Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Spinal DiseasesRange of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)DislocationsLongitudinal Ligaments: Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)AxisTraction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Laryngoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the larynx.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Spinal NeoplasmsDiskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Lordosis: The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Ligamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Total Disc Replacement: The replacement of intervertebral discs in the spinal column with artificial devices. The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Klippel-Feil Syndrome: A syndrome characterised by a low hairline and a shortened neck resulting from a reduced number of vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass.Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Arthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Osteoblastoma: A benign, painful, tumor of bone characterized by the formation of osteoid tissue, primitive bone and calcified tissue. It occurs frequently in the spine of young persons. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Hyperostosis, Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal: A disease of elderly men characterized by large osteophytes that bridge vertebrae and ossification of ligaments and tendon insertions.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Spondylitis: Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Cervicoplasty: Reconstructive surgical procedures in the NECK region to restore or improve form and function.Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Discitis: Inflammation of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC or disk space which may lead to disk erosion. Until recently, discitis has been defined as a nonbacterial inflammation and has been attributed to aseptic processes (e.g., chemical reaction to an injected substance). However, recent studies provide evidence that infection may be the initial cause, but perhaps not the promoter, of most cases of discitis. Discitis has been diagnosed in patients following discography, myelography, lumbar puncture, paravertebral injection, and obstetrical epidural anesthesia. Discitis following chemonucleolysis (especially with chymopapain) is attributed to chemical reaction by some and to introduction of microorganisms by others.Posterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.Brachial Plexus Neuritis: A syndrome associated with inflammation of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical features include severe pain in the shoulder region which may be accompanied by MUSCLE WEAKNESS and loss of sensation in the upper extremity. This condition may be associated with VIRUS DISEASES; IMMUNIZATION; SURGERY; heroin use (see HEROIN DEPENDENCE); and other conditions. The term brachial neuralgia generally refers to pain associated with brachial plexus injury. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1355-6)Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pseudarthrosis: A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Osteoma, Osteoid: Benign circumscribed tumor of spongy bone occurring especially in the bones of the extremities and vertebrae, most often in young persons. (Dorland, 27th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile: Benign disorder of infants and children caused by proliferation of HISTIOCYTES, macrophages found in tissues. These histiocytes, usually lipid-laden non-Langerhans cells, form multiple yellow-red nodules most often in the skin, the eye, and sometimes in the viscera. Patients appear to have normal lipid metabolism and are classified as a normolipemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Cineradiography: Motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.Brown-Sequard Syndrome: A syndrome associated with injury to the lateral half of the spinal cord. The condition is characterized by the following clinical features (which are found below the level of the lesion): contralateral hemisensory anesthesia to pain and temperature, ipsilateral loss of propioception, and ipsilateral motor paralysis. Tactile sensation is generally spared. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p162).Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Racquet Sports: Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Tomography, X-Ray: Tomography using x-ray transmission.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Intracranial Hypotension: Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Chordoma: A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Post-Traumatic Headache: Secondary headache attributed to TRAUMA of the HEAD and/or the NECK.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.OsteomyelitisInjury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Manipulation, Chiropractic: Procedures used by chiropractors to treat neuromusculoskeletal complaints.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Surgical Fixation Devices: Devices used to hold tissue structures together for repair, reconstruction or to close wounds. They may consist of adsorbable or non-adsorbable, natural or synthetic materials. They include tissue adhesives, skin tape, sutures, buttons, staples, clips, screws, etc., each designed to conform to various tissue geometries.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Stretchers: Bed-like structures for transporting or temporarily holding patients.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)AccidentsHoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
... proposed 3 classification-types that specifically addressed the cervical spine anomalies and their associated cervical spine- ... Flexion, extension, and rotation are all concentrated in the area of the abnormal odontoid or poorly developed ring of C1 which ... epidemiology and role in the development of cervical spine-related symptoms". Spine. 31 (21): E798-804. doi:10.1097/01.brs. ... This pattern can be recognized as the cervical spine is often seen to be at an angle or hinge at this open segment. A ...
Cervical Spine: The standard projections in the UK AP and Lateral. Peg projection with trauma only. Obliques and Flexion and ... Special projections include a Lateral with Flexion and Extension of the cervical spine, an Axial for C1-C2 (Fuchs or Judd ... Lumbar Spine - AP and Lateral +/- L5/S1 view in the UK, with obliques and Flexion and Extension requests being rare. In the ... The spine (that is, the vertebral column. A projectional radiograph of the spine confers an effective dose of approximately 1.5 ...
Splenius capitis muscle
They allow for flexion and extension and limit lateral flexion in the cervical spine. Pathological processes that can occur in ... They are located in the cervical region of the vertebral column between C3 and C7. Two lips project upward from the superior ... Foraminal stenosis at this joint is the most common cause of cervical nerve root pressure. They were characterized by Hubert ...
Digital motion X-ray
Characteristics of Sagittal Vertebral Alignment in Flexion Determined by Dynamic Radiographs of the Cervical Spine. Spine, 2001 ... Spine 1999 Apr 1; 24(7): 619-26. 12. Bogduk N, Lord SM. Cervical Spine Disorders. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1998 Mar: 10(2): 110-5. ... 15.6 DRE Cervical Spine, 15.6a Criteria For Rating Impairment Due to Cervical Disorders. 16. Greenman P, Principals of Manual ... 5. Gavin, T. et al., Biomechanical analysis of cervical orthroses in Flexion: A comparison of cervical collars and ...
"Use of flexion and extension radiographs of the cervical spine to rule out acute instability in patients with negative computed ... It can be seen in standing stress radiographs in flexion, extension, and neutral views as well, and also digital motion X-ray, ... Back patients with ligamentous laxity in the area of the spine may also experience osteoarthritis and disc degeneration. In the ...
... in the thoracic spine (indigo) and 50° in the cervical spine (red). These add up to 90° of spinal rotation between hips and ... Reduced mobility in the hips will necessitate some spinal flexion (leaning forward). In all but the tightest of hip this can ... Rotation of the neck is due to rotation in the cervical spine using The left and right sternocleidomastoid in the sides of the ... If one slouches, the spine is not kept straight and the twist will be far less effective. Stretches: Spine, Shoulders and Hips ...
... especially at the atlanto-axial joint and the lower cervical spine column. The method can help diagnosing sprains of the neck, ... "The flexion-rotation test and active cervical mobility--a comparative measurement study in cervicogenic headache", National ... NEFERT (Neck Flexion Rotation Test) is a medical examination procedure developed in 1999 by German neurootologist Claus-Frenz ... Center for Biotechnology Information (research abstract), November 9, 2004 (Retrieved July 29, 2013) Claussen C. Neck Flexion, ...
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis
Dysphagia from cervical spine osteophyte impingement of esophagus is reported in some cases. Similar calcification and ... but involvement is variable and can include the entire spine. DISH can present with spinal stiffness on forward flexion/back ... Radiographs of the spine will show abnormal bone formation (ossification) along the anterior spinal ligament. The disc spaces, ... As areas of the spine and tendons can become inflamed NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and Naproxen can be helpful in both relieving ...
