Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Posterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.Arthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Gait: Manner or style of walking.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Knee Dislocation: Slippage of the FEMUR off the TIBIA.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Medial Collateral Ligament, Knee: The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Lateral Line System: Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Joint DiseasesIsometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Joint Deformities, Acquired: Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Bone Malalignment: Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Hypothalamic Area, Lateral: Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.Patellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive: Movement of a body part initiated and maintained by a mechanical or electrical device to restore normal range of motion to joints, muscles, or tendons after surgery, prosthesis implantation, contracture flexion, or long immobilization.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Lateral Ligament, Ankle: LATERAL LIGAMENTS of the ANKLE JOINT. It includes inferior tibiofibular ligaments.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.ShoesCats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Patellar Dislocation: Displacement of the PATELLA from the femoral groove.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Basketball: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Awards and PrizesScapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Arthrogryposis: Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Torsion, Mechanical: A twisting deformation of a solid body about an axis. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Carpal Joints: The articulations between the various CARPAL BONES. This does not include the WRIST JOINT which consists of the articulations between the RADIUS; ULNA; and proximal CARPAL BONES.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
During knee extension the ITB moves anterior to the lateral condyle of the femur, while ~30 degrees knee flexion, the ITB moves ... The most vulnerable range of knee flexion for this condition is at 30-40 degrees; this is where the ITB crosses the lateral ... The IT band stabilizes the knee both in extension and in partial flexion, and is therefore used constantly during walking and ... "The functional anatomy of the iliotibial band during flexion and extension of the knee: implications for understanding ...
Contraction by the popliteus during knee flexion pulls the lateral meniscus posteriorly, avoiding entrapment within the joint ... The knee may be not be fully mobile; there may be the sensation of knee locking or buckling in the knee. ... medial or lateral), simultaneous knee injuries, type of meniscal tear, age of patient, condition of the knee, loss of strength ... flexing the affected knee to 20 degrees, pivoting on the knee to see if the pain is reproduced). Bending the knee (into ...
This combination of lateral rotation and flexion of the hip and flexion of the knee gave tailors particularly enlarged ... At the knee, it can flex the leg; when the knee is flexed, sartorius medially rotates the leg. Turning the foot to look at the ... The tendon of insertion may end in the fascia lata, the capsule of the knee-joint, or the fascia of the leg. The muscle may be ... The sartorius muscle can move the hip joint and the knee joint, but all of its actions are weak, making it a synergist muscle. ...
The thumbs may be angled in a lateral direction (valgus deformity). The knees may be angled backwards (genu recurvatum). ... The clinical features of this condition include Flattened facial features Flexion contractures of the interphalangeal joints of ...
It is fully activated only with the knee extended because the gastrocnemius is shortened during knee flexion. During walking it ... Quadratus plantae originates with two slips from the lateral and medial margins of the calcaneus and inserts into the lateral ... towards the lateral side of the foot. In this stage of the gait, the knee will generally, but not always, track laterally of ... The popliteus is also part of this group, but, with its oblique course across the back of the knee, does not act on the foot. [ ...
The biceps flexes the knee joint and rotates the flexed leg laterally - it is the only lateral rotator of the knee and thus has ... and thus produces extension at the hip joint and flexion and medial rotation at the knee. Posteriorly below the knee joint, the ... Divergence from the normal femorotibial angle is called genu varum if the center of the knee joint is lateral to the mechanical ... The semitendinosus acts on two joints; extension of the hip, flexion of the knee, and medial rotation of the leg. Distally, the ...
S2: knee flexion. *S3-S4: anal wink. Clinical significance[edit]. In humans myotome testing can be an integral part of ... C3: neck lateral flexion. *C4: shoulder elevation. *C5: shoulder abduction/elbow flexion ... S1: ankle plantar-flexion/ankle eversion/hip extension. * ... C7: elbow extension/wrist flexion/finger extension. *C8: finger ...
... providing weak plantar flexion of the foot and weak flexion of the knee. The muscle may arise from the oblique popliteal ... Interdigitations with the lateral head of the gastrocnemius and a fibrous extension of the muscle to the patella are not ... Decussation of the lateral corticospinal tract occurs in the medullary pyramids, then the fibers continue down the ... The plantaris acts to weakly plantar flex the ankle joint and flex the knee joint. The plantaris muscle may also provide ...
