Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Sodium Glutamate: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Protein HydrolysatesCandy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.ThiepinsBenzaldehydesChoice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.alpha-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Esthetics: The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Olfactometry: Procedures for measuring a response to odorants.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Gum Arabic: Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Primary Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia: A form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a progressive form of dementia characterized by motor speech impairment and AGRAMMATISM, with relative sparing of single word comprehension and semantic memory.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Association: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Williopsis: A genus of ascomycetous yeast in the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES. Many species show mycocinogenic activity against other yeasts.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Glycyrrhiza: A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hexobarbital: A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.EstersAvoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Trimethylsilyl Compounds: Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Curcuma: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE that contains CURCUMIN and curcuminoids.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.PhiladelphiaBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Garlic: One of the Liliaceae used as a spice (SPICES) and traditional remedy. It contains alliin lyase and alliin, which is converted by alliin lyase to allicin, the pungent ingredient responsible for the aroma of fresh cut garlic.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Maillard Reaction: One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.Skatolegamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Menthol: An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Lavandula: A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: Heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and dementia. Patients exhibit progressive changes in social, behavioral, and/or language function. Multiple subtypes or forms are recognized based on presence or absence of TAU PROTEIN inclusions. FTLD includes three clinical syndromes: FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, semantic dementia, and PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE NONFLUENT APHASIA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.ChicagoReceptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.KetonesMuscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Milk, HumanPigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Aphasia, Primary Progressive: A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Lactose Intolerance: The condition resulting from the absence or deficiency of LACTASE in the MUCOSA cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, and the inability to break down LACTOSE in milk for ABSORPTION. Bacterial fermentation of the unabsorbed lactose leads to symptoms that range from a mild indigestion (DYSPEPSIA) to severe DIARRHEA. Lactose intolerance may be an inborn error or acquired.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
  • Yet, while some of the recipes add an intriguing spice or two, the flavor profiles are generally familiar-you won't run into recipes for things like mole-infused zucchini or Cynar artichokes anywhere on these pages. (seriouseats.com)
  • What sets Cook's apart is the expertise of dedicated flavor chemists, a 100-year history of innovation and experimentation, and an artist's passion for this exotic spice. (cooksvanilla.com)
  • In addition to being used as a flavoring agent and spice, cinnamon is even added to chewing gums due to its mouth refreshing effects and the ability to remove bad mouth odor. (organicfacts.net)
  • Find just-for-you recipes, save favorites and more when you customize your Flavor Profile. (mccormick.com)
  • Cooks had been developing their own body of practical knowledge for thousands of years, and had plenty of reliable recipes to work with. (npr.org)
  • The past Local Flavor winner took top honors for both her Yellow Summer Squash Casserole and Chilly Day Chili recipes, which burst with fresh vegetables from her garden and hearty flavors. (thetimes-tribune.com)
  • This book contains 60 vegetarian recipes adapted for the family, divided into chapters based on the time it takes to cook them. (bokus.com)
  • Some excellent techniques, and really great recipes that will impress anyone you cook them for. (justthefood.com)
  • Cook, stirring until onion is soft, about 5 minutes. (allrecipes.com)
  • Researchers at Cornell University have found, in preliminary lab studies, that members of the onion family with the strongest flavor - particularly New York Bold, Western Yellow and shallots - are the best varieties for inhibiting the growth of liver and colon cancer cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • Shallots and onion varieties with the strongest flavor - Western Yellow, New York Bold and Northern Red - had the highest total antioxidant activity, an indication that they may have a stronger ability to destroy charged molecules called free radicals, an excess of which are thought to increase the risk of disease, particularly cancer, the researcher says. (scienceblog.com)
  • Onion varieties with the mildest flavor - Empire Sweet, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet and Vidalia - had the lowest total antioxidant activity, Liu says. (scienceblog.com)