Splenius cervicis muscle
The function of the splenius cervicis muscle is extension of the cervical spine, rotation to the ipsilateral side and lateral ... flexion to the ipsilateral side. Position of splenius cervicis muscle (shown in red). Lateral view. Posterior view. Muscles of ... Section of the neck at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the ... into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the upper two or three cervical vertebrae. Its name is based on the ...
The twister is often confused as being a spine crank since it involves a degree of lateral non-cervical spinal flexion. The ... attempting to apply extreme pressure and damage to the cervical vertebrae. A spine crank (the term spine lock is also often ... Cervical Spine Injuries in Olympic Athletes. www.hughston.com. URL last accessed February 8, 2006. Gracie Barra Tampa. Cattle ... hence causing lateral hyperflexion of the cervical spine. The technique involves tension in several bodyparts, and depending on ...
Splenius capitis muscle
The splenius capitis can also allow lateral flexion and rotation of the cervical spine. ... Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. Showing the arrangement of the deep cervical fascia ( ... It arises from the lower half of the nuchal ligament, from the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra, and from the ...
... to test for pain free cervical spine lateral flexion. Now test for stiffness or pain flexing or extending the cervical spine: " ... Lateral flexion of cervical spine - "Try and touch your shoulder with your ear" ● Observe the spine from behind ● "Can you bend ... Arms, legs and spine From behind Inspect for: a straight spine (note any scoliosis), normal paraspinal muscle bulk, symmetrical ... Test lateral flexion of the thoracic and lumbar spine: "Stand up straight and then slide the palm of your right hand down your ...
Affected persons usually feel dull pain in the cervical or lumbar spine that can radiate into the buttocks and legs. Typically ... or lateral flexion but also by prolonged standing or walking. Pain associated with facet syndrome is often called "referred ... Thus, the spine can be both relieved and stabilized. If these conservative measures do not bring about betterment, minimally ... The first cervical vertebra has an inferior articulating surface but, as it does not restrict lateral or posterior translation ...
Most airway maneuvers are associated with some movement of the cervical spine. When there is a possibility of cervical injury, ... This maneuver involves extension of the neck and flexion of the head (also called the sniffing position), which opens up the ... Most of these airway maneuvers are associated with some movement of the cervical spine. Even though cervical collars can cause ... "Cervical spine motion during airway management: a cinefluoroscopic study of the posteriorly destabilized third cervical ...
Levator scapulae muscle
... and may produce straight flexion or extension of the cervical spine. The muscles of the shoulder can be categorized into three ... Elevating or rotating one shoulder at a time would require muscles to stabilize the cervical spine and keep it immobile so it ... When the shoulder is fixed, levator scapula rotates to the same side and flexes the cervical spine laterally. When both ... A cervical vertebra Side view of a typical cervical vertebra Left scapula. Dorsal surface. Section of the neck at about the ...
Radiographs of the cervical spine should be obtained to rule out obvious bony abnormality, and MRI should be considered if ... Torticollis is a fixed or dynamic tilt, rotation, with flexion or extension of the head and/or neck. The type of torticollis ... "Cervical dystonia - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 2017-11-02.. ... Bartleson, J. D.; Deen, H. Gordon (2009-07-23). Spine Disorders: Medical and Surgical Management. Cambridge University Press. p ...
X-Ray of cervical vertebrae. X-ray of cervical spine in flexion and extension. First cervical vertebra, or Atlas Second ... However, the cervical spine is comparatively mobile, and some component of this movement is due to flexion and extension of the ... In clearing the cervical spine, Canadian studies have developed the Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) for physicians to decide who ... The cervical spinal nerves emerge from above the cervical vertebrae. For example, the cervical spinal nerve 3 (C3) passes above ...
Flexion teardrop fracture
However, the cervical spine is comparatively mobile, and some component of this movement is due to flexion and extension of the ... Injuries to the cervical spine are common at the level of the second cervical vertebrae, but neurological injury is uncommon. ... In clearing the cervical spine, Canadian studies have developed the Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) for physicians to decide who ... The cervical spinal nerves emerge from above the cervical vertebrae. For example, the cervical spinal nerve 3 (C3) passes above ...
Radiographs of the cervical spine should be obtained to rule out obvious bony abnormality, and MRI should be considered if ... Lateral neck flexion and overall range of motion can be regained quicker in newborns when parents conduct physical therapy ... Neck pain Occasional formation of a mass Thickened or tight sternocleidomastoid muscle Tenderness on the cervical spine Tremor ... Torticollis is a fixed or dynamic tilt, rotation, with flexion or extension of the head and/or neck. The type of torticollis ...
... an objective upper cervical technique focusing primarily on misalignments in the first bone of the spine (Atlas) as it comes ... Cox Flexion-Distraction - a decompression focused procedure which utilizes specialized adjusting tables with movable parts; ... full spine x-rays and precise adjusting techniques that condemns "torquing" of the spine, which may harm the Intervertebral ... Then, with a quick and precise thrust, the chiropractor adjusts the spine. This is done to improve mobility in the vertebral ...
Weak development of cervical spines suggest that epaxial musculature was underdeveloped in Tanystropheus and that intrinsic ... providing passive support by limiting dorsoventral flexion. The body contained 13 hourglass-shaped dorsal vertebrae, two sacral ... Cervical elongation reached its peak with cervical vertebra 9, which was ten times longer than it was tall. ... Subvertical placement of the pre and postzygapophyses suggested limited lateral movement of the neck whereas cervical ribs ...
Degenerative disc disease
... or cervical (upper) spine. Laminoplasty: A procedure that reaches the cervical spine from the back of the neck. The spinal ... Like a fusion, these implants allow maintain mobility to the segment by allowing flexion and extension. Facetectomy: A ... Sugawara, Taku (2015). "Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery for Degenerative Disease: A Review". Neurologia medico-chirurgica. 55 ( ... The most common surgical treatments include: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: A procedure that reaches the cervical ...
... cervical spine, and the top of the head. In this position, akin to standing "smartly", the action of standing erect should do ... The shoulder flexion of the arm raise engages the serratus anterior, anterior and middle deltoids, upper trapezius, ... The role of the latimus dorsi is subtle, as "tight latissimus dorsi can pull the spine into too much of a lumbar curve". ... The erector spinae and quadratus lumborum lift and straighten the spine. A downward release exists in the following parts of ...
These regions are called the cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, sacrum and coccyx. There are seven cervical ... because it permits extensive lateral and vertical flexion motion without stretching the nerve cord too extensively or wringing ... The upper cervical spine has a curve, convex forward, that begins at the axis (second cervical vertebra) at the apex of the ... In birds, there is a variable number of cervical vertebrae, which often form the only truly flexible part of the spine. The ...
