. The results of this study demonstrate a clear ability of bats to regulate their flight speed in response to small natural changes in body mass as predicted by aerodynamic theory for Vmp and Vmr. The set point in flight speed regulation, however, was influenced by multiple additional variables.  (+info)

The members of this lab share the fascination for animal flight, which we explore in a sophisticated wind tunnel equipped with cutting-edge equipment for high-speed wing motion analysis, airflow visualization, and force measurement.. The research within the Animal Flight Lab is focused on the ecology and evolution of animal flight. ...
Mechanisms involved in establishing the organization and numbers of fibres in a muscle are not completely understood. During Drosophila indirect flight muscle (IFM) formation, muscle growth is achieved by both incorporating hundreds of nuclei, and hypertrophy. As a result, IFMs provide a good model with which to understand the mechanisms that govern overall muscle organization and growth. We present a detailed analysis of the organization of dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs), a subset of the IFMs. We show that each DLM is similar to a vertebrate fascicle and consists of multiple muscle fibres. However, increased fascicle size does not necessarily change the number of constituent fibres, but does increase the number of myofibrils packed within the fibres. We also find that altering the number of myoblasts available for fusion changes DLM fascicle size and fibres are loosely packed with myofibrils. Additionally, we show that knock down of genes required for mitochondrial fusion causes a severe ...
Insects could minimize the high energetic costs of flight in two ways: by employing high-efficiency muscles and by using elastic elements within the thorax to recover energy expended accelerating the wings. However, because muscle efficiency and elastic storage have proven difficult variables to measure, it is not known which of these strategies is actually used. By comparison of mechanical power measurements based on gas exchange with simultaneously measured flight kinematics in Drosophila, a method was developed for determining both the mechanical efficiency and the minimum degree of elastic storage within the flight motor. Muscle efficiency values of 10 percent suggest that insects may minimize energy use in flight by employing an elastic flight motor rather than by using extraordinarily efficient muscles. Further, because of the trade-off between inertial and aerodynamic power throughout the wing stroke, an elastic storage capacity as low as 10 percent may be enough to minimize the energetic ...
Insects could minimize the high energetic costs of flight in two ways: by employing high-efficiency muscles and by using elastic elements within the thorax to recover energy expended accelerating the wings. However, because muscle efficiency and elastic storage have proven difficult variables to measure, it is not known which of these strategies is actually used. By comparison of mechanical power measurements based on gas exchange with simultaneously measured flight kinematics in Drosophila, a method was developed for determining both the mechanical efficiency and the minimum degree of elastic storage within the flight motor. Muscle efficiency values of 10 percent suggest that insects may minimize energy use in flight by employing an elastic flight motor rather than by using extraordinarily efficient muscles. Further, because of the trade-off between inertial and aerodynamic power throughout the wing stroke, an elastic storage capacity as low as 10 percent may be enough to minimize the energetic ...
A mean lift coefficient quasi-steady analysis has been applied to the free flight of the dragonfly Sympetrum sanguineum and the damselfly Calopteryx splendens. The analysis accommodated the yaw and accelerations involved in free flight. For any given velocity or resultant aerodynamic force (thrust), the damselfly mean lift coefficient was higher than that for the dragonfly because of its clap and fling. For both species, the maximum mean lift coefficient L was higher than the steady CL,max. Both species aligned their strokes planes to be nearly normal to the thrust, a strategy that reduces the L required for flight and which is different from the previously published hovering and slow dragonfly flights with stroke planes steeply inclined to the horizontal. Owing to the relatively low costs of accelerating the wing, the aerodynamic power required for flight represents the mechanical power output from the muscles. The maximum muscle mass-specific power was estimated at 156 and 166 W kg-1 for S. ...
To study the visual cues that control steering behavior in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we reconstructed three-dimensional trajectories from images taken by stereo infrared video cameras during free flight within structured visual landscapes. Flies move through their environment using a series of straight flight segments separated by rapid turns, termed saccades, during which the fly alters course by approximately 90° in less than 100 ms. Altering the amount of background visual contrast caused significant changes in the flys translational velocity and saccade frequency. Between saccades, asymmetries in the estimates of optic flow induce gradual turns away from the side experiencing a greater motion stimulus, a behavior opposite to that predicted by a flight control model based upon optomotor equilibrium. To determine which features of visual motion trigger saccades, we reconstructed the visual environment from the flys perspective for each position in the flight trajectory. From ...
Insect flight is a highly energy demanding type of locomotion. In butterflies, males may locate females by different behavioural tactics. The tactics correspond to different flight types that, in turn, are assumed to reflect different energetic costs. Costs need to be considered to fully understand the pay-offs of co-existing alternative tactics relative to the environmental context and the phenotypes of the individuals. We addressed the issue in the speckled wood Pararge aegeria, in which males either adopt a territorial wait-and-fight tactic (i.e. territorial perching) in a sunlit patch on the forest floor, or a fly-and-search tactic to locate females in a wider area of the forest (i.e. patrolling). Perching corresponds to high frequency of take-off flights and aerial combats with high levels of manoeuvrability and is assumed to be energetically more costly than longer, continuous flights at lower speed in patrollers. We tested the effect of different flight activity levels and of the ...
Bird flight is the primary mode of locomotion used by most bird species. Flight assists birds while feeding, breeding, avoiding predators, and migrating. Bird flight is one of the most complex forms of locomotion in the animal kingdom. Each facet of this type of motion, including hovering, taking off, and landing, involves many complex movements. As different bird species have adapted to specific environments, prey, predators, and other needs, they have developed varied forms of wings and varied forms of flight. Research into how birds fly has yielded various theories as to the evolution of bird flight, a topic that is still hotly debated among scholars. Some suggest that flight originated from falling/gliding behaviors (the trees down hypothesis); some suggest feathers developed for other reasons and gradually enabled birds to lift off the ground (the ground up hypothesis); and yet others suggest variations on these theories such as the wing-assisted incline running theory and the pouncing ...
I read an article today suggesting that on-line flyers would replace print flyers, not immediately, but in the next five to ten years.. The article noted that flyer printing is a large expense for retail establishments, and from the point of view of the offset or digital custom printing services, flyer printing generates abundant revenue.. I have some thoughts on digital flyers, since I have been receiving them in my email box for some time now.. 1. Digital flyers are useful for researching goods or services: When Im already on the computer, digital flyers are welcome and useful if I am searching for a particular item. Therefore, I often read or at least skim email flyers about computer hardware and software. Some digital flyers or magazines even have useful links to product reviews or videos.. 2. But they can be annoying when youre not interested in the product or service: If Im not looking for a particular item, Ill delete the digital flyer without even skimming it. In fact, I delete about ...
Time-Varying Wing-Twist Improves Aerodynamic Efficiency of Forward Flight in Butterflies Lingxiao Zheng 1, Tyson L. Hedrick 2, Rajat Mittal 1 * 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, the Johns Hopkins
On the Wing: Insects, Pterosaurs, Birds, Bats and the Evolution of Animal Flight by David E Alexander Synopsis: Ask anybody what superpower they wished to possess and odds are the answer just might be the ability to fly. What is it about soaring through the air held up by the power of ones own body that…
Here we show, by qualitative free- and tethered-flight flow visualization, that dragonflies fly by using unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms to generate high-lift, leading-edge vortices. In normal free flight, dragonflies use counterstroking kinematics, with a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the forewing downstroke, attached flow on the forewing upstroke, and attached flow on the hindwing throughout. Accelerating dragonflies switch to in-phase wing-beats with highly separated downstroke flows, with a single LEV attached across both the fore- and hindwings. We use smoke visualizations to distinguish between the three simplest local analytical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations yielding flow separation resulting in a LEV. The LEV is an open U-shaped separation, continuous across the thorax, running parallel to the wing leading edge and inflecting at the tips to form wingtip vortices. Air spirals in to a free-slip critical point over the centreline as the LEV grows. Spanwise flow is not a dominant feature
The limits of flight performance have been estimated in tethered Drosophila melanogaster by modulating power requirements in a virtual reality flight arena. At peak capacity, the flight muscles can sustain a mechanical power output of nearly 80 W kg^(-1) muscle mass at 24 °C, which is sufficient to generate forces of approximately 150% of the animals weight. The increase in flight force above that required to support body weight is accompanied by a rise in wing velocity, brought about by an increase in stroke amplitude and a decrease in stroke frequency. Inertial costs, although greater than either profile or induced power, would be minimal with even modest amounts of elastic storage, and total mechanical power energy should be equivalent to aerodynamic power alone. Because of the large profile drag expected at low Reynolds numbers, the profile power was approximately twice the induced power at all levels of force generation. Thus, it is the cost of overcoming drag, and not the production of ...
During muscle development myosin molecules form symmetrical thick filaments which integrate with the thin filaments to produce the regular sarcomeric lattice. In Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) the details of this process can be studied using genetic approaches. The weeP26 transgenic line has a GFP-encoding exon inserted into the single Drosophila muscle myosin heavy chain gene, Mhc. The weeP26 IFM sarcomeres have a unique MHC-GFP-labelling pattern restricted to the sarcomere core, explained by non-translation of the GFP exon following alternative splicing. Characterisation of wild type IFM MHC mRNA confirmed the presence of an alternately spliced isoform, expressed earlier than the major IFM-specific isoform. The two wild-type IFM-specific MHC isoforms differ by the presence of a C-terminal tailpiece in the minor isoform. The sequential expression and assembly of these two MHCs into developing thick filaments suggest a role for the tailpiece in initiating A-band formation. The ...
When commuting or migrating, birds are assumed to fly near the speed yielding minimum energetic costs per unit distance travelled (called maximum range speed, Umr) [1,2]. Therefore, the majority of bird flight research has focused on flight performance around this flight speed [3-7]. Many small birds, however, often fly much slower, particularly those that hunt or feed on the wing or live in cluttered environments [8,9], although not much is known about flight speed distributions in the wild. Still, it can be assumed that natural selection has resulted in efficient and controlled flight at low speeds for birds that often fly at these speeds, just as it has resulted in efficient flight at migratory flight speeds for migratory birds.. Most research on hovering and slow flight in birds has been done on small specialized hoverers, such as hummingbirds [10-12]. Hummingbirds are considered specialized hoverers because they have a relatively stiff wing that turns upside down during the upstroke, much ...
Most insects use a method that creates a spiralling leading edge vortex. These flapping wings move through two basic half-strokes. The downstroke starts up and back and is plunged downward and forward. Then the wing is quickly flipped over (supination) so that the leading edge is pointed backward. The upstroke then pushes the wing upward and backward. Then the wing is flipped again (pronation) and another downstroke can occur. The frequency range in insects with synchronous flight muscles typically is 5 to 200 hertz (Hz). In those with asynchronous flight muscles, wing beat frequency may exceed 1000 Hz. When the insect is hovering, the two strokes take the same amount of time. A slower downstroke, however, provides thrust.[6][7] Identification of major forces is critical to understanding insect flight. The first attempts to understand flapping wings assumed a quasi-steady state. This means that the air flow over the wing at any given time was assumed to be the same as how the flow would be over ...
How Do I Release Free-Flying Helium Balloons Safely? The release of free-flying helium balloons is strictly prohibited during the operating hours of military airbases (Monday to Friday, 7am to 7pm; Saturday, 7am to 1pm).. Beyond these hours, free-flying helium balloons should not be released within 5km of an airport or airbase without a permit. Balloons, individually or as a cluster, should not exceed 2 metres in any linear dimension.. Do I Need To Notify CAAS To Release Free-Flying Helium Balloons? Yes. If you are planning to release free-flying helium balloons within the area and height limits, you will need to submit a notification to CAAS.. When Do I Need A Permit To Release Free-Flying Helium Balloons? A permit is required from CAAS when releasing free-flying helium balloons outside the area and height limits. Applications will be assessed on a case-by-case basis. It will take 7 working days to process your application, as assessment will be conducted in consultation with the Republic of ...
Respiration rates of muscle mitochondria in flying hummingbirds range from 7 to 10 ml of O2 per cm3 of mitochondria per min, which is about 2 times higher than the range obtained in the locomotory muscles of mammals running at their maximum aerobic capacities (VO2max). Capillary volume density is higher in hummingbird flight muscles than in mammalian skeletal muscles. Mitochondria occupy approximately 35% of fiber volume in hummingbird flight muscles and cluster beneath the sarcolemmal membrane adjacent to capillaries to a greater extent than in mammalian muscles. Measurements of protein content, citrate synthase activity, and respiratory rates in vitro per unit mitochondrial volume reveal no significant differences between hummingbird and mammalian skeletal muscle mitochondria. However, inner membrane surface areas per unit mitochondrial volume [Sv(im,m)] are higher than those in mammalian muscle. We propose that both mitochondrial volume densities and Sv(im,m) are near their maximum ...
Flight Muscle Mitochondria This image is of non-human tissue. Flight muscle is the most powerful type of muscle, to cope with the aerobic demands of flying the balance of muscle fibres and mitochondria has to be optimal. Here we see flight muscle from a bird in a transverse cut. Mitochondria generate the energy that cells need to function. The energy made by the mitochondria is in the form of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate or ATP. The mitochondria are the pink/red structures in this image. Cellular level art, paint on silk, digitised.