The visibility of the lesion depends on its location and on the amount of knee flexion used. Harding described the lateral X- ... While OCD may affect any joint, the knee-specifically the medial femoral condyle in 75-85% of knee cases-tends to be the most ... American Journal of Knee Surgery. 8 (4): 124-9. PMID 8590122. Jacobs B, Ertl JP, Kovacs G, Jacobs JA (2006-07-28). "Knee ... The Knee. 14 (3): 177-82. doi:10.1016/j.knee.2007.02.001. PMID 17428666. Nagura S (1960). "The so-called osteochondritis ...
The action of the lateral rotators can be understood by crossing the legs to rest an ankle on the knee of the other leg. This ... The piriformis laterally rotates the femur with hip extension and abducts the femur with hip flexion. Abduction of the flexed ... The lateral rotators also oppose medial rotation by the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus. When the hip is flexed to 90 ... It is one of the six muscles in the lateral rotator group. It was first named by Adriaan van den Spiegel, a professor from the ...
It is fully activated only with the knee extended because the gastrocnemius is shortened during knee flexion. During walking it ... Quadratus plantae originates with two slips from the lateral and medial margins of the calcaneus and inserts into the lateral ... towards the lateral side of the foot. In this stage of the gait, the knee will generally, but not always, track laterally of ... In contrast, the lateral longitudinal arch is very low. With the cuboid serving as its keystone, it redistributes part of the ...
Increased biceps femoris activity will cause knee flexion to raise the foot higher and away from the obstacle. Decreased vastus ... The sural nerve innervates the lateral (outside) portion of the foot and could be activated during either the swing or stance ... The knee jerk reflex is a common example of a monosynaptic reflex when one is looking at the quadriceps motor response of ... 1. During the swing phase, SN stimulation indicates encountering an obstacle on the lateral side of the foot. The reaction is ...
The twister is often confused as being a spine crank since it involves a degree of lateral non-cervical spinal flexion. The ... can also involve pain in the knees, abdominals and torso. ... hence causing lateral hyperflexion of the cervical spine. The ... lateral hyperflexion, hyperrotation or extension-distraction, either through bending, twisting or elongating. A neck crank is ...
... the quadriceps tendon and patellar ligament pull the patella posterior into the groove of the knee joint making lateral ... The most likely time for the patella to shift laterally is during the first 20-30 degrees of flexion as the quadriceps tighten ... Its main function is to prevent lateral displacement of the patella. The MPFL is the primary stabilizer to lateral displacement ... The medial patellofemoral ligament (or MPFL) is one of the several ligaments on the medial aspect of the knee. It originates on ...
Contraction by the popliteus during knee flexion pulls the lateral meniscus posteriorly, avoiding entrapment within the joint ... The knee may be not be fully mobile; there may be the sensation of knee locking or buckling in the knee. The full knee may be ... medial or lateral), simultaneous knee injuries, type of meniscal tear, age of patient, condition of the knee, loss of strength ... A valgus force applied to a flexed knee with the foot planted and the femur rotated externally can result in a lateral meniscus ...
If turnout is achieved via lateral rotation in the knee joint (vs. at the hip), the knee will still face forward. This is ... because hip flexion reduces the tension on the ligament and allows lateral hip rotation to occur more easily. This will however ... In ballet, turnout (also turn-out) is rotation of the leg at the hips which causes the feet (and knees) to turn outward, away ... considered to be less aesthetically pleasing and can cause knee injury. Some dancers will use an anterior pelvic tilt ( ...
The iliotibial band is a thick band of fascia on the lateral aspect of the knee, extending from the outside of the pelvis, over ... The continual rubbing of the band over the lateral femoral epicondyle, combined with the repeated flexion and extension of the ... The stinging sensation just above the knee joint is felt on the outside of the knee or along the entire length of the ... the hip and knee, and inserting just below the knee. The band is crucial to stabilizing the knee during running, as it moves ...
Symptoms of a sprain or tear of the LCL includes pain to the lateral aspect of the knee, instability of the knee when walking, ... Both collateral ligaments are taut when the knee joint is in extension. With the knee in flexion, the radius of curvatures of ... Capsule of right knee-joint (distended). Posterior aspect. Anterior view of knee. Posterolateral knee injuries Thieme Atlas of ... is a ligament located on the lateral (outer) side of the knee, and thus belongs to the extrinsic knee ligaments and ...