"Safety of chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine: a prospective national survey". Spine. 32 (21): 2375-78. doi:10.1097 ... which emphasizes evaluating the spine along with specific adjustment that avoids rotational vectors), Cox/flexion-distraction ( ... There is low or very low evidence supporting SM for chronic lumbar spine-related extremity symptoms and cervical spine-related ... Spine. 34 (11): E405-13. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181a16d63. PMID 19444054.. *^ a b c d e Ernst E (2007). "Adverse effects of ...
Causes of cancer pain
Seventy percent of cases involve the thoracic, 20 percent the lumbar, and 10 percent the cervical spine; and about 20 percent ... tingling and often electric-like discharge going from the neck to the spine and extremities, triggered by neck flexion"), ... and straining the lumbar spine. In some postures the liver may pinch the parietal peritoneum against the lower rib cage, ...
Latissimus dorsi muscle
It also has a synergistic role in extension and lateral flexion of the lumbar spine. ... The latissimus dorsi is innervated by the sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical nerves through the thoracodorsal (long scapular) ... and lateral flexion (anterior fibers) of the lumbar spine, and assists as a muscle of both forced expiration (anterior fibers) ... Compound exercises for the 'lats' typically involve elbow flexion and tend to recruit the biceps brachii, brachialis, and ...
Posterior or spinal fibers arise from the lower lip of the posterior border of the spine of the scapula.*They are commonly ... The deltoid is innervated by the axillary nerve. The axillary nerve originates from the anterior rami of the cervical ... shoulder abduction, flexion and extension. Antagonist. Latissimus dorsi. Identifiers. Latin. musculus deltoideus. ... the anterior border and upper surface of the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion, spine of the scapula. ...
Furthermore, flexion and extension in the lumbal spine is the product of a combination of rotation and translation in the ... The vertebral foramen within the arch is triangular, larger than the thoracic vertebrae, but smaller than in the cervical ... their lumbar spines, in contrast to the spines of Old World monkeys and Nacholapithecus and Proconsul, which suggests that the ... T3 is at level of medial part of spine of scapula. T7 is at inferior angle of the scapula. L4 is at highest point of iliac ...
Cervical fracture *Jefferson fracture. *Hangman's fracture. *Flexion teardrop fracture. *Clay-shoveler fracture ... The bones of the spine, pelvis, and some bones of the skull are irregular bones. Examples include the ethmoid and sphenoid ... Palatine process (Incisive foramen, Incisive canals, Foramina of Scarpa, Incisive bone, Anterior nasal spine) ... ", "spine", "eminence", "tubercle" or "tuberosity", depending on the protrusion's shape and location. In general, long bones ...
... making the spine more rigid. The neural spines had marked rugosities on their front and back sides, as in other basal ... cervical vertebrae. . The trunk had 12 dorsal. and four sacral vertebrae. . The tail comprised more than 37 caudal vertebrae. . ... and 8-10º in sideways flexion, before limited by the bone morphology. The actual range of movement in a live animal would have ... The cervical vertebrae were similar to those of Jobaria and Cetiosaurus. Their centra were approximately 3.1 times as long as ...
The ribs attach to the spine and there are no limbs or limb girdles. They are supported only by the muscles. The main external ... the cervical vertebrae are typically fused, an adaptation trading flexibility for stability during swimming. ... helped by the pumping action generated by compression of the articular cartilage or flexion of the elastic cartilage. Thus, ... have no direct connection with the spine. They are supported by the muscles which compose the main part of the trunk. ...
The halo brace is a cervical thoracic orthosis used to immobilize the cervical spine, usually following fracture. The halo ... In the case of diseases causing neurological or muscular impairment of muscles surrounding the knee, a KO can prevent flexion ... Scoliosis, a condition describing an abnormal curvature of the spine, may in certain cases be treated with spinal orthoses, ... provide subtalar stabilization while allowing free ankle dorsiflexion and free or restricted plantar flexion. Depending upon ...
"AO spine injury classification system: a revision proposal for the thoracic and lumbar spine". European Spine Journal. 22 (10 ... This classification system can be used to classify injury to the cervical, thoracolumbar, and sacral regions of the spinal ... and hyper-flexion or hyper-extension. Vertebral fractures in children or elderly individuals can be related to the development ... The lumbar spine is often the site of back pain. The area is susceptible because of its flexibility and the amount of body ...
Lifting Action: Arches of the feet, the pelvic floor, lower abdomen, rib cage, cervical spine, the top of the head. Downward ... The ankle, hip, shoulder, and wrist joints are neutral, halfway between flexion and extension, with the elbow joints extended ... cervical spine, and the top of the head. In this position, akin to standing "smartly", the action of standing erect should ... Mild Axial Extension: Lumbar, thoracic, cervical curves. Neutral: Ankle, hip, shoulder, wrist joints. Extended: Knee and elbow ...
Arm flexion  The humerus is rotated out of the plane of the torso so that it points forward (anteriorly). pectoralis major ... Favard, Luc; Bacle, Guillaume; Berhouet, Julien (2007). "Rotator cuff repair". Joint Bone Spine. 74 (6): 551-7. doi:10.1016/j. ... Arises from the transverse processes of the first four cervical vertebrae and inserts into the medial border of the scapula.. ... "Arm Flexion and Extension". University of Michigan Medical School. 2002. Retrieved December 2010.. Check date values in: , ...
History of tracheal intubation
... in 15 patients with cervical spine immobilization". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 90 (5): 705-6. doi:10.1093/bja/aeg560. PMID ... and the distal portion was capable of a certain degree of flexion. Between 1945 and 1952, optical engineers (particularly Karl ... can cause the windpipe to re-unite when the cervical cartilages are cut across, provided they are not entirely severed." The ...
"Recurrent burner syndrome due to presumed cervical spine osteoblastoma in a collision sport athlete - a case report". Journal ... An athlete can incur this injury in a collision that can cause cervical axial compression, flexion, or extension of nerve roots ... The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by the anterior rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic ... They can be caused by stretching, diseases, and wounds to the lateral cervical region (posterior triangle) of the neck or the ...
... flexion of the knees and hips, extension of the thoracic spine, as well as flexion and abduction of the shoulders. There is ... Cappaert, Tom (June 2005). "Free Communications, Oral Presentations: Management of Cervical Spine Injury". Journal of Athletic ... of cervical spine injuries actually occur after the initial traumatic event and are caused or exacerbated by improper handling ... The dowel held overhead gauges bilateral and symmetrical mobility of the shoulders and the thoracic spine. The ability to ...
Ulnar nerve entrapment
Latissimus dorsi muscle
It has a synergistic role in extension (posterior fibers) and lateral flexion (anterior fibers) of the lumbar spine, and ... The latissimus dorsi is innervated by the sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical nerves through the thoracodorsal (long ... It also has a synergistic role in extension and lateral flexion of the lumbar spine. ... Compound exercises for the 'lats' typically involve elbow flexion and tend to recruit the biceps brachii, brachialis, and ...