Crying babies, drooling seat mates and coughing passengers are everyday minor annoyances on planes, but body slamming someone for being sick and having to cough? Not the right reaction, but it was the one a man from Georgia had at the end of a flight last week.. The 31-year-old was on an American Airlines flight to Jacksonville International Airport in Florida, says The Daily Mail, upon which a sick 19-year-old woman had the gumption to cough.. The police say he spent the flight harassing the woman, and as the passengers deboarded the plane, he called her obscene names, saying she had infected everyone on the flight.. According to the report, he then charged her and body slammed her with his shoulder, knocking her against the wall. He was arrested on charges of misdemeanor battery.. We hope he brings plenty of cough drops with him should he ever dare to have a ticklish throat or a cold.. Youve infected everyone! Germaphobe body slams woman who was coughing on flight [The Daily Mail]. ...
Singh, Salam Herojeet and Kumar, Prabodh and Ramachandra, Nallur B and Nongthomba, Upendra (2019) Roles of the troponin isoforms during indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila (vol 93, pg 379, 2014). INDIAN ACAD SCIENCES, C V RAMAN AVENUE, SADASHIVANAGAR, P B #8005, BANGALORE 560 080, INDIA. ...
Exploding foil initiators (EFIs), also known as slapper initiators or detonators, offer clear safety and timing advantages over other means of initiating detonation in high explosives. The work described here outlines a new capability for imaging and reconstructing three-dimensional images of operating EFIs. Flyer size and intended velocity were chosen based on parameters of the imaging system. The EFI metal plasma and plastic flyer traveling at 2.5 km/s were imaged with short ~80 ps pulses spaced 153.4 ns apart. A four-camera system acquired 4 images from successive x-ray pulses from each shot. The first frame was prior to bridge burst, the 2 nd images the flyer about 0.16 mm above the surface but edges of the foil and/or flyer are still attached to the substrate. The 3 rd frame captures the flyer in flight, while the 4 th shows a completely detached flyer in a position that is typically beyond where slappers strike initiating explosives. Multiple acquisitions at different incident angles and ...
After the allergy attack suffered by a college student on a flight, a coalition was recently formed for carrying EpiPens on commercial flights. The founder of government relations firm, Robert Houton, launched the Coalition for Carrying Auto-Injector Epinephrine Rights (CLEAR) on flights and the first member.... ...
Similar flight control principles operate across insect and vertebrate fliers. These principles indicate that robust solutions have evolved to meet complex behavioral challenges. Following from studies of visual and cervical feedback control of flight in insects, we investigate the role of head stabilization in providing feedback cues for controlling turning flight in pigeons. Based on previous observations that the eyes of pigeons remain at relatively fixed orientations within the head during flight, we test potential sensory control inputs derived from head and body movements during 90° aerial turns. We observe that periods of angular head stabilization alternate with rapid head repositioning movements (head saccades), and confirm that control of head motion is decoupled from aerodynamic and inertial forces acting on the birds continuously rotating body during turning flapping flight. Visual cues inferred from head saccades correlate with changes in flight trajectory; whereas the magnitude of neck
uly 2, 1929. PfE. H. GRIPoN AIRFOIL 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 3, 1928 July 2, 1929. P. E. H. GRlPoN AIRFOIL Filed Aug. 3, 1928 s sneet-sheet 5 l INVENTOR. PAL/L-l/GfR/PON I. Patented July 2, 1929. PAUL i E. H. GRIPON, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT F COLUMBIA. Anwen.. .application mea August a, 192s. sum1 No. 297,293. In this specification the term airfoil means any surface designed to be subjected to fluid streams, in order to produce a useful dynamic reaction. The invention relates to the-formation, utilization and control on airfoil surfaces of vortices of a surrounding fluid, with the ob ject of reducing to the smallest possible de gree the drag or resistance normally cncountered when said airfoil is in relative motion comparatively to that fluid. Figures l and 2 give cross-sections of the present airfoils such as are used for wings on airplanes. l5 Figure 3 is the cross-section of a birds wing. Figure 4 shows the diagrammatic crosssection of the wing of a bird, when in gliding flight, Fig. 4a ...
Barbara Kingsolver is a rarity-a trained scientist who became a graceful novelist. Now shes trying something even more unusual, making the very wonky subject of climate change the heart of her new novel Flight Behavior.
Well its been like forever since Ive been on like years ... So much has changed .. Im divorced sad to sa.. Anyway I am needing to go back to see Dr.B anyone know of any airlines the help wih flight costs ...
Well its been like forever since Ive been on like years ... So much has changed .. Im divorced sad to sa.. Anyway I am needing to go back to see Dr.B anyone know of any airlines the help wih flight costs ...
This paper describes the technical and operational challenges of the first cross-Channel flight performed by an unmanned autonomous glider. The glider chosen for the attempt was a quarter scale Slingsby Type 45 Swallow. It was found to have a lift-to-drag ratio of 8, as verified by wind tunnel force balance tests. Essential retrospective aerodynamic refinements to the design, including modifications of the wing root and tip sections and wing aspect ratio, were modelled analytically and found to increase the aircrafts lift-to-drag ratio to 19. The launch mechanism devised for the modified glider featured a bespoke crate suspended under an airborne helicopter at an altitude of 10,000 ft, from which the aircraft was released from an internal recess. The glider was pre-programmed to fly autonomously via waypoint navigation and completed the 22 mile mission in less than one hour at an average ground speed of 27 knots, a sink rate of 3 ft/s and with 3,500 ft altitude to spare. The successful flight, ...
Dec. 4, 1951 c; SMWH 2,577,436 TRAP FOR FLYING INSECTS Filed Nov. 26 1947 Patented Dec. 4, 1951 UNITED STATES ?ATENT OFFICE 2 Claims. 1 This invention relates to a trap for catching and killing flying insects of various kinds. It is a well known fact that flying insects are attracted by a bright light during the night. The present invention is based on this known fact. It has for its main objects to provide such a trap that will be highly efilcient for its purpose, cheap to manufacture, simple in structure, very durable, and easy to understand and use by unskilled labor. The problem of getting rid of flying insects that destroy growing crops is a serious one. The present invention will provide simple and highly effective means that will go a long way towards solving this diflicult problem. Other objects and advantages will appear from the drawing and description. By referring to the drawing part of this application, it will be observed that Fig. 1 is a plan view of the trap, a portion of the ...
Environmental changes are responsible for the evolution of flexible physiology and the extent of phenotypic plasticity in the regulation of birds organ size has not been appreciated until recently. Rapid reversible physiological changes during different life-history stages are virtually only known from long-distance migrants, and few studies have focused on less extreme aspects of organ flexibility. During moult, birds suffer from increased wing loading due to wing-area reductions, which may impair flight ability. A previous study found that tree sparrows escape flight (Passer montanus) is unaffected during moult, suggesting compensatory aptness. We used non-invasive techniques to study physiological adaptations to increased wing loading in tree sparrows. As wing area was reduced during natural moult the ratio of pectoral-muscle size to body mass increased. When moult was completed this ratio decreased. We show experimentally a novel, strategic, organ-flexibility pattern. Unlike the general ...
Oh, that damn ping-pong ball. With a little luck in the 2007 lottery, the Flyers would have had the first overall draft pick that summer and would have selected winger Patrick Kane. The Flyers had the worst record that season, but they lost the lottery to the Chicago Blackhawks, who chose Kane. The same guy who broke the collective hearts of the Flyers and their loyal fans Wednesday night at the Wachovia Center. Kane scored 4:06 into overtime to give the Blackhawks a 4-3 win that clinched their first Stanley Cup since 1961. “It stings. It hurts,” said Flyers winger Scott Hartnell after a heroic, two-goal performance. “It’ll give us more fuel in training camp next year.” Kane had three goals and five assists in the Finals. On Wednesday, he also had a pair of assists as Chicago won the series, four games to two. The Flyers played gallantly and had a remarkable playoff run, highlighted by their comeback from a 3-0 series deficit against Boston in the conference semifinals. But
A new Personal Care & Household Deal flyer started today in Publix. This is a green flyer that says Sweetheart Savings across the top. Youll find these at the front of the store near the weekly ad, or behind customer service.. The deals in the flyer arent the lowest prices we will see across all stores, but for Publix some of the prices are pretty good. For the coupons in the flyer, Ive gotten the prices at a local store for you. Remember though, some of these may go on sale before the coupon ends. I try to wait and use the coupons when the items are on sale, or the last week of the flyer if I need the item and they didnt go on sale.. See all the deals in the Publix Weekly Ad.. ...
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Studying the routes flown by long-distance migratory insects comes with the obvious challenge that the animals body size and weight is comparably low. This makes it difficult to attach relatively heavy transmitters to these insects in order to monitor their migratory routes (as has been done for instance in several species of migratory birds. However, the rather delicate anatomy of insects can be advantageous for testing their capacity to orient with respect to putative compass cues during indoor experiments under controlled conditions. Almost 20 years ago, Barrie Frost and Henrik Mouritsen developed a flight simulator which enabled them to monitor the heading directions of tethered migratory Monarch butterflies, both indoors and outdoors. The design described in the original paper has been used in many follow-up studies to describe the orientation capacities of mainly diurnal lepidopteran species. Here we present a modification of this flight simulator design that enables studies of nocturnal long
|p|Kingsolver is a gifted magician of words.|br /|—|em|Time|/em||/p||p|The extraordinary |em|New York Times|/em| bestselling author of |em|The Lacuna|/em| (winner of the Orange Prize), |em|The Poisonwood Bible|/em| (nominated for the Pulitzer Prize), and |em|Animal, Vegetable, Miracle|/em|, Barbara Kingsolver returns with a truly stunning and unforgettable work. |em|Flight Behavior|/em| is a brilliant and suspenseful novel set in present day Appalachia; a breathtaking parable of catastrophe and denial that explores how the complexities we inevitably encounter in life lead us to believe in our particular chosen truths. Kingsolvers riveting story concerns a young wife and mother on a failing farm in rural Tennessee who experiences something she cannot explain, and how her discovery energizes various competing factions—religious leaders, climate scientists, environmentalists, politicians—trapping her in the center of the conflict and ultimately opening up her world. |em|Flight Behavior
The basic changes in body angle γ, stroke plane angle β and wingbeat amplitude A can be understood in terms of the varying balance of lift and thrust requirements with varying U. In a time-averaged sense, the wingbeat kinematics are such that the mean momentum flux, which has both magnitude and direction, will be directed so as to support steady locomotion. When U is small, the mass flow per unit time over the wings is also comparatively small, and so a large fraction must be directed downwards to support the weight. As U increases, the mass flow rate also increases, and generating lift to balance weight requires less circulation, and less downward deflection of the oncoming air. The viscous and pressure drags on the wings and body increase with U2, however, and therefore the average force vector must be directed increasingly forward. β and γ both change in ways to perform this redirection, and when A increases, the magnitude of the differences between thrust from the downstroke and drag on ...
Summary Flight is thought to be one of the most energetically costly of bird activities. These costs matter by virtue of their magnitude, as factors affecting flight costs can have a disproportionate impact on the overall energy balance. Flight costs are fundamentally linked to airflows, as well as behavioural responses to them, because birds react to horizontal and vertical currents by changing flight mode (i.e. flapping/ gliding), speed and route. Even minor route adjustments can radically affect the flow conditions that birds experience due to the uniquely dynamic and heterogeneous nature of the aerial environment. Yet our understanding of how airflows impact birds is in its infancy, being constrained by a lack of information on the metabolic costs of flight. Currently, the main methods for measuring flight costs in the laboratory either restrain the bird (thereby increasing energy expenditure) or suffer from low resolution, and field methods do not allow costs to be resolved in relation to ...
In our study, we investigated if and how proprioceptive feedback influences the rhythm of the myogenic wing beat oscillator. We concentrated on mechanosensory input from the halteres - specialized „gyroscopic sensory organs of flies. The halteres are known to activate the motor neurons of miniscule steering muscles, which in turn modulate the motion of the wings. In our experiments [2], tethered flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) were vibrated by a piezoelectric actuator to stimulate the haltere mechanosensory pathways. We used a laser Doppler interferometer to measure the vibrations of the tether resulting from the superposition of the piezo-delivered stimulus and the flys wing beat. We determined the phase relationship between the wing motion and the mechanical stimulus in each wing stroke and applied an automated synchrogram analysis [3] to detect entrainment and higher-order synchronization. The flies synchronized with the stimulus for specific ranges of stimulus amplitude and ...
The goal of the micromechanical flying insect (MFI) project is to develop a 25 mm (wingtip-to-wingtip) device capable of sustained autonomous flight. The MFI is designed based on biomimetic principles to capture some of the exceptional flight performance achieved by true flies. The high performance of true flies is based on large forces generated by non-steady state aerodynamics, a high power-to-weight ratio motor system, and a high-speed control system with tightly integrated visual and inertial sensors. Our design analysis shows us that piezoelectric actuators and flexible thorax structures can provide the needed power density and wing stroke, and that adequate power can be supplied by lithium batteries charged by solar cells. The MFI project started in May 1998. In the first 3 years of this MURI grant, research concentrated on understanding fly flight aerodynamics and on analysis, design and fabrication of MFI actuators, thorax and wings. In August 2001, our MFI prototype (with 1 wing) showed ...
