Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A congenital condition where the greater portions of the cerebral hemispheres and CORPUS STRIATUM are replaced by CSF and glial tissue. The meninges and the skull are well formed, which is consistent with earlier normal embryogenesis of the telencephalon. Bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries in utero is a potential mechanism. Clinical features include intact brainstem reflexes without evidence of higher cortical activity. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p307)
Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.

Development and characterization of new flavivirus-resistant mouse strains bearing Flv(r)-like and Flv(mr) alleles from wild or wild-derived mice. (1/158)

A single genetic locus, flavivirus resistance (Flv), controls virus titres and severity of flavivirus infection in mouse brain. It has been mapped to mouse chromosome 5 and shown to include different allelic forms. While the majority of laboratory mouse strains are susceptible to flaviviruses and carry the Flv(s) allele, wild mice and laboratory mouse strains recently derived from them are resistant and carry flavivirus-resistance alleles including Flv(r)-like and Flv(mr) alleles. Although there is a mouse model of flavivirus resistance conferred by the Flv(r) allele, other resistance alleles have not been adequately studied due to a lack of appropriate animal models. In this paper we describe the development of new flavivirus-resistant mouse strains, C3H.M.domesticus-Flv(r) and C3H.MOLD-Flv(mr), which carry the novel resistance alleles Flv(r)-like and Flv(mr) on the genetic background of flavivirus susceptible C3H/HeJ mice. The new strains were created by 10 to 11 generations of backcrossing followed by brother-sister matings resulting in a generation of homozygous founder stocks. Genome analysis of the newly developed mouse strains has revealed chromosomal regions of approximately 9 and 11 cM, respectively, encompassing Flv on chromosome 5, which are derived from resistant donor mice. These segments are much smaller than the segment of approximately 31 cM described in the congenic resistant mouse strain C3H.PRI-Flv(r) (also known as C3H/RV). The new congenic mouse strains, which were created to carry the Flv(r)-like and Flv(mr) alleles on the standardized genetic background of susceptible mice, represent new animal models of flavivirus resistance conferred by these novel resistance alleles.  (+info)

Phylogeny of the genus flavivirus using complete coding sequences of arthropod-borne viruses and viruses with no known vector. (2/158)

Attempts to define the evolutionary relationships and origins of viruses in the genus Flavivirus are hampered by the lack of genetic information particularly amongst the non-vectored flaviviruses. Using a novel protocol for sequence determination, the first complete coding sequence of St Louis encephalitis virus and those of two representative non-vectored flaviviruses, Rio Bravo (isolated from bat) and Apoi (isolated from rodent), are reported. The encoded polyproteins of Rio Bravo and Apoi virus are the smallest described to date within the genus FLAVIVIRUS: The highest similarities with other flaviviruses were found in the NS3 and NS5 genes. The proteolytic cleavage sites for the viral serine protease were highly conserved among the flaviviruses completely sequenced to date. Comparative genetic amino acid alignments revealed that p-distance cut-off values of 0.330-0.470 distinguished the arthropod-borne viruses according to their recognized serogroups and Rio Bravo and Apoi virus were assigned to two distinct non-vectored virus groups. Within these serogroups, cladogenesis based on the complete ORF sequence was similar to trees based on envelope and NS5 sequences. In contrast, branching patterns at the deeper nodes of the tree were different from those reported in the previous study of NS5 sequences. The significance of these observations is discussed.  (+info)

Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (3/158)

Monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G (IgG ELISAs) were developed for a comprehensive array of medically important arboviruses from the Alphavirus, Flavivirus, and Bunyavirus genera. Tests were optimized and standardized so that maximum homology could be maintained among working parameters for the different viral agents, enabling a wide range of viruses to be easily tested for at one time. MAbs were screened for suitability as capture vehicles for antigens from the three genera. The final test configuration utilized group-reactive MAbs eastern equine encephalitis virus 1A4B-6, dengue 2 virus 4G2, and La Crosse encephalitis virus 10G5.4 to capture the specific inactivated viral antigens. Serum IgG was detected by using alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-human IgG (Fc portion). A dilution of 1:400 was chosen as the universal screening serum dilution, with endpoint titrations of serum samples testing positive eliminating occasional false-positive results. IgG ELISA results correlated with those of the standard plaque-reduction neutralization assays. As expected, some test cross-reactivity was encountered within the individual genera, and tests were interpreted within the context of these reactions. The tests were standardized for laboratory diagnosis of arboviral infections, with the intent that they be used in tandem with the corresponding IgM antibody-capture ELISAs.  (+info)

A novel model for the study of the therapy of flavivirus infections using the Modoc virus. (4/158)

The murine Flavivirus Modoc replicates well in Vero cells and appears to be as equally sensitive as both yellow fever and dengue fever virus to a selection of antiviral agents. Infection of SCID mice, by either the intracerebral, intraperitoneal, or intranasal route, results in 100% mortality. Immunocompetent mice and hamsters proved to be susceptible to the virus only when inoculated via the intranasal or intracerebral route. Animals ultimately die of (histologically proven) encephalitis with features similar to Flavivirus encephalitis in man. Viral RNA was detected in the brain, spleen, and salivary glands of infected SCID mice and the brain, lung, kidney, and salivary glands of infected hamsters. In SCID mice, the interferon inducer poly IC protected against Modoc virus-induced morbidity and mortality and this protection was associated with a reduction in infectious virus content and viral RNA load. Infected hamsters shed the virus in the urine. This allows daily monitoring of (inhibition of) viral replication, by means of a noninvasive method and in the same animal. The Modoc virus model appears attractive for the study of chemoprophylactic or chemotherapeutic strategies against Flavivirus infections.  (+info)

Innate resistance to flavivirus infection in mice controlled by Flv is nitric oxide-independent. (5/158)

Innate resistance to flaviviruses in mice is active in the brain where it restricts virus replication. This resistance is controlled by a single genetic locus, FLV, located on mouse chromosome 5 near the locus encoding the neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase (Nos1). Since nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in antiviral activity, its involvement in natural resistance to flaviviruses has been hypothesized. Here we present data on NO production before and during flavivirus infection in both brain tissue and peritoneal macrophages from two flavivirus-resistant (FLV(r)) and one congenic susceptible (FLV(s)) mouse strains. This study provides evidence that NO is not involved in the expression of flavivirus resistance controlled by FLV since: (a) there is no difference in brain tissue NO levels between susceptible and resistant mice, and (b) lipopolysaccharide-induced NO does not abrogate the difference in flavivirus replication in peritoneal macrophages from susceptible and resistant mice.  (+info)

Comparison of flavivirus universal primer pairs and development of a rapid, highly sensitive heminested reverse transcription-PCR assay for detection of flaviviruses targeted to a conserved region of the NS5 gene sequences. (6/158)