... is the normal inward lordotic curvature of the lumbar and cervical regions of the human spine. The normal outward ( ... Hips - Common problems in the hips are tight hip flexors, which causes for poor lifting posture, hip flexion contracture, which ... Diagram showing normal curvature (posterior concavity) of the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) vertebral column (spine). ... Spines - Natural factors of how spines are formed greatly increase certain individuals' likelihood to experience a strain or ...
The centra and spines of the cervical vertebrae were long and low, and the spines had caps that gave the appearance of a ... The elbow could approach full extension and flexion at a right angle, but not achieve it completely. The fingers do not appear ... The axis bone (the second cervical vertebra) had a heavy spine, and its postzygapophyses (the processes of the vertebrae that ... The cervical ribs were slender and may have bent easily. The atlas bone (the first cervical vertebra which attaches to the ...
Rotator cuff tear
In some cases, the symptoms are due to cervical spine disease, featuring neck pain that radiates into the shoulder; ... Pain-restricted movement above the horizontal position may be present, as well as weakness with shoulder flexion and abduction. ... the examination should include an assessment of the cervical spine looking for evidence suggestive of a pinched nerve, ... When the shoulder muscle is exercised in all directions, such as external rotation, flexion, and extension, or vertical ...
"Surgical disorders of the cervical spine: presentation and management of common disorders". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 73 ( ... Lhermitte sign: feeling of electrical shock with patient neck flexion. *Reduced range of motion of the neck, the most ... typically in the cervical spine) may result in myelopathy, characterized by global weakness, gait dysfunction, loss of balance ... Diagnosis and Management of Cervical Spondylosis at eMedicine *^ a b Gibson, JNA; Waddell, G (2005). "Surgery for degenerative ...
Whole body vibration
Biermann, W. "Influence of cycloid vibration massage on trunk flexion". American Journal of Physical Medicine. 1960 (39): 219- ... "Comparing the Efficacy of Methods for Immobilizing the Thoracic-Lumbar Spine". Air Medical Journal. 37 (3): 178-185. doi: ... "Prehospital use of cervical collars in trauma patients: a critical review". Journal of Neurotrauma. 31 (6): 531-40. doi ... In former East Germany Biermann was experimenting with the use of cyclic massage and its effects on trunk flexion back in the ...
Image Segmentation and Analysis of Flexion-Extension Radiographs of Cervical Spines
Cervical spine (flexion and extension views) | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org
The cervical spine flexion and extension views demonstrate the seven vertebrae of the cervical spine when the patient is in a ... The cervical spine flexion and extension views demonstrate the seven vertebrae of the cervical spine when the patient is in a ... radiopaedia.org/articles/cervical-spine-flexion-and-extension-views/questions/1602?lang=us} ... the detector is placed portrait, parallel to the long axis of the cervical spine on the patients left side ...
Interrater reliability assessment of pre-reduction MRI features identifying hazardous disc disruption in distractive-flexion...
Controversies in spine cervical facet dislocation: when is magnetic resonance imaging indicated? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27 ... surgeons assess intervertebral disc injury characteristics in distraction flexion (DF) injuries in the cervical spine. The most ... and after closed traction reduction of cervical spine dislocations. Spine (PMa Pa 1976) 1999; 24(12):1210-17. [ Links ]. ... Key words: cervical disc prolapse, MRI interrater reliability, distraction flexion, unifacet, bifacet subluxation ...
How does pre-reduction MRI affect surgeons' behaviour when reducing distraction-flexion (dislocation) injuries of the cervical...
... behaviour when reducing distraction-flexion (dislocation) injuries of the cervical spine?. SA orthop. j. [online]. 2015, vol.14 ... management decisions regarding acute cervical distraction-flexion dislocation reduction and the consequences thereof. SUMMARY ... was performed on 110 consecutive patients with a mean age of 37.1 years with DF dislocation injuries of the cervical spine. Pre ... OF BACKGROUND DATA: There is clinical benefit when early (,24 hours) decompression in distraction-flexion dislocation (DF) ...
Pilot Study of Sequence of Segmental Contributions in the Lower Cervical Spine During Active Extension and Flexion: Healthy...
Pilot Study of Sequence of Segmental Contributions in the Lower Cervical Spine During Active Extension and Flexion: Healthy ... To formulate a clear definition of the normal sequence of segmental contributions in the cervical spine during flexion/ ... A retrospective study in which, first, a definition of normal movement in the cervical spine is formulated. Second, use of this ... This is the first described method that can reliably differentiate between normal or abnormal movement of the cervical spine in ...
The Use of Flexion-Extension MR Imaging for Accessing Cervical Spine Instability Resulting from "Rear End Low Impact" Auto...
The Use of Flexion-Extension MR Imaging for Accessing Cervical Spine Instability Resulting from "Rear End Low Impact" Auto ... The May 2002 edition of Emergency Radiology published "The Use of Flexion and Extension MR in the Evaluation of Cervical Spine ... purpose of the study was to determine the value and utility of flexion and extension MR imaging in traumatized cervical spines ... The sides are padded with foam or Velcro pads to secure the cervical spine from side to side, permitting only forward and ...
Cervical spine reposition errors after cervical flexion and extension | BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Full Text
The cervical spine returns to the upright positions with a 2° average absolute difference after cervical flexion and extension ... The purpose was to assess reposition errors of upright cervical spine. Cervical reposition errors were measured in twenty ... with an interval of 5 min between flexion and extension movements. Cervical joint positions were assessed with anatomical ... This is the first study to demonstrate single joint reposition errors of the cervical spine. ...
X-RAY Scan Cervical Spine Flexion in Shivrampally, Hyderabad. View Prices, Labs & Book online only on | Practo
Flexion Extension Xrays of Cervical Spine | Bone and Spine
These x-rays of the cervical spine are helpful in eliciting less than the ... Flexion-extension x-rays of cervical spine are Dynamic motion studies of the neck. ... When Flexion Extension Xrays of Cervical Spine are Done?. Flexion-extension x-rays of the cervical spine are done when initial ... Flexion-extension x-rays of cervical spine are Dynamic motion studies of the neck. These x-rays of the cervical spine are ...
Color X-Ray of Cervical Spine Degenerative Disc Disease in flexion (forward bending). Ideal for Websites and Publications. http...
Resources - Graston Technique®
August 1991 - Volume 73 - Issue 7 : JBJS
Flexion-distraction fracture of the cervical spine. A case report.. Budorick, T E; Anderson, P A; Rivara, F P; More ... Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the cervical spine in asymptomatic subjects.. Weis, E B Jr ... Lateral distraction injuries to the thoracic and lumbar spine. A report of three cases.. Denis, F; Burkus, J K ...
Cervical and Thoracic Spine Injuries | SpringerLink
Serious acute cervical and thoracic spine injuries in youth... ... Acute cervical and thoracic spine injuries in sports range from ... Flexion injuries. In: The cervical spine research society, editor. The cervical spine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; ... Classification of lower cervical spine injuries. In: The cervical spine research society, editor. The cervical spine. 4th ed. ... Cervical injuries in athletes. In: The Cervical Spine Research Society, editor. The cervical spine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: ...