This report deals with the effect of small variations in ordinates specified by different laboratories for the airfoil section. This study was made in connection with a more general investigation of the effect of small irregularities of the airfoil surface on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil. These tests show that small changes in airfoil contours, resulting from variations in the specified ordinates, have a sufficiently large effect upon the airfoil characteristics to justify the taking of great care in the specification of ordinates for the construction of models.
Flight Simulator Seats Market 2020 Overview:. The market research report on the Global Flight Simulator Seats Market offered by Reports Monitor, analyses the major opportunities, CAGR, yearly growth rates to help the readers to understand the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the Global Flight Simulator Seats Market. The competition landscape, company overview, financials, recent developments and long-term investments related to the Global Flight Simulator Seats Market are mentioned in this report. Various parameters have been studied while estimating the market size. The revenue generated by the leading industry participants in the sales of the Flight Simulator Seats has been calculated through primary and secondary research. The Global Flight Simulator Seats Market analysis has been provided for the international and domestic markets, including trends, landscape analysis and key regions of development.. Understand the influence of COVID-19 on the Flight Simulator Seats Market with our ...
Flight activity in females of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis(Walker) was examined by measuring still-air tethered flight. There was a large amount of variation among females in flight duration. The longest single flight (with no pauses of more than 5 s) was more than 2 h long. Mating status had a significant and large effect on flight: mated females flew twice as long as virgin females. There also was a slight but significant effect of age on flight, with 3-day-old females being less likely to fly than 1-day-old females. Flight duration was not affected by prior exposure to other females, to honey, or to a low or a high host density.
The fine structure of fibrillar flight muscle of the mature adult beetle Tenebrio molitor is described. Although the very high frequency of contraction of fibrillar muscle has previously been in part accounted for as the result of mechanical specialization of the wing-bearing segment rather than of a correspondingly high rate of motor impulse supply, the problem of the nature of the pathway by which excitation is conducted into these large fibers remained. Therefore, particular attention has been given to the disposition and relationships of the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum in this tissue. The invading tracheoles draw with them a sheath of plasma membrane from the surface to all depths in the fiber, and it is suggested that these sheaths, together with the extensive tubular arborisations arising from them, reduce the maximum plasma membrane-to-fibril distance from the radius of the fiber to a value of less than 2 µ. The evidence presented here confirms Verattis contention that in ...
Gamma irradiation is known to inactivate various pathogens that negatively affect honey bee health. Bee pathogens, such as Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Nosema spp., have a deleterious impact on foraging activities and bee survival, and have been detected in combs. In this study, we assessed the effects of gamma irradiation on the flight activities, pathogen load, and survival of two honey bee stocks that were reared in irradiated and non-irradiated combs. Overall, bee genotype influenced the average number of daily flights, the total number of foraging flights, and total flight duration, in which the Russian honey bees outperformed the Italian honey bees. Exposing combs to gamma irradiation only affected the age at first flight, with worker bees that were reared in non-irradiated combs foraging prematurely compared to those reared in irradiated combs. Precocious foraging may be associated with the higher levels of DWV in bees reared in non-irradiated combs and also with the lower amount of pollen
The flight simulator yoke is almost real looking yoke designed for the computer pilots.. This gives a realistic feel to the users of the flight simulators.. The yoke has three axes of control including the pitch, roll and a throttle lever.. Along with this it has 14 button functions including- the gear and flap, four way hat switch, two way rocker switch and three push buttons.. As the yoke is used for flying the aircraft, it also real like mechanism trim wheel mounted on the left side of the yoke case.. This wheel allows the pilot to adjust the centre of the yoke.. There are several more buttons on the yoke, each having a different function helpful in flying an aircraft.. All these buttons on the flight simulator yoke are programmed to function on their respective given commands when needed during the game.. As the flight simulators are very safe to use, they are extensively being used by the aviation industry for the training purposes of the flight crew.. And since the accessories related to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. I. Flight kinematics. AU - Cheng, Bo. AU - Tobalske, Bret W.. AU - Powers, Donald R.. AU - Hedrick, Tyson L.. AU - Wethington, Susan M.. AU - Chiu, George T.C.. AU - Deng, Xinyan. N1 - Funding Information: Provided by the National Science Foundation [NSF CMMI 1234737 to X.D., B.W.T. and T.L.H.] and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [Climate and Biological Response 10-BIOCLIM10-0094 to D.R.P.].. PY - 2016/11/15. Y1 - 2016/11/15. N2 - Hummingbirds are natures masters of aerobatic manoeuvres. Previous research shows that hummingbirds and insects converged evolutionarily upon similar aerodynamic mechanisms and kinematics in hovering. Herein, we use three-dimensional kinematic data to begin to test for similar convergence of kinematics used for escape flight and to explore the effects of body size upon manoeuvring.We studied four hummingbird species in North America including two large species ...
This is a collaborative project between the Phenotypic Evolution Lab and the Animal Flight Lab.. Damselflies of the genus Calopteryx are highly aerial creatures that depend on their flight capabilities for hunting, territory defense, courtship displays, mating success and predator avoidance. All these requirements put selective pressure on wing morphology, although potentially in opposing directions. While we have a good conceptual understanding of the consequences of wing shape on flight performance, few studies have shown a direct link between wing morphology, flight performance and individual fitness and survival in the field.. Our study system comprises of two sympatric damselfly species: Calopteryx splendens, and C. virgofor which previous studies suggest differential selection pressure on wing morphology by avian predators. We use geometric morphometric methods to analyze variations in wing morphology, both between and within the species, and combine these data with flight performance ...
Knowing that your flight simulator is capable of letting you experience what is it about flying.. The flight simulator controls would allow you to understand more about what to do when you are up there as well as what to consider when it comes to maneuvering one aircraft to another.. You aircraft simulator is merely concentrated on the graphics needed for you to take part in the visual effects that is related to flying.. While with the use of certain controls it would be easier for you to focus on what do you have to do when you are flying a war or a commercial plane.. As well as learning how to fly fighter jets and various aircrafts stored on the database of the software.. You can truly enjoy the whole experience with various flight simulator controls.. More often these aviation simulators includes controls integrated with your keyboard however there is more to experience from this gaming system than just controlling it with your keyboard.. You should opt to look for a software which supports ...
If you are fond of flying aircrafts via the use of simulators, you definitely would be interested enough to get access to flight simulator charts so you can get enough information regarding runway headings as well as frequencies.. This information is absolutely available online, you just have to know how to search for the right information.. You can check several websites that would provide you the necessary charts needed to correlate with you flight simulator.. More often the frequencies change from time to time.. So one should take note that the charts that you will be getting are the ones that would match your own database.. One way of doing this is through getting access to charts all at the same time when they have already been revised accordingly.. These flight simulator charts functions as an aid for the aircraft simulator pilot to navigate the aircraft properly as well as provide the necessary approach when it comes to weather reporting and runways.. Having these charts handy would make ...
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Wings are the most obvious adaptation bats have for powered flight and differences in wing morphology are known to correlate with flight behaviour. However, the function(s) of ancillary structures such as the ears and tail, which may also play an important role during flight, are less well understood. Here we constructed a simplified model of a bat body with ears based upon morphological measurements of a brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) to examine the aerodynamic implications of flying with large ears. The forces and moments produced by the model were measured using a sensitive 6-component force and torque balance during wind tunnel testing. The large ears of the model bat produced positive lift as well as positive drag of the same order of magnitude. At small ears angles (0° to 10°), increasing the angle of the ears resulted in an increase of the lift-to-drag ratio. At higher ear angles (| 10°) separation of the flow occurred which caused a large decrease in the lift-to-drag ratio produced.
The original finding aid described this as: Description: Flyaround of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on Flight Day 9 of the second servicing mission (HST SM-02). The telescope is backdropped by the Earth in frames 007-38. Subject Terms: STS-82, DISCOVERY (ORBITER), HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE, EARTH OBSERVATIONS (FROM SPACE), DEPLOYMENT Date Taken: 2/19/1997 Categories: Hubble Space Telescope Interior_Exterior: Exterior Ground_Orbit: On-orbit Original: Film - 35MM CN Preservation File Format: TIFF. less ...
A system may include at least one computer device configured to attain a two-dimensional used profile of a leading edge at a specified radial position on a turbomachine airfoil after use. The system aligns opposing substantially straight alignment portions of the two-dimensional used profile with opposing substantially straight alignment portions of a previously attained, two-dimensional, baseline profile of the turbomachine airfoil. The alignment portions of each profile are in substantially identical radial locations of the turbomachine airfoil. Comparing the used profile to the baseline profile determines whether the leading edge at the specified radial position of the used turbomachine airfoil has erosion. The system may also include a laser profiler for measuring the turbomachine airfoil.
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Manifestation of appropriate behavior in adult animals requires developmental mechanisms that help in the formation of correctly wired neural circuits. Flight circuit development in Drosophila requires store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) through the STIM/Orai pathway. SOCE-associated flight deficits in adult Drosophila derive extensively from regulation of gene expression in pupal neurons, and one such SOCE-regulated gene encodes the small GTPase Ral. The cellular mechanism by which Ral helps in maturation of the flight circuit was not understood. Here, we show that knockdown of components of a Ral effector, the exocyst complex, in pupal neurons also leads to reduced flight bout durations, and this phenotype derives primarily from dopaminergic neurons. Importantly, synaptic release from pupal dopaminergic neurons is abrogated upon knockdown of dSTIM, Ral, or exocyst components. Ral overexpression restores the diminished synaptic release of dStim knockdown neurons as well as flight deficits ...
Copyright 2013 by Steven J. Lane. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
If you have been an aircraft enthusiast for years now, you probably would like to enhance your experience in flying and bring it to a higher level.. To do this, it would be necessary for you to look into modern options and get a new flight simulator version into your own gaming system.. Of course it would be very advantageous on your part to make use of a newer version than stick with the older one youve got.. Aside from the added features that you can benefit from, you will also have the chance to learn more from the simulator itself than merely using it for just gaming purposes.. Since these are newer versions, you can definitely count on the high quality graphics and sound effects that you can get from it.. You can also benefit from a very realistic approach in terms of flying aircrafts, navigating them properly, and getting to experience what it is like to fly various aircrafts without having to put yourself at risk in danger.. It is that hard to find a new flight simulator nowadays, youll ...
We examined how heart (HR) varies as a function of flight speed in a flying bird, examining changes in HR of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) flying in a wind tunnel at different speeds. In mammals, heart rate (HR) correlates well with the rate of metabolism (metabolic power), indicating that heart rate is adjusted to meet the oxygen demand for a particular level of exertion and that increased oxygen demand at higher metabolic power is (at least partially) met by increased cardiac output. Measurements of the rate of respiratory oxygen consumption (VO2) can be used to estimate metabolic aerobic power for animals that burn fuel using oxidative phosphorylation. However, respirometry is experimentally challenging to achieve for flying birds over a range of sustained flight speeds, and relatively few studies have successfully accomplished this. Assuming a strong correlation between HR and VO2, HR measurements have been used to estimate the metabolic power requirements of freely flying birds. We ...
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In flight the adult dragonfly can move in six directions; upward, downward, forward, back, and side to side.[2][9] They can also hover quite well in midair, and then they can take off at speeds of up to 35 mph (56 km/h). Scientists discovered dragonflies can move each of their four wings independently which gives them their flying abilities. Dragonflies bend and twist their wings to cause little whirlwinds that move the air even faster over the upper part of the airfoil, reducing air pressure even more than most flying animals can. This gives them a lot of lift, even in the face of powerful winds. The flight style of different families of dragonfly is one of their distinguishing features. It gives rise to some terms which are widely used by dragonfly observers: Hawkers (family Aeshnidae). They are among the largest and fastest flying dragonflies. The adults live mostly in the air, and even mate in flight. They have large and powerful wings, and can fly forwards or backwards or hover like a ...
A transportable three-dimensional calibration wind tunnel system is comprised of a small wind tunnel portion for creating a three-dimensional calibration air having a suitable wind velocity, and a two-axis rotational deformation device portion for causing said wind tunnel portion to effect a conical motion with a nozzle blow port being an apex to suitably change a flow angle. The two-axis rotational deformation device is comprised of a β-angle rotational deformation device having a β-angle deformation base supported to be rotated horizontally, and a α-angle rotational deformation device having a α-angle deformation base supported to be rotated vertically. A rotational axis of the α-angle deformation base, a rotational axis of the β-angle deformation base and a center axis of the small wind tunnel portion are arranged so that they intersect at a point. In a method for the verification of a flight control system of an aircraft using the transportable three-dimensional calibration wind tunnel system,
The majority of PMDC gearmotors and motors used in industry require speed controls in order to operate.. Typically, the control is wired to the motor through a costly, complicated cable system and the motor and control can be many steps away from each other.. Bison Gear and Engineerings Tightdrive motor-mounted speed control can be easily field-mounted on Bison PMDC gearmotors up to 1/6 horsepower (124W) and offers a 20:1 speed range with maximum output of 90V.. The Tightdrive is housed in a durable aluminium extrusion that offers NEMA 1 (IP30) protection and good heat dissipation.. Speed is controlled with a combination on/off switch and speed potentiometer.. In addition, three easily accessible adjustable potentiometers provide settings for minimum rpm, maximum rpm, and current limiting.. The SCR control architecture also provides tighter speed regulation than alternative controls.. The Tightdrive is designed for 115V 50/60Hz operation and comes complete with a 3ft power cord and NEMA 5-15P ...