Arthropod-transmitted flaviviruses are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality, causing severe encephalitic, hemorrhagic, and febrile illnesses in humans. Because there are no specific clinical symptoms for infection by a determined virus and because different arboviruses could be present in the same area, a genus diagnosis by PCR would be a useful first-line diagnostic method. The six published Flavivirus genus primer pairs localized in the NS1, NS3, NS5, and 3' NC regions were evaluated in terms of specificity and sensitivity with flaviviruses (including the main viruses pathogenic for humans) at a titer of 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID(50)s) ml(-1) with a common identification step by agarose gel electrophoresis. Only one NS5 primer pair allowed the detection of all tested flaviviruses with the sensitivity limit of 10(5) TCID(50)s ml(-1). Using a heminested PCR with new primers designed in the same region after an alignment of 30 different flaviviruses, the sensitivity of reverse transcription-PCR was improved and allowed the detection of about 200 infectious doses ml(-1) with all of the tick- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses tested. It was confirmed that the sequenced amplified products in the NS5 region allowed predictability of flavivirus species by dendrogram, including the New York 99 West Nile strain. This technique was successfully performed with a cerebrospinal fluid sample from a patient hospitalized with West Nile virus encephalitis.  (+info)

Modulation of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-mediated peptide import into the endoplasmic reticulum by flavivirus infection. (7/158)

In contrast to many other viruses that escape the cellular immune response by downregulating major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, flavivirus infection can upregulate their cell surface expression. Previously we have presented evidence that during flavivirus infection, peptide supply to the endoplasmic reticulum is increased (A. Mullbacher and M. Lobigs, Immunity 3:207-214, 1995). Here we show that during the early phase of infection with different flaviviruses, the transport activity of the peptide transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is augmented by up to 50%. TAP expression is unaltered during infection, and viral but not host macromolecular synthesis is required for enhanced peptide transport. This study is the first demonstration of transient enhancement of TAP-dependent peptide import into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum as a consequence of a viral infection. We suggest that the increased supply of peptides for assembly with MHC class I molecules in flavivirus-infected cells accounts for the upregulation of MHC class I cell surface expression with the biological consequence of viral evasion of natural killer cell recognition.  (+info)

Encephalitis and retarded growth of chicks caused by Sitiawan virus, a new isolate belonging to the genus Flavivirus. (8/158)

A new virus named Sitiawan virus (SV) was isolated from sick broiler chicks in chicken embryos. The virus replicated well with cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in the chicken B-lymphocyte cell line LSCC-BK3. The virus was an enveloped RNA virus of approximately 41 nm in size with hemagglutinating activity (HA) to goose erythrocytes. It was cross-reactive with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of flaviviruses by HA inhibition tests but not by cross-virus neutralization tests. The cDNA fragment of NS5 gene was amplified with primers corresponding to NS5 gene of flaviviruses. The nucleotide sequences were 92% homologous to Tembusu virus, a member of the mosquito-borne virus cluster of the genus Flavivirus. In cross-neutralization tests with Tembusu virus, antiserum to SV did not neutralize Tembusu virus, and antiserum to Tembusu virus neutralized more weakly to SV than against homologous virus. These results indicate that SV is a new virus which can be differentiated serologically from Tembusu virus but is otherwise similar with respect to nucleotide sequence. The virus causes encephalitis, growth retardation, and increased blood glucose levels in inoculated chicks.  (+info)