Is a cervical spine fracture a common cause of flexion deformity in patients with AS - Spine Secrets
Is a cervical spine fracture a common cause of flexion deformity in patients with AS. Sat, 03 May 2014 , Spine Secrets ... Late flexion deformity of the cervical spine may result from a nondiagnosed fracture that heals in a displaced position. The ... site of injury is usually in the lower cervical spine or at the cervicothoracic junction. The fracture is generally a ...
Cervical Spine Acute Bony Injuries in Sports Medicine Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes
Cervical spine fractures lead to substantial morbidity and mortality. Neck injury in athletes can quickly end or change the ... Use of flexion-extension radiographs of the cervical spine in blunt trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 2001 Jul. 38(1):8-11. [Medline]. ... Cervical Spine Study Group. Cervical spine injury patterns in children. Pediatrics. 2014 May. 133 (5):e1179-88. [Medline]. ... National survey of the incidence of cervical spine injury and approach to cervical spine clearance in U.S. trauma centers. J ...
Projectional radiography - Wikipedia
Cervical Spine: The standard projections in the UK AP and Lateral. Peg projection with trauma only. Obliques and Flexion and ... Special projections include a Lateral with Flexion and Extension of the cervical spine, an Axial for C1-C2 (Fuchs or Judd ... Lumbar Spine - AP and Lateral +/- L5/S1 view in the UK, with obliques and Flexion and Extension requests being rare. In the ... The spine (that is, the vertebral column. A projectional radiograph of the spine confers an effective dose of approximately 1.5 ...
Normal kinematics of the upper cervical spine during the Flexion-Rotation Test - In vivo measurements using magnetic resonance...
Normal kinematics of the upper cervical spine during the Flexion-Rotation Test - In vivo measurements using magnetic resonance ... Normal kinematics of the upper cervical spine during the Flexion-Rotation Test - In vivo measurements using magnetic resonance ... The clinical utility and validity of the cervical flexion-rotation test in the diagnosis and management of cervicogenic ... The Flexion-Rotation Test (FRT) is proposed to assess mobility primarily at C1-C2. However, there is no in vivo measurement ...
ExRx.net : Spine Articulations
Cervical. Flexion. Bending the joint resulting in a decrease of angle; moving the spine Forward; the neck (T1-S1) moves toward ... Lateral Flexion (Abduction). Lateral movement away from the midline of the body; moving the spine to the side (left or right); ... Lateral Flexion (Abduction). Lateral movement away from the midline of the body; moving the spine to the side (left or right); ... Return to the anatomical position from lateral movement; straightening the spine from lateral flexion. ...
Cervical Spine Anatomy
This overview article discusses the cervical spines anatomy and function, including movements, vertebrae, discs, muscles, ... Head and neck motions typically involve one or more of the following movements of the cervical spine:. *Flexion. The cervical ... Movements of the Cervical Spine. The cervical spine is the most mobile region of the spine. ... Watch: Cervical Spine Anatomy Video. The cervical spine has 7 stacked bones called vertebrae, labeled C1 through C7. The top of ...
July-August 1972 - Volume 86 - Issue : Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®
Flexion teardrop fracture - Wikipedia
ExRx.net : Joint Range of Motions and Interactions
Neck / Cervical Spine. *Flexion / Extension *Accumulative Average *Men: 129º-142º *Women: 142º-160º ... Flexion *60-80º *Elbow Extension (full) decreases ROM somewhat. *Introduces Passive Insufficiency of 4 of 8 heads (1-4) of ... Combination of Hip Flexion and Knee Extension (full) decreases ROM *Stretched hamstrings pulls gastrocnemius the behind the ... Shoulder Flexion (full) decreases ROM *Introduces Passive Insufficiency of Triceps, Long Head ...
What's the Range Quiz - By Bernstein4me
Postural Correction - Jane Johnson
Correcting the Spine. Chapter 3. Cervical Spine. Increased Lordosis. Lateral Neck Flexion Forward Head Posture Rotation of the ... Chapter 4. Thoracic Spine. Kyphosis Flatback. Rotated Thorax Closing Remarks Chapter 5. Lumbar Spine. Increased Lordosis ... Postural Correction tackles postural concerns commonly affecting the spine; pelvis; upper limbs, including the shoulder and ...
Range of Motion of the Spine | Livestrong.com
Cervical Spine. Your cervical spine supports and enables you to move your head. Its made up of seven vertebrae and is shaped ... The four movements measured are flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation. Flexion is forward bending; extension is ... The lumbar spine is made up of five vertebrae, and it curves in like the cervical spine in a lordotic curve. Together, these ... Structure of the Spine. Your spine is made up of 24 bones called vertebrae. These are divided into three groups: cervical, ...
Free Physical Therapy Flashcards about Spine Anatomy
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Cervical Musculature and plexus. Other activities to help include hangman, ... Spine Anatomy. Cervical Musculature and plexus. Question. Answer. What is the action of the Longus Capitus?. Head Flexion. ... The cervical plexus is responsible for sensation to what areas, and motor to what area?. anterolateral neck, superior thorax, ...
Application of Finite Element Techniques to the Study of Cervical Spine Mechanics
Patran and LS-DYNA3D were used to create this preliminary model consisting of the cervical vertebrae, intervert ... A three-dimensional finite element model of a human ligamentous cervical spine was developed to study the mechanics of cervical ... Simulations were run for axial compression and frontal flexion. A small strain axial stiffness of 161.8 N/mm was determined for ... A three-dimensional finite element model of a human ligamentous cervical spine was developed to study the mechanics of cervical ...
Cervical Spine; Movement Before and After Anterior Cervical Discectomy, With or Without a Cervical Disc Prosthesis - Full Text...
Digital X-ray cinematographic videos are made of a flexion/extension movement. The videos will be analyzed manually and through ... Cervical Spine; Movement Before and After Anterior Cervical Discectomy, With or Without a Cervical Disc Prosthesis. The safety ... Cervical Spine; Movement Before and After Anterior Cervical Discectomy, With or Without an Activ-C Cervical Disc Prosthesis.. ... Cervical spine kinematics after anterior cervical discectomy with or without implantation of a mobile cervical disc prosthesis ...
Search Results for "cervical spine" | jns
Sensations of Electric Shock on Flexion of the Neck as a Sign of Head Injury ... If the cervical spine is involved, the shoulders should be raised 2-4 inches so as to allow the head to fall ... The great flattened head seemed to "mushroom" on top of the cervical spine. The veins and arteries of the temporal areas were ... Gurdjian has reported a case in which, following a gunshot wound in the cervical spine, there was contusion of the frontal lobe ...
Back and Neck Muscles Flashcards by L I | Brainscape
additional attachments to the bodies and TVPs of the cervical spine. *flexion of the neck ... flexion of the neck (if the head/neck is in neutral or flexed) ... attach TVPs of adjacent vertebrae of cervical and lumbar spine ... are subdivided into 3 columns of muscles on either side of the spine and each column has 3 segments ... ipsilateral lateral flexion of the head and neck. * ... unilateral contraction: lateral flexion of the head on the neck ...