Summary: Wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) is a form of locomotion in which a bird flaps its wings to aid its hindlimbs in climbing a slope. WAIR is used for escape in ground birds, and the ontogeny of this behavior in precocial birds has been suggested to represent a model analogous to transitional adaptive states during the evolution of powered avian flight. To begin to reveal the aerodynamics of flap-running, we used digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and measured air velocity, vorticity, circulation and added mass in the wake of chukar partridge _Alectoris chukar_ as they engaged in WAIR (incline 65?85°; N=7 birds) and ascending flight (85°, N=2). To estimate lift and impulse, we coupled our DPIV data with three-dimensional wing kinematics from a companion study. The ontogeny of lift production was evaluated using three age classes: baby birds incapable of flight [6?8 days post hatching (d.p.h.)] and volant juveniles (25?28 days) and adults (45+ days). All three age classes of ...
This is the flight simulator installed into a cockpit that equips players with the same flight controls found in actual aircraft. The missions range from dropping bags of flour onto waterborne targets to taking off from an aircraft carrier aboard an F/A-18 Hornet.
Page 112-Discussion Free Flight FF Auto Balance Controller with 3D Acceleration Sensor For QuadCopter Multirotor Drone Electronics
Ten months after its unveiling, the space vehicle VSS Unity completed its first free flight on Saturday at the Mojave Air & Spaceport in the Antelope Valley.
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What is Leaflet MailDrop & Flyer Distribution? Flyer Distribution / maildrop also know as leaflets distribution service , is a service that your adv flyer or brochures will be sent from houses to houses, or door to door delivery.
Branch lengths-measured in character changes-are an essential requirement of clock-based divergence estimation, regardless of whether the fossil calibrations used represent nodes or tips. However, a separate set of divergence time approaches are typically used to date palaeontological trees, which may lack such branch lengths. Among these methods, sophisticated probabilistic approaches have recently emerged, in contrast with simpler algorithms relying on minimum node ages. Here, using a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for Mesozoic dinosaurs, we apply two such approaches to estimate divergence times for: (i) Dinosauria, (ii) Avialae (the earliest birds) and (iii) Neornithes (crown birds). We find: (i) the plausibility of a Permian origin for dinosaurs to be dependent on whether Nyasasaurus is the oldest dinosaur, (ii) a Middle to Late Jurassic origin of avian flight regardless of whether Archaeopteryx or Aurornis is considered the first bird and (iii) a Late Cretaceous origin for Neornithes that is ...
Using a simulator is crucial for any vehicle; whether in a flight, vessel, or any type of training that requires realistic environments and interaction.. From driving cars to flying planes, there are many simulators available in the market.. But to get the best experience and essential knowledge, a learner has to choose the best simulator.. The various characteristics a good flight simulator should have- are the following: - Any simulator no matter what the field is- should be as realistic as possible.. This enables the trainee to feel the pressure of the real condition.. Good sky and terrain rendering should be available also.. Sound effects also play an important role and without it, the software will feel like a nicely modelled game.. The person using it must know the different conditions he must go through in order to learn how to fly a plane.. - The real time physics calculation should be accurate.. Even if the textures and lighting are perfect, incorrect physics calculation will make ...
300 million-year-old discovery in an unlikely setting -- a suburban strip mall. While paleontologists may scour remote, exotic places in search of prehistoric specimens, Tufts researchers have found what they believe to be the worlds oldest whole-body fossil impression of a flying insect in a wooded field behind a strip mall in North Attleboro, Mass.. During a recent exploration as part of his senior project, Richard J. Knecht, a Tufts geology major, and Jake Benner, a paleontologist and senior lecturer in the Geology Department, set out to hunt for fossils at a location they learned of while reading a masters thesis that had been written in 1929. With chisels and hammers, the team reached the shale and sandstone outcropping described in the paper. There they delicately picked away pieces of rock before reaching a section that yielded fossils. Just below the surface, they uncovered a fossilized impression of a flying insect.. Not just any fossil. It was not just any fossil. Knecht says it is ...
Ornithopters or flapping wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have potential applications in both civil and military sectors. Amongst all categories of UAVs, ornithopters have a unique ability to fly in low Reynolds number flight regimes and have the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft. In nature, birds achieve such performance by exploiting various wing kinematics known as gaits. The objective of this work was to improve the steady level flight wing performance of an ornithopter by implementing the Continuous Vortex Gait (CVG) using a novel passive compliant spine. The CVG is a set of bio-inspired kinematics that natural flyers use to produce lift and thrust during steady level flight. A significant contribution of this work was the recognition that the CVG is an avian gait that could be achieved using a passive morphing mechanism. In contrast to rigid-link mechanisms and active approaches, reported by other researchers in the open literature, passive morphing mechanisms require ...
A Wings of Mercy flight doesnt just mean a free flight, traveling faster than by car or being able to avoid commercial airlines - it means someone else is there to help.. For Vicki Kavanaugh of Holland, finding Wings of Mercy meant less worry. Suddenly there was someone else there to help her, help her husband.. It was like being with family, she said.. Mark Kavanaugh was diagnosed with obstructive hypertrophic cardio myopathy earlier this year. He needed to go to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., for a surgery that would take out the obstruction. Vicki started looking for flights and found they would cost between $900 and $1,800 each. To drive meant more than eight uncomfortable and still costly hours on the road.. The cost was one obstacle. But getting Mark - who in March had trouble walking distances and breathing - through an airport and its security, a layover, another airport, to a hotel and more, was what really worried her. The return flight, after open-heart surgery worried her ...
Author(s): Fox, Jessica L; Frye, Mark A | Abstract: Visual identification of small moving targets is a challenge for all moving animals. Their own motion generates displacement of the visual surroundings, inducing wide-field optic flow across the retina. Wide-field optic flow is used to sense perturbations in the flight course. Both ego-motion and corrective optomotor responses confound any attempt to track a salient target moving independently of the visual surroundings. What are the strategies that flying animals use to discriminate small-field figure motion from superimposed wide-field background motion? We examined how fruit flies adjust their gaze in response to a compound visual stimulus comprising a small moving figure against an independently moving wide-field ground, which they do by re-orienting their head or their flight trajectory. We found that fixing the head in place impairs object fixation in the presence of ground motion, and that head movements are necessary for stabilizing wing
Wind tunnel calibration. Laser (green light) being used to measure and calibrate wind speeds inside a wind tunnel. An air flow, generated in the large cylindrical section (blue, upper left) is passed through the transparent box (upper right), where a small aircraft model is placed. The laser (created and transmitted by the equipment at lower left) is reflected off the mirror below the box. The speed of the air flow is calculated by detecting light scattered from the laser off dust in the air. The results from the small models used are scaled up (extrapolated) to replicate flight conditions. The wind tunnel seen here is part of CIRA, the Italian aerospace research centre in Padua, Italy. CIRA was founded in 1984. - Stock Image T732/0076
In 1914 he published Animal Flight about soaring flight in birds, based on observations he made, particularly of gulls and ... Animal flight; a record of observation. Illife and sons, London Study of Bird Flight (1911) Nationalism and the communal mind ( ... He continued his research in the dynamics of animal flight. He was an Associate Fellow of the Aeronautical Society of Great ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) W. S. (1915). "Review: Hankin on Animal Flight" (PDF). Auk. 32 (2): 245-247. doi:10.2307 ...
Bajec, Iztok Lebar; Heppner, Frank H. (October 2009). "Organized flight in birds". Animal Behaviour. 78 (4): 777-789. doi: ... NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center initiated the NASA Autonomous Formation Flight program, which involved a Formation Flight ... "NASA - Dryden Flight Research Center - News Room: News Releases: NASA'S AUTONOMOUS FORMATION FLIGHT: FOLLOW THE LEADER AND SAVE ... Play media A V formation is the symmetric V-shaped flight formation of flights of geese, swans, ducks, and other migratory ...
"Organized flight in birds" (PDF). Animal Behaviour. 78 (4): 777-789. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.07.007. S2CID 53180059. Ibáñez ... Olfaction was used to transmit emotion between animals, through pheromones modelled as particles in a free expansion gas. ... such as schools of fish or herds of animals. It was for instance used in the 1998 video game Half-Life for the flying bird-like ... "On the use of Virtual Animals with Artificial Fear in Virtual Environments". New Generation Computing. 25 (2): 145-169. doi: ...
Davis, J.Michael (1975). "Socially induced flight reactions in pigeons". Animal Behaviour. 23: 597-601. doi:10.1016/0003-3472( ... In its flight, behaviour, and voice, which is more of a dovecot coo than the phrase of the wood pigeon, it is a typical pigeon ... Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group Inc. Retrieved 26 April 2017. Peters, Anne; Klonczinski, Eva; ... California Wildlife Center cautions about backyard invaders Power Requirements for Horizontal Flight in the Pigeon Columba ...
The fur is short and dull, and significantly paler, sometimes even whitish, on the underside of the animal. The tail is 2.7 to ... Like most bats, the Yuma Myotis will locate insects in flight by emitting ultrasonic sounds known as echolocation, then they ... Sims, Kelly (2000). "Myotis yumanensis". Animal Diversity Web. Boyles, J.G.; Dunbar, M.B. & Whitaker, J.O. (October 2006). " ... Hayward, B. & Davis, R. (May 1964). "Flight speeds in western bats". Journal of Mammalogy. 45 (2): 236-242. doi:10.2307/1376986 ...
Flight. Asher is one of the best vampires Anita has seen at flying. Animal to Call. In Danse Macabre, Asher developed the ...
1970 Animal architecture. Edited by Roger Caras. Foreword by Roger Tory Peterson. 1971 Birds in flight. Edited by Roger Caras. ... 1989 Animal families of the wild: animal stories / by Roger Caras ... [et al.]; edited by William F. Russell; with art by John ... 1974 Venomous animals / by Roger Caras; foreword by Roger Tory Peterson. 1974 Venomous animals of the world [by] Roger Caras. ... 1987 Animals in their places: tales from the natural world / Roger A. Caras. 1987 Private lives of animals / commentary by ...
Animal Rage followed Clark as he tries to stop an animal rights activist when she tries to hurt the people harming animals in ... Little's Flight featured Clark trying to lend emotional support to a young girl who has full-sized wings. The next Aspect novel ... ISBN 0-446-61215-4. David Weiss & Bobby Weiss (February 2, 2003). Smallville: Animal Rage. Little, Brown Young Readers. ISBN 0- ... Krystal Clark (July 28, 2010). "Smallville Season 10 Trailer - Flight and Tights?". Screencrave.com. Archived from the original ...
2003). Butterflies: Ecology and Evolution Taking Flight. Chicago: University of Chicago. Scoble, M. J. (1995). The Lepidoptera ... Animal Behaviour. 80 (2): 231-239. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.04.023. S2CID 53147646. Boggs, Carol L., Ward B. Watt, and Paul R ...
Taylor, L.R. (1974). "Insect migration, flight periodicity and the. boundary layer". Journal of Animal Ecology. 43 (1): 225-238 ... Animal migration Kennedy, J.S. (1985) Migration, behavioural and ecological. In: Rankin, M.A. (ed.) Migration: Mechanisms and ... The air speeds in this region are typically lower than the flight speed of the insect. These 'boundary-layer' migrants include ... In an experiment on the monarch butterfly, it was shown that a magnet changed the direction of initial flight of migrating ...
As the result of the accidents in the 1970s and 1980s, most notably following the 1985 crash of Delta Air Lines Flight 191, in ... ISBN 0-9605676-3-1. Alexander, R. (2002). Principles of Animal Locomotion. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 206. ISBN ... In gliding, wind gradients just above the surface affect the takeoff and landing phases of the flight of a glider. Wind ... Piggott, Derek (1997). Gliding: a Handbook on Soaring Flight. Knauff & Grove. pp. 85-86, 130-132. ISBN 978-0-9605676-4-5. ...
... while the mean flight range is 1.89 kilometres (1.17 mi). Flight activity is dependent on the light intensity and temperature; ... this can be devastating to livestock and is the most economically important arthropod borne animal diseases in the United ... The max flight range for male C. variipennis is 0.8 kilometres (0.50 mi) and for females 4.0 kilometres (2.5 mi), ... "The Flight Range of Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)". The Canadian Entomologist. 113.5 419-426. Holbrook, ...
"How speedy lizards take flight across water". New Scientist. Retrieved October 5, 2010. "Thomas McMahon Dies; Studied Animal ... and mechanics of animal locomotion. He was born in Dayton, Ohio, and grew up in Lexington, Massachusetts. He also wrote four ...
A flight of fancy? No, it's based on real life". The Independent. Retrieved 27 February 2010. BBC: A History Of The World ... "Animal war heroes statue unveiled". BBC News. 24 November 2004. Retrieved 27 February 2010. Herbert, Ian (23 March 2005). "The ... and taking into account the wind direction and the inhibition to her flight speed caused by oil spoilage to her feathers, the ...
