A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
Infections with bacteria of the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.

Combined microautoradiography-16S rRNA probe technique for determination of radioisotope uptake by specific microbial cell types in situ. (1/632)

We propose a novel method for studying the function of specific microbial groups in situ. Since natural microbial communities are dynamic both in composition and in activities, we argue that the microbial "black box" should not be regarded as homogeneous. Our technique breaks down this black box with group-specific fluorescent 16S rRNA probes and simultaneously determines 3H-substrate uptake by each of the subgroups present via microautoradiography (MAR). Total direct counting, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and MAR are combined on a single slide to determine (i) the percentages of different subgroups in a community, (ii) the percentage of total cells in a community that take up a radioactively labeled substance, and (iii) the distribution of uptake within each subgroup. The method was verified with pure cultures. In addition, in situ uptake by members of the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria (alpha-Proteobacteria) and of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group obtained off the California coast and labeled with fluorescent oligonucleotide probes for these subgroups showed that not only do these organisms account for a large portion of the picoplankton community in the sample examined ( approximately 60% of the universal probe-labeled cells and approximately 50% of the total direct counts), but they also are significant in the uptake of dissolved amino acids in situ. Nearly 90% of the total cells and 80% of the cells belonging to the alpha-Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium groups were detectable as active organisms in amino acid uptake tests. We suggest a name for our triple-labeling technique, substrate-tracking autoradiographic fluorescent in situ hybridization (STARFISH), which should aid in the "dissection" of microbial communities by type and function.  (+info)

Action of chondroitinases. II. Numerical calculation of the degree of multiple attack. (2/632)

Further investigation was carried out on the action patterns of two chondroitinase-AC [EC 4.2.2.5.] preparations obtained from Arthrobacter aurescens and Flavobacterium heparinum. To infer the action patterns of the chondroitinases, we proposed a new method for the calculation of the degree of multiple attack, based on the concept established by Robyt and French ((1967) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 122, 8-16). It was shown that the degree of multiple attack (DM) is represented by the ratio of the initial velocity of number-average degree of scission to that of viscosity-average degree of scission. By this method, DM for A-Chase was estimated to be 3.03 and for F-chase, 1.31.  (+info)

Substrate specificity studies of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C and heparitinases towards the glycosaminoglycan--protein linkage region. Use of a sensitive analytical method developed by chromophore-labeling of linkage glycoserines using dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride. (3/632)

Bacterial chondroitinases and heparitinases are potentially useful tools for structural studies of chondroitin sulfate and heparin/heparan sulfate. Substrate specificities of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, towards the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region -HexA-HexNAc-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser (where HexA represents glucuronic acid or iduronic acid and HexNAc represents N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylglucosamine) were investigated using various structurally defined oligosaccharides or oligosaccharide-serines derived from the linkage region. In the case of oligosaccharide-serines, they were labeled with a chromophore dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl), which stably reacted with the amino group of the serine residue and rendered high absorbance for microanalysis. Chondroitinase C cleaved the GalNAc bond of the pentasaccharides or hexasaccharides derived from the linkage region of chondroitin sulfate chains and tolerated sulfation of the C-4 or C-6 of the GalNAc residue and C-6 of the Gal residues, as well as 2-O-phosphorylation of the Xyl residue. In contrast, it did not act on the GalNAc-GlcA linkage when attached to a 4-O-sulfated Gal residue. Heparitinase I cleaved the innermost glucosaminidic bond of the linkage region oligosaccharide-serines of heparin/heparan sulfate irrespective of substitution by uronic acid, whereas heparitinase II acted only on the glucosaminidic linkages of the repeating disaccharide region, but not on the innermost glucosaminidic linkage. These defined specificities of chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, will be useful for preparation and structural analysis of the linkage oligosaccharides.  (+info)

Reproducible methods for experimental infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. (4/632)

Experiments were done in order to achieve a reproducible method that can be used to infect rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causal agent of coldwater disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome. The main method investigated was intraperitoneal injection, and this method was tested using isolates with different elastin-degrading profiles and representing different serotypes. Injecting trout, average weight 1 g, with 10(4) CFU (colony-forming units) per fish caused cumulative mortalities around 60 to 70%. The virulent strains belonged to certain serotypes and degraded elastin. The intraperitoneal injection challenge method could be used on larger fish, but the infection dose was 10(7) CFU per fish before mortalities occurred. Bath infection and bath infection in combination with formalin treatment (stress) seemed to be reproducible methods that could be used as alternatives to the intraperitoneal method, although the mortalities among infected trout were lower. The results of investigated methods were influenced by parameters such as the challenge isolate, number of fish in the tank affecting the infection pressure, origin of fish and weight of fish.  (+info)

Description of Cellulophaga baltica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Cellulophaga fucicola gen. nov., sp. nov. and reclassification of [Cytophaga] lytica to Cellulophaga lytica gen. nov., comb. nov. (5/632)

Phenotypic data indicate that gliding, yellow/orange-pigmented, agar-digesting bacterial strains were members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group. The strains were isolated from the surface of the marine benthic macroalga Fucus serratus L. and the surrounding seawater at three localities in Danish waters. The bacteria were Gram-negative, flexirubin-negative, aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative and were psychrophilic and halophilic. All strains utilized D-fructose, L-fucose and alpha-ketobutyric acid and degraded alginic acid, carrageenan, starch and autoclaved yeast cells. Amplification with primers specific for repetitive extragenic palindromic elements by PCR divided the strains of this study into two groups. Both groups showed unique PCR amplification patterns compared to reference strains of the CFB group. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences showed association of these organisms and [Cytophaga] lytica at the genus level. Hybridization of total chromosomal DNA revealed that the new strains and [Cytophaga] lytica ATCC 23178T were clearly distinct from each other and other previously described species of the CFB group. A new genus is described, Cellulophaga gen. nov. comprising two new species, Cellulophaga baltica gen. nov., sp. nov. (NN015840T = LMG 18535T) and Cellulophaga fucicola gen. nov., sp. nov. (NN015860T = LMG 18536T), as well as the emendation of [Cytophaga] lytica to Cellulophaga lytica gen. nov., comb. nov.  (+info)