When the knee-joint is fully extended, the triangular depression rests upon the anterior portion of the lateral meniscus, and ... this semilunar area articulates with the medial vertical facet of the patella in forced flexion of the knee-joint. The tibial ... Above and behind the lateral epicondyle is an area for the origin of the lateral head of the Gastrocnemius, above and to the ... its tendon lies in the oblique groove when the knee is flexed and in the vertical groove when the knee is extended. ...
... active in strong lateral rotation and abduction of the thigh and also stabilizes the femur on the tibia when the knee extensors ... It also controls flexion at the hip upon sitting down. Inferior gluteal entrapment neuropathy is rarely reported but is ... There is great difficulty in preventing the flexion of the trunk heel strike so the person may use trunk extension before heel ... It may prevent the forward momentum of the trunk from producing flexion at the supporting hip during bipedal gait. It is ...
The muscle adducts, medially rotates, and flexes the hip as above, and also aids in flexion of the knee. The obturator nerve ... By its outer or deep surface with the adductor longus, brevis, and magnus, and the internal lateral ligament of the knee-joint ... Lateral view. Muscles of thigh. Cross section. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of ... The pes anserinus is separated from the medial collateral ligament of the knee-joint by a bursa. A few of the fibers of the ...
"Medial and lateral views of the knee joint and cruciate ligaments." lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown ... of the restraining force to anterior tibial displacement at 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion. The ACL originates from ... Right knee-joint, from the front, showing interior ligaments. Left knee-joint from behind, showing interior ligaments. Head of ... Capsule of right knee-joint (distended). Posterior aspect. MRI shows normal signal of both cruciate ligaments (arrows). Knee ...
... and can be palpated by running fingers medially from the patella with the knee in flexion. It is important[why?] to take into ... The medial condyle is one of the two projections on the lower extremity of femur, the other being the lateral condyle. The ... Right knee-joint, from the front, showing interior ligaments. Muscles of the back of the leg. Deep layers. Right knee in ... The medial femoral condyle has an extra segment which is the cause for the passive rotation of the knee joint. Right femur. ...
Ask the patient to: "put your heel onto your bottom" to test knee flexion. Place your hand over the knee and then the hip ... Test lateral flexion of the thoracic and lumbar spine: "Stand up straight and then slide the palm of your right hand down your ... "Bend and then straighten your knee" (Active movement of knees and examiner feels for crepitus) ● Passive flexion (90 degrees) ... Now test internal rotation of the hip with the knee joint flexed to 90 degrees (moving the foot laterally with the knee flexed ...
... tight rectus femoris Lateral rotation of tibia- tight biceps femoris The hip flexion contracture is physiologic in the first 3 ... Holding the knee to the chest flattens out the lumbar lordosis and stabilizes the pelvis. If the iliopsoas muscle is shortened ... It is used to identify unilateral fixed flexion deformity of the hip. The test consists of 3 steps: Step 1: The patient lies ... The patient supine on the examination table and holds the uninvolved knee to his or her chest, while allowing the involved ...
"Modified" or "knee" push-ups are performed by supporting the lower body on the knees instead of the toes, which reduces the ... The muscle is divided into three heads - the lateral head, long head and medial head. The lateral and medial heads attach to ... The triceps also control the speed of elbow-joint flexion during the downward phase of the exercise. The closer together the ... Do a normal push-up but raise one knee toward the elbow of the same side as you rise. Switch knees with each rep. Also add more ...
Children with neuromuscular disorders often manifest fixed knee flexion deformity due to muscle weakness or imbalance. They ... The lateral radiograph best demonstrates the open physes and the stigmata of chronic fixed knee flexion deformity. This patient ... encoded search term (Pediatric Fixed Knee Flexion Deformities) and Pediatric Fixed Knee Flexion Deformities What to Read Next ... The lateral radiograph best demonstrates the open physes and the stigmata of chronic fixed knee flexion deformity. This patient ...
Knee Movements: Flexion Extension Medial Rotation. Lateral Rotation Origin and insertion of muscles=. Biceps Brachii. ... Knee Joint. Knee Anatomy: The knee joint is the largest and most complicated joint in the body. It consists of 3 joints withing ... and the patella or knee cap.. There are four ligaments, tough string-like pieces that hold the knee together:. lateral ... In the front of your knee you have a kneecap called the Patella. Most of the muscles that move the knee come from the hip and ...