A flight of fancy? No, it's based on real life". The Independent. London. Retrieved 27 February 2010. "Animals at War captions ... "The Animals' VC". BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 3 March 2010. Clout, Laura (14 December 2007). "A better resting place for the animal ... Animal Info. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-921537-09-7. Retrieved 5 March 2010. "The PDSA Animal Awards Programme". PDSA. Retrieved 17 ... "Ilford Animal Cemetery". PDSA. Retrieved 27 February 2010. Judd, Terri (16 August 2000). "'Animal VC' will honour Gander's dash ...
Get attacked by an animal. Throw a Wilhelmina mannequin down a flight of stairs. And that's just the first three episodes." It ... which in turn would take a turn for the worse after she is pushed down a flight of stairs. Daniel is framed for it and Betty ...
Short flights are typical when the young barred owls are up to around 10 weeks old with longer flights commencing at about 14 ... Journal of Animal Ecology, 77(4), 830-837. Anich, N. M., T. J. Benson, J. D. Brown, C. Roa, J. C. Bednarz, R. E. Brown, and J. ... with only a brief flight necessary to obtain food, whilst lower wing-loading owls often hunt their prey from active flight. As ... The flight feathers are barred with whitish buff and brown while the tail is brown or grayish-brown with 4-5 whitish bars. ...
The Most Savage Animal. Rupert Hart-Davis London, London. 1972. Johnny Horns. Corgi Children's, London. 1972. The Man in the ... Unscheduled Flight. Mayflower, London. 1978. The Manipulators. Angus & Robertson, Sydney. 1978. Billy Two-Toes' Rainbow. Nelson ...
Little, Brown Young Readers then published Animal Rage by David and Bobby Weiss, about animal-rights activist Heather Fox (who ... Flight (like See No Evil) was a planned episode, but the crew was uncertain that they could get the flying effects right and ... She has Clark's abilities, including flight. At the end of the seventh season, Kara was trapped in the Phantom Zone. Although ... A month after the publication of Grant's novel Bennett and Gottesfeld wrote Little, Brown Young Readers' Flight, about a young ...
Hume, A. O. (1887). "On the flight of birds". Stray Feathers. 10: 248-254. Hankin, E. H. (1914). Animal Flight: A Record of ... Science, he wrote: ...teaches men to take an interest in things outside and beyond… The gratification of the animal instinct ... Certhia manipurensis Specimens of other animal groups collected by Hume on his expeditions and named after him include the ...
First flight is generally around 6-7 weeks of maturity. Nest is made from bulky materials (twigs and sticks about 1 cm-2 cm in ... Large water dwelling bird, diurnal animal. Slate-grey to black with distinctive black spots in the centre of the lower fore- ... Flight: stately, slow steady wing beats. Body size/length 76-106 cm, Wingspan 147-160 cm, Weight 860g.I have studied the bird, ...
The aerodynamics of hovering animal flight. lib.cam.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. OCLC 53557374. EThOS uk.bl. ... Ellington, C. P.; Van Den Berg, C.; Willmott, A. P.; Thomas, A. L. R. (1996). "Leading-edge vortices in insect flight". Nature ... His early analysis of the kinematics and aerodynamics of hovering showed that the flight of most insects cannot be explained by ... Willmott, A. P.; Ellington, C. P. (1997). "The mechanics of flight in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. I. Kinematics of hovering and ...
"Animals That Time Forgot". Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom. YouTube. Retrieved 23 March 2018. "Spotted Ghost of the Desert Part ... "Miracle of Flight". Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom. YouTube. Retrieved 16 March 2018. "TV Times". Los Angeles Times. October 20 ... "Capturing Wild Animals". Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom. YouTube. Retrieved 19 March 2018. "Television Sunday Highlights". ... p. 6. "Danger: Wild Animals". Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom. YouTube. Retrieved 16 March 2018. "Sunday". Chicago Tribune. ...
These include the Animal Humanitarian of the Year Award from the Animal Protection Institute, the Humane Excellence Award from ... including the company's first transatlantic jet engine powered flight in 1958; she repeated the journey in 1983 on the flight's ... "Surinam Animals Menanced by Dam; Expedition Will Try to Save Them From Rising take". The New York Times. August 2, 1964. " ... She later recalled: "It was the pre-jet days, so layovers on international flights were long. I'd have four or five days at a ...
In flight, its call is a typical goose honking. A mid-sized goose, it measures 71-76 cm (28-30 in) in total length and weighs ... Weigmann, C.; Lamprecht, J. (1991). "Intraspecific Nest Parasitism in Bar-headed Geese, Anser indicus". Animal Behaviour. 41 (4 ... Flight is very metabolically costly at high-altitudes because birds need to flap harder in thin air to generate lift. Studies ... While this decreases the power output required for flight in thin air, birds at high altitude still need to flap harder than ...
Hertz, Paul E.; Huey, Raymond B.; Nevo, Eviatar (1982). "Fight versus flight: Body temperature influences defensive responses ... long head has the eyes fairly near the front with a distinctive pair of ear openings some way behind in line with the animal's ... of lizards". Animal Behaviour. 30 (3): 676-679. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(82)80137-1. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, ...
25,5M). Reverse design: representation of a bird in flight. 10 sen in cupro-nickel, 2g, 19mm dia. (45M). Reverse design: ... representation of a land animal. 20 sen in cupro-nickel, 4g, 23mm dia. (32M). Reverse design: representation of a tree. 50 sen ... Nyerere on the obverse and African wildlife animals on the reverse. This set included circulation and commemorative sets. The ...
... the flight of birds; the noises made by a spring; or in the entrails of an animal. Also long established were the Eleusinian ...
"Garbage on Twitter: Animal became The One....so you have heard that one..." Twitter/Garbage. April 12, 2014. Retrieved January ... "Garbage on Twitter: don't miss your flight...or there will be t.r.o.u.b.l.e". Twitter/Garbage. February 20, 2012. Retrieved ... ", "Animal", "Choose Your Weapon", "Time Will Destroy Everything" and "T.R.O.U.B.L.E.". Manson confirmed on Twitter that " ... "Animal" became "The One", a song from the deluxe version, while "Time Will Destroy Everything" was released as the b-side to ...
"Special Animals" (PDF). California Department of Fish and Game. July 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-23. ... "Yellow-billed Cuckoo". California Partners in Flight. "Kern River Watershed statistics sheet" (PDF). Headwaters Institute. 2005 ...
Board of Education US Supreme Court decision revealed a pattern later characterized as white flight, the hypersegregation of ... Other schools are built around elite-sporting programs or teach agricultural skills such as farming or animal breeding. ... the state of Missouri to fund the creation of magnet schools in the Kansas City Public Schools to reverse the white flight that ...
"Animal Cognition. 18 (1): 393-397. doi:10.1007/s10071-014-0794-4. PMID 25123853. Retrieved 5 December 2017.. ... The primary flight feathers are replaced over a period of three months. Juvenile birds undergo a partial moult beginning about ... Short buoyant flights and chases follow. Magpies prefer tall trees for their bulky nest, firmly attaching them to a central ... Bekoff, M. (2009). "Animal emotions, wild justice and why they matter: Grieving magpies, a pissy baboon, and empathic elephants ...
Small animal imagingEdit. PET technology for small animal imaging: A miniature PE tomograph has been constructed that is small ... "Time-of-flight" is used to improve the overall performance. Time-of-flight PET makes use of very fast gamma-ray detectors and ... animal diagnosis. Because of cost as well as the marginal utility of detecting cancer metastases in companion animals (the ... Time-of-flight (TOF) PET: For modern systems with a higher time resolution (roughly 3 nanoseconds) a technique called " ...
... animal matter and 62.4% plant matter, most notably the grass Echinochloa crus-galli, and nonlaying females ate 37.0% animal ... "Attempted Rape Flight", and Stanley Cramp and K.E.L. Simmons (1977) speak of "rape-intent flights".[86] Male mallards also ... eat water plants and small animals, and are social animals preferring to congregate in groups or flocks of varying sizes. This ... "Animal Diversity Web. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2017.. ...
"Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2013-08-21.. *^ a b c d e f g h Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide ... Bassi, J. (2013). Pilot in the Wild: Flights of Conservation and Survival. South Africa: Jacana Media. pp. 116-8. ISBN 978-1- ... The animal is placed in the genus Connochaetes and family Bovida] and was first described by the German zoologist Eberhard ... In some animals, the auditory bullae are highly deformed, and in others, the radius and ulna are fused.[13] ...
Martin Walters & Jinny Johnson (2007). The World of Animals. Bath, Somerset: Parragon. ISBN 978-1-4054-9926-2. .. .mw-parser- ... such as shipwrecks or a flaperon suspected to be from Malaysia Airlines Flight 370.[30][31] ... The geological history of barnacles can be traced back to animals such as Priscansermarinus from the Middle Cambrian (on the ... Inside the carapace, the animal lies on its stomach, with its limbs projecting downwards. Segmentation is usually indistinct, ...
Other animal species. See also: Tool use by animals, Structures built by animals, and Ecosystem engineer ... Scientific advancement and the discovery of new concepts later allowed for powered flight and advancements in medicine, ... The use of basic technology is also a feature of other animal species apart from humans. These include primates such as ... evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1 Ma;[26] ...
Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, ... flight was more commonly counseled, and in urban Italy quarantines were organized on a much wider level than in urban Egypt or ... Conservation medicine studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions. Also known as ... Before this, medical doctors treated both humans and other animals. Modern scientific biomedical research (where results are ...
The town takes its name from the River Otter on which it stands, the river taking its name from the animal. The 'St Mary' ... accident had been primarily caused by the crew's mistaken belief that there was sufficient fuel on board to complete the flight ...
Waterspouts and tornadoes have been advanced as an explanation for instances of raining fish and other animals.[109] ... "Flight Briefing Notes: Adverse Weather Operations Optimum Use of Weather Radar" (PDF). SKYbrary. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-11-19 ... "Q: You've probably heard the expression, "it's raining cats and dogs." Has it ever rained animals?". USA Today. Retrieved 2009 ...
Usually organisms that have a higher rate of reproduction than their competitors have an evolutionary advantage. Consequently, organisms can evolve to become simpler and thus multiply faster and produce more offspring, as they require fewer resources to reproduce. A good example are parasites such as Plasmodium - the parasite responsible for malaria - and mycoplasma; these organisms often dispense with traits that are made unnecessary through parasitism on a host.[7] A lineage can also dispense with complexity when a particular complex trait merely provides no selective advantage in a particular environment. Loss of this trait need not necessarily confer a selective advantage, but may be lost due to the accumulation of mutations if its loss does not confer an immediate selective disadvantage.[8] For example, a parasitic organism may dispense with the synthetic pathway of a metabolite where it can readily scavenge that metabolite from its host. Discarding this synthesis may not necessarily allow ...
Deceased relatives were usually put to rest in the open, where the bodies were eaten by animals and birds. Nowadays, bodies are ... and even to take a flight of fancy." It can be seen from Mongolian perspective as "the look in the eye of a horse that is ...
Animal pollination[change , change source]. Beetle pollination. Beetle-pollinated flowers are usually large, greenish or off- ... A lot of nectar is produced to fuel the high metabolic rates needed to power their flight. ... Instead, they produce a precursor of the fly's sex pheromone.[8][9] Flies which normally visit dead animals or dung are ... What happens is basically the same as sexual reproduction in animals. Each pollen grain is haploid: it has half of the DNA ( ...
In animals[edit]. Invertebrates[edit]. Insects[edit]. Communication is very important for animals all throughout the animal ... This display behaviour consists of various flight patterns, wing and colour displays, and particular vocalizations.[7] As a ... Display behaviour is a set of ritualized behaviours that enable an animal to communicate to other animals (typically of the ... As a result, animals have certain environmental and social cues that they can use to decide when is the most beneficial time to ...
Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat ... Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions ... They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their ... These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There ...
"Animal Planet :: Ferocious Crocs". Animal.discovery.com. 2008-09-10. Retrieved March 16, 2010.. ... These same displays are used in territorial disputes and during courtship.[120] If danger arises so suddenly that flight is ... a b Colbert, E.H. & Morales, M. (2001): Colbert's Evolution of the Vertebrates: A History of the Backboned Animals Through Time ... The oldest known animal that may have been an amniote is Casineria (though it may have been a temnospondyl).[35][36][37] A ...
The tetrapods, including all large- and medium-sized land animals, have been among the best understood animals since earliest ... Amniotes include the tetrapods that further evolved for flight-such as birds from among the dinosaurs, and bats from among the ... Tetrapods (/ˈtɛtrəpɒdz/; from Greek τετρα- tetra- 'four' and πούς poús 'foot') are four-limbed animals constituting the ... Most of the animal's strength was used to just lift its body off the ground for walking, which was probably slow and difficult ...
... often being compared to animals or robots due to their sexuality.[25][9][26] ...
Johan the Young Scientist • Raindrop the Water Adventure • Nanami's Animal Antic • Quiz Me Science • Once Upon Time Series • ... Masinis - muncul di episode Do not lean out of the window, First flight dan Oggywood ...