Bacterioplankton compositions of lakes and oceans: a first comparison based on fluorescence in situ hybridization. (6/632)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was used to investigate the phylogenetic composition of bacterioplankton communities in several freshwater and marine samples. An average of about 50% of the cells were detected by probes for the domains Bacteria and Archaea, and of these, about half could be identified at the subdomain level with a set of group-specific probes. Beta subclass proteobacteria constituted a dominant fraction in freshwater systems, accounting for 16% (range, 3 to 32%) of the cells, although they were essentially absent in the marine samples examined. Members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster were the most abundant group detected in the marine systems, accounting for 18% (range, 2 to 72%) of the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) counts, and they were also important in freshwater systems (7%, range 0 to 18%). Furthermore, members of the alpha and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria as well as members of the Planctomycetales were detected in both freshwater and marine water in abundances <7%.  (+info)

Cloning of a Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum chromosomal gene (blaA(CME)) encoding an extended-spectrum class A beta-lactamase related to the Bacteroides cephalosporinases and the VEB-1 and PER beta-lactamases. (7/632)

In addition to the BlaB metallo-beta-lactamase, Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum CCUG 4310 (NCTC 10585) constitutively produces a 31-kDa active-site serine beta-lactamase, named CME-1, with an alkaline isoelectric pH. The blaA(CME) gene that encodes the latter enzyme was isolated from a genomic library constructed in the Escherichia coli plasmid vector pACYC184 by screening for cefuroxime-resistant clones. Sequence analysis revealed that the CME-1 enzyme is a new class A beta-lactamase structurally divergent from the other members of this class, being most closely related to the VEB-1 (also named CEF-1) and PER beta-lactamases and the Bacteroides chromosomal cephalosporinases. The blaA(CME) determinant is located on the chromosome and exhibits features typical of those of C. meningosepticum resident genes. The CME-1 protein was purified from an E. coli strain that overexpresses the cloned gene via a T7-based expression system by means of an anion-exchange chromatography step followed by a gel permeation chromatography step. Kinetic parameters for several substrates were determined. CME-1 is a clavulanic acid-susceptible extended-spectrum beta-lactamase that hydrolyzes most cephalosporins, penicillins, and monobactams but that does not hydrolyze cephamycins and carbapenems. The enzyme exhibits strikingly different kinetic parameters for different classes of beta-lactams, with both K(m) and k(cat) values much higher for cephalosporins than for penicillins and monobactams. However, the variability of both kinetic parameters resulted in overall similar acylation rates (k(cat)/K(m) ratios) for all types of beta-lactam substrates.  (+info)

Expression of the isoamylase gene of Flavobacterium odoratum KU in Escherichia coli and identification of essential residues of the enzyme by site-directed mutagenesis. (8/632)

The isoamylase gene from Flavobacterium odoratum KU was cloned into and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. The promoter of the gene was successful in E. coli, and the enzyme produced was excreted into the culture medium, depending on the amount of the enzyme expressed. The enzyme found in the culture medium showed almost the same M(r), heat-inactivating constant, and N-terminal sequence as those of the enzyme accumulated in the periplasmic space. This result indicated that the enzyme accumulated in an active form at the periplasm was transported out of the cell. The primary sequence of the enzyme, which was deduced from its nucleotide sequence, showed that the mature enzyme consisted of 741 amino acid residues. By changing five possible residues to Ala independently, it was found that Asp-374, Glu-422, and Asp-497 were essential. The sequences around those residues were highly conserved in isoamylases of different origins and the glycogen operon protein X, GlgX. The comparison of the distance between these essential residues with those of various amylases suggested that the bacterial and plant isoamylase but not GlgX had a longer fourth loop than the other amylases. This longer fourth loop had a possible role in accommodating the long branched chains of native glycogens and starches.  (+info)

Flavobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments such as water, soil, and associated with plants and animals. They are facultative anaerobes, which means they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Some species of Flavobacterium are known to cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems. These infections can include respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). However, Flavobacterium infections are relatively rare in healthy individuals.

It's worth noting that while some species of Flavobacterium have been associated with human disease, many others are important members of the microbial community in various environments and play beneficial roles in biogeochemical cycles and food webs.

Flavobacteriaceae is a family of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in various environments such as water, soil, and clinical specimens. While many species are harmless to humans, some can cause infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying health conditions.

Flavobacteriaceae infections refer to illnesses caused by the pathogenic species within this family. These infections can manifest as various clinical syndromes, including:

1. Pneumonia: Flavobacterium spp., such as F. psychrophilum and F. johnsoniae, have been implicated in respiratory tract infections, particularly in hospitalized patients or those with compromised immune systems.
2. Skin and soft tissue infections: Some Flavobacteriaceae species, like Capnocytophaga spp., can cause skin and soft tissue infections, especially in individuals with a history of animal bites or scratches.
3. Bloodstream infections (bacteremia): Bacteremia due to Flavobacteriaceae is relatively rare but has been reported, particularly in immunocompromised patients or those with indwelling medical devices.
4. Eye infections (keratitis and endophthalmitis): Contact lens wearers are at risk of developing keratitis caused by Flavobacterium spp., while endophthalmitis can occur following ocular surgeries or trauma.
5. Central nervous system infections: Meningitis, encephalitis, and brain abscesses have been reported due to Flavobacteriaceae species, although these are extremely rare.