Radiographic imaging should be reserved for chronic knee pain (more than six weeks) or acute traumatic pain in patients who ... A systematic approach to examination of the knee includes inspection, palpation, evaluation of range of motion and strength, ... Knee pain affects approximately 25% of adults, and its prevalence has increased almost 65% over the past 20 years, accounting ... 26 Chronic lateral knee pain in runners or cyclists (or stemming from other activities involving repetitive knee flexion) is a ...
Knee - Extension, Flexion. * Neck - Rotation, Hyperextension, Lateral Flexion. * Nasogastric Tube Placement. * Pap Smears and ...
Knee - Extension, Flexion. Neck - Rotation, Hyperextension, Lateral Flexion. Nasogastric Tube Placement. Pap Smears and ... Wrist - Flexion, Hyperextension, Radial Flexion, Ulnar Flexion. KERi™ has a non-age-specific appearance. Complete lifelike ... Elbow - Extension, Flexion, Pronation, Supination. Enema Administration - Female Only. Fingers - Abduction, Adduction, Flexion ... Toes - Abduction, Adduction, Flexion (soft, lifelike material). Trunk - Rotation, Hyperextension. Urinary Catheterization - ...
Study The Knee Joint flashcards from Tom Kay ... Movements of the knee Extension. Flexion. Medial/Lateral ... Why is knee flexion not as strong when the hip is extended ... The Knee Joint Flashcards Preview Spot Test 2- Lower Limb , The ... Locking of knee. Pain during movement. Reduced movement. As menisci may become trapped in joint ...
On physical examination in the emergency department, the patients right knee was swollen; knee flexion was reduced to 30°. The ... Lateral radiograph of right knee demonstrating suprapatellar effusion without acute osseous injury (arrow). ... Lateral radiograph of right knee demonstrating suprapatellar effusion without acute osseous injury (arrow). ... the radiograph of the right knee showed suprapatellar effusion (Figure). Right knee aspiration yielded 115 mL of cloudy yellow ...
AP and lateral mechanical axias views can often identify subtle malalignment. - flexion of femoral component:. - will result in ... the mechanical axis (from the center of femoral head to center of knee, and from the center of the knee to the center of the ... Painful Total Knee Arthroplasty: Component Misplacement. - Discussion: - malposition of the joint line:. - varus tibial ... may limit flexion;. - subluxation of patella:. - internal rotation of the tibial or femoral component;. - medialization of the ...
Lateral flexion of the vertebral column. Anchors the inferior rib cage during respiration. ... Anterior and lateral surface of the femur Distal:. Tibial tuberosity. Nerve:. Femoral nerve. Artery:. Femoral artery. Action:. ... Lateral surface of the ilium. (b/w anterior and inferior gluteal line). Distal:. Greater trochanter. Nerve:. Superior gluteal ... Lateral condyle of the tibia (via iliotibial tract). Gluteal tuberosity of the femur. Nerve:. Inferior gluteal nerves (S1, S2) ...
Fixation of the PCL augmentation in 70-90° flexion. Fixation of the ACL augmentation in 20-30° flexion. Knotting of the ... If necessary (postero-)lateral and/or medial stabilization.. POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT: Limited weight bearing with 20 kg for 6 ... Reconstruction of knee stability by primary ligament sutures and additional augmentation after knee dislocation. ... Acute knee dislocation Schenck type III and IV. Operative treatment should be performed within 7 days after injury. ...
Knee 0 degrees extension 93 degrees flexion. *Ankle 20 degrees dorsiflexion (with weight bearing and 10 degrees knee flexion) ... Thigh lateral diameter of , 135 mm (230 mm above the knee joint line) ... 22 degrees dorsiflexion (with 93 degrees knee flexion) 10 degrees plantar flexion 9 degrees inversion 9 degrees eversion ... Calf lateral diameter of , 100 mm (90 mm below the knee joint line) ...
... inability to initiate prosthetic knee flexion. Medial or Lateral Whip (Prosthetic causes). Excessive rotation of the knee; ... Excessive knee flexion during stance (Amputee causes). Knee flexion contracture; hip flexion contracture; pain anteriorly in ... inability to initiate prosthetic knee flexion. Excessive knee flexion during stance (Prosthetic causes). Socket set forward in ... Socket too big; poor suspension; knee instability. Forward Trunk Flexion (Amputee causes). Hip flexion contracture; weak hip ...