Tembusu virus is a newly emerging flavivirus that caused egg-drop syndrome in ducks in China. TMUV envelope protein is a major structural protein locates at the surface of tembusu virus particle. During tembusu virus infection, envelope protein plays a pivotal role in induction of neutralizing antibody. However, B cell epitopes within envelope protein have not been well studied. A series of 13 peptides derived from E protein of tembusu virus were synthesized and screened by Dot blot with tembusu virus-positive duck serum. Potential B-cell epitopes were respectively fused with GST tag and expressed in E. coli. The immunogenicity and protective efficiency of epitopes were assessed in ducks. Dot blot assay identified the peptides P21 (amino acids 301-329), P23 (amino acids 369-387), P27 (amino acids 464-471) and P28 (amino acids 482-496) as potential B-cell epitopes within the envelope protein of tembusu virus. Immunization of prokaryotically expressed epitopes elicited specific antibodies in ducks and the
Flavivirus encephalitis include a number of entities which characteristically involve the basal ganglia and thalami. Clinical presentation Typically these conditions present with a prodrome which is nonspecific but indicative of a viral infect...
Flaviviruses were proposed to prevent rather than to induce host translation shutoff (36, 37, 40). Several technical aspects might explain this difference from our findings, including the use of nonhuman cells, different DENV serotype 2 strains, and time points p.i. chosen for analysis. Of note, polysome profiles of Huh7 cells infected with the DENV serotype 2 Bangkok strain 16681 (40) revealed in our experiments a similar translation repression to that induced by DENV1 infection (see Fig. 1F for reference), which also correlated with reduced cytopathic effect in Huh7 cells (data not shown). Analyses of human cells early p.i. by polysome profiling identified host cell translation repression as a new feature of flavivirus infection.. Flaviviruses actively block eIF2α-mediated stress response at different levels, supposedly to avoid the associated host translation suppression. First, WNV and DENV inhibit SG formation in nonhuman cells (36). Consistently, we observed that DENV and WNV, as well as ...
We recently teamed-up with Virology Research Services (VRS) to test a large panel of viral antibodies in immunofluorescence applications. This work was funded by the Medical Research Council (Proximity to Discovery Award for Knowledge Exchange) through the University College London Translational Research Office and aimed to improve utilisation of the available immunofluorescence resources.
Apart from drugs targeting viral components, those targeting cellular factors directly involved in the viral life cycle may also be useful, since their effect is less prone to evasion by mutations in the viral genome that frequently appear in RNA viruses. In this line, 2,000 compounds from a library of FDA-approved drugs, as well as molecules known to be bioactives, have been tested by means of a microscopy-based assay to uncover inhibitors of ZIKV infection (42). By using human osteosarcoma cells (U2OS), it was shown that up to 38 molecules blocked flavivirus infection, including nanchangmycin (IC50, 0.1 μM), a natural product of Streptomycesnanchangensis that was shown to have insecticidal activity against silkworms and anti-bacterial activity in vitro, tenovin-1 (IC50, 0.7 μM), which protects against MDM2-mediated p53 degradation, MPA (IC50, 0.4 μM), and gemcitabine (IC50, 0.3 μM). MPA and gemcitabine have also been reported to be ZIKV inhibitors by others (26, 43). A less potent effect ...
Although closely related in structure flavivirus infections in humans have a vast range of tissue trophism and clinical syndromes starting from mild fever to h...
The new type of large-scale vortex structures of dispersionless Alfvén waves in collisionless plasma is investigated. It is shown that Alfvén waves can propagate in the form of Alfvén vortices of finite characteristic radius and characterised by magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum. The structure of the toroidal and radial velocity, fluid and magnetic field vorticity, the longitudinal electric current in the plane orthogonal to the external magnetic field are discussed. ...
Hepatitis C virus; Tembusu virus; antigen presentation; brain; cytokines; double-stranded RNA; ducks; gene expression; gene expression regulation; gene ontology; goslings; host range; hosts; immune evasion; immune response; inflammation; liver; major histocompatibility complex; non-specific protein-tyrosine kinase; oligomerization; pathogen-associated molecular patterns; pathogenesis; peptidoglycans; quantitative polymerase chain reaction; reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; sequence analysis; signal transduction; spleen; transactivators; transcription factor NF-kappa B; transcriptomics; unigenes; viruses; ...
Buy PROGRAMACIÓN PARA SEGUNDO CICLO DE INFANTIL by Rocio Feal Rodriguez (eBook) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu Marketplace for product details, ratings, and reviews.
Cabañas El Rocio, Colon: Tarafsız yorumları okuyun, gerçek gezgin fotoğraflarına bakın. TripAdvisorın interaktif haritasını kullanarak konuma ve yakındaki restoran ve gezilecek yer seçeneklerine göz atın. Konaklamanız için fiyatları karşılaştırın ve en iyi teklifi alın.
BYD said that a gasoline-powered car also would have been demolished by the crash, in which a sports car racing at least 180 kilometers an hour hit the electric car from behind.
Ein nod yw cynyddu capasiti ymchwil yng Nghymru, ac adeiladu partneriaethau gydag ymchwilwyr ledled y byd i ddylunio, cynnal a chyhoeddi treialon ac astudiaethau sydd wediu dylunion dda.
The main target populations for the tetravalent live attenuated dengue virus vaccine are indigenous populations, especially infants less than 2 years old, residing in areas of the world endemic for dengue and at risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The presence of maternal dengue antibody during the first year of life makes it unlikely that a vaccine given during that time will have long-term efficacy, as the vaccine virus would likely be neutralized prior to necessary replication. Children older than 18 months may have preexisting flavivirus antibody. Therefore, vaccination of infants living in Thailand early in the second year of life (between the ages of 12 and 18 months) seems most beneficial. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a two-dose schedule of a tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine in flavivirus antibody naïve infants beginning at 12-15 months of age.. ...
In Europe, many flaviviruses are endemic (West Nile, Usutu, tick-borne encephalitis viruses) or occasionally imported (dengue, yellow fever viruses). Due to the temporal and geographical co-circulation of flaviviruses in Europe, flavivirus differentiation by diagnostic tests is crucial in the adaptation of surveillance and control efforts. Serological diagnosis of flavivirus infections is complicated by the antigenic similarities among the Flavivirus genus. Indeed, most flavivirus antibodies are directed against the highly immunogenic envelope protein, which contains both flavivirus cross-reactive and virus-specific epitopes. Serological assay results should thus be interpreted with care and confirmed by comparative neutralization tests using a panel of viruses known to circulate in Europe. However, antibody cross-reactivity could be advantageous in efforts to control emerging flaviviruses because it ensures partial cross-protection. In contrast, it might also facilitate subsequent diseases, through a
The Flavivirus genus (Flaviviridae family) comprises the most important arboviruses in the world such as dengue virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Japanese encephalitis virus and yellow fever virus (YFV). Every year, several outbreaks caused by flaviviruses are reported worldwide (i.e.: ZIKV and YFV outbreaks in South America) with a huge impact on economy and public health. In the last few decades, many aspects of the flavivirus biology and the interaction of flaviviruses with host cells have been elucidated. However, many underlying mechanisms concerning receptor usage, entry process and viral interaction with host cell factors are still not completely understood. Integrins, the major class of cell adhesion molecules have been implicated in the infectious cycle of different viruses including flaviviruses. A previous report proposed that a particular integrin, the αVβ3 integrin, might act as a cellular receptor for WNV. However, this hypothesis was not confirmed by other groups. In the
TY - CHAP. T1 - Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile and Other Flavivirus Infections. AU - Watts, Douglas M.. AU - Granwehr, Bruno P.. AU - Shope, Robert E.. AU - Solomon, Tom. AU - Tesh, Robert B.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=36448954021&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=36448954021&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/B978-0-443-06668-9.50078-8. DO - 10.1016/B978-0-443-06668-9.50078-8. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:36448954021. SN - 9780443066689. VL - 1. SP - 823. EP - 830. BT - Tropical Infectious Diseases. PB - Elsevier Inc.. ER - ...