Diagnosis of Flavobacteriaceae infections typically involves the isolation and identification of the bacterium from clinical specimens, such as blood, sputum, or tissue samples. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics that demonstrate activity against Gram-negative bacteria, with specific recommendations depending on the susceptibility patterns of the infecting species.

"Fish diseases" is a broad term that refers to various health conditions and infections affecting fish populations in aquaculture, ornamental fish tanks, or wild aquatic environments. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors such as water quality, temperature, and stress.

Some common examples of fish diseases include:

1. Bacterial diseases: Examples include furunculosis (caused by Aeromonas salmonicida), columnaris disease (caused by Flavobacterium columnare), and enteric septicemia of catfish (caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri).

2. Viral diseases: Examples include infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in salmonids, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and koi herpesvirus (KHV).

3. Fungal diseases: Examples include saprolegniasis (caused by Saprolegnia spp.) and cotton wool disease (caused by Aphanomyces spp.).

4. Parasitic diseases: Examples include ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), costia, trichodina, and various worm infestations such as anchor worms (Lernaea spp.) and tapeworms (Diphyllobothrium spp.).

5. Environmental diseases: These are caused by poor water quality, temperature stress, or other environmental factors that weaken the fish's immune system and make them more susceptible to infections. Examples include osmoregulatory disorders, ammonia toxicity, and low dissolved oxygen levels.

It is essential to diagnose and treat fish diseases promptly to prevent their spread among fish populations and maintain healthy aquatic ecosystems. Preventative measures such as proper sanitation, water quality management, biosecurity practices, and vaccination can help reduce the risk of fish diseases in both farmed and ornamental fish settings.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Cytophaga is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in various environments such as soil, water, and decaying organic matter. They are known for their gliding motility and unique method of cell division, where the cells divide transversely into several disc-shaped protoplasts that then separate from each other.

Cytophaga species are capable of breaking down complex polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, due to their ability to produce a variety of enzymes that can degrade these substances. They play an important role in the carbon cycle by helping to recycle organic matter in the environment.

While Cytophaga species are not typically associated with human diseases, they have been isolated from clinical specimens such as wounds, sputum, and feces. However, their exact role in human health and disease is not well understood.

Heparin Lyase, also known as Heparan Sulfate Lyase or Heparanase, is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), which are complex sugar-protein molecules found on the surface of many cells and in the extracellular matrix. These molecules play important roles in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and migration.

Heparin Lyase specifically cleaves heparan sulfate chains at a specific site, forming two unsaturated sugar residues. This enzyme is involved in the degradation of HSPGs during physiological processes like tissue remodeling and pathological conditions such as cancer metastasis, inflammation, and diabetic complications.

It's important to note that there are two main types of heparin lyases (heparin lyase I, II, and III) that differ in their substrate specificity and tissue distribution. Heparin Lyase I primarily acts on highly sulfated regions of heparan sulfate chains, while Heparin Lyase III prefers less sulfated domains. Heparin Lyase II has intermediate properties between the other two isoforms.

Oncorhynchus mykiss is the scientific name for a species of fish that is commonly known as the Rainbow Trout. According to the medical or clinical definition provided by the US National Library of Medicine, Oncorhynchus mykiss is "a freshwater fish that is widely cultured and an important food source in many parts of the world." It is also a popular game fish and is often stocked in lakes and rivers for recreational fishing. Rainbow trout are native to cold-water tributaries that flow into the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. They have been introduced widely throughout the world and can now be found in freshwater systems on every continent except Antarctica. Rainbow trout are a valuable species for both commercial and recreational fisheries, and they also play an important role in the food web as both predators and prey.

Base composition in genetics refers to the relative proportion of the four nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, so the base composition is often expressed in terms of the ratio of adenine + thymine (A-T) to guanine + cytosine (G-C). This ratio can vary between species and even between different regions of the same genome. The base composition can provide important clues about the function, evolution, and structure of genetic material.

The Antarctic regions typically refer to the geographical areas surrounding the continent of Antarctica, including the Southern Ocean and various subantarctic islands. These regions are known for their extreme cold, ice-covered landscapes, and unique wildlife adapted to survive in harsh conditions. The Antarctic region is also home to important scientific research stations focused on topics such as climate change, marine life, and space exploration. It's worth noting that the Antarctic Treaty System governs these regions, which prohibits military activity, mineral mining, nuclear testing, and nuclear waste disposal, and promotes scientific research and cooperation among nations.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Pentachlorophenol is not primarily a medical term, but rather a chemical compound with some uses and applications in the medical field. Medically, it's important to understand what pentachlorophenol is due to its potential health implications.

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a pesticide, wood preservative, and disinfectant. Its chemical formula is C6HCl5O. It is a white crystalline solid with a distinct, somewhat unpleasant odor. In the environment, pentachlorophenol can be found in soil, water, and air as well as in various organisms, including humans.

Pentachlorophenol has been associated with several potential health risks. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and as a possible human carcinogen by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Exposure to pentachlorophenol can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. Potential health effects include irritation of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract; damage to the liver and kidneys; neurological issues; and reproductive problems.