InstabilityDisc herniationAnatomyUtilizing flexion distractionBiomechanicsInjuryLigamentsStabilizationAnterior cervicalInjuries of the cervical spineHyperextensionSpondylosisAbductionVertebralFractureAbnormalitiesDislocationTraumaClinicalFacetRadiographs were performedAcuteMovement in the cervical spineStability of the cervical spineDegenerative disc diLigamentousRotationalHealthy cervical spineSegmentalDecompressionSymptomsMusclesHigher risk of cervicalFractures and dislocationsMotionPatientsAbnormalRadiographicLordosis2017Lower extremitySpondyloticFindings
- The authors questioned the fundamental problem underlying the current definition of cervical instability. (adlergiersch.com)
- Defined as an angular motion greater than 11 degrees or translation of greater than 3 mm for adjacent spinal segments, the authors concluded that the definition of cervical instability does not appear to adequately represent true instability since no clear distinction exists between maximum physiologic flexion and partial subluxation due to partial ligamentous tear. (adlergiersch.com)
- As a result of their study, the authors believe that flexion-extension MRI can be very useful in cases of low-impact injuries in which there were clinical signs of cervical instability. (adlergiersch.com)
- These x-rays of the cervical spine are helpful in eliciting less than the obvious instability of the cervical spine and assessing the healing results of the cervical spine following trauma and other pathologies. (boneandspine.com)
- While the deformity got corrected in extension view, it got exaggerated in the flexion suggesting dynamic instability . (boneandspine.com)
- Flexion-extension x-rays of the cervical spine are also done when there is enough evidence to suggest instability. (boneandspine.com)
- For example, 30%-40% of patients with longstanding erosive RA develop cervical instability, and manipulation of the atlanto-axial joint during intubation can injure the spinal cord , said Schwartzman. (medpagetoday.com)
- The OWD may be abnormal in kyphosis (forward curvature of the upper thoracic spine) due to either spondyloarthritis or osteoporosis, as well as in other conditions such as postural instability, congenital spinal deformity and marked obesity. (cdc.gov)
- In all cases, careful investigation is required to ensure that the stability of the cervical spine has not been compromised, because, in extreme cases, cervical spine instability can lead to progressive neurological deficit, quadriplegia, and even death. (bmj.com)
- After 3 rounds of survey, 85% of participants approved the final consensus-based list of criteria for traumatic cervical spine instability screening, including 6 clinical signs and symptoms and 5 radiographic criteria. (chiro.org)
- Participants agreed that the presence of 1 or more of these clinical signs and symptoms and/or 1 or more of the 5 radiographic criteria on routine static radiographic studies suggests cervical instability. (chiro.org)
- These can include cervical spine instability (atlanto-axial or occipito-cervical), hip instability, patellar instability, and foot deformities. (posna.org)
- Radiographs can be helpful in diagnosing cervical spine instability, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia due to chronic instability, SCFE, and foot deformities. (posna.org)
- Patients with asymptomatic cervical spine instability can be monitored with periodic neurological and radiographic evaluation. (posna.org)
- and (d) cervical disc herniation. (adlergiersch.com)
- The purpose of this study is to find out if use of a cervical disc prosthesis in the treatment of a cervical disc herniation preserves or restores normal mobility and movement in the cervical spine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Intractable nerve pain to the arm caused by a cervical disc herniation is typically treated by removal of the protruding disc through an operation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The sub-occipital anatomy, muscle density and function are different compared with that of the lower cervical spine [ 25 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lang J. Clinical anatomy of the cervical spine. (springer.com)
- I enjoy writing articles for Veritas because it challenges me to take complex subjects like spinal anatomy, problematic conditions of the spine, and treatment options and explain them in a way that everyone can understand. (spine-health.com)
- The implant is shaped in accordance with the anatomy of the spine. (google.co.uk)
- Aberrant Willis anatomy and hemodynamics put her in a high-risk category for the cervical-spine-related vertebrobasilar insufficiency. (chiro.org)
Utilizing flexion distraction1
- 40.) Researchers McKenzie and J.F. Williams, "The Dynamic Behavior of the Head and Cervical Spine During `Whiplash,'" J. Biomechanics, 1971, vol. (adlergiersch.com)
- Our understanding of what happens to the cervical spine during low-velocity, rear-end collisions is limited, despite a wealth of experimental studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine. (chiro.org)
- Biomechanics of the cervical spinal cord. (springer.com)
- This study assessed the interrater reliability of MRI when radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons assess intervertebral disc injury characteristics in distraction flexion (DF) injuries in the cervical spine. (scielo.org.za)
- identified the risk of secondary cord injury in distraction flexion (DF) injuries management in 1991. (scielo.org.za)
- 24 hours) decompression in distraction-flexion dislocation (DF) injuries with cord injury is performed. (scielo.org.za)
- The purpose of the study was to determine the value and utility of flexion and extension MR imaging in traumatized cervical spines following rear-end low-impact acceleration-deceleration injury motor vehicle collisions. (adlergiersch.com)
- They recommend the MR extension-flexion protocol during the sub acute phase (12-14 weeks after injury). (adlergiersch.com)
- The exact degree of injury and the probability of future pain in patients who have suffered cervical hyperextension/hyperflexion injuries may sometimes be difficult to ascertain. (adlergiersch.com)
- Timely diagnosis and treatment of acute cervical and thoracic injury are essential. (springer.com)
- Overuse injuries to the cervical and thoracic spine are seen in noncontact sports and can result in spinal deformity and adult pattern injury. (springer.com)
- Understanding when an athlete can safely return to play after an acute cervical or thoracic spine injury is necessary to prevent secondary injury. (springer.com)
- This chapter covers common acute and overuse cervical and thoracic spine injuries in youth sports, with a focus on clinical and radiographic diagnosis, acute management of the injury, and return-to-play guidelines. (springer.com)
- Spine injury in gymnasts and swimmers. (springer.com)
- The site of injury is usually in the lower cervical spine or at the cervicothoracic junction. (mitchmedical.us)
- Initially approach every injured athlete with the suspicion of a cervical spine injury. (medscape.com)
- The mechanism of injury determines the type of bony injury, and, historically, cervical spine fractures have been categorized by the mechanism of injury. (medscape.com)
- A small support, such as a folded towel or sheet, should be placed under the spine at the point of injury if it is in the lumbar region. (thejns.org)
- what moi will usually cause the most catastrophic cervical spine injury. (studystack.com)
- The imprecise and possible overly broad interpretation of the word obtunded along with continual advances in imaging technology confound the decision to remove the cervical collar after blunt traumatic injury. (east.org)
- To reduce peri-clearance events, such as new neurologic change (paraplegia, quadriplegia), unstable C-spine injury (subcategories, treated with operation or treated with orthotic), stable C-spine injury (subcategories treated with operation or treated with orthotic), post-clearance imaging, false-negative CT imaging result on re-review, pressure ulcers, and time to cervical collar clearance. (east.org)