With these findings, animal model research has served to identify what these roles are - with regards to animal development and ... In animal experiments, exposure to prenatal stress has been shown to cause a hyper-reactive HPA stress response. Rats that have ... Though animal models allow for more control of experimental manipulation, the effects of early life stress on HPA axis function ... Prenatally stressed animals also show abnormally high blood glucose levels and have fewer glucocorticoid receptors in the ...
Chard claims to be the birthplace of powered flight, in 1848 when the Victorian aeronautical pioneer John Stringfellow first ... animals) equipment. The Fire Service College is in Moreton-in-Marsh near Moreton-in-Marsh station. Northcot Brick is at ... which was the former 300-acre site of the Cheltenham Division of Smiths Industries that made flight control systems and flight ... flight control systems or AFCS), in Northway; also on the estate is Steinhoff UK, who own Sleepmasters and Bensons for Beds. ...
... often riding on camels or other animals from the zoo, in Warsaw, Poznań[119] and other cities. The Wise Men pass out sweets, ... Flight into Egypt. *Star of Bethlehem. *Biblical Magi *Adoration of the Magi ...
"In Defense of Animals. Retrieved 1 August 2016.. *^ Kelly, Denise; Rae, Joan; Menzel, Krista (2007). "The True Nature of ... Some parrots have a strong, direct flight. Most species spend much of their time perched or climbing in tree canopies. They ... The journal Animal Cognition stated that some birds preferred to work alone, while others like to work together as with grey ... The Politics of Species: Reshaping our Relationships with Other Animals. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978- ...
The flight of these birds is strong and direct, but has an undulating quality, similar to the relatively unique flight-style of ... similarly by all woodpeckers-provide good homes in future years for many forest song birds and a wide variety of other animals ... They show white on the wings in flight. ...
Additionally, they have keen eyesight for detecting food at a distance or during flight, strong feet equipped with talons for ... Although the term bird of prey could theoretically be taken to include all birds that primarily consume animals,[3] ... The evolution of migration in animals seems to be a complex and difficult topic with many unanswered questions. ... ornithologists typically use the narrower definition followed in this page.[citation needed] Examples of animal-eating birds ...
Journal of Animal Ecology, 77(6), 1092-1098. *^ Salo, P. (2009). On lethal and nonlethal impacts of native, alien and ... but usually the much larger eagle is unable to capture ducks in flight. While somewhat less swift in flight, healthy geese can ... Often pairs will duet during early spring, in flight or from a perch. When perched, the male calls kyi-kyi-kyi-kli-kliek-yak ... Wood, Gerald (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9. .. ...
Height was a constraint in selecting animals for flight. This was because a Soviet vestibule experiment required that the ... flight restraint couches oscillate vertically within the animal capsules. The monkeys were conditioned to sit in the restraint ... At the start of the flight or control experiments, the rats were at gestation day 13 of their 21-day cycle.[3] ... Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( , ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued ...
A 2017 poll conducted by Gatwick Airport also identified the film as the fourth-best to watch while in flight.[146] When UK ... Robbins observed caged animals at a zoo, spent an afternoon in solitary confinement, spoke with prisoners and guards,[34] and ... "Top 10 films to watch on a flight revealed". NME. Archived from the original on September 23, 2017. Retrieved September 23, ...
Their flight is strong and direct and most are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat ... Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions ... These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. ... Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. ...
The noise is best described as either a quick clicking or 'burring' sound, varying from animal to animal. ... such as flight, freezing, or avoidance of a threatening stimulus. ... A working rat is a rat trained for specific tasks as a working animal. In many cases, working rats are domesticated brown rats ... An investigation for infection with the spirochaete Leptospira interrogans did not find any infected animals, suggesting that ...
... in animals, locomotion of either of two basic types-powered, or true, flight and gliding. Winged (true) flight is found only in ... The evolutionary modifications necessary for true flight in warm-blooded animals include those of the forelimbs into ... Flight, in animals, locomotion of either of two basic types-powered, or true, flight and gliding. Winged (true) flight is found ... The evolutionary modifications necessary for true flight in warm-blooded animals include those of the forelimbs into wings; ...
Some US airlines allow customers to travel with emotional support animals as long as theyre trained to behave properly in ... Emotional support animals travel free of charge and the animal is exempt from cabin allotment. Like service animals, emotional ... Passenger takes turkey on flight as emotional support animal. Some US airlines allow customers to travel with emotional ... An emotional support animal, says the National Service Animal Registry, is a pet that has been prescribed by a persons ...
More than 4,400 comments poured in after the Transportation Department asked for suggestions in dealing with comfort animals on ... The regulations cover trained service animals and untrained emotional-support animals also called comfort animals. ... Animals on airline flights? DOT flooded with comments. Bart Jansen, USA TODAY Published 1:07 p.m. ET July 16, 2018 ... Animals on airline flights? DOT flooded with comments. More than 4,400 comments poured in after the Transportation Department ...
Discovery of gliding ants shows wingless flight has arisen throughout the animal kingdom ... This discovery doesnt necessarily say something about the evolution of flight in terms of insect lineages, but it does give us ... BERKELEY - An amazing variety of arboreal animals have learned to glide through the forest, from flying squirrels to flying ...
Flight muscle is the most powerful type of muscle, to cope with the aerobic demands of flying the balance of muscle fibres and ... Here we see flight muscle from a bird in a transverse cut. Mitochondria generate the energy that cells need to function. The ... Flight Muscle Mitochondria This image is of non-human tissue. ... Credit: Animal flight muscle mitochondria. Credit: Odra Noel. ... Flight Muscle Mitochondria This image is of non-human tissue. Flight muscle is the most powerful type of muscle, to cope with ...
A New Approach to Animal Flight Mechanics Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Experimental ... In forward flight of birds the rings are elliptic; they are neither horizontal nor coaxial because the momentum of each ring ... The momentum of each ring sustains and propels the animal; induced power is calculated as the rate of increase of wake kinetic ... The vortex theory is applied to hovering of insects and to avian forward flight. A simple expression for induced power in ...
Delta airlines has updated its emotional support animal policy to state that animals wont be able to fly on flights longer ... Delta will no longer permit emotional support animals on long flights. Support animals under four months of age wont be able ... Animals under 4 months of age wont be allowed to fly no matter how long the flight is. ... travelers flying with Delta Air Lines will no longer be allowed to bring emotional support animals on flights longer than eight ...
Animals Clypeata Ducks Flight Mexico New Outdoor Shoveler Water World: 5 assigned downloads, like Northern Shoveler (Anas ... Similar tags: animals • bill draker • clypeata • ducks • flight • mexico • new • outdoor • photo • shoveler • states • usa • ... Home / Catalog / animals clypeata ducks flight mexico new outdoor shoveler water world ... Royalty free photos: Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), immature in flight, Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, New ...
Revealing the Secrets of Hummingbirds Agile Flight The most agile hummingbirds owe their nimbleness to muscle strength and ... em,Science,/em,: A Sweet Example of Human and Wild Animal Collaboration ...
The carrying of emotional support animals during flights is being challenged by some passengers. ... A lot of travelers have been complaining about the abuse of the comfort animals policy during flights. ... If I ever find myself next to an animal that is not clearly a trained service animal on a flight, I will make it totally clear ... We had such an issue on a recent long flight. Woman next to me had a comfort animal. She cuddled it all during the flight: we ...
Wing-Suits: Humans Surpassing Animals in Flight. September 26, 2012 at 10:52 pm ... They are able to redirect their velocity upwards at the end of their flight allowing them to slow down enough to land safely as ... The wing suit, the closest man has gotten to the dream of unassisted flight, was originally developed in the 1930s to fabric ... And second, squirrels average a flight of 5-25 feet, usually never beyond 45. Humans in wing suits can travel for miles and ...
A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding. Flying and gliding animals (volant ... In powered flight, the animal uses muscular power to generate aerodynamic forces. Animals using unpowered aerial locomotion ... Insects (flying). The first of all animals to evolve flight, insects are also the only invertebrates that have evolved flight. ... while animals using powered flight can maintain steady, level flight as long as their muscles are capable of doing so. ...
Johnny Depps dogs leave Queenslands Gold Coast on a flight back to the United States after breaching Australias strict ... Animal attitudes Dont worry, changing your pets name wont leave them with an identity crisis. ... Johnny Depps dogs, Boo and Pistol, leave Australia for flight home to US after breaching quarantine rules. Updated May 15, ... It allowed two capuchin monkeys to be brought into the country for filming, but those animals had gone through proper ...
The answer is multi-faceted, including roost sites, food type and flight/foraging altitude. We can see the biologists catching ...
Animal Dreams is a passionate and complex novel about love, forgiveness, and one womans struggle to find her place in the ... Flight is typical of BK in that it is beautiful to read - but different in the sense that her main character is very well ... Animal Dreams is a passionate and complex novel about love, forgiveness, and one womans struggle to find her place in the ... Flight Behavior takes on one of the most contentious subjects of our time: climate change. With a deft and versatile empathy ...
Earth-based gamma rays are made in storms at the same altitude as many commercial flight paths, possibly creating radiation ... Animals. A black-footed ferret has been cloned, a first for a U.S. endangered species. A black-footed ferret that died more ... "I would say this is a very, very unlikely event, much less likely than many other flight hazards, or the hazards involved in ... Gamma Rays a Flight Risk?. Radiation from thunderstorms can equal 400 chest x-rays, study finds. ...
Download this Peaceful Nature Dove In Flight Over Fruit Trees Illustration vector illustration now. And search more of the ... Peaceful nature Dove in flight over fruit trees illustration - Illustration. .... Animal, Bird, Season, Springtime, Winter. ...
Animals Flight burns less fuel than stopovers The first measurements of energy use in migrating songbirds confirms that birds ... Animals Moonlighting: Beetles navigate by lunar polarity A south African dung beetle is the first animal found to align its ... Animals Toothy valves control crocodile hearts The odd cog teeth of the crocodile heart may be the first cardiac valve known to ... Animals Sumo wrestling keeps big ants in line In a Malaysian ant species, the large workers establish a hierarchy by engaging ...
Animal action park blog. Theres lots to learn, activities, videos, gorgeous pics and more on our blog. ... Catching a photo of them in flight is difficult, but if you follow a few simple tips you can improve your chances of getting a ... The RSPCA helps animals in England and Wales. Registered charity no.219099. Were registered with the Fundraising Regulator. ... For pet rehoming and adoption animal welfare advice and ways to support our vital work. ...