In a medical context, pentachlorophenol might be relevant in cases where individuals have been exposed to this compound through occupational or environmental sources. Medical professionals may need to assess potential health risks, diagnose related health issues, and provide appropriate treatment.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Polysaccharide-lyases are a class of enzymes that cleave polysaccharides through a β-elimination mechanism, leading to the formation of unsaturated sugars. These enzymes are also known as depolymerizing enzymes and play an essential role in the breakdown and modification of complex carbohydrates found in nature. They have important applications in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels.

Polysaccharide-lyases specifically target polysaccharides containing uronic acid residues, such as pectins, alginates, and heparin sulfate. The enzymes cleave the glycosidic bond between two sugar residues by breaking the alpha configuration at carbon 4 of the uronic acid residue, resulting in a double bond between carbons 4 and 5 of the non-reducing end of the polysaccharide chain.

Polysaccharide-lyases are classified into several subclasses based on their substrate specificity and reaction mechanism. These enzymes have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of bacterial infections, cancer, and other diseases associated with abnormal glycosylation.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Osmeriformes" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of biology, specifically in fish taxonomy. Osmeriformes is an order of ray-finned fishes that includes species such as salmon, trout, and smelts. These fish are characterized by their elongated, slender bodies and specialized mouthparts adapted for surface feeding. I hope this clarifies any confusion!

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is not a type of gene itself, but rather a crucial component that is transcribed from genes known as ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In cells, rRNA plays an essential role in protein synthesis by assembling with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Ribosomes are complex structures where the translation of mRNA into proteins occurs. There are multiple types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNAs in eukaryotic cells, each with specific functions during protein synthesis.

In summary, 'Genes, rRNA' would refer to the genetic regions (genes) that code for ribosomal RNA molecules, which are vital components of the protein synthesis machinery within cells.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "Ice Cover." The term "ice" is used in a medical context to refer to a solid piece of frozen urine that can form in the urinary tract, but "cover" does not have a specific medical meaning in this context. If you are looking for information about frostbite or cold-related injuries, I would be happy to help with that. Frostbite is a medical condition caused by exposure to extreme cold, often resulting in damage or destruction of the skin and underlying tissues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Aquaculture is the controlled cultivation and farming of aquatic organisms, such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants, in both freshwater and saltwater environments. It involves the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of these organisms under controlled conditions to produce food, feed, recreational resources, and other products for human use. Aquaculture can take place in a variety of systems, including ponds, raceways, tanks, and cages, and it is an important source of protein and livelihoods for many people around the world.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