  • It isn't even readily available in many markets so it isn't as familiar a vegetable and lots of people just don't know what to do with it or how to cook it. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • Pralines and cream ice cream Raspberry Ripple Rice ice cream Rocky road - although there are variations from the original flavor, it is traditionally composed of chocolate ice cream, nuts, and whole or diced marshmallows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Are there more energy-efficient ways of cooking them other than baking a ton in the oven at once? (permies.com)
  • Cooking Bag should not touch oven walls or racks. (mccormick.com)
  • To perfectly cook bacon without the mess and cleanup of pan or griddle frying, use the oven. (fredshead.info)
  • I preheat so the fish goes into a screaming hot oven and cooks quickly. (food52.com)
  • This line-cook trick works almost as well as a thermometer: Pierce the fish with a cake tester, skewer, or paring knife for a few seconds, then touch the metal-cold is not quite ready, warm is good to go, hot is get that fish out of the oven ASAP. (food52.com)
  • My preferred method of cooking winter squash, is to cut them in 5/8" thick slices and sautee them in bacon fat or coconut oil. (permies.com)
  • Cook the bacon strips over medium heat until the fat is rendered and the strips are crisp, about 10 minutes. (sacbee.com)
  • If you need to cook just a few pieces of bacon, try using your George foreman grill. (fredshead.info)
  • It cooks bacon perfectly, controls splattering and the grease drips right into the drainage cup. (fredshead.info)
  • Stracciatella gelato atop chocolate ice cream Superman ice cream in a cone A vanilla ice cream cone Food portal Lists portal List of dairy products List of desserts List of ice cream brands List of ice cream parlor chains List of soft drink flavors "Who's to blame for bacon ice cream? (wikipedia.org)
  • Roasting cooks out the impurities that can cloud stock and broth. (ehow.com)
  • If you are baking/roasting then you do not have to wash or peel - see the options available to you in the beet cooking section below. (vegancoach.com)
  • Peanut flavor formation during roasting as affected by atmospheric conditions (R.Y.-Y. Chiou, C-Y. Tseng). (elsevier.com)
  • Because of the firm flesh and rich taste, spoonbill fish take well to a range of cooking methods, including both dry and wet heat methods. (ehow.com)
  • Because the flesh is very firm, spoonbill takes well to all dry-heat cooking methods, including grilling , broiling, baking, deep-frying and pan-frying. (ehow.com)
  • For dry-heat cooking methods such as grilling or pan-frying, add a small amount of oil to the cooking surface and to the fish before cooking to prevent sticking. (ehow.com)
  • Once thing I couldn't taste before the cooking was the heat. (charcoalandmore.com)
  • I noticed the Cayenne Mash got turned on during the cooking to add a little mystery heat aftertaste. (charcoalandmore.com)
  • cook over medium-low heat, stirring occasionally, for 10 to 15 minutes. (sacbee.com)
  • Cook over medium-high heat until the syrup turns dark amber, 10 to 20 seconds. (sacbee.com)
  • August 10, 2006 Heat author Bill Buford finds "his McGee" indispensable - that is, Harold McGee's essential tome On Food and Cooking . (npr.org)
  • Another African element in the region's food is the use of palm oil, or dende, to add velvety texture, flavor and, most important, brilliant orange color. (nytimes.com)
  • This skin-on version has a little more going for it in terms of texture and flavor. (sacbee.com)
  • Depending on how long it's cooked, the texture of lotus root varies from crunchy to very starchy and a little sticky. (justhungry.com)
  • They have the texture of watercress and a bit of its flavor, but with that great mustardy radish bite as well. (latimes.com)
  • Judges evaluated flavor, texture, tenderness and aroma in eight heritage breeds and one industrially raised Butterball. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Moose Tracks Neapolitan ice cream Nutella ice cream, made with a chocolate-hazelnut commercial breakfast spread to provide flavor and some of the fat needed for a creamy texture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our 31-day calendar of meals and tips shows you how to cook more and love it with fun, family-friendly meals that come together quickly and deliciously. (cookinglight.com)
  • With a conversational tone, this guide will appeal to many home cooks looking for fresh yet comforting ideas for meals. (libraryjournal.com)
  • Though large-scale entertaining is not an option as we practice social distancing, this book is equally well suited to cooks looking to stock their fridge or freezer with food that could serve for several meals over the course of a week or longer. (libraryjournal.com)
  • You choose and prepare meals according to the Flavor Point guidelines to control appetite. (webmd.com)
  • You can leave the flavorings in the oil (the flavor will continue to get stronger) or strain them out. (nytimes.com)
  • When Mark Sylvester makes a Thanksgiving meal for the 25 to 30 guests who gather at his Oconto cottage, he buys a fresh turkey that weighs about 30 pounds, then injects flavorings and cooks it over flavored woods for even more flavor. (jsonline.com)
  • Charcoal ice cream - This ice cream flavor, which is made by using the key ingredient of activated charcoal, gives the flavor a black-colored appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • NPR coverage of On Food And Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen by Harold McGee, Patricia Dorfman, Justin Greene, and Ann McGee. (npr.org)
  • December 23, 2004 The book "On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen" has become a reference tool for many cooks. (npr.org)
  • It's an exposition of food and cooking techniques, delving into technology and history. (npr.org)
  • These parts are high in fat and can have an unpleasant flavor. (ehow.com)