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  • Winged (true) flight is found only in insects (most orders), most birds, and bats. (britannica.com)
  • The advantages conferred by flight are also great: in terms of numbers of species as well as numbers of individuals, insects, birds, and bats are among the most successful animal groups. (britannica.com)
  • Together with relations between other morphological parameters, this is used to estimate the variation of flight speed and power with body mass for birds, and on this basis deviations from allometric scaling can be related to flight proficiency and to the use of such strategies as the bounding flight of small passerines. (biologists.org)
  • Birds are one of only four taxonomic groups to have evolved powered flight . (wikipedia.org)
  • Flight has evolved at least four times, in the insects , pterosaurs , birds , and bats . (wikipedia.org)
  • Powered flight has evolved only four times (first in insects, then in pterosaurs, birds and bats). (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether birds that crisscross the globe, whales that navigate the vastness of the oceans or wildebeast on the African savannas - the major animal migrations in our world present an incomparable spectacle. (mpg.de)
  • The class of animals consisting of the birds. (accessscience.com)
  • Birds (Fig. 1) are vertebrate animals comprising the class Aves. (accessscience.com)
  • For example a birds' heart, flight and skeletal muscles enlarge, while other organs may diminish in size. (hubpages.com)
  • Firstly, they provide insulation, this is very important in a warm blooded animal (body temperature of most birds is maintained at around 40C). (earthlife.net)
  • Scientists believe that flight evolved in birds as a result of their possessing basic feathers and that this added selective pressure to the evolution of feathers - making them larger, stronger and refining their structure. (earthlife.net)
  • The body was compact, and the hind legs were long and slender, like those of birds, and were easily able to support the animal on land. (britannica.com)
  • The flight of birds. (springer.com)
  • To understand how birds manage heat budgets during flight, it is critical to know how heat moves from the skin to the external environment," they wrote. (gizmodo.co.uk)
  • Delta said it changed its animal policy after finding an 84 percent increase in reported incidents involving service and support animals in 2016 and 2017, "including urination/defecation, biting, and even a widely reported attack by a 70-pound dog. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Our fares for all flights departing the UK for travel from 1st March 2016 have already been reduced to include this saving! (jet2.com)
  • A collection of resources and inspiring strategies for teams working on the 2016-17 Animal Allies challenge. (asknature.org)
  • Flight , in animals, locomotion of either of two basic types-powered, or true, flight and gliding. (britannica.com)
  • A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion , either by powered flight or by gliding . (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal aerial locomotion can be divided into two categories-powered and unpowered. (wikipedia.org)
  • In unpowered modes of locomotion, the animal uses aerodynamics forces exerted on the body due to wind or falling through the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals using unpowered aerial locomotion cannot maintain altitude and speed due to unopposed drag, while animals using powered flight can maintain steady, level flight as long as their muscles are capable of doing so. (wikipedia.org)
  • These modes of locomotion typically require an animal start from a raised location, converting that potential energy into kinetic energy and using aerodynamic forces to control trajectory and angle of descent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of visually guided animals have revealed an anticipatory relationship between gaze direction and the locomotor plan during target-directed locomotion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Humans and other animals use information from their environment to guide adaptive motor behaviors such as locomotion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Gaze, the region of the environment a subject explores with the senses, serves to direct locomotion, and much research has addressed how animals use vision during locomotion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Warrant, 2017 ), thus rendering visually based flight control even less reliable and increasing the need for mechanosensory feedback control. (elifesciences.org)
  • In one of our Animal Behavior sessions, we focused on the Monarch Butterfly migration to learn about animal migration and the biomechanics of flight. (massaudubon.org)
  • The scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior ask how animals coordinate themselves. (mpg.de)
  • In 2019, the Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior emerged from the MPI for Ornithology in Radolfzell. (mpg.de)
  • Experiments that place untethered fish, flies, and mice in simulated environments give clues about the animals' social behavior. (the-scientist.com)
  • In the introduction to the book, its editors lay out the case for taking a serious, and mechanistic, look at how visiting natural places for pleasure affects ecology and animal behavior. (the-scientist.com)
  • Since then, however, a substantial body of evidence has confirmed that animals with larger brains, relative to their body size, have more developed skills for changing their behavior through learning and innovation, facilitating the invasion of novel environments and the use of novel resources. (scienceblog.com)
  • Take a closer look at these encyclopedia books including information about animal habitats, behavior, and scientific classification. (seaworld.org)
  • Some owners who take their furry friends on flights have also noticed that their pets can get lethargic, are unable to walk straight, and that their behavior is a bit off for at least an hour after landing. (inquisitr.com)
  • The Animal Legal Defense Fund condemns the tragic death of Kokito aboard a United Airlines flight on March 13, 2018. (aldf.org)
  • Gliding flight may be of two types: gravitational gliding and soaring. (britannica.com)
  • Gravitational gliding may be directed, in which case the animal launches itself toward a definite target, or passive (parachuting), in which case the organism slows its descent , relying on wind for horizontal motion . (britannica.com)
  • In order to remain airborne, the soarer must glide in a column of air that is rising at a rate exceeding the relative rate of descent of the gliding animal. (britannica.com)
  • Flying and gliding animals ( volant animals) have evolved separately many times, without any single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gliding, in particular, has evolved among rainforest animals, especially in the rainforests in Asia (most especially Borneo ) where the trees are tall and widely spaced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several species of aquatic animals , and a few amphibians have also evolved to acquire this gliding flight ability, typically as a means of evading predators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some gliding animals may use their gliding membranes for drag rather than lift, to safely descend. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gliding animals have a lower aspect ratio (wing length/breadth) than true flyers. (wikipedia.org)
  • gliding in rising or otherwise moving air that requires specific physiological and morphological adaptations that can sustain the animal aloft without flapping its wings. (wikipedia.org)
  • While gliding occurs independently from powered flight, [1] it has some ecological advantages of its own. (wikipedia.org)
  • An argument made is that many gliding animals eat low energy foods such as leaves and are restricted to gliding because of this, whereas flying animals eat more high energy foods such as fruits , nectar , and insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal flight includes gliding and flapping flight. (accessscience.com)
  • Other airlines followed suit, and soon female flight attendants, or 'air hostesses', became the norm. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • A couple travelling from Florida to Massachusetts gave high praise to the two JetBlue flight attendants who came to the rescue of their 3-year-old French bulldog who was suffering from hypoxia. (inquisitr.com)
  • JetBlue flight attendants, Renaud and Diane, seemed to notice Darcy's distress and sprang into action. (inquisitr.com)
  • The Burts were very grateful to the attentive flight attendants. (inquisitr.com)
  • Here we see flight muscle from a bird in a transverse cut. (wellcomecollection.org)
  • The peregrine falcon is the fastest bird, and the fastest member of the animal kingdom, with a diving speed of 389 km/h (242 mph). (wikipedia.org)
  • From his observation of this characteristic, Darwin hypothesized that, with the loss of flight, the bird had developed another skill that enabled it to survive - a process now known as positive selection. (swatchwatch.us)
  • Aviaries galore manufacturers of quality bird aviaries, breeding cages and flight cages. (ananzi.co.za)
  • Is the Subject Area "Bird flight" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Bird Flight , Bodley Head, London. (springer.com)
  • In this way the scientists were able to capture body heat profiles for each bird during flight. (gizmodo.co.uk)
  • Total power consumption as a function of flight velocity is calculated and compared for several species. (biologists.org)
  • Soaring is typically only seen in species capable of powered flight, as it requires extremely large wings. (wikipedia.org)
  • ​ Lufthansa Cargo also offers the transport of the above-listed animals and other species as air freight. (lufthansa.com)
  • Besides the tigers, 22 other animals have died, including rare species that are protected in China, among them a red-crowned crane, four stump-tailed macaques, and one brown bear. (rawstory.com)
  • Seafarers' introduction of invasive species, such as goats and rats, also contributed to these formerly isolated animals' doom. (yahoo.com)
  • Other species, such as Cearadactylus , possessed larger teeth that splayed outward slightly, which was likely useful for capturing fish and land animals. (britannica.com)
  • China cracked down on the sale of exotic species after an outbreak of a new virus in 2002 was linked to markets selling live animals. (qt.com.au)
  • Ongoing destruction of species' habitats will likely bring people into closer contact with animals and their viruses, said Raina Plowright, a University of Montana researcher. (qt.com.au)
  • Deception in animals is the transmission of misinformation by one animal to another, of the same or different species, in a way that propagates beliefs that are not true. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals transfer information, both voluntarily and inadvertently, and within and across species boundaries. (springer.com)
  • Hummingbirds flap their wings a blistering 12 to 80 times per second (depending on the species) when in flight. (gizmodo.co.uk)
  • The vortex theory is applied to hovering of insects and to avian forward flight. (biologists.org)
  • How do flying insects from other orders, which also require fast feedback for stable flight, control flight manoeuvres without halteres? (elifesciences.org)
  • Moesha's turkey pictures are believed to have been taken aboard a Delta airlines flight. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Green, of Santa Monica, California, told the Transportation Department that restricting emotional-support animals on airlines could prevent him taking flights. (indystar.com)
  • The review came as airlines reported an explosion in the number and variety of animals traveling with passengers. (indystar.com)
  • U.S. passenger airlines estimated they transported 784,000 pets, 751,000 comfort animals and 281,000 service animals last year, according to Airlines for America, a trade group representing most of the largest carriers. (indystar.com)
  • For example, American Airlines said it carried 155,790 comfort animals last year, a 48 percent rise from 105,155 a year earlier. (indystar.com)
  • The industry - Airlines for America, the Regional Airline Association and the International Air Transport Association - urged the department to prohibit comfort animals and recognize only trained dogs as service animals. (indystar.com)
  • We therefore urge DOT to expeditiously adopt a limited set of common-sense changes to its service animal regulations to enable airlines to curb fraud and abuse, protect health and safety in air transportation and ensure the orderly operation of flights," the carriers said in their joint statement. (indystar.com)
  • Since 2005, United Airlines and Delta have amassed the highest numbers of reported animal deaths, at 86 and 84 respectively. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • According to DOT policy as reported by USA Today, "airlines must allow registered service animals to accompany their owners anywhere they choose to sit on the condition that the aircraft aisles and surrounding areas remain clear, and the service animal must be trained to behave properly in public settings. (flyertalk.com)
  • For reasons like this, several airlines want to tighten the reins on the use of in-flight emotional-support animals. (flyertalk.com)
  • That said airlines should ban any animal from the cabin of there is no clear documentation of the function as service animal for the blind person. (flyertalk.com)
  • American Airlines flew journalists on a demo flight from Dallas to Tulsa, Oklahoma, in an effort to reassure passengers that the upgraded MAX is safe. (yahoo.com)
  • Federal aviation officials will order airlines to put oxygen systems back in jet restrooms, reversing a decision last year to remove them because of fears that terrorists could use them to start a fire during flight. (foxnews.com)
  • estimated instantaneous values of these coefficients are generally too large for steady state aerodynamic theory to be appropriate to natural flapping flight. (biologists.org)
  • In powered flight, the animal uses muscular power to generate aerodynamic forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • To protect Australia from exotic pests and diseases that can seriously harm humans, animals and our economy," he said. (abc.net.au)
  • There's a vast number of viruses in the animal world that have not spread to humans, and have the potential to do so,' said Robert Webster, an expert on influenza viruses at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis. (qt.com.au)
  • Those made by the animal itself are followed by a and those made by humans to keep the animal are followed by h . (wiktionary.org)
  • Learn about amazing animal adaptations and discover how you can use biomimicry to help solve the problem you identified for your team's FLL Research Project. (asknature.org)
  • A Florida couple was arrested Monday night and is out on bond, facing 47 counts of animal cruelty stemming from a June 7 seizure of nearly 700 cats, according to court records. (ibtimes.com)
  • Petition · PetSmart: Prevent animal cruelty by requiring pet questionnaires to be filled out by owners! (change.org)
  • Prevent animal cruelty/homelessness by requiring customers to pass pet questionnaires! (change.org)
  • Evidence suggests it originated in bats, which infected another animal that spread it to people at a market in the southeastern city of Wuhan. (qt.com.au)
  • In three linked playback experiments, we tested in the flight room and field if foraging Myotis bats approached the foraging call sequences of conspecifics and four heterospecifics that were similar in acoustic call structure only (acoustic similarity hypothesis), in foraging ecology only (foraging similarity hypothesis), both, or none. (springer.com)
  • Fundamental to these computations is the relationship between the region of the environment sensed by the animal (gaze) and the animal's locomotor plan. (jneurosci.org)
  • It's come to wider attention in the last few days after it was reposted to Reddit by user biggestlittlepicke , who said: "My neighbor is a flight attendant. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Those who insist they need an emotional support animal to fly do so ostensibly in order to avoid having to take medication," says Toni Vitanza, a flight attendant. (flyertalk.com)
  • talking about cute animals on Twitter. (yahoo.com)
  • The research within the Animal Flight Lab is focused on the ecology and evolution of animal flight. (lu.se)
  • In the flight room, M. capaccinii only approached call sequences of conspecifics and of the heterospecific M. daubentonii with similar acoustics and foraging ecology. (springer.com)
  • Pet supplies for exotic animals & furry friends. (ananzi.co.za)
  • You get on the plane and sit next to someone with this as their emotional support animal, what do you do? (telegraph.co.uk)
  • An 'emotional support animal', says the National Service Animal Registry , is 'a pet that has been prescribed by a person's licensed therapist, psychologist, or psychiatrist. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Just imagine a 4,000 Euro+ First Class Customer being annoyed by a fake emotional support animal or even having a real allergy. (flyertalk.com)
  • Delta lists the animals it doesn't accept due to safety and/or public health concerns, including hedgehogs, ferrets, reptiles. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Starting December 18, travelers flying with Delta Air Lines will no longer be allowed to bring emotional support animals on flights longer than eight hours. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Delta said it will allow exceptions to its new pet policy until February 1 for customers who already bought a ticket and asked to bring a support animal. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Non-steady-state aerodynamics of the flight of Encarsia formosa. (springer.com)
  • The habitats of larger animals, such as bears, are overlapping more and more with human developments and recreational activities, as well, so injuries from these animals could also increase, the study says. (kdvr.com)
  • Thanks to the generosity of committed supporters like you , the Animal Legal Defense Fund went to court and fought an aggressive battle for the severely neglected horses. (aldf.org)
  • In basic terms migration is the periodic movement of animals to and from different areas, usually along well-defined routes. (hubpages.com)
  • Migration can also depend on the stage an animal has reached in its life cycle. (hubpages.com)
  • Travelers who rely on the animals don't want to give them up. (indystar.com)