Zika Virus Reagents Research Reagents Biofront Technologies. The BioFront Technologies line of anti-Zika virus monoclonal antibodies and ELISA kits have been referenced in numerous publications including Nature and Nature Medicine. Our Zika virus (ZIKV) reagents continue to produce reliable and trusted results for researchers leading the fight against this global issue. Validated for use in Immunofluorescent, Western blot, and IP applications, BioFronts anti-ZIKV envelope monoclonal antibodies and anti-ZIKV NS1 monoclonal antibodies allow for highly sensitive and specific detection of all major ZIKV genotypes (MR766, FSS13025, PRVABC59) in various cell lines (Vero, C6-36, A549) without cross-reactivity to Dengue virus. ZIKA VIRUS ENVELOPE MONOCLONALS ZIKA VIRUS ENVELOPE ANTIGEN ZIKA VIRUS NS1 MONOCLONALS ZIKA VIRUS NS1 ANTIGEN ZIKA VIRUS NS5 MONOCLONALS ZIKA VIRUS NS5 ANTIGEN ZIKA VIRUS NS1 ELISA
Click to enlarge. Cases of Zika virus infection have appeared in travelers returning home after visits to places where local transmission is occurring. There have been over 30 documented travel-associated cases of Zika virus infection in 11 US states. During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in blood and passed from an infected person to mosquitoes. If travelers from regions where Zika virus is common have Zika virus in their blood on arrival in their home country and mosquitoes that can transmit Zika virus are present, local transmission of Zika virus is possible. But, because contact between mosquitoes and people is infrequent in most of the continental United States and Hawaii (due to mosquito control and people living and working in air-conditioned environments), local transmission of Zika virus is expected to be rare and limited.. Although Zika virus infection is transmitted primarily by mosquitoes, other modes of transmission are possible. There has been one report of ...
CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure, to include the emerging data indicating that Zika virus RNA can be detected for prolonged periods in some pregnant women. To increase the proportion of pregnant women with Zika virus infection who receive a definitive diagnosis, CDC recommends expanding real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing. Possible exposures to Zika virus include travel to or residence in an area with active Zika virus transmission, or sex* with a partner who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission without using condoms or other barrier methods to prevent infection.† Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease§ (symptomatic pregnant women) are the same, regardless of their level of exposure (i.e., women with ongoing risk for ...
Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of Zika virus particles (green) isolated in kidney epithelial cells (Vero E6 cells). Zika viruses have a dense core surrounded by an envelope (40nm size). Zika virus is a RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus in the family Flaviviridae and causes Zika fever, or Zika disease. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can transmit Zika virus to humans. Zika fever was first discovered in equatorial Africa and Asia in the late 1940s. From 2014-16 Zika fever has spread to South America. It has recently spread to the islands in the Caribbean. There is a possible link between Zika fever and microcephaly in newborn babies of mothers who have been infected with the Zika virus. In February 2016 Zika virus was discovered to be sexually transmitted in the USA. Magnification: x191,200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. Image courtesy of Cynthia S Goldsmith/CDC. - Stock Image F017/4179
The 2007 Yap Islands Zika virus outbreak represented the first time Zika virus had been detected outside Africa and Asia. It occurred in the Yap Islands, an island chain in the Federated States of Micronesia. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a vector-borne flavivirus in the same family as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007, physicians in the Ya Islands reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention an outbreak of an illness characterized by rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Initial serum testing revealed some patients had the IgM antibody against dengue virus, yet the patients signs and symptoms were clinically distinct from dengue fever. Subsequent retesting using consensus primers detected the presence of Zika virus RNA. A household survey was conducted to determine the proportion of Yap residents with the IgM antibody against Zika virus and to identify possible mosquito vectors of Zika virus. In total, the Yap Islands outbreak had 49 confirmed and ...
Summary In July 2016, CDC issued Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, July 2016 (https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6529e1.htm) that includes Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) testing of pregnant women. However, some flavivirus infections can result in prolonged IgM responses (,12 weeks) that make it difficult to determine the timing of infection, especially in testing of asymptomatic people. Emerging epidemiologic and laboratory data indicate that Zika virus IgM can persist beyond 12 weeks in a subset of infected people. Therefore, detection of IgM may not always indicate a recent infection. Although IgM persistence could affect IgM test interpretation for all infected people, it would have the greatest effect on clinical management of pregnant women with a history of living in or traveling to areas with Zika virus transmission. Pregnant women who test positive for IgM antibody may have been infected with ...
Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, reported in many countries of Africa and Europe, with an increasing spatial distribution and host range. Recent outbreaks leading to regional declines of European common blackbird (Turdus merula) populations and a rising number of human cases emphasize the need for increased awareness and spatial risk assessment. Modelling approaches in ecology and epidemiology differ substantially in their algorithms, potentially resulting in diverging model outputs. Therefore, we implemented a parallel approach incorporating two commonly applied modelling techniques: (1) Maxent, a correlation-based environmental niche model and (2) a mechanistic epidemiological susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) model. Across Europe, surveillance data of USUV-positive birds from 2003 to 2016 was acquired to train the environmental niche model and to serve as test cases for the SEIR model. The SEIR model is mainly driven by daily mean temperature and calculates the basic
WHAT IS ZIKA VIRUS? Zika virus disease (Zika) is a disease caused by Zika virus that is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after being bitten by an infected mosquito. People usually dont get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. For this reason, many people might not realize they have been infected. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 and is named after the Zika forest in Uganda. In 1952, the first human cases of Zika were detected and since then, outbreaks of Zika have been reported in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Zika outbreaks have probably occurred in many locations. Before 2007, at least 14 cases of Zika had been ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has transferred Zika virus specimens and CDC-developed diagnostics since CDC became involved to support the public health response for the Zika virus outbreak in February 2016. Such efforts continue today.. To date, CDC has shipped relevant Zika specimens for more than three years to 18 countries and 33 US states and territories, and continues to conduct transfers. The different strains/isolates of the Zika virus are essential to further Zika research, increase knowledge about the virus, and support vaccine and diagnostic test development.. CDC was the first organization to develop and receive the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for the Zika MAC-ELISA and real-time Trioplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) assays, two important Zika virus diagnostic tests. These diagnostic assays were, at first, the only tools for clinical testing of people exposed to Zika virus, symptomatic or ...
The Zika virus (Zika) is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus species of mosquito. Mosquito transmission of the Zika virus is found in over 50 countries and territories worldwide, including North, Central and South America, the Caribbean, Pacific Islands and Africa.. There have been travel-related cases of Zika virus infection in Missouri, but there have been no reported cases of Zika infection due to a local mosquito bite. Surveys are being conducted to determine if the types of mosquitoes found in Missouri can carry and spread Zika virus. We know that mosquitoes that transmit West Nile virus are present in our state, so people should take precautions to protect themselves and their families even if Zika virus mosquitoes are not found. ...