The Flavobacterium species are in most if not all cases found in some type of hypersaline water which is very halotolerant of ... Flavobacteria are found in soil and fresh water in a variety of environments. Several species are known to cause disease in ... Flavobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile and motile, rod-shaped bacteria that consists of 130 recognized species. ... Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes the bacterial cold water disease on salmonids and the rainbow trout fry disease on rainbow ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium. Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2012, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Lee, S; Weon, HY; Han, K; Ahn, TY (October 2012). "Flavobacterium dankookense sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater reservoir, ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Flavobacterium cheonanense Lee et al. 2012 emend. Lee et al. 2012". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi: ...
She and her coauthors determined that it shares a clade with Flavobacterium rivuli and Flavobacterium subsaxonicum. Grown on ... Flavobacterium, Gram-negative bacteria, Bacteria described in 2013, Symbols of Hawaii, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs) ... Flavobacterium akiainvivens, or koʻohonua ʻili akia, (literally "ʻākia bark bacteria") is a species of gram-negative bacteria ... Data related to Flavobacterium akiainvivens at Wikispecies v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
... is a Gram-negative and rod-shaped bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been isolated ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium cheniae". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Wigley, Sarah; Garrity, ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2008, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Type strain of Flavobacterium cheniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ...
Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium flaviflagrans". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2017, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Flavobacterium flaviflagrans is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium from the genus ... Type strain of Flavobacterium flaviflagrans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been isolated from water from ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium aquaticum Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". Www.straininfo.net. Archived from ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2013, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Type strain of Flavobacterium aquaticum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ...
... is a Gram-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium collinsense". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M ( ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2016, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Zhang, Y; Jiang, F; Chang, X; Qiu, X; Ren, L; Qu, Z; Deng, S; Da, X; Fang, C; Peng, F (January 2016). "Flavobacterium ...
... is a Gram-negative, obligately aerobic and motile bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium daemonense". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M ( ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2015, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Ngo, HT; Kook, M; Yi, TH (March 2015). "Flavobacterium daemonensis sp. nov., isolated from Daemo Mountain soil". International ...
Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium ceti Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". Www.straininfo.net. "Flavobacterium ceti ... Flavobacterium ceti is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been isolated from the lung and ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2007, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Type strain of Flavobacterium ceti at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ...
... is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium algicola". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Taylor, Dorothea; ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2010, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Type strain of Flavobacterium algicola at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ...
... is a Gram-negative and chemoheterotrophic bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium aquidurense Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". Www.straininfo.net. " ... Cousin, S; Päuker, O; Stackebrandt, E (February 2007). "Flavobacterium aquidurense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium hercynium sp. ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2007, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been isolated from the ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium cutihirudinis Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". Www.straininfo.net. " ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2013, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... "Flavobacterium cutihirudinis". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2013). Parker, Charles Thomas; ...
... is a Gram-negative and aerobic bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been isolated ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium compostarboris". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M ... nov., isolated from leaf-and-branch compost, and emended descriptions of Flavobacterium hercynium, Flavobacterium resistens and ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2012, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ...
... is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped and psychrophilic bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which ... nov., Flavobacterium frigoris sp. nov. and Flavobacterium micromati sp. nov., novel psychrophilic bacteria isolated from ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium degerlachei Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". Www.straininfo.net. Archived from ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2004, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ...
Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium aquicola". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2016 ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2016, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Type strain of Flavobacterium aquicola at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ... Flavobacterium aquicola is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic and non-spore-forming bacterium from the genus of ...
Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2015, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans is a Gram-negative, arsenite-oxidizing, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterium from ... Khianngam, S; Akaracharanya, A; Lee, JS; Lee, KC; Kim, KW; Tanasupawat, S (December 2014). "Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans sp. ...
Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium faecale Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. "Flavobacterium ... Flavobacterium faecale is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped and strictly aerobic bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2014, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Kim, JH; Choi, BH; Jo, M; Kim, SC; Lee, PC (August 2014). "Flavobacterium faecale sp. nov., an agarase-producing species ...
Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium croceum Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". Www.straininfo.net. "Flavobacterium ... Flavobacterium croceum is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2006, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Park, M; Lu, S; Ryu, SH; Chung, BS; Park, W; Kim, CJ; Jeon, CO (October 2006). "Flavobacterium croceum sp. nov., isolated from ...
... and emended descriptions of the genus Flavobacterium and Flavobacterium cauense, Flavobacterium saliperosum and Flavobacterium ... Flavobacterium enshiense is a Gram-negative and strictly aerobic bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "LMG 28473 Strain Passport - StrainInfo". Www.straininfo.net. "Flavobacterium enshiense". ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2013, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ...