Right Lateral Flexion 1 - Yes 195 Blank 23613 669 Lumbar Spine--Left Lateral Flexion 1 - Yes 192 Blank 23616 Tape Control Loc. ... Knees Tape Control Loc. ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source 544 KNEES 1 - Findings 913 2 - No findings 5979 ... Lumbar spine flexion ................................................. 667 Lumbar spine - right/left lateral flexion ... Flexion--Active 1 - Right 19 2 - Left 15 3 - Both 25 Blank 23749 576 Flexion--Passive 1 - Right 18 2 - Left 15 3 - Both 31 ...
Knee. The knee is a more limited hinge joint. The articulation between the femur and the tibia allows only for flexion and ... Their articulation with the tibia and fibula allows for a good deal of flexion and extension and a lesser amount of lateral ... That means the distance from the hip to the knee is greater than from the knee to the ankle. Contrary to expectation, the femur ... The crest of the tibia, the head of the fibula, and both the lateral malleolus and medial malleolus are visible right under the ...
Injury to the femoral nerve results in decreased sensation on the anterior thigh and weakness of hip flexion and knee extension ... Injury to the sciatic nerve causes decreased sensation in the lateral leg and the lateral, dorsal, and plantar aspects of the ... weakness of knee flexion; and loss of motor function of the leg and foot. ... Below-the-knee arterial injury: the type of vessel may be more important than the number of vessels injured. J Trauma Acute ...
rervesed origin insertion of action: flexes leg at the knee;. - doriflexion of the foot increases knee flexion capability;. - ... lateral head: lateral condyle and posterior surface of femur;. - medial head: medial condyle and adjacent part of femur;. - ... the ability to decelerate the tibia is lost and therefore, flexion of the knee will persist throughout stance phase;. - in ... in addition an equinus contracture would lessen the work load of the quads, in trying to prevent knee flexion during stance ...
Flexion: when the knee bends Extension: when the knee extends Dorsiflexion: foot bending upwards Plantar flexion: on your tippy ... This medial/lateral rotation described above all takes place at the shoulder joint. See the 4 different types of joints. Here ... The first two, flexion and extension, are found in almost all freely moveable joints, including toes, ankles, knee, hip, truck ... Flexion means the angle between the two general segments of the joint decreases, such as flexing your bicep. Extension is the ...
Does Knee Flexion Influence the Relationship between the Femoral Tunnel and the Lateral Anatomic Structures During ACL ... Socioeconomic Status is Associated with Risk of Above-knee Amputation After Periprosthetic Joint Infection of the Knee. Lieber ... Are Serum Metal Ion Levels a Concern at Mid-term Followup of Revision Knee Arthroplasty With a Metal-on-metal Hinge Design?. ... Knee-to-Talus Donor-Site Morbidity Following Autologous Osteochondral Transplantation A Meta-Analysis with Best-case and Worst- ...
Implantable prosthetic knee for lateral compartment US20040102852A1 (en) 2002-11-22. 2004-05-27. Johnson Erin M.. Modular knee ... Systems for providing deeper knee flexion capabilities for knee prosthesis patients HK16106376.3A HK1218381A1 (en) 2007-08-27. ... Systems for providing deeper knee flexion capabilities for knee prosthesis patients Info. Publication number. HK1218381A1. ... Systems for providing deeper knee flexion capabilities for knee prosthesis patients Family Applications Before (1). Application ...
Using cutting edge computer simulation, JOURNEY II TKA is designed to restore the function of the normal knee; replicating ... inlcudes three products to address different patient needs in the total knee arthroplasty portfolio. ... Bi-cruciate substituting total knee arthroplasty improved medio-lateral instability in mid-flexion range ... Bi-cruciate substituting total knee arthroplasty improved medio-lateral instability in mid-flexion range ...
Outcome Measurements: Response times of the medial and lateral quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius. Results: There was a ... Females, however, contracted their quadriceps faster than males at all knee flexion angles. Conclusions: Small changes in knee ... Regardless of knee flexion angle, following a perturbation in single leg stance, females contract their quadriceps faster than ... Females recruit quadriceps faster than males at multiple knee flexion angles following a weight-bearing rotary perturbation. ...
Knees:. 1) Avoid knee hyperextension, twisting, and deep knee flexion.. 2) Dont perform squats at 90 degrees (deep knee squats ... 4) Avoid unsupported spinal flexion exercises (dead lifts, good-mornings, bi-lateral bent-over rows or bilateral bent over ... deep knee lunges or bouncing lunges. This puts too much stress on the knee joint. Perform partial squats/lunges instead or, do ... Modify these by bending your knees, doing single leg lifts or performing crunches (partial sit-ups).. 6) Be careful not to ...
