Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Trimethylsilyl Compounds: Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Sodium Glutamate: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Protein HydrolysatesCandy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.ThiepinsPostmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.BenzaldehydesFermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.alpha-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Esthetics: The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Melengestrol Acetate: A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Olfactometry: Procedures for measuring a response to odorants.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Gum Arabic: Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Primary Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia: A form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a progressive form of dementia characterized by motor speech impairment and AGRAMMATISM, with relative sparing of single word comprehension and semantic memory.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Association: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Williopsis: A genus of ascomycetous yeast in the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES. Many species show mycocinogenic activity against other yeasts.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Estrus Detection: Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Glycyrrhiza: A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.PhiladelphiaVacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Hexobarbital: A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)EstersAvoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Trenbolone Acetate: An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Curcuma: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE that contains CURCUMIN and curcuminoids.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Animal Identification Systems: Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.Frozen FoodsChicagoCarbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Carthamus tinctorius: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Oil from the seed (SAFFLOWER OIL) is an important food oil of commerce.Garlic: One of the Liliaceae used as a spice (SPICES) and traditional remedy. It contains alliin lyase and alliin, which is converted by alliin lyase to allicin, the pungent ingredient responsible for the aroma of fresh cut garlic.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Metmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Maillard Reaction: One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.SkatoleSensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Menthol: An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
  • And I hate to use the word "beefy"-but it is a more intense beef flavor. (menshealth.com)
  • Dry aging results in distinctive brown-roasted beefy flavor. (beefitswhatsfordinner.com)
  • Enzymes are also responsible for changing the flavor of the beef to be much more complex, deepening the beefy flavor and adding in new notes not present in fresh cuts of beef. (instructables.com)
  • From Passover mainstay to the center of attention at a family Sunday dinner to a great reason to have a backyard get-together on a cloudless summer afternoon, brisket's big beefy flavor and typical ample size makes it large enough for a single piece to feed a hungry crowd. (lobels.com)
  • These wheels are dense and flakey, with flavors of broiled carrots, caramelized shallots, roasted nuts, and hearty beefy stews and those subtler notes of brown sugar, caramel, and a tiny hint of vanilla near the finish. (cherrygrovefarm.com)
  • Brothy, hearty aromas greet you as you open the wheel, and when you take a bite, you get a wonderfully balanced flavor: beefy, with notes of broiled potatoes and slow-roasted root vegetables, and on the sweeter side, notes of hazelnut, salted caramel, honey, and vanilla. (cherrygrovefarm.com)
  • Today, I'm going to explain to you exactly how you can dry-age at home, how relatively simple it is, and how it can vastly improve the eating quality of your steaks and roasts until they are better than what you can buy at even the best gourmet supermarket. (seriouseats.com)
  • Now, before you go and call up the National Committee of Good Science and send them to confiscate my calculator (by which I mean my head), let me first explain that I stand by 100% of what I wrote in that article: Given that you are starting with individual steaks , dry-aging at home is not feasible, despite what some otherwise reputable sources have said in the past. (seriouseats.com)
  • Blind tasting showed that between the first day and the seventh day of such aging, there was absolutely zero perceptible improvement in the eating quality of the steaks. (seriouseats.com)
  • My local butcher shop (who already had the best steaks I've found) just renovated to include a dry-aging room. (fark.com)
  • Before you walk into your neighborhood butcher and say, "Three rib-eye Angus steaks, please, pastured in the Rocky Mountain foothills, finished on barley, but with a hint of oats, and dry-aged for 28-no, make that 29-days," keep in mind that as a consumer, such choice does not exist. (slate.com)
  • Besides serving up an array of aged prime steaks, they also offer a full sushi menu. (newyorksocialdiary.com)
  • The dry aging room bountiful with steaks and homemade beef jerky was especially fascinating. (newyorksocialdiary.com)
  • Steaks usually dry age for a few weeks in order to develop their flavor. (newyorksocialdiary.com)