... is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped and non-motil bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium aciduliphilum". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2013, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Kang, JY; Chun, J; Jahng, KY (May 2013). "Flavobacterium aciduliphilum sp. nov., isolated from freshwater, and emended ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which can cause bacterial gill disease in rainbow ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium branchiarum". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M ( ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2016, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Type strain of Flavobacterium branchiarum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium. Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium ... Description of three novel Flavobacterium species: Flavobacterium collinsii sp. nov., Flavobacterium branchiarum sp. nov., and ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2016, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Type strain of Flavobacterium collinsii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (CS1: long volume value, ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been isolated from soil from ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "D3 Strain Passport - StrainInfo". Www.straininfo.net. "Flavobacterium anhuiense". Www. ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2008, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Liu, H; Liu, R; Yang, SY; Gao, WK; Zhang, CX; Zhang, KY; Lai, R (April 2008). "Flavobacterium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from ...
... is a Gram-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. Li, DD; Liu, C; Zhang, YQ; Wang, XJ; Wang, N; Peng, M; Song, XY; Su, HN; Zhang, XY; Zhang, ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2017, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Type strain of Flavobacterium arcticum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ...
... is a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic and motile bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium brevivitae". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M ( ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2016, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Type strain of Flavobacterium brevivitae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ...
Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium buctense". Www.uniprot.org. Feng, XM; Tan, X; Jia, L; Long, PP; Han, L; Lv ... Flavobacterium buctense is a Gram-negative and aerobic bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been isolated from ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2016, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Flavobacterium buctense Feng et al. 2016". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.27923. v t e ( ...
Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium beibuense Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". Www.straininfo.net. "Flavobacterium ... Flavobacterium beibuense is a bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been isolated from sediments from the Beibu ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2011, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Fu, Y; Tang, X; Lai, Q; Zhang, C; Zhong, H; Li, W; Liu, Y; Chen, L; Sun, F; Shao, Z (January 2011). "Flavobacterium beibuense ...
... is a thin Gram-negative rod bacterium of the genus Flavobacterium. The name derives from the way in ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 1989, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Flavobacterium columnare is one of the oldest known diseases among warm-water fish, and manifests itself as an infection ... Type strain of Flavobacterium columnare at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ...
Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 1974, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Flavobacterium flevense is a freshwater agar-degrading bacterium in the order Flavobacteriales. It is a gram-negative bacterium ... "Flavobacterium flevense A-34 , Type strain , DSM 1076, ATCC 27944, IAM 14303 , BacDiveID:5513". bacdive.dsmz.de. Retrieved 2021 ... It does not produce flexirubin type pigments, making it an outlier in the non-marine Cytophaga-Flavobacteria species .Therefore ...
... is a Gram-negative and rod-shaped bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium which has been isolated ... Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium daejeonense". Www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M ( ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2006, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... and Flavobacterium suncheonense sp. nov., isolated from greenhouse soils in Korea". International Journal of Systematic and ...
The Flavobacterium species are in most if not all cases found in some type of hypersaline water which is very halotolerant of ... Flavobacteria are found in soil and fresh water in a variety of environments. Several species are known to cause disease in ... Flavobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile and motile, rod-shaped bacteria that consists of 130 recognized species. ... Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes the bacterial cold water disease on salmonids and the rainbow trout fry disease on rainbow ...
Flavobacterium cheonanense is a bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium. Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN. "Flavobacterium ... Flavobacterium, Bacteria described in 2012, All stub articles, Flavobacteria stubs). ... Lee, S; Weon, HY; Han, K; Ahn, TY (October 2012). "Flavobacterium dankookense sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater reservoir, ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Flavobacterium cheonanense Lee et al. 2012 emend. Lee et al. 2012". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi: ...
Flavobacterium johnsoniae is a Gram-negative rod with gliding motility. The colonies are flat, thin and yellow. Growth is ... To download a certificate of analysis for Flavobacterium johnsoniae (Stanier) Bernardet et al. (43622), enter the lot number ... The certificate of analysis for that lot of Flavobacterium johnsoniae (Stanier) Bernardet et al. (43622) is not currently ... To download a certificate of origin for Flavobacterium johnsoniae (Stanier) Bernardet et al. (43622), enter the lot number ...
... industrial applications and more information for Flavobacterium denitrificans. ... Bacteria; Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group; Bacteroidetes; Flavobacteria; Flavobacteriales; Flavobacteriaceae; Flavobacterium. ...
Here, we show that heterotrophic flavobacteria exhibit enhanced uptake and mineralization of dissolved organic … ... Differential visible spectral influence on carbon metabolism in heterotrophic marine flavobacteria FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2020 ... Thus, a novel regulatory role played by light on heterotrophic metabolism and a hidden potential of flavobacteria to sense and ... Here, we show that heterotrophic flavobacteria exhibit enhanced uptake and mineralization of dissolved organic carbon with ...
Flavobacterium sp. K172). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ...
CCUG60099T - Flavobacterium piscis, Deposit Date: 2010-08-09
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Comparison of Delivery Methods in Phage Therapy against Flavobacterium columnare Infections in Rainbow Trout  Middelboe, ... aquaculture bacteriophage bacterial infection columnaris disease Flavobacterium columnare phage therapy phage delivery rainbow ... Antibacterial efficiency of surface-immobilized Flavobacterium-infecting bacteriophage  Leppänen, Miika; Maasilta, Ilari; ... Comparison of Delivery Methods in Phage Therapy against Flavobacterium columnare Infections in Rainbow Trout. ...
Flavobacterium odoratum) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysi… ... Purified from Flavobacterium odoratum Specificity: Hydrolysis of (1,6)-α-D-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin ... Pure Isoamylase (Glycogen 6-glucanohydrolase) (Flavobacterium odoratum) for use in biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro ...
... View/. Open Malecki ... Increased disease pressures have come primarily from the ubiquitous pathogens responsible for columnaris (COL, Flavobacterium ...