Hip/knee position measured from greater trochanter of femur to lateral epicondyle of femur ... angulation in degrees (flexion values positive/extension values negative). *translation in inches (anterior values positive and ... Postural Alignment - Hip/Knee Position [ Time Frame: In a single session, 10 data points per phase were collected ]. Measured ... angulation in degrees (flexion values positive/extension values negative). *translation in inches (anterior values positive and ...
the hip joint; (c) right lateral rotation of the neck; (d) left lateral rotation of the neck; (e) flexion of the wrist; (f) ... of 0.44 inch across the right knee and 1.38 inches across the left knee (measured across the broadest part of the knees). ... Figure 2. Illustrates the measurement of knee-joint extension, showing a) Knee joint at beginning of measurement; b) Knee ... flexion deformities of the knees caused some pelvic tilt with the patient recumbent. However, on the 139th day, the flexion ...
The ten human cadaver knees were tested in a knee-simulating machine at a torque of 30 and 40 Nm. Each test cycle involved a ... dynamic extension from 120° flexion. All recorded parameters showed a decrease of 1-2% per measurement cycle. Although we ... That will ensure reliable retropatellar usage of Tekscan sensors and distinguish the effects of knee joint surgeries from ... Insertion approaches were also investigated and a lateral parapatellar arthrotomy supplemented by parapatellar sutures proved ...
  • However, this congruence is not found when looking at medio-lateral limb motions and pelvic rotations, showing distinct differences between ground-dwellers (e.g. largely restricted to a parasagittal plane) and C. monedula (e.g. increased mobility of the hip joint). (biologists.org)
  • All knees achieved full range of motion with normal medio-lateral patello-femoral stability. (isakos.com)
  • The feet exhibit much greater medio-lateral excursions while running through water than do those of other lizards while running on land. (biologists.org)
  • The knee joint is the largest and most complicated joint in the body. (prezi.com)
  • Dr. Wheeless enjoys and performs all types of orthopaedic surgery but is renowned for his expertise in total joint arthroplasty (Hip and Knee replacement) as well as complex joint infections. (wheelessonline.com)
  • The knee is a more limited hinge joint. (artistsnetwork.com)
  • This puts too much stress on the knee joint. (selfgrowth.com)
  • This medial/lateral rotation described above all takes place at the shoulder joint. (preventdisease.com)
  • It's true, if you feel behind your knee joint, there are some very prominent cords (tendons) that are easier to feel when the knee is flexed (bent). (nfpt.com)
  • These are the big cords that can be felt behind the knee joint. (nfpt.com)
  • Although, the importance of the inclination of the tibial plateau is well established in the current literature, no quantitative data are available regarding the inclination of the medial and lateral tibial plateau and its influence on the biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint in patients with LPD. (springer.com)
  • That will ensure reliable retropatellar usage of Tekscan sensors and distinguish the effects of knee joint surgeries from sensor wear-related effects. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of our examination of Tekscan sensors was to prepare a series of experiments on changes in retropatellar pressure and force distribution after knee joint surgeries [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In older adults, the meniscus can be damaged following prolonged 'wear and tear' called a ballsack swelling of the knee joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially acute injuries (typically in younger, more active patients) can lead to displaced tears which can cause mechanical symptoms such as clicking, catching, or locking during motion of the knee joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common signs and symptoms of a torn meniscus are knee pain , particularly along the joint line, and swelling. (wikipedia.org)
  • These menisci act to distribute body weight across the knee joint . (wikipedia.org)
  • This uneven weight distribution would cause the development of abnormal excessive forces leading to early damage of the knee joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The part of the iliotibial band which lies beneath the tensor fasciae latae is prolonged upward to join the lateral part of the capsule of the hip-joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of force placed on the patellofemoral joint increases with increasing knee flexion. (medscape.com)
  • We consecutively included patients with knee effusion who underwent joint fluid analysis in this single-center cross-sectional study. (jrheum.org)
  • The white-white zone receives nutrition from synovial fluid by passive diffusion, which can be stimulated by knee joint motion, but since a healing response is not created, the prognosis is poor regarding surgical repair in this zone. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • Joint-line tenderness is most reliable when the tenderness is localized to the posteromedial or posterolateral corner of the knee, since anterior joint-line tenderness is usually present with patellofemoral disease. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • In 90 degrees knee flexion, 85 percent of the joint load is transmitted through the menisci. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • Referred pain resulting from hip joint pathology, such as slipped capital femoral epiphysis, also may cause knee pain. (aafp.org)