  • A lot of travelers have been complaining about the abuse of the comfort animals policy during flights. (flyertalk.com)
  • USA Today reports that there have been several complaints of situations in which animals have been left to roam the cabin freely during the flight - a situation that may upset other travelers. (flyertalk.com)
  • Travelers can find cheap Air Canada flights using online services such as SkipLagged and SkyScanner. (reference.com)
  • Over 20 years ago, Jeff Wyles, Allan Wilson, and Joseph Kunkel proposed that big brains might favor adaptive evolutionary diversification in animals by facilitating the behavioral changes needed to use new resources or environments, a theory known as the behavioral drive hypothesis. (scienceblog.com)
  • It is not known, therefore, whether the animal adjusts the sensory-locomotor gain in response to behavioral demands. (jneurosci.org)
  • The scientists aim to achieve a quantitative and predictive understanding of animal decision-making and movement in the natural world. (mpg.de)
  • Animal behaviour scientists are therefore wary of interpreting a single instance of behaviour to true deception, and explain it with simpler mental processes such as learned associations. (wikipedia.org)
  • You'll see we have also shown the average fare for each passenger in your booking in the flight selection panel. (jet2.com)
  • Depending upon the kind of animal, its weight and size, and the regulations applicable in different countries, transport is possible at an extra cost either as additional carry-on baggage in the passenger cabin or as excess baggage in the aircraft's air-conditioned cargo hold. (lufthansa.com)
  • Please note: each passenger is allowed to take a maximum of two animals with them (in an approved transport container). (lufthansa.com)
  • The answer is multi-faceted, including roost sites, food type and flight/foraging altitude. (blogspot.com)
  • [1] [2] The Soviet Union had recovered two dogs, the first mammals to be recovered from suborbital space flight, from an altitude of 101 kilometers (331,000 ft) on July 22, 1951 and subsequently recovered more dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 28, 1959, at 2:39 am, a Jupiter rocket lifted Miss Baker and Miss Able to an altitude of 300 miles (480 km) through an acceleration of 38 gs for a 16-minute flight which also included 9 minutes of weightlessness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emotional support animals travel free of charge and the animal is exempt from cabin allotment. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Like service animals, emotional support animals can be transported in the cabin. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • More than 4,400 comments poured in by the Sunday deadline established by the department in May when it asked for suggestions about potential changes or restrictions on animals allowed in the cabin with passengers. (indystar.com)
  • The regulations cover trained service animals and untrained emotional-support animals also called comfort animals. (indystar.com)
  • Service animals and emotional support animals play a vital role in the lives of many people with disabilities," said a joint statement from groups including the American Association of people with Disabilities, National Council on Independent Living and the National Disability Rights Network. (indystar.com)
  • These updates support Delta's commitment to safety and also protect the rights of customers with documented needs - such as veterans with disabilities - to travel with trained service and support animals," said John Laughter, Delta's senior vice president for corporate safety, security and compliance. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • In-Flight Emotional-Support Animals: A Right or a Nuisance? (flyertalk.com)
  • The carrying of emotional support animals during flights is being challenged by some passengers. (flyertalk.com)
  • While emotional-support animals are very important to some of the passengers, they also cause discomfort for other passengers that sometimes are allergic or are just plain uncomfortable traveling with an animal on the next seat. (flyertalk.com)
  • On October 12, a Department of Transportation advisory committee is scheduled decide whether emotional support animals qualify as service animals. (flyertalk.com)
  • For pet rehoming and adoption animal welfare advice and ways to support our vital work. (rspca.org.uk)
  • Secondary expenses can also add up - such as flight changes and extended stays in accommodation, or the cost of flying a loved-one over for support. (nzherald.co.nz)
  • Your pet must be registered and confirmed for the flight by Lufthansa no later than 24 hours before departure (for emotional support dogs, the deadline is 48 hours before departure). (lufthansa.com)
  • Your support enables us to give animals like Casey and his friends a second chance to experience life without fear and suffering - something that should be a right for all living creatures. (aldf.org)
  • Nick Cullen, director of Kern County Animal Services says this achievement is a community effort and could have never been possible without the support of the car dealers and caring community members. (kget.com)
  • A technological/biological system may use human, or trained animal, muscular work to power a mechanical device. (wikipedia.org)
  • BERKELEY - An amazing variety of arboreal animals have learned to glide through the forest, from flying squirrels to flying lizards and frogs, and even - frightening as it sounds - snakes. (berkeley.edu)
  • Please also ask your vet about applicable animal welfare provisions for travelling with your pet. (lufthansa.com)
  • In Australia, any research involving animals must be approved by an animal ethics committee made up of a scientist, a veterinary expert, a card-carrying member of an animal welfare organisation, who is independent of the research institution, and a member of the general public, also not connected to the institution. (abc.net.au)
  • The code these committees follow was written and approved by a large group of stakeholders, including animal welfare organisations. (abc.net.au)
  • A normally negligible minority of travellers are using their pretended animal-loving as blueprint for how all other fellow passengers have to conduct. (flyertalk.com)
  • Nond Kalinta, vice president in charge of sales, said on Wednesday travellers with tickets to those countries issued on or before Feb 18, with travel dates between Feb 18 and March 31, can make changes to those flights -- including the destination -- free of charge due to the Covid-19 outbreak. (bangkokpost.com)
  • Every year, this greatest of animal travellers makes a 70,000 km round-trip, in a relentless, globe-trotting pursuit of daylight. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The offer applies to holders of tickets on THAI and THAI Smile for routes from Thailand to all destinations in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, and also flights to Singapore. (bangkokpost.com)
  • Please note that because of local circumstances and restrictions, the transport of large animals in the cargo hold to certain destinations is not possible. (lufthansa.com)
  • Here, we study an acoustically guided animal, an echolocating bat, and relate acoustic gaze (direction of the sonar beam) to flight planning as the bat searches for and intercepts insect prey. (jneurosci.org)
  • Insect flight requires continual sensory feedback, both on the position of the body relative to the environment, as well as on perturbations to body position. (elifesciences.org)
  • in ethology suggest that deception is actively practised by some animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is one of two parrots that are leading a dance dance revolution, by showing that the human behaviour of moving in time to music (even really, really bad music) is one that's shared by other animals. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In deimatic behaviour, a harmless animal adopts a threatening pose or displays startling, brightly coloured parts of its body to startle a predator or rival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some animals may use tactical deception, with behaviour that is deployed in a way that other animals misinterpret what is happening to the advantage of the agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most instances of voluntary deception in animals involve a simple behaviour, such as a cat arching its back and raising its hackles, to make itself appear larger than normal when attacked. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactions differed between lab and field, emphasising situation-dependent differences in animal behaviour, the importance of field research, and the need for further studies on the underlying mechanism of information transfer and the relative contributions of acoustic and ecological similarity. (springer.com)
  • In Batesian mimicry, harmless animals may appear to be distasteful or poisonous. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, the process of approving the use of animals in scientific experiments was in crisis. (abc.net.au)
  • Our experiments show that antennal mechanosensory feedback specifically mediates fast flight manoeuvres, but not slow ones. (elifesciences.org)
  • The Wuhan market was also like many other 'wet markets' in Asia and elsewhere, where animals are tied up or stacked in cages. (qt.com.au)
  • BUT, while perhaps that may sometimes happen, most people buy a pet with good intentions or a lot of passion, and would buy them the proper cages and equipment, if they were properly educated about the animal. (change.org)
  • Animals under 4 months of age won't be allowed to fly no matter how long the flight is. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • The 44-year-old rapper recently took a long flight across the Atlantic that may have contributed to a fatal blood clot, according to the Los Angeles County Coroner's Office. (nbcwashington.com)
  • Dwight Arrington Myers, better known as rapper Heavy D, died of natural causes likely attributed to remaining seated on a long flight across the Atlantic Ocean, a spokesman for the Los Angeles County Coroner's Office said Tuesday. (nbcwashington.com)
  • Pet-friendly hotels often provide services like pet sitting, dog walking, or litter changing to ensure your animal companion stays safe and well-cared for while you are out on the town.Flying with PetsTraveling with pets can be serious business-several animals have been lost or hurt while traveling by air-but flying with pets need not be so dire so long as pet owners act with caution. (travelandleisure.com)
  • Compared with long domesticated livestock like chickens and pigs, researchers say less is known about the viruses that circulate in wild animals. (qt.com.au)
  • Fight-or-Flight Time? (genengnews.com)
  • Please make sure that you find out about the import and export regulations applicable to your pet in your departure, transit and destination countries in plenty of time and before booking your flight. (lufthansa.com)
  • As the allocation is limited, we recommend that you book your pet in early, preferably at the same time as you book your own flight. (lufthansa.com)
  • So, we know why animals migrate, but how do they know when the time to migrate has arrived? (hubpages.com)
  • That drug you take for your high blood pressure, the vaccine to prevent infectious disease, the pill to avoid pregnancy, the medical ointment for your skin condition, or even the pacemaker keeping your arrhythmia in check - all of those and more have, at one time, been tested on a live animal. (abc.net.au)
  • Does your animal love spending ample time outside? (travelandleisure.com)
  • During your day, after a briefing on the principles of aviation, it's time to don your goggles and flying jacket for a 20 minute flight of a lifetime. (wish.co.uk)
  • Please note that the flight time may be chock to chock flight time. (wish.co.uk)
  • Air Canada enables fliers to create accounts and accrue flier miles with each flight they make, and redeem miles for tickets or in-flight service. (reference.com)
  • On code-share flights, please therefore make sure that you check the regulations of the airline operating the flight concerned. (lufthansa.com)
  • Cute animal prints and soft pastels make this a perfect baby quilt! (allpeoplequilt.com)
  • Animal-theme novelty prints make an easy, kid-friendly crib quilt. (allpeoplequilt.com)
  • Your voice and your generosity do make a difference in animals' lives. (aldf.org)
  • Here at Expedia.com, we'll pair you up with BGO to MGA flights that won't make your bank account wince. (expedia.com)
  • We all want to make sure everyone has a safe and comfortable flight, including those with four legs. (inquisitr.com)
  • It has been argued that true deception assumes the deceiver knows that (1) other animals have minds, (2) different animals' minds can believe different things are true (when only one of these is actually true), and (3) it can make another mind believe that something false is actually true. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first is for finches, to show you that they can make money with this even for 'easy to care for' animals, and the second is for conures, which are the animals that have the most complicated needs that you sell. (change.org)
  • Students created model monarch butterflies and conducted a test flight experiment in our museum. (massaudubon.org)
  • Pick Bestiary in the menu at left to see some other canvas of wild and domestic animals and other Butterflies. (thierrybisch.com)
  • Be sure to check the Edition section for some great animal, Butterflies, art for decoration. (thierrybisch.com)
  • Dasgip and the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology (IZI) are partnering conducting stem-cell research to find alternatives to drug testing that do not require animals. (genengnews.com)
  • In recent years there has been an increasing focus on problems of using animals in medical research, and what - if any - alternatives exist or could be developed to replace them. (abc.net.au)
  • Some have even asked if one day, it might be possible to do away with the use of animals in research altogether. (abc.net.au)
  • Miss Baker "stood out from the rest because of her intelligence and loving, docile manner", relayed Colin Burgess and Chris Dubbs in their 2007 book 'Animals In Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The couple established 4 Paws Aviation where they did research on the hoods with the help of several volunteer animals. (inquisitr.com)
  • According to Lori, their research reveals that animals can suffer from low blood oxygen levels starting at 8,000 feet, which could explain Darcy's attack. (inquisitr.com)
  • This will ensure that the customer has done their research, are on their way to a better relationship with their pet since they did said research, ensures that the animal has proper facilities before it goes, and ensures that you get sales of that equipment. (change.org)
  • The American Humane Association recommends that "puppies and kittens, sick animals, animals in heat, and frail or pregnant animals should not travel by air. (travelandleisure.com)
  • When unjustified restrictions are place on access for these animals, the people with disabilities who depend on their assistance are harmed. (indystar.com)
  • The transport options for animals with Lufthansa depend upon the kind of animal, as well as its weight and size. (lufthansa.com)
  • Whether or not an animal migrates can depend on local climate. (hubpages.com)
  • The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal , or the acute stress response ) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event , attack , or threat to survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Able died four days after the flight from a highly unusual cardiac fibrillation in reaction to anesthesia to remove electrodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanics of lift and thrust generation by flying animals are studied by considering the distribution of vorticity in the wake. (biologists.org)
  • But what compels an animal to migrate in the first place? (hubpages.com)
  • Many animals have an innate, near annual rhythm that tells them when to migrate. (hubpages.com)
  • Animals too migrate to escape danger but one group - the pond-living bdelloid rotifers - have taken this game of hide-and-seek to an extreme. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Are Animal Kingdom tickets worth the cost? (reference.com)
  • In the Animal Kingdom there are two kinds of migrants. (hubpages.com)
  • The Transportation Department received more than 4,400 comments as it asked for suggestions for possible changes to regulations governing animals traveling in airline cabins with their owners. (indystar.com)
  • Furthermore, Lufthansa reserves the right to apply even stricter regulations and to refuse the booking on certain routes (such as, for example, to the UK, Ireland, or Bangalore in India), if necessary, in order to exclude the animal from travel. (lufthansa.com)
  • In the event of Lufthansa having to refuse the carriage of your pet because of non-compliance with the regulations, Lufthansa is not liable for any resulting costs (e.g. rebooking charges, animal boarding costs, hotel accommodation). (lufthansa.com)
  • All the regulations mentioned here apply exclusively to flights operated by Lufthansa. (lufthansa.com)
  • Pterosaurs were not only the first reptiles capable of flight. (britannica.com)
  • The Federal Aviation Administration said Monday that restoring the oxygen systems over the next three years will 'eliminate a hazard that could jeopardize flight safety. (foxnews.com)
  • Space radiation may pose a hazard to space flight crews during the mission. (frontiersin.org)
  • a hawk will use powered flight to rise, then soar on thermals, then descend via free-fall to catch its prey. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wing suit, the closest man has gotten to the dream of unassisted flight, was originally developed in the 1930s to fabric between the legs and from the arms to the waist. (bu.edu)
  • The members of this lab share the fascination for animal flight, which we explore in a sophisticated wind tunnel equipped with cutting-edge equipment for high-speed wing motion analysis, airflow visualization, and force measurement. (lu.se)
  • One is a wing flight feather, a remige, and it is asymmetrical i.e. the vane is much smaller on one side than the other. (earthlife.net)
  • In addition to the main flight membrane, an accessory membrane stretching between the shoulder and wrist reduced turbulence on the wing. (britannica.com)
  • The pterosaur wing appears to have been well adapted to flight. (britannica.com)
  • Wing function in relation to flight speed. (springer.com)