Baltimore Classification and Taxonomy== Group IV: (+) sense single-stranded RNA virus ,br>,br> , Order = [[Unassigned]] , Family = [[Flaviviridae]] , Genus = [[Flavivirus]] , species = [[Zika virus]],br> {,NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=64320&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy] Genome: ,font size=2>[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/6441 Genome],/font>,} ==Description and Significance== ,br> Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first isolated from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. [[#Reference,[3]]] In 1968, isolation from human hosts occurred in residents of Nigeria. [[#Reference,[2]]] Since then, multiple studies have confirmed ZIKV antibody in humans from a multitude of countries in Africa and parts of Asia. [[#Reference,[2]]] In 2015, ZIKV first appeared outside of Africa and Asia when it was isolated in Brazil where is has caused a minor outbreak following the 2014 FIFA World Cup. ...
Baltimore Classification and Taxonomy== Group IV: (+) sense single-stranded RNA virus ,br>,br> , Order = [[Unassigned]] , Family = [[Flaviviridae]] , Genus = [[Flavivirus]] , species = [[Zika virus]],br> {,NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=64320&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy] Genome: ,font size=2>[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/6441 Genome],/font>,} ==Description and Significance== ,br> Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first isolated from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. [[#Reference,[3]]] In 1968, isolation from human hosts occurred in residents of Nigeria. [[#Reference,[2]]] Since then, multiple studies have confirmed ZIKV antibody in humans from a multitude of countries in Africa and parts of Asia. [[#Reference,[2]]] In 2015, ZIKV first appeared outside of Africa and Asia when it was isolated in Brazil where is has caused a minor outbreak following the 2014 FIFA World Cup. ...
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses. With its compact surface, ZIKV is more thermally stable than the dengue virus (DENV). ZIKV E proteins have a characteristic herringbone structure with a single glycosylation site. The ZIKV E protein, the major protein involved in receptor binding and fusion, is formed as a head-to-tail dimer on the surfaces of viral particles. The E monomer consists of three distinct domains: DI, DII, and DIII. The finger-like DII ...
GenWay provides the Zika Virus Capsid Protein for various research applications. The Zika virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus. The Zika Virus Capsid Protein is offered along with other various Zika virus products.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae. It is spread by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Its name comes from the Ziika Forest of Uganda, where the virus was first isolated in 1947. Zika virus is related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Since the 1950s, it has been known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia. From 2007 to 2016, the virus spread eastward, across the Pacific Ocean to the Americas, leading to the 2015-16 Zika virus epidemic. The infection, known as Zika fever or Zika virus disease, often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a very mild form of dengue fever. While there is no specific treatment, paracetamol (acetaminophen) and rest may help with the symptoms.. As of 2016, the illness cannot be prevented by medications or vaccines. Zika can spread from a pregnant woman to her baby. This can result in microcephaly, severe brain malformations, and other ...
According to a recent study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the CDC is recommending Zika virus testing for potentially exposed persons with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease, and recommends that health care providers offer testing to asymptomatic pregnant women within 12 weeks of exposure.. The recommendation comes after the CDC conducted a study of testing individuals from the United States and the District of Columbia over a two-month period, in which nearly 75% of those tested were pregnant women. Among all individuals exhibiting symptoms of Zika virus, fewer than 12% had confirmed infection. Only 0.3% (seven individuals) of asymptomatic pregnant women who were tested had confirmed infection.. Zika virus is a flavivirus primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes that has recently spread in the Region of the Americas. According to the CDC, from January 1, 2015 to April 13, 2016, a total of 358 travel-associated cases of Zika virus ...
Abstract. Rocio virus (ROCV) is a flavivirus, probably transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and maintained in nature as a zoonosis of wild birds. Rocio virus caused a human epidemic of severe encephalitis that lasted from 1973 to 1980 in the Ribeira valley, in the southeastern coast of Brazil. After this outbreak, serologic evidence of ROCV circulation has been reported and public health authorities are concerned about a return of ROCV outbreaks in Brazil. We show here a study on the pathogenesis and the physiopathology of ROCV disease in the central nervous system of a Balb/C young adult mice experimental model. The animals were intraperitoneally infected by ROCV and followed from 0 to 9 days after infection, when all of them died. Nervous tissue samples were collected from infected animals for immunohistochemistry and molecular biology analysis. We observed the virus in the central nervous system, the inflammatory changes induced by Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and the final irreversible damage of nervous
The ways of sexual activity might transmit Zika. This is of concern because of a connection between Zika virus infection and opposed being pregnant and fetal outcomes.. For areas with active transmission of Zika virus, all folks with Zika virus infection and their sexual companions (significantly pregnant ladies) should receive details about the dangers of sexual transmission of Zika virus. WHO recommends that sexually active women and men be accurately counseled and provided a full range of preventive strategies to have the ability to make an informed choice about whether or not and when to change into pregnant to prevent adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes. Women whove had unprotected intercourse and dont wish to get pregnant because of concerns about Zika virus disease should have ready access to emergency contraceptive providers and counseling. Pregnant ladies should practice safer intercourse (together with the appropriate and constant use of condoms) or stop sexual activity for at least ...
People in this world are posing many health issues and different serious viruses which are providing harms to the human beings and also to the animals. Moreover, in this world with the development in the human brains, discoveries are often unlocking the conditions and seriousness of the various deceases and viruses, against which many time people need to gather together and fight simultaneously. This situation has already been occurred in relation to the cases of many deceases and viruses, like HIV/ AIDS, Cancer, etc. And now a day, as per experts research and ongoing circumstances, there is a major threat to the human community on this earths by the most terrifying Zika virus. As per experts analysis and meaning to this term, this Zika Virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, which is transmitted by daytime- active Aedes mosquitoes. The name Zika Virus is brought from the Zika Forest of Uganda, where this virus was first isolated in the year ...
The current study is the first animal model study to demonstrate the protection conferred by experimental Zika virus vaccines when administered to female mice before they become pregnant and infected with Zika virus. Researchers gave 20 non-pregnant female mice two injections of the mRNA vaccine candidate 28 days apart and gave a separate group of 20 non-pregnant mice two injections of a placebo at the same time points. Another group of 18 female mice received a single immunization with the live-attenuated vaccine while a control group of 11 mice received a placebo injection. Subsequent tests revealed that mice that received mRNA experimental vaccine or live-attenuated experimental vaccine produced high levels of neutralizing antibodies against Zika virus in their blood.. All female mice were then mated and infected with Zika virus. One week after infection, the scientists observed that most fetuses in the vaccinated mice showed no evidence of having Zika virus transmitted to them from their ...
Zika virus can be sexually transmitted from a man to his sex partners. Zika virus infection is of particular concern during pregnancy. The first documented case of sexual transmission of Zika virus was in 2008 (2); transmission was from a man to a woman, and sexual contact occurred a few days before the mans symptom onset. The first case of sexual transmission associated with the current outbreak was reported in early February (Dallas County Health and Human Services, unpublished data, 2016). In late February 2016, CDC reported two additional confirmed cases of sexual transmission of Zika virus from men returning from areas with active Zika virus transmission to their sex partners in the United States; these transmissions occurred in early 2016 (3). As of March 18, 2016, CDC has reported three additional cases, for a total of six confirmed cases of sexual transmission in the United States associated with this outbreak.† Another recent report described a case of sexual transmission that ...