  • Trauma may result in acute ligamentous rupture or fracture, leading to acute knee joint swelling and hemarthrosis. (aafp.org)
  • Osteoarthritis of the knee joint is common in older adults. (aafp.org)
  • Similarity in identical compared with non-identical twin pairs for radiographic changes at the interphalangeal and first carpometacarpal joints of the hands and the tibiofemoral joint and patellofemoral joint of the knee expressed as intraclass correlations. (bmj.com)
  • Capsule of right knee-joint (distended). (wikidoc.org)
  • Here, we present a protocol to describe a minimally invasive technique for knee joint immobilization in a rat model. (jove.com)
  • The rat knee joint was gradually immobilized by a preconstructed internal fixation at approximately 135° knee flexion without interfering essential nerves or blood vessels. (jove.com)
  • The range of motion was significantly restricted in the immobilized knee joint than that observed in the contralateral knee joint demonstrating the effectiveness of this model. (jove.com)
  • The rat knee joint can remain fully flexed without any surgical trauma 10 , 11 . (jove.com)
  • combined Kirschner wire and steel wire into an external fixator, which immobilized the knee joint to approximately 140° of flexion 13 . (jove.com)
  • Knee Anatomy Knee Joint The most poorly constructed joint in the body. (powershow.com)
  • Meniscus- half moon shaped cartilage lying between the knee joint. (powershow.com)
  • A unicompartmental knee prosthesis for implantation into a knee joint includes a body having a substantially elliptical shape in plan and a pair of contoured opposed faces including a first face and a second face, the second face including a concave surface. (google.com)
  • The prosthesis is free of fixation to a permanent location within the knee joint compartment. (google.com)
  • Patients often complain of pain and swelling over the medial aspect of the knee joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirty-nine patients were included, and 23 patients underwent a lateral submeniscal arthrotomy for evaluation of joint surface reduction, with 6 lateral meniscus lesions identified via arthrotomy. (scirp.org)
  • Although the initiation of early ROM improved the clinical results, soft tissue lesions influenced initiation of early knee joint motion. (scirp.org)
  • This guidance document was developed as a special controls guidance to support the reclassification of (1) the knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis and (2) the knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis into class II (special controls). (fda.gov)
  • The devices, as classified, are intended for replacement of a knee joint or part of a knee joint, respectively. (fda.gov)
  • Following the effective date of this final reclassification rule any firm submitting a 510(k) premarket notification for (1) the knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis or (2) the knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis will need to address the issues covered in the special control guidance. (fda.gov)
  • FDA believes that special controls, when combined with the general controls, will be sufficient to provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the knee joint patellofemorotibial and femorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prostheses. (fda.gov)
  • This special control guidance document identifies the classification regulations and product codes for the knee joint patellofemorotibial and femorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prostheses (Refer to Section 4 - Scope ). (fda.gov)
  • In fact, knee pain is a very common problem among runners because the knee joint is particularly vulnerable to excessive loading and thus damage,as it bears the full weight of your body and any extra force when you run. (technogym.com)
  • The knee joint is also the one most prone to injury and damage. (technogym.com)
  • 10-1 Chapter 10 The Knee Joint Manual of Structural Kinesiology R.T. Floyd, EdD, ATC, CSCS. (thunderroadusa.com)
  • The knee joint, or tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and most complex diarthrosis of the body (figs. 9.23 and 9.24). (thunderroadusa.com)
  • It is primarily a hinge joint, but when the knee is flexed it is also capable of slight rotation and lateral gliding. (thunderroadusa.com)
  • The knee is not only the largest joint in the body, but it also happens to be one of the most complicated joints as well. (expandinglight.org)
  • You may be surprised to learn that the knee joint should be able to move through 150 degrees of flexion, move 3-4 degrees sideways, and rotate 90 degrees as well. (expandinglight.org)
  • First of all, the femoral and tibial condyles (i.e., the bottom end of the thigh bone and the top of the lower leg bone, which meet at the knee joint) are shaped in such a manner that there is "automatic" rotation of the knee every time one flexes or extends the knee. (expandinglight.org)
  • The knee is the largest joint of the body, and it is fairly centered between long bones above and below. (chiro.org)
  • Many of the leg's muscles are also adapted to bipedalism , most substantially the gluteal muscles , the extensors of the knee joint, and the calf muscles . (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. The incidence of significant OA of the patellofemoral joint on the lateral view. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Leg Stabilizer for arthroscopic knee surgery helps open up the knee joint when lower leg pressure is applied. (outpatientsurgery.net)