  • Steaks in the dry aging room. (newyorksocialdiary.com)
  • The pub, which opened its first location in Santa Cruz 10 years ago, serves contemporary versions of traditional Irish fare such as fish and chips, shepherd's pie, corned beef and cabbage, as well as a seasonally changing menu of organic produce, steaks and locally caught seafood. (metroactive.com)
  • For a real carnivorous experience, seek out dry-aged steaks. (metroactive.com)
  • You've probably been to a fancy steakhouse where dry-aged steaks were on the menu. (artofmanliness.com)
  • You can find steaks that have been dry-aged from 7 to even up to 120 days. (artofmanliness.com)
  • The best steakhouses in the country feature classic bone-in steaks cut from USDA Prime beef. (snakeriverfarms.com)
  • It's true both styles will increase the tenderness of the beef, but only dry aging will produce the flavor profile that makes aged steaks the holy grail of beef connoisseurs. (instructables.com)
  • The bold flavor of grain-fed Omaha Steaks Top Sirloins, bright Roasted Vegetable Medley in a flavored butter sauce and impressive Stuffed Baked Potatoes make a meal everyone will rave about. (sendameal.com)
  • Thirteen different volatile compounds had greater amounts in steaks with livery flavor. (k-state.edu)
  • We're still cooking our way through steaks, ground beef, chuck, roasts, and ribs, plus bones and organs, and we will provide beef recipes from our grass-fed project as the year goes on. (cnn.com)
  • For extra flavor, the marinade can be mixed with beef broth, then boiled and reduced until thick (while the steaks cook), then drizzled over the finished dish. (fosters.com)
  • Americans weren't big eaters of fresh beef until about 1870, due to the enormous growth of the cattle industry in the West. (usda.gov)
  • The introduction of cattle cars and refrigerated cars on the railroad facilitated distribution of the beef. (usda.gov)
  • There are at least 50 breeds of beef cattle, but fewer than 10 make up most cattle produced. (usda.gov)
  • Baby beef" and "calf" are 2 interchangeable terms used to describe young cattle weighing about 700 pounds that have been raised mainly on milk and grass. (usda.gov)
  • Wagyu cattle are an example of a breed raised primarily for beef. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands , or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot (or concentrated animal feeding operation ), where they are usually fed a ration of grain , protein, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend. (wikipedia.org)
  • People domesticated cattle to provide ready access to beef, milk , and leather . (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the raising beef process, one thing remains constant - the beef community's shared commitment to raising cattle in a safe, humane and environmentally sustainable way. (beefitswhatsfordinner.com)
  • Grain isn't a cow's natural diet, but it's the feed of choice for two reasons: It makes cattle gain weight quickly, and it results in well-marbled beef. (slate.com)
  • This is partly due to economics-Angus cattle mature quickly and put on weight well-but also because Angus beef is reliably marbled and tender. (slate.com)
  • According to Cattle-Fax, a cattle-marketing information service, 17 percent of American beef comes from dairy cattle. (slate.com)
  • The beef itself comes from the black-haired Wagyu breed of cattle. (metroactive.com)
  • Domestication of cattle occurred around 8000 BC, providing ready access to beef, milk and leather . (thefullwiki.org)
  • To those who would rather lunch in back of a shack than under the golden arches, barbecue sauce comes in a rainbow of colors and flavors tied to its area of origin. (amazingribs.com)
  • Redbarn Pet Products ' Grain-Free rolled dog food is free from common canine allergens, artificial preservatives, colors and flavors. (petage.com)
  • The top 3 beef exporting countries in 2019 were Australia (14.8% of total exports), the United States (13.4% of total exports), and Brazil (12.6% of total exports). (wikipedia.org)
  • From well charred, melt-in-your-mouth filets to juicy rib eyes barely kissed by the flame, there's something mouthwateringly primeval about cutting into a juicy hunk of beef. (winemag.com)
  • Lush and juicy mouth full with small dark berries flavor ending with notes of leather and pine needle. (citywinery.com)
  • It is considered especially desirable for its unique flavors. (provisioneronline.com)
  • Half (51%) of consumers say unique flavors are very influential in their soup purchasing decision, and spicy flavors are very influential for 35%, reports Technomic. (ift.org)
  • In 2018, the United States , Brazil , and China produced the most beef with 12.22 million tons, 9.9 million tons, and 6.46 million tons respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tantalize your dog's taste buds with the original bacon and beef flavors of Beggin' Strips Dog Snacks. (riteaid.com)
  • Today, you can also find smoked pancetta, flavored using beechwood or oak, both of which are very similar to American bacon. (lifeinitaly.com)
  • When bacon reduced the rate of cancer in rats fed carcinogenic chemicals and beef had no effect this obviously wasn't the result expected so the diet had to be tweaked till the desired result was achieved. (blogspot.com)
  • Iceberg lettuce rests beneath Bayley Hazen blue cheese, pickled onions, confit tomatoes, and beef bacon made from the bellies of beef that's been dry-aged for 200 days. (c-ville.com)