Travellers who are pregnant or considering pregnancy should take special precautions for themselves and their partners. Pregnant women: If you are pregnant or planning pregnancy, you should consider postponing travel to areas with risk of Zika Virus transmission. Avoid travel to areas with active Zika Virus outbreaks. Travellers with a pregnant partner: Practice safe sex for the duration of the pregnancy after returning from an area with Zika Virus transmission. Travellers considering pregnancy: After visiting an area at risk of Zika Virus transmission, men should wait 3 months and women should wait 2 months before trying to conceive. If both partners travelled together, they should wait 3 months. Practice safe sex or abstinence even if you or your partner do not have symptoms. Most Zika Virus infections are asymptomatic (show no signs or symptoms), but sexual transmission of the virus can still occur. ...
Contact: Media Relations https://www.cdc.gov/media (404) 639-3286. *CDC updates guidance for infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy*. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) today issued updated interim clinical guidance https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6641a1.htm?s_cid=mm6641a1_w for health care providers caring for infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. This update includes information that has become available since the August 2016 release of the previous guidance.. Zika virus continues to be a public health threat to pregnant women and their infants. Despite the lower number of Zika cases in 2017 than at this time during 2016, Zika cases continue to be reported by many countries around the world https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/zika-travel-information. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious damage to the brain of the developing fetus. It can lead to congenital Zika syndrome in ...
As a result of increasing knowledge about the Zika virus, the CDC updated their recommendations. The changes are based on declining trends in the number of reported cases of Zika virus infection in the Americas, emerging evidence on prolonged detection of Zika IgM antibodies, and new limitations for interpreting serologic tests during pregnancy. IgM is most likely to be detected in the first 12 weeks after infection but may persist beyond 12 weeks in some infected individuals, limiting the ability of testing to determine whether an infection occurred during or prior to pregnancy. False positive results and cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses can occur with IgM assays. Therefore, it is important to ascertain whether a woman had exposure to flaviviruses other than Zika virus before the current pregnancy because a positive IgM result might have been caused by cross-reactivity from a previous flavivirus exposure. Given the possibility of a false positive result, laboratory test results should ...
Zika virus: Zika virus, infectious agent of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Zika virus was first isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey that had been caged in the canopy
Zika virus is a disease caused by a virus transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes which can breed in a pool of water as small as a bottle cap and usually bite during the day. About 1 in 5 people infected with Zika virus become ill. People with Zika virus disease usually have a mild fever, skin rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for a few days but it can be found longer in some people.Deaths are rare.The symptoms of Zika are similar to those of dengue and chikungunya, diseases spread through the same mosquitoes that transmit Zika. These symptoms normally last for 2 to 7 days. ...
Our entire team is deeply committed to developing an animal model in which we can rapidly test a vaccine or therapy to determine if we can prevent fetal brain injury caused by the Zika virus, said Adams Waldorf. Primates, including people, are an order of mammals that share many features of brain development. Non-human and human primates gestations also have key similarities. These include the structure of the placenta, the timing of nerve and brain development, and the resulting proportions of gray and white matter in the brain. Previously, no experimental animal model closely emulated the effects of Zika virus infection during human pregnancy. While the virus can cause fetal demise in mice, mouse models have not enabled medical researchers to delve into the causal relationships between Zika virus infection and fetal brain injury. The Zika virus is transmitted by certain types of mosquitoes, including the Aedes egypti mosquito. It is a flavivirus, part of a group of insect-carried viruses ...
Brown University has been monitoring reports on the Zika virus in regions where its transmission is ongoing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued a Level 2-Practice Enhanced Precautions alert for individuals traveling to regions where Zika virus transmission is ongoing including Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. Students planning travel to any of the affected regions should check Browns Health and Emergency Services for important updates prior to travel. Please also refer to their Facebook page for important travel preparation information, including Zika and its implications. The Zika virus is a mosquito-transmitted infection that typically causes mild symptoms including fever, rash, red eyes, and muscle aches in one out of five people. In addition, the Zika virus has been linked to increases in the occurrence of microcephaly, a serious birth defect that causes underdeveloped brains in infants. The CDC advises that pregnant women and women trying to ...
A multidisciplinary team from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston is the first in the world to genetically engineer a clone of the Zika virus strain, a development that could expedite many aspects of Zika research, including vaccine and therapeutics development.. Cloning the virus unlocks scientists ability to more quickly develop countermeasures and explore whether or how the Zika virus has evolved to spread more quickly and cause more severe diseases in people. This study is currently available in Cell Host and Microbe.. The new Zika clone, together with mosquito infection models and the UTMB-developed Zika mouse model, represent a major advance towards deciphering why the virus is tied to serious diseases, said lead author Pei-Yong Shi, UTMB endowed professor. The new clone is also a critical step in developing a vaccine and antiviral drug against Zika.. For 60 years, the Zika virus remained obscure with few identified cases in people and mild disease symptoms. However, ...
An infection with the Zika virus usually has no symptoms. Any symptoms that do occur are usually very mild. However, in Brazil doctors saw more babies with microcephaly (small heads) at the time of the outbreak of the Zika virus. The link between the Zika virus and microcephaly is now being studied intensively. The Zika virus cannot spread in The Netherlands.
Antigen-capture solid phase immunoassays employing flavivirus monoclonal antibodies MAB for the detection of yellow fever YF or dengue DEN viruses in cell cultures and serum have recently been reported. The assays, which employs virus type-specific, complex-reactive or group-reactive MAB in the capture phase, are reasonably sensitive and specific. The goal of our work has been the development of a generic flavivirus detection system and emphasis has been placed on an enzyme-linked immunoassay ELISA for the detection of DEN-infected mosquitoes. Attention has been directed at the identification and characterization of MAB with broad flavivirus group-reactive domain as determined by competitive binding assay with the expectation that such antibody combination will provide the best opportunity for antigen binding and therefore maximum assay sensitivity. However, since the available broadly group-reactive MAB has been found to exhibit at least some degree of cross-competition, flavivirus type-specific
Recently, we have shown that the ability of the flavivirus NS2B-NS3 protease complex to promote efficient signalase processing of the C-prM precursor, as well as secretion of prM and E, does not appear to depend strictly on cleavage of the precursor at its Lys-Arg-Gly dibasic site by the protease. We suggested that the association of the protease with the precursor via NS2B may be sufficient by itself for the above effects. To study the proposed association in more detail, we have developed an assay in which processing at the C-prM dibasic cleavage site is abolished by Lys--,Gly conversion. We constructed deletion mutants and chimeras of the West Nile (WN) flavivirus NS2B protein and expressed them in the context of [5-C--,NS3(243)] containing either wild-type C-prM or its cleavage site mutant. All NS2B variants were able to form active protease complexes. Deletion of the carboxy-terminal cluster of hydrophobic amino acids in NS2B had no apparent effect on the formation of prM and prM-E ...