- In most people, cervical disk injury is a slow progressive disease occurring over decades. (healthcentral.com)
- In those that are more likely to suffer from cervical injury, there is growing scientific evidence that certain individuals have inherited genes that put them at a higher risk of cervical disk disease. (healthcentral.com)
- Pain, loss of sensation or new sensations, and weakness are the main symptoms and signs of cervical disk injury. (healthcentral.com)
- Rarely, cervical disk injury is complicated by compression of either a cervical nerve root or even more rarely by a compression of the spinal cord. (healthcentral.com)
- In case of an injury or other emergency, the results of a cervical spine X-ray can be available quickly. (kidshealth.org)
- He had sustained a minor head injury and tenderness was elicited in his upper thoracic spine. (bmj.com)
- This type of hyperextension/flexion injury stretches and tears the supporting capsular, ligamentous, cartilaginous, and muscular tissues of the cervical spine. (adlergiersch.com)
- H.J. Clemens and K. Burrow, "Experimental Investigation on Injury Mechanisms of the Cervical Spine at Frontal and Rear-Front Vehicle Impacts," Proceedings, 16th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE, Detroit, 1972. (adlergiersch.com)
- Central cord syndrome (CCS) is an incomplete traumatic injury to the cervical spine resulting in more extensive motor weakness in the upper extremities than the lower extremities. (aans.org)
- This syndrome more commonly affects patients age 50 and older who have sustained a cervical hyperextension injury. (aans.org)
- Role of flexion-extension radiographs in blunt pediatric cervical spine injury. (biomedsearch.com)
- If suspected, immediate stabilization using a cervical hard collar, head blocks, and backboard is essential until serious injury can be excluded by neurological assessment and CT scan or other imaging. (bmj.com)
- 65 Most of these studies focus on the injury mechanisms in severe cervical spine injuries. (chiro.org)
- This study suggests that a six to eight km/h impact, which subjects the cervical spine to as much as 4.5 Gs, constitutes the threshold for mild cervical strain injury. (chiro.org)
- Following a 2015 ruling, the South African (SA) Constitutional Court obligates closed reduction of cervical facet dislocations sustained through low-energy injury mechanisms, within 4 hours of injury. (who.int)
- The occurrence of cervical nerve root compression is often insidious without an antecedent injury. (wheelessonline.com)
- Predicting the risk and severity of acute spinal cord injury after a minor trauma to the cervical spine. (springer.com)
- The Torg-Pavlov ratio for the prediction of acute spinal cord injury after a minor trauma to the cervical spine. (springer.com)
- However, flexion and extension x-rays, the typical imaging method initially employed in most clinical situations, is of very limited use poor utility in the evaluation of cervical spine structures such as tissues, discs, and ligaments. (adlergiersch.com)
- Regularly stretching the muscles, tendons, and ligaments that support the spine is an important element of all back exercise programs. (spine-health.com)
- Acute cervical spine trauma encompasses a wide range of potential injuries to ligaments, muscles, bones, and spinal cord that follow acute incidents ranging from a seemingly innocuous fall to a high-energy motor vehicle accident. (bmj.com)
- These cervical ligaments are lengthened when the head tilts forward. (wellbeing.com.au)
Injuries of the cervical spine3
- How does pre-reduction MRI affect surgeons' behaviour when reducing distraction-flexion (dislocation) injuries of the cervical spine? (scielo.org.za)
- Analysis was performed on 110 consecutive patients with a mean age of 37.1 years with DF dislocation injuries of the cervical spine. (scielo.org.za)
- The laminar space in the diagnosis of rotational flexion injuries of the cervical spine. (appliedradiology.com)
- Most cervical disk syndromes are caused by injuries that involve hyperextension, which results in compression of the anatomic structures. (healthcentral.com)
- The hyperextension is further aggravated by the significant flexibility of the cervical spine upon which rests the head, weighing approximately eight to twelve pounds. (adlergiersch.com)
- Extreme hyperextension-hyperflexion of the cervical spine, commonly reported in cadaver and mannequin experiments, was not observed. (chiro.org)
- The authors theorize that mild clinical symptoms experienced after low-velocity, rear-end collisions might be due to forces directed axially through the cervical spine, rather than by the classic hyperextension-hyperflexion mechanism. (chiro.org)
- these were new findings in relation to a prior study performed for cervical spondylosis one year ago (Figure 1B). (appliedradiology.com)
- Background cervical spondylosis and multi-level osteochondral bars are observed. (appliedradiology.com)
- Breig A, Turnbull I, Hassler O. Effects of mechanical stresses on the spinal cord in cervical spondylosis. (springer.com)
- Small holes (foramina in the transverse processes) in the cervical spine provide a passageway for vertebral arteries to carry blood to the brain. (spine-health.com)
- Planned future enhancements include refinement of the vertebral geometry, improvement of the material definition for soft tissue components, and addition of musculature to the ligamentous spine model. (sae.org)
- In the present study, cervical spine radiographs from the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile human adults were used to determine vertebral body heights for small, mid-size and large anthropometries. (sae.org)
- A flexion teardrop fracture is a fracture of the anteroinferior aspect of a cervical vertebral body due to flexion of the spine along with vertical axial compression. (wikipedia.org)
- The vertebral transverse processes of mammals are homologous to the cervical ribs of other amniotes. (wikipedia.org)
- Hyperflexion fracture of C5 vertebral body with retropulsion squeezing the cervical cord against the posterior neural arch and resulting in cord edema extending from C3 to C6. (radiopaedia.org)
- It serves to protect the neural elements and the spinal cord and stabilize the spine so that excessive motion between the vertebral bodies does not occur. (aans.org)
- Early in my training I was taught to do a rotational thrust without flexion and sidebending for the C1-2 joint so as to avoid any impact on the vertebral artery. (jaoa.org)
- Acute cervical and thoracic spine injuries in sports range from mild sprains to fracture dislocations with catastrophic consequences. (springer.com)
- Fracture patterns of the adolescent porcine spine: an experimental loading study in bending-compression. (springer.com)
- Late flexion deformity of the cervical spine may result from a nondiagnosed fracture that heals in a displaced position. (mitchmedical.us)
- Child with C6 flexion wedge fracture. (medscape.com)
- Fracture, Cervical Spine By Moira Davenport. (wikipedia.org)
- The May 2002 edition of Emergency Radiology published "The Use of Flexion and Extension MR in the Evaluation of Cervical Spine Trauma: Initial Experience in 100 Trauma Patients Compared with 100 Normal Subjects. (adlergiersch.com)
- These ER radiologists noted that cervical spine trauma is common following rapid acceleration-deceleration, even during low-impact car collisions. (adlergiersch.com)
- In trauma, however, flexion-extension x-rays of the cervical spine are usually contraindicated for patients with known acute cervical spine fractures and dislocations. (boneandspine.com)
- In fact, better imaging modalities like CT or MRI obviate the need for flexion-extension X-rays of the cervical spine in cases of patients with trauma. (boneandspine.com)
- Despite the multispecialty impact that a guideline directing efficient cervical collar clearance in the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient would have, there is no consensus recommendation available. (east.org)