  • Turns out those sticks, which came in a handful of flavors including chocolate and peanut butter and whose mouthfeel remains memorable though impossible to describe, were fairly nutritious, as far as packaged snacks of the late 1960s went. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Over the last couple years, I have asked my local beef butcher to dry-age a full rib eye for me - first was 45 days, next was ~52, and final was ~60. (egullet.org)
  • Professional golfer Greg Norman offers Greg Norman Signature Wagyu , a 350-day, grain-fed, super premium line of Wagyu beef. (ift.org)
  • For example, a programmable cola bottle with buttons for lemon, lime, vanilla, cherry and orange flavors as well as a caffeine button allows for dozens of potential choices of soda. (ift.org)
  • Other components of flavor (such as the aroma of vanilla or orange) are airborne particles that come directly through the nasal passages, or enter the nose from the back of the mouth through what is known as retronasal transport. (encyclopedia.com)
  • How do apple, butter and vanilla flavors get into Chardonnay? (foodandwine.com)
  • WINE SPECTATOR - 93 POINTS Graceful, with crunchy minerality and vivid acidity paving the way for elderflower, bergamot, vanilla and poached pear flavors. (hitimewine.net)
  • The grading system is based almost entirely on marbling, or how much fat appears within the muscle, explains Mark McCully, Vice President of Certified Angus Beef . (esquire.com)
  • Certified Angus Beef is a nonprofit organization serving Angus ranchers that requires beef to pass 10 stringent quality tests in order to earn its mark, so looking for that insignia will help you significantly. (esquire.com)
  • Of the 63 USDA-certified brands that use the word "Angus," Certified Angus Beef is the only one with rigorous quality specifications for marbling, muscling, and fat thickness to back it up. (esquire.com)
  • On this page you'll find beef cut types such as Certified Angus Beef®, chipped beef (often called chip beef), dry aged beef and When looking up a beef cut, it's helpful to refer to the beef cut diagram, courtesy of the National Cattleman's Beef Association. (thenibble.com)
  • Certified Angus Beef is a trademarked brand that licenses the trademark to ranchers who are approved by the licensor. (thenibble.com)
  • Less than 8% of beef is Certified Angus Beef. (thenibble.com)
  • more than 50% of all beef approved through USDA brand certification (i.e., branded beef) is Certified Angus Beef. (thenibble.com)
  • Photo courtesy Certified Angus Beef. (thenibble.com)
  • This ensures the best bulls from across the country are used for the highest quality offspring that receive the Lane Angus Beef Label. (ncagr.gov)
  • Lane Angus Beef is proud to legally claim our beef as "All Natural, Hormone Free, No Unncessary Antibiotics and Source/Age Verified. (ncagr.gov)
  • Sentinel (milbemycin oxime + lufenuron) Heartworm and Flea Prevention Flavor Tabs for Dogs are used to prevent heartworm disease, prevent and control flea populations, control adult hookworms, and remove and control adult roundworm and whipworm infections in dogs and puppies. (valleyvet.com)
  • Heartgard can be administered to puppies over six weeks of age, and is also safe for pregnant or lactating dogs. (vetinfo.com)
  • Flavor change is caused by numerous processes, including enzymatic and bacterial action, along with the oxidation of fat and other fat-like molecules. (seriouseats.com)
  • Lipids, the top contributor, produce flavor through oxidation, Legako said, citing Australian studies: "Fat is the delivery system. (ttu.edu)
  • Beef is one of the principal meats used in the cuisine of Australia , Argentina , Europe and America , and is also important in Africa , East Asia, and Southeast Asia . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Salumi are a large family of high-quality cured meats that go beyond Italy's famous hams, lending their flavors to terrific appetizers as well as main courses. (lifeinitaly.com)
  • Only about 2 percent of the beef sold in this country is designated Prime, and most of it goes to restaurants, specialty butchers, and high end supermarkets. (seriouseats.com)
  • And you think, "Well, maybe it will smell all right," but you know in your gut that it won't, and then you have that flash of desperate thought: "How the hell is this ruined when butchers charge an arm and a leg for aged beef -- isn't that what this is? (browardpalmbeach.com)
  • The decadent Terrine Burger starts off with a massive beef patty stuffed with truffle butter, which is then topped with porcini mushrooms, sage aioli, cured tomato, sautéed onions and Sottocenere truffle cheese and served on a brioche bun. (laist.com)
  • Dry aging is less economical than wet aging because of the dehydration and the final trimming of the outer crust. (ehow.com)
  • The beef loses weight to evaporation, and the moldy crust that develops on the exterior has to be lopped off, which makes the remaining beef more expensive. (slate.com)
  • We sought to use modern sequencing techniques to survey the microbiome communities of dry-aged beef loins in order to identify key microbial members found in the crust. (provisioneronline.com)
  • Some of the goals of the product enhancement program are to study beef quality, muscle traits and characterization, carcass trait genomics, muscle tenderness and yield, flavor and palatability, and new technologies, says Glen Dolezal, chair of the Joint Industry Product Enhancement Committee. (cattletoday.com)
  • Home-made creamed chipped beef/toast and sausage gravy/biscuits with browned potato home fries, with onion, excellent cheesesteak subs and fries and more! (mdcoastdispatch.com)