  • The knee joint is made up of two parts. (doccheck.com)
  • Between the condyles of the thigh and leg bones are the fibrocartilaginous menisci fused in their growth to the joint capsule: the meniscus medialis (medial meniscus) and the lateral meniscus (lateral meniscus). (doccheck.com)
  • The knee joint is secured by complex band-like structures (ligaments). (doccheck.com)
  • The joint capsule is most stable on the dorsal side of the knee joint. (doccheck.com)
  • Ventrally the joint capsule is firmly fixed to the ligaments of the knee cap (liagamentum patellae). (doccheck.com)
  • The knee joint is surrounded by numerous bursae ( bursae ), which can increase in size in the instance of inflammation and can change the appearance of the leg surface. (doccheck.com)
  • Symptoms of iliotibial band syndrome may include pain on the outside of the knee at the beginning of exercise which persists through the exercise or specific movements like running downhill and having the knee bent for prolonged periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when grouped by job classification, the most frequently reported posture across all job classifications was kneeling near full flexion. (cdc.gov)
  • Kneeling near full flexion was reported as the most frequently used posture by all job classifications and was likely due to the fact that it requires the least amount of muscle activity to maintain and has reduced pressures at the knee. (cdc.gov)
  • Like squatting, kneeling near full flexion results in increased femoral rollback and may increase the stresses applied to the meniscus. (cdc.gov)
  • Unlike lateral lifting, maintaining a static posture results in knee loading and muscle activity such that the mine worker should consider kneeling near full flexion and sitting on their heels. (cdc.gov)
  • Although kneeling near full flexion is associated with injuries, there are benefits to this posture that are realized when statically kneeling (minimal muscle activity, allows worker to maintain an upright torso in low heights, and decreased loading at the knee). (cdc.gov)
  • As discussed in part I of this two-part article, 1 the family physician should be familiar with knee anatomy and common mechanisms of injury, and a detailed history and focused physical examination can narrow possible causes. (aafp.org)
  • A thorough understanding of the anatomy and function of the medial knee structures, along with a detailed history and physical exam, are imperative to diagnosing and treating these injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are going to take a look at knee anatomy and alignment to help you to prevent knee injuries in your yoga classes and your practice, and to help those walking (or limping) into your classes already with knee injuries. (expandinglight.org)
  • Foot placement, thorax-pelvis-hip kinematic variables and hip and knee moments were calculated over the first 30% of stance. (nih.gov)
  • 4) Avoid unsupported spinal flexion exercises (dead lifts, good-mornings, bi-lateral bent-over rows or bilateral bent over reverse flys). (selfgrowth.com)
  • Older men had better spinal flexion than expected. (cdc.gov)
  • Misconceptions and the Acceptance of Evidence-based Nonsurgical Interventions for Knee Osteoarthritis. (lww.com)
  • The investigators recruited 22 knee osteoarthritis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This evaluation consisted of three questionnaires (Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index ( WOMAC) and Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36( MOS-SF36)), a motion analysis with an optoelectronic system, then a 6-min walk test. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To assess the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to common forms of osteoarthritis of the hands and knees. (bmj.com)
  • These results demonstrate for the first time a clear genetic effect for radiographic osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in women, with a genetic influence ranging from 39-65%, independent of known environmental or demographic confounders. (bmj.com)
  • Patients with non-inflammatory osteoarthritis requiring a partial knee replacement will have tantalum beads inserted at the time of surgery in order to reference implant movement over time and these results will be compared with results from the literature of others with partial knee replacements. (anzctr.org.au)
  • Therefore, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has investigated three different biomechanical parameters (muscle activity of the knee flexors and extensors, pressure at the knee, and the net forces and moments at the knee) as subjects assumed postures common to low-seam mining, both with and without kneepads. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, muscle activity of the knee flexors and extensors was evaluated for each posture while subjects performed a lateral lift that is common to low-seam mining where they lifted a 25-lb block from their right side, transferred it across their body, and placed it on the ground on their left side. (cdc.gov)
  • In its course, it passes superficially to a bony protuberance known as the lateral epicondylous, from which it is separated by a serous sliding bag (which in reality is an emanation of the articular synovial with a purse function). (technogym.com)