Zika Virus Net is the web resource for anyone interested in Zika virus. The objectives of Zika Virus Net are to be the public and professional information resource for zika fever and to serve as a network in the exchange of information and news related to zika.
Zika Virus Net is the web resource for anyone interested in Zika virus. The objectives of Zika Virus Net are to be the public and professional information resource for zika fever and to serve as a network in the exchange of information and news related to zika.
Can you test for Zika? Description testing of Zika virus. Symptoms of Zika, Zika virus testing process & providers. Molecular & antibody tests for Zika virus?
On the Aug. 7 airing of the Outbreak News This Week Radio Show, Zika was the topic of the hour. The local transmission in the Miami area, the underreporting of Zika due to asymptomatic cases, the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) advice for people living and traveling to the affected area of Miami and more topics were looked at during the first half.. During the second half, virologist and Columbia University Professor of Microbiology of Immunology, Vincent Racaniello, PhD discussed his thoughts on the Zika situation in the Miami area and a possible bigger picture. We dabbled in Washington politics and why he believes that Congress fails on Zika virus.. Dr Racaniello gave a good update on the progress towards a Zika vaccine and the number of types being worked on.. We also got an update from Zika Diaries, where he chronicles the start up of a Zika virus research laboratory.. Visit Virology Blog for news and analysis about viruses and viral disease. LISTEN to the podcast ...
Zika virus infection and Zika fever: Frequently asked questions What Is Zika Virus Infection? Zika virus infection is caused by the bite of an infected
The Zika virus, linked to congenital birth defects and miscarriages, suppresses a pregnant womans immune system, enabling the virus to spread and increasing the chances an unborn baby will be harmed, a Keck School of Medicine of USC study finds. The study is the first to report that the Zika virus targets specific white blood cells, handicapping a pregnant womans immune system in a way that almost resembles HIV, said Jae Jung, PhD, senior author of the study. Pregnant women are more susceptible to Zika virus because pregnancy naturally suppresses a womans immune system so her body doesnt reject the fetus - essentially its a foreign object, said Jung, Distinguished Professor and chair of the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Keck School - among the nations leaders in innovative scientific discovery. Our study shows pregnant women are more prone to immune suppression. Zika exploits that weakness to infect and replicate. The finding, published in Nature Microbiology on
The human body is full of amazing and complicated systems. One of the most impressive is the womans reproductive system. With built-in safeguards, a mothers body creates a haven for her growing fetus. When it comes to illness, a pregnant mother can become ill and never pass the illness onto her growing fetus. The Zika Virus seems to have defied this safeguard and scientists are asking why?. As reported in Forbes, In the case of flaviviruses which includes mosquito-borne diseases like yellow fever, West Nile Virus, and Zika Virus, it is rare for the virus to be passed from one generation to the next. Scientists credit the placenta with creating a barrier between the fetus and the mothers circulatory systems for this added protection. The discovery of Zika as a cause of microcephaly in infants alerted scientists to the fact that Zika can break through this layer of protection.. ...
Zika virus (ZIKV), belonging to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, is an arthropod‐borne virus that was first discovered from the Zika forest in Uganda in 1947
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which can cause severe disease in humans, including microcephaly and other congenital malformations in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. There are currently no approved prophylactics or therapeutics for Zika virus; the development of a safe and …
The global alarming starts for Zika virus. Already various countries has effected by this virus. Zika virus is spread out to human beings through mosquito b
This is an update of the ASRM Zika virus guidance for providers that addresses the care of non-pregnant patients desiring pregnancy, originally released in September 2016 and updated in August 2018. This revised document reflects the changes that the CDC has made on its Blood and Tissue Safety webpage to more clearly communicate epidemiological information about the risk of Zika virus infection outside of the U.S., with links to the updated CDC webpages. In addition, the most recent information about Zika virus infection risk within the U.S. is included.
New research reveals that in pregnant women, Zika virus infection damages certain cells that affect placental formation and function. Furthermore, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection augments placental sensitivity to Zika virus by enhancing the expression of receptors that allow Zika virus to enter cells.
The Zika Virus Enters the Presidential Campaign The worry over the possible spread of the Zika virus to the United States this summer has now crossed over into the sphere of the presidential campaigns. Hillary Clinton responded to a question about the Zika virus on the question and answer website Quora recently. She referred to…. Read More ...
"Regulation of cell survival and death during Flavivirus infections". World Journal of Biological Chemistry. 5 (2): 93-105. doi: ... Current estimates indicate that as many as 390 million infections occur each year, and many dengue infections are increasingly ... Zakeri Z, Ghosh-Roy S, Datan E, McLean JE, Zandi K, Germain G (2015). "Cell death and virus infection - a short review". 20 ... Thus, more studies over D7 protein family are needed do elucidate its role on DENV infection and its applicability in medicine ...
"Regulation of Apoptosis during Flavivirus Infection". Viruses. 9 (9): 243. doi:10.3390/v9090243. PMC 5618009. PMID 28846635. ... Viral infections can cause disease in humans, animals and plants. In healthy humans and animals, infections are usually ... Other coronaviruses are known to cause mild infections in humans, so the virulence and rapid spread of SARS infections-that by ... Vaccines are available to prevent over fourteen viral infections of humans and more are used to prevent viral infections of ...
The best evidence for this proposed antagonistic pleiotropy is found in flavivirus infections. In general many viral infections ... a flavivirus). In addition, functional CCR5 may be required to prevent symptomatic disease after infection with West Nile virus ... Human-to-human infection of bubonic plague does not occur, though it can occur in pneumonic plague, which infects the lungs. ... After infection with West Nile Virus, CCR5 Δ32 mice had markedly increased viral titers in the central nervous system and had ...
"Inhibition of Flavivirus Infections by Antisense Oligomers Specifically Suppressing Viral Translation and RNA Replication". ... A very early stage of viral infection is viral entry, when the virus attaches to and enters the host cell. A number of "entry- ... Billions of viruses are produced every day during the course of an infection, with each replication giving another chance for ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used for treating viral infections. Most antivirals target specific viruses, while a ...
Flavivirus infections such as Zika virus and West Nile virus have also been associated. Viral association of transverse ... Infections may cause TM through direct tissue damage or by immune-mediated infection-triggered tissue damage. The lesions ... Other causes of TM include infections, immune system disorders, and demyelinating diseases. Viral infections known to be ... In an article in The Lancet, Ford suggested that acute myelitis could be a post-infection syndrome in most cases (i.e. a result ...
"Small Molecule Inhibitor of ATPase Activity of HSP70 as a Broad-Spectrum Inhibitor against Flavivirus Infections". ACS ...
"A Novel Model for the Study of the Therapy of Flavivirus Infections Using the Modoc Virus". Virology. 279 (1): 27-37. doi: ... The Flavivirus genus includes nearly 80 viruses, both vector-borne and no known vector (NKV) species. Known flavivirus vector- ... Typically, flaviviruses cause encephalitis in host organisms. MODV causes flavivirus-like encephalitis in SCID (severe combined ... Considerable pathological changes were observed in the brain and spinal cord during early infection. During early infection, ...
Vancini, Ricardo; Kramer, Laura D.; Ribeiro, Mariana; Hernandez, Raquel; Brown, Dennis (2013). "Flavivirus infection from ... West Nile fever is an infection by the West Nile virus, which is typically spread by mosquitoes. In about 80% of infections ... Like most other flaviviruses, WNV is an enveloped virus with icosahedral symmetry. Electron microscope studies reveal a 45-50 ... The flavivirus lipid membrane has been found to contain cholesterol and phosphatidylserine, but other elements of the membrane ...