- With the use of the framework advocated by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group, [4-our aims were to perform a systematic review and to develop evidence-based recommendations that might be used to direct decision making in the removal of a cervical collar from the adult obtunded blunt trauma patient. (east.org)
- Advanced trauma life support principles advise that the cervical spine be immobilised in a neutral position with collar, sandbag, and tape. (bmj.com)
- This monograph concentrates on cervical spine trauma in adults. (bmj.com)
- Flexion and extension radiographic evaluation for the clearance of potential cervical spine injures in trauma patients. (ucdavis.edu)
- Biomechanical analysis of clinical stability in the cervical spine. (radiopaedia.org)
- This is because reposition errors of the upright position are reflected in dynamic motion of the cervical spine and in clinical studies, where the upright cervical spine serves as baseline [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Viikari-Juntura E, Porras M, Laasonen R. Validity of clinical tests in the diagnosis of root compression in cervical disc disease. (springer.com)
- The Occiput to Wall Distance is a routine clinical test for cervical spine mobility that has been in use for many years. (cdc.gov)
- Chest Expansion measurement is a clinical measure to assess limitation of thoracic spine mobility. (cdc.gov)
- The clinical utility of flexion-extension cervical spine MRI in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. (chop.edu)
- Experimental analysis of the lower cervical spine in flexion with a focus on facet tracking. (nih.gov)
- Systems and method in accordance with the embodiments of the present invention can include an implant for positioning within a cervical facet joint for distracting the cervical spine, thereby increasing the area of the canals and openings through which the spinal cord and nerves must pass, and decreasing. (google.com.au)
- Then, epidural, nerve block and facet injections will each be examined separately, with a particular focus on outlining the differences between lumbar and cervical therapy. (appliedradiology.com)
- Unilateral facet joint injuries are uncommon and represent approximately 6% of all cervical spine injuries. (appliedradiology.com)
Radiographs were performed2
- 100 sub-acute injured patients were compared to age-matched normal subjects utilizing a rapid flexion and extension MR protocol. (adlergiersch.com)
- Serious acute cervical and thoracic spine injuries in youth sports are rare but are seen with greater frequency in certain sports such as football, hockey, and gymnastics. (springer.com)
Movement in the cervical spine1
Stability of the cervical spine2
Degenerative disc di2
- To formulate a clear definition of the normal sequence of segmental contributions in the cervical spine during flexion/extension, and to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and reliability of sequence of segmental contributions analysis in differentiating between normal and abnormal movement of the cervical spine in healthy controls and patients with cervical degenerative disc disease (CDDD). (ovid.com)
- Color X-Ray of Cervical Spine Degenerative Disc Disease in flexion (forward bending). (pinterest.com)
- A three-dimensional finite element model of a human ligamentous cervical spine was developed to study the mechanics of cervical injuries related to automotive crashes. (sae.org)
- It is vulnerably placed between the dorsal spine, which is relatively immobile, and the skull, a weight that must be balanced on the cervical spine and held in place by the supporting capsular, ligamentous, cartilaginous and muscular structure. (adlergiersch.com)
- Flexion/extension views assist in evaluation of ligamentous stability. (aans.org)
Healthy cervical spine1
- Analysis of sequence of segmental contributions during flexion and/or extension might be more suitable. (ovid.com)
- The evolution of sagittal segmental alignment of the spine during childhood. (springer.com)
- The purpose of this study was 1) to examine measurement reliability of segmental upper cervical movements using magnetic resonance imaging and 2) to investigate the content validity of the FRT. (edu.au)
- Palpation revealed tenderness and a decrease in inter-segmental motion at multiple cervical levels. (acatoday.org)
- The Spurling maneuver is performed by passively forcing the athlete into cervical extension with lateral flexion toward the side of the symptoms. (medscape.com)
- The nerve conduction studies frequently demonstrate low-amplitude compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) commensurate with degree of weakness and atrophy.6 Sensory symptoms and signs are conspicuously absent.1.9 Although flexion myelopathy has been proposed as the underlying mechanism.3. (scribd.com)
- Brainstem symptoms were correlated with a documented perfusion deficit during cervical positional testing. (chiro.org)
- Cervical spine fusion has been recommended for patients with neurologic symptoms, ≤14 mm of space available for the cord on radiographs, and MRI or CT evidence of cord compression. (posna.org)
- Understanding how your spine moves and its limitations can help you prevent injuries and strengthen the muscles of your spine. (livestrong.com)
- The bones are further connected by small muscles called multifidi that allow you to move your spine in conjunction with the larger muscles of your body. (livestrong.com)
- These stretches may cause muscles strain or place additional stress on the cervical spine. (spine-health.com)
- Electrophysiological studies revealed neurogenic changes in the muscles innervated by lower cervical spinal cord. (scribd.com)
Higher risk of cervical1
Fractures and dislocations1
- Model development began with the generation of a single cervical motion segment. (sae.org)
- Based on this motion segment model, a complete cervical model was developed including an attached rigid head. (sae.org)
- The methods of functional SI analysis used in my practice are standing hip flexion, with the doctor's thumbs and eyes monitoring PSIS downward motion. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
- The objective is to create increasing motion and function in the lumbar, thoracic and cervical spinal levels, which are restricted. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
- The tendency as one ascends the spine with adjusting is to have a greater effect of increasing motion on the right SI joint . (dynamicchiropractic.com)
- Again, the tendency is to increase SI motion after adjusting fixations more on the right side as you ascend the spine to the cervical region. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
- The motion of the cervical spine was recorded using cineradiography. (chiro.org)
- There were three distinct patterns of cervical spine motion after impact. (chiro.org)
- As upper motion segments went into flexion, and the lower segments into extension, the cervical spine took an S-shaped position. (chiro.org)
- The TCD displayed classic Doppler signals of a reproducible flow deficit during cervical spine motion. (chiro.org)
- Five blinded spine surgeons scored randomized graphs from ECRs in 20 healthy controls and 10 preoperative CDDD patients, using this definition, at three time points. (ovid.com)
- Being an author allows me to give my perspective as a spine surgeon and also gives me a non-biased area where I can direct patients who are contemplating surgery. (spine-health.com)
- Patients should have preoperative cervical spine imaging with flexion and extension views. (medpagetoday.com)
- Associated injuries were present in 21 patients, mostly involving the spine and head. (scirp.org)
- Lees and Turner found that 45% of patients have one episode of cervical radicular pain and 33% have intermittent attacks. (wheelessonline.com)
- Been E, Shefi S, Soudack M. Cervical lordosis the effect of age and gender. (springer.com)
- X-ray of the cervical spine shows slight loss of the normal cervical lordosis but no degenerative changes. (aapc.com)
- As the neutral positioning of the cervical spine is already extended, it has a concave curve - a lordosis - to provide a more central support for the head. (wellbeing.com.au)