Parent taxon: Flavobacterium Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Zhang DC, Wang HX, Liu HC, Dong XZ, Zhou PJ ... Flavobacterium glaciei sp. nov., a novel psychrophilic bacterium isolated from the China No.1 glacier. Int J Syst Evol ... Flavobacterium glaciei sp. nov., a novel psychrophilic bacterium isolated from the China No.1 glacier. Int J Syst Evol ... Linking: To permanently link to this page, use https://lpsn.dsmz.de/species/flavobacterium-glaciei. Copy to clipboard. Link ...
Parent taxon: Flavobacterium Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Bergey DH, Harrison FC, Breed RS, Hammer BW ... Linking: To permanently link to this page, use https://lpsn.dsmz.de/species/flavobacterium-tremelloides. Copy to clipboard. ...
Moya G, Yan Z-F, Trinh H, Won K, Yang J-E, Kook M, Yi T-H. Flavobacterium hibisci sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of ... The species Flavobacterium hibisci was originally described and validly published by Moya et al. 2017. ... Name Abstract for Flavobacterium hibisci Moya et al. 2017. NamesforLife, LLC. Retrieved August 18, 2022. . https://doi.org/ ... Nomenclature of Flavobacterium hibisci Moya et al. 2017 ... Flavobacterium hibisci Moya et al. 2017. Nomenclatural History ...
Flavobacterium solisilvae Citation. Formal styling. Flavobacterium solisilvae Jung et al. 2021. Status. Valid (ICNP) Cannonical ... Bacteria » Bacteroidota » Flavobacteriia » Flavobacteriales » Flavobacteriaceae » Flavobacterium » Flavobacterium solisilvae. ... Flavobacterium Taxonomic status. Correct name. Metadata. Outside links and data sources. * Global Biodiversity Information ...
Copyright ©2015 - Thailand Bioresource Research Center (TBRC), All rights reserved ...
MED152 (Flavobacteria).. Gonzalez JM, Fernandez-Gomez B, Fernandez-Guerra A, Gomez-Consarnau L, Sanchez O, Coll-Llado M, Del ... Functional characterization of flavobacteria rhodopsins reveals a unique class of light-driven chloride pump in bacteria.. ... Development of a genetic system for the transfer of DNA into Flavobacterium heparinum.. Su H, Shao Z, Tkalec L, Blain F, ... Draft Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium succinicans Strain DD5b.. Poehlein A, Najdenski H, Simeonova DD., Genome Announc 5(2), ...
Slide # 42 Kidney Flavobacterium psychrophilus Steiner 400X.jpg. .field-name-field-image a { max-width: 100%; float: right; } . ...
The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the etiological agent of Bacterial Cold Water Disease and Rainbow ... Flavobacterium psychrophilum. , Bacterial cold water disease. , Rainbow trout fry syndrome. , Fish pathogen. , Bioinformatics. ... Identification of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Vaccine Candidates Using Comparative Genomics and Reverse Vaccinology. ... The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the etiological agent of Bacterial Cold Water Disease and Rainbow ...
Submitted to: Flavobacterium Meeting Publication Type: Proceedings Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2012 Publication Date: 10/ ... In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Members of the Genus Flavobacterium. June 5-7, 2012, Turku, Finland ... Each family was tested for survivability to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the ...
Serological and genetic characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolated from farmed salmonids in Turkey. In: Journal ... Saticioglu IB, Duman M, Wiklund T, Altun S. Serological and genetic characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolated ... Saticioglu, IB, Duman, M, Wiklund, T & Altun, S 2018, Serological and genetic characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum ... Saticioglu, IB., Duman, M., Wiklund, T., & Altun, S. (2018). Serological and genetic characterization of Flavobacterium ...
An exploration into Flavobacterias living colour as a responsive medium By Peter Andries , 5 June 2023 , 0 ...
Projects: Uncurated Protocols Library, Evocolour - The evolution and genetics of Flavobacteria forming structurally coloured ... Projects: Uncurated Protocols Library, Evocolour - The evolution and genetics of Flavobacteria forming structurally coloured ... Evocolour - The evolution and genetics of Flavobacteria forming structurally coloured colonies for sustainable biomaterials ... The evolution and genetics of Flavobacteria forming structurally coloured colonies for sustainable biomaterials, Extreme - ...
reduced Flavobacterium columnare infection in tilapia - (Abstract Only) Xu, D., Shoemaker, C.A., Zhang, D. 2015. Formalin ... Parasite treatment reduced Flavobacterium columnare infection in tilapia - (Popular Publication) Xu, D., Shoemaker, C.A., Zhang ... reduced load of Flavobacterium colummnare and improved survival of hybrid tilapia - (Peer Reviewed Journal) ... reduced load of Flavobacterium colummnare and improved survival of hybrid tilapia. Aquaculture Report. 2:126-131. ...
An outbreak caused by Flavobacterium Species. N Engl J Med 1975; 292:1099-102. ...
Similarities between the fluorescence spectra of two of the Flavobacterium species and Sphingobacteriug mizutae support earlier ... An extraction procedure was developed for the isolation of fluorescent pigments from species of Flavobacterium and ... Rossi, T., Wayne Moss, C., & Warner, I. (1986). A comparison of fluorescent pigments from flavobacterium and sphingobacterium ... An extraction procedure was developed for the isolation of fluorescent pigments from species of Flavobacterium and ...
Flavobacterium defluvii protein. Septal ring factor EnvC, activator of murein hydrolases AmiA and AmiB ... Flavobacterium caeni protein. Septal ring factor EnvC, activator of murein hydrolases AmiA and AmiB ... Flavobacterium terrae protein. Septal ring factor EnvC, activator of murein hydrolases AmiA and AmiB ...
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of chondroitinase B from Flavobacterium heparinum ... Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of chondroitinase B from Flavobacterium heparinum. Author. Search for: Li, Yunge ... Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of chondroitinase B from Flavobacterium heparinum. From National Research ...
  • Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes the bacterial cold water disease on salmonids and the rainbow trout fry disease on rainbow trout. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue damage caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum. (fishpathogens.net)
  • The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the etiological agent of Bacterial Cold Water Disease and Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome in salmonid fishes, diseases that cause significant losses in the aquaculture industry. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Each family was tested for survivability to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (CWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) and F. columnare the causative agent of columnaris disease. (usda.gov)
  • The causative agent, Flavobacterium psychrophilum , is a gliding bacterium, and difficulties in culturing it have long been an impediment to investigations on pathogenesis and immunity. (int-res.com)
  • Flavobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile and motile, rod-shaped bacteria that consists of 130 recognized species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nylon-eating bacteria are a strain of Flavobacterium that is capable of digesting certain by-products of nylon 6 manufacture. (wikipedia.org)
  • In times long past, highly evolved eukaryotes, for example biochemists, oc-ca-sio-nal-ly quipped that bacteria were nothing more than a bag of en-zymes. (asmblog.org)
  • The Flavobacterium species are in most if not all cases found in some type of hypersaline water which is very halotolerant of the Antarctic species of [F.] gondwanense and [F.] salegens Which are the most important members of Flavobacteriaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutting a Gordian Knot: Emended Classification and Description of the Genus Flavobacterium, Emended Description of the Family Flavobacteriaceae, and Proposal of Flaviobacterium hydatis nom. (wikipedia.org)
  • We tested delivery of phages by different methods (via baths, in phage-coated material, and via oral delivery in feed) to prevent and treat Flavobacterium columnare infections in rainbow trout fry using three phages (FCOV-S1, FCOV-F2, and FCL-2) and their hosts (FCO-S1, FCO-F2, and B185, respectively). (jyu.fi)
  • This dataset consists of three phage therapy experiments to prevent Flavobacterium columnare infections in rainbow trout. (jyu.fi)
