Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Spinal DiseasesRange of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)DislocationsLongitudinal Ligaments: Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)AxisTraction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Laryngoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the larynx.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Spinal NeoplasmsDiskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Lordosis: The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Ligamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Total Disc Replacement: The replacement of intervertebral discs in the spinal column with artificial devices. The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Klippel-Feil Syndrome: A syndrome characterised by a low hairline and a shortened neck resulting from a reduced number of vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass.Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Arthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Osteoblastoma: A benign, painful, tumor of bone characterized by the formation of osteoid tissue, primitive bone and calcified tissue. It occurs frequently in the spine of young persons. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Hyperostosis, Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal: A disease of elderly men characterized by large osteophytes that bridge vertebrae and ossification of ligaments and tendon insertions.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Spondylitis: Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Cervicoplasty: Reconstructive surgical procedures in the NECK region to restore or improve form and function.Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Discitis: Inflammation of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC or disk space which may lead to disk erosion. Until recently, discitis has been defined as a nonbacterial inflammation and has been attributed to aseptic processes (e.g., chemical reaction to an injected substance). However, recent studies provide evidence that infection may be the initial cause, but perhaps not the promoter, of most cases of discitis. Discitis has been diagnosed in patients following discography, myelography, lumbar puncture, paravertebral injection, and obstetrical epidural anesthesia. Discitis following chemonucleolysis (especially with chymopapain) is attributed to chemical reaction by some and to introduction of microorganisms by others.Posterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.Brachial Plexus Neuritis: A syndrome associated with inflammation of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical features include severe pain in the shoulder region which may be accompanied by MUSCLE WEAKNESS and loss of sensation in the upper extremity. This condition may be associated with VIRUS DISEASES; IMMUNIZATION; SURGERY; heroin use (see HEROIN DEPENDENCE); and other conditions. The term brachial neuralgia generally refers to pain associated with brachial plexus injury. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1355-6)Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pseudarthrosis: A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Osteoma, Osteoid: Benign circumscribed tumor of spongy bone occurring especially in the bones of the extremities and vertebrae, most often in young persons. (Dorland, 27th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile: Benign disorder of infants and children caused by proliferation of HISTIOCYTES, macrophages found in tissues. These histiocytes, usually lipid-laden non-Langerhans cells, form multiple yellow-red nodules most often in the skin, the eye, and sometimes in the viscera. Patients appear to have normal lipid metabolism and are classified as a normolipemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Cineradiography: Motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.Brown-Sequard Syndrome: A syndrome associated with injury to the lateral half of the spinal cord. The condition is characterized by the following clinical features (which are found below the level of the lesion): contralateral hemisensory anesthesia to pain and temperature, ipsilateral loss of propioception, and ipsilateral motor paralysis. Tactile sensation is generally spared. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p162).Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Racquet Sports: Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Tomography, X-Ray: Tomography using x-ray transmission.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Intracranial Hypotension: Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Chordoma: A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Post-Traumatic Headache: Secondary headache attributed to TRAUMA of the HEAD and/or the NECK.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.OsteomyelitisInjury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Manipulation, Chiropractic: Procedures used by chiropractors to treat neuromusculoskeletal complaints.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Surgical Fixation Devices: Devices used to hold tissue structures together for repair, reconstruction or to close wounds. They may consist of adsorbable or non-adsorbable, natural or synthetic materials. They include tissue adhesives, skin tape, sutures, buttons, staples, clips, screws, etc., each designed to conform to various tissue geometries.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Stretchers: Bed-like structures for transporting or temporarily holding patients.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)AccidentsHoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • To test this hypothesis subjects are randomised in a group receiving a standard anterior cervical discectomy, and a group receiving a standard discectomy with placement of a cervical disc prosthesis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Small holes (foramina in the transverse processes) in the cervical spine provide a passageway for vertebral arteries to carry blood to the brain. (spine-health.com)
  • Planned future enhancements include refinement of the vertebral geometry, improvement of the material definition for soft tissue components, and addition of musculature to the ligamentous spine model. (sae.org)
  • In the present study, cervical spine radiographs from the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile human adults were used to determine vertebral body heights for small, mid-size and large anthropometries. (sae.org)
  • A flexion teardrop fracture is a fracture of the anteroinferior aspect of a cervical vertebral body due to flexion of the spine along with vertical axial compression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vertebral transverse processes of mammals are homologous to the cervical ribs of other amniotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperflexion fracture of C5 vertebral body with retropulsion squeezing the cervical cord against the posterior neural arch and resulting in cord edema extending from C3 to C6. (radiopaedia.org)
  • It serves to protect the neural elements and the spinal cord and stabilize the spine so that excessive motion between the vertebral bodies does not occur. (aans.org)
  • Early in my training I was taught to do a rotational thrust without flexion and sidebending for the C1-2 joint so as to avoid any impact on the vertebral artery. (jaoa.org)
  • Its occurrence in adults has generally been in conjunction with bony anomalies of the craniovertebral junction, such as basilar impression, or platybasia, and fusion abnormalities of the cervical spine (Klippel-Feil's syndrome). (thejns.org)
  • The Spurling maneuver is performed by passively forcing the athlete into cervical extension with lateral flexion toward the side of the symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • The nerve conduction studies frequently demonstrate low-amplitude compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) commensurate with degree of weakness and atrophy.6 Sensory symptoms and signs are conspicuously absent.1.9 Although flexion myelopathy has been proposed as the underlying mechanism.3. (scribd.com)
  • Brainstem symptoms were correlated with a documented perfusion deficit during cervical positional testing. (chiro.org)
  • Cervical spine fusion has been recommended for patients with neurologic symptoms, ≤14 mm of space available for the cord on radiographs, and MRI or CT evidence of cord compression. (posna.org)
  • The parents should be advised that certain activities, such as gymnastics or contact sports, may put their child at higher risk of cervical spine injuries. (posna.org)