  • Increased disease pressures have come primarily from the ubiquitous pathogens responsible for columnaris (COL, Flavobacterium columnare), enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC, Edwardsiella ictaluri), and virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). (auburn.edu)
  • Second international conference on marine flavobacteria - 27 to 3. (sb-roscoff.fr)
  • Proteorhodopsin light-enhanced growth linked to vitamin-B 1 acquisition in marine Flavobacteria. (usc.edu)
  • Species who are a part of the genus Flavobacterium are most likely found scattered along in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Flavobacterium comprises the following species: F. acidificum F. aciduliphilum F. acidurans F. agri F. agrisoli F. ahnfeltiae F. ajazii F. album F. algicola F. alkalisoli F. ammonificans F. ammoniigenes F. amnicola F.amnigenum F. anatoliense F. anhuiense F. antarcticum F. aquaticum F. akiainvivens F. aquariorum F. aquatile F. aquicola F. aquidurense Flavobacterium aquimarinumF. (wikipedia.org)
  • In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Members of the Genus Flavobacterium. (usda.gov)
  • In order to better understand the ecology of microorganisms responsible for secondary production in the Southern Ocean the activity of Flavobacteria communities on diatom detritus in seawater mesocosms was investigated. (edu.au)
  • The community structures between the three mesocosms also markedly differed and major colonizers were primarily derived from detectable members of the initial particle-associated Flavobacteria community, however the abundant uncultured Flavobacteria agg58 clone-related and DE cluster 2 clades, previously identified in Southern Ocean seawater were not observed to colonize the detritus. (edu.au)
  • Flavobacterium johnsoniae (Stanier) Bernardet et al. (atcc.org)
  • Flavobacterium johnsoniae is a Gram-negative rod with gliding motility. (atcc.org)
  • In our analysis of a taxonomically diverse consortium from the soybean rhizosphere, we found that Pseudomonas koreensis selectively inhibits growth of Flavobacterium johnsoniae and other members of the Bacteroidetes grown in soybean root exudate. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we characterized competition between Pseudomonas koreensis and Flavobacterium johnsoniae , two common rhizosphere inhabitants. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, if results come back as Flavobacterium meningosepticum or Chryseobacterium meningosepticum , CDC advises clinicians to report these results to the state health department for consultation, and to treat presumptively as E anophelis . (medscape.com)
  • Flavobacterium cheonanense is a bacterium from the genus of Flavobacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • aquimarinum F. araucananum F. arcticum F. arsenatis F. arsenitoxidans F. aurantiibacter F. aureus F. banpakuense F. baculatum F. beibuense F. bernardetii F. bizetiae F. bomense F. bomensis F. branchiarum F. branchiicola F. branchiophilum F. breve F. brevivitae F. buctense F. caeni F. caseinilyticum F. cauense F. cellulosilyticum F. ceti F. cerinum F. cheniae F. cheongpyeongense F. cheonanense F. cheonhonense F. chilense F. chryseum F. chungangense F. chungbukense F. chungnamense Flavobacterium circumlabensF. (wikipedia.org)
  • formerly known as Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium , are multidrug-resistant, Gram negative bacilli found in the environment that can cause health care-associated outbreaks ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Nomenclature Abstract for Flavobacterium cheonanense Lee et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Name Abstract for Flavobacterium hibisci Moya et al. (namesforlife.com)
  • Flavobacterium covae LaFrentz et al. (muni.cz)
  • Genomics and Physiology of a Marine Flavobacterium Encoding a Proteorhodopsin and a Xanthorhodopsin-Like Protein", PLOS ONE , vol. 8, 2013, : e57487. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Thus, a novel regulatory role played by light on heterotrophic metabolism and a hidden potential of flavobacteria to sense and respond differentially to monochromatic lights influencing marine carbon cycling were unraveled. (nih.gov)
  • DGGE banding patterns and FISH images demonstrated rapid bacterial colonization of the detritus, dominated by members of class γ-Proteobacteria, α-Proteobacteria and Flavobacteria. (edu.au)
  • Real-time PCR data indicated members of class Flavobacteria were involved in initial colonization of detrital aggregate, however relative abundance stayed at similar levels found for the original native particle-associated populations. (edu.au)
  • Flavobacteria are found in soil and fresh water in a variety of environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comparison of fluorescent pigments from flavobacterium and sphingoba" by Thomas M. Rossi, C. Wayne Moss et al. (lsu.edu)
  • The genus Flavobacterium comprises the following species: F. acidificum F. aciduliphilum F. acidurans F. agri F. agrisoli F. ahnfeltiae F. ajazii F. album F. algicola F. alkalisoli F. ammonificans F. ammoniigenes F. amnicola F.amnigenum F. anatoliense F. anhuiense F. antarcticum F. aquaticum F. akiainvivens F. aquariorum F. aquatile F. aquicola F. aquidurense Flavobacterium aquimarinumF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zhang Z, Hao S, Bai X, You H and others (2022) Prolonged low-salt immersion effectively controls Flavobacterium columnare infection in Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii . (int-res.com)
  • 9. Assessment of Aquaflor(®) , copper sulphate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female × Morone saxatilis male. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Differential susceptibility of white bass (Morone chrysops), striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and hybrid striped bass (M. chrysops × M. saxatilis) to Flavobacterium columnare and effects of mucus on bacterial growth and biofilm development. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the data accumulated in this study support the suggestion that the strain DMN11 T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterieum , for which the name Flavobacterium edaphi sp. (springer.com)
  • Strain GH1-10 T was most closely related to Flavobacterium psychrolimnae and Flavobacterium denitrificans , with sequence similarities of 95.9 and 95.2 %, respectively. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Strain GH29-5 T was most closely related to ' Flavobacterium saliodium ', F. denitrificans and Flavobacterium frigoris , with sequence similarities of 94.3, 92.5 and 92.5 %, respectively. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • An outbreak caused by Flavobacterium Species. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bacillus cereus, Bacteroides fragilis, Flavobacterium spp. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Sickeningly Sweet: L-rhamnose stimulates Flavobacterium columnare biofilm formation and virulence. (nih.gov)
  • Mark McBride will present "Flavobacterium Fish Pathogens: Motility, Protein Secretion, and Virulence" as part of the School of Freshwater Sciences spring colloquium. (uwm.edu)
  • Flavobacterium columnare is a rod-shaped gram negative bacterium that is strictly aerobic. (knight.domains)
  • 3. Vertebrate mucus stimulates biofilm development and upregulates iron acquisition genes in Flavobacterium columnare. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Efficacy of a modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccine in fish. (nih.gov)
  • Flavobacteria are found in soil and fresh water in a variety of environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavobacterium ginsengiterrae JCM 17337 is a mesophilic bacterium that was isolated from Soil from a ginseng field. (dsmz.de)
  • it was identified as Flavobacterium columnare based on a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and physiological and biochemical tests. (int-res.com)
  • An online browser, called 'Theta-Base' ( www.helmholtz-hiri.de/en/datasets/bacteroides ), is launched to interrogate the obtained gene expression data and annotations of ~4500 transcription start sites, untranslated regions, operon structures, and 269 noncoding RNA elements. (nature.com)
  • 11. Development of a culture independent method to characterize the chemotactic response of Flavobacterium columnare to fish mucus. (nih.gov)
  • Description of Flavobacterium cyclinae sp. (dsmz.de)