Zika infections in adults can cause Guillain-Barré syndrome. Symptoms are similar to other flaviviruses such as dengue fever or ... An IgM-positive result in a dengue or Zika ELISA test can only be considered indicative of a recent flavivirus infection. ... Zika infections in adults can result in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Prior to this outbreak, Zika was considered a mild infection, ... "As first imported case of Zika virus infection identified in Taiwan, Taiwan CDC to list Zika virus infection as Category II ...
"Structures and Functions of the Envelope Glycoprotein in Flavivirus Infections". Viruses. 9 (11): 338. doi:10.3390/v9110338. ... The genus Flavivirus can further be broken down into clades based on whether the vector that transmits the virus to humans, and ... The genus Flavivirus is one of the largest viral genera and encompasses over 50 viral species, including tick and mosquito ... Fever as a result of Sepik virus infection has only been seen in Papua New Guinea and has remained isolated from the rest of ...
... component of the innate immune response has been shown to be particularly important in protection from Flavivirus infection. ... Yellow fever is a viral infection that occurs in Africa and South America. Most people begin to develop immunity within ten ... This includes in those with HIV infection but without symptoms. Mild side effects may include headache, muscle pains, pain at ...
As for other Flavivirus infections, no cure is known for yellow fever. Hospitalization is advisable and intensive care may be ... This infection of vectors without a previous blood meal seems to play a role in single, sudden breakouts of the disease.[25] ... Surviving the infection provides lifelong immunity,[20] and normally no permanent organ damage results.[21] ... An estimated 90% of the infections occur on the African continent.[4] In 2008, the largest number of recorded cases was in Togo ...
It was developed as a potential treatment for flavivirus infections and shows broad spectrum antiviral activity against many ... "In vitro antiviral activity of adenosine analog NITD008 against tick-borne flaviviruses". Antiviral Research. 130: 46-9. doi: ... and histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat represents an immunotherapy strategy to ameliorate West Nile virus infection". ...
... including research collaborations in Nepal to study flavivirus infection and collaborations in Sierra Leone to study ... "Newer variant of COVID-19-causing virus dominates global infections: Virus with D614G change in Spike out-competes original ...
... sfRNA is implied in multiple pathways that compromise host defenses and promote infection by flaviviruses. The flaviviruses can ... 5 Xishuangbanna Aedes flavivirus Aedes flavivirus Aedes cinereus flavivirus Aedes vexans flavivirus Culex theileri flavivirus ... virus Chaoyang virus Culex flavivirus Culex theileri flavivirus Spanish Culex flavivirus Wang Thong virus Culiseta flavivirus ... crangon flavivirus Cuacua virus Donggang virus Firefly squid flavivirus Gammarus chevreuxi flavivirus Gammarus pulex flavivirus ...
Emerging Infections in Asia. pp. 179-192. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-75722-3_11. ISBN 978-0-387-75721-6. Kaddumukasa, M. A.; Mutebi ... Human Cases of Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia Due To a Newly Discovered Flavivirus, Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus. ... The department focuses on the study of insect vectors in the transmission of arbo-virus infections, and the study of other ... This department focuses on the comprehensive study of how the human body protects itself against infection. The department ...
Its RNA secondary structure is known to be necessary for the viral replication during infection. In contrast to the ... Flavivirus 3' UTR are untranslated regions in the genome of viruses in the genus Flavivirus. The Flavivirus positive-oriented, ... Flaviviruses are therefore classified into four different groups: Mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFV), tick-borne flaviviruses ( ... The 3' UTR of flavivirus - and sometimes even a small part of the 3' end of the coding region - is also called subgenomic ...
A positive test for West Nile IgG in the absence of a positive West Nile IgM is indicative of a previous flavivirus infection ... West Nile fever is an infection by the West Nile virus, which is typically spread by mosquitoes. In about 80% of infections ... A severe infection can last weeks and can, rarely, cause permanent brain damage. Death may ensue if the central nervous system ... Jozan, M; Evans R; McLean R; Hall R; Tangredi B; Reed L; Scott J (Fall 2003). "Detection of West Nile virus infection in birds ...
"Zika virus infection outbreak, Brazil and the Pacific region" (PDF). Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and ... but four who were tested gave positive results in IgG serology assays for flaviviruses, suggesting an asymptomatic Zika virus ... In December 2013, an American traveler to Mo'orea was diagnosed with Zika virus infection in New York after an 11-day history ... A total of 8,723 suspected cases of Zika virus infection were reported, as well as more than 30,000 estimated clinical visits ...
... antibodies there may be cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses which may result in a false positive after recent infections ... After a primary infection, IgG reaches peak levels in the blood after 14-21 days. In subsequent re-infections, levels peak ... IgM becomes undetectable 30-90 days after a primary infection, but earlier following re-infections. IgG, by contrast, remains ... While artificially induced infection with Wolbachia is effective, it is unclear if naturally acquired infections are protective ...
... flavivirus infections MeSH C02.782.350.250.214 - dengue fever MeSH C02.782.350.250.214.200 - dengue hemorrhagic fever MeSH ... cardiovirus infections MeSH C02.782.687.207 - common cold MeSH C02.782.687.359 - enterovirus infections MeSH C02.782.687.359. ... deltaretrovirus infections MeSH C02.782.815.200.260 - enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH C02.782.815.200.470 - htlv-i infections ... avulavirus infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.080.600 - newcastle disease MeSH C02.782.580.600.400 - henipavirus infections MeSH ...
... is a form of arbovirus infection that results from tick bites. It can occur as a co-infection with Lyme disease since both are ... Powassan encephalitis, caused by the Powassan virus (POWV), a flavivirus also known as the deer tick virus, ...
These methods also aid in the prevention of misdiagnosis of Spondweni viral infection with other viral infections and ... Similar to other flaviviruses, SPONV has a positive-sense, single stranded RNA genome, which is about 11 kilobases in length. ... as other viral infections like Zika. The majority of SPONV infections have been reported as asymptomatic. However, in certain ... The degree of infection and dissemination of both strains differs by primary vector species. In regards to Chuku strain, no ...
Some viruses such as flaviviruses use Fc receptors to help them infect cells, by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent ... FcεRI is the Fc receptor on granulocytes, that is involved in allergic reactions and defense against parasitic infections. When ... Fc receptor-like molecule Anderson R (2003). "Manipulation of cell surface macromolecules by flaviviruses". Advances in Virus ... Microbes and Infection. 3 (2): 131-9. doi:10.1016/s1286-4579(00)01360-5. PMID 11251299. Maverakis E, Kim K, Shimoda M, Gershwin ...
The medical use of the NS1 antigen test can be defined to diagnose dengue infections and is effective to 1st day detection. ... Additionally, NS1 assay is useful for differential diagnostics in regards to flaviviruses. NS1 is present in the serum of ... infected persons directly at the onset of clinical symptoms in primary dengue infection and produces a strong humoral response ...
These virus include flaviviruses (dengue virus and West Nile virus), filoviruses (Marburg virus and Ebola virus) coronaviruses ... IFITM proteins also are able to inhibit several other enveloped viruses infection that belong to different virus families. ... "IFITM3 inhibits influenza A virus infection by preventing cytosolic entry". PLOS Pathog. 7 (10): e1002337. doi:10.1371/journal. ... arenaviruses and murine leukaemia virus infection. Potential mechanisms. IFITM proteins inhibit viral membrane and cellular ...
Enveloped viruses can cause persistent infections.[citation needed] The following are some examples of enveloped viruses: DNA ... viruses Herpesviruses Poxviruses Hepadnaviruses Asfarviridae RNA viruses Flaviviruses Alphaviruses Togaviruses Coronaviruses ...
... cytomegalovirus infection, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, and herpes simplex virus. Some tests should be ... Like other flaviviruses it could potentially be transmitted by blood transfusion and several affected countries have developed ... Infections in pregnant women can spread to the baby. Diagnosis is by testing the blood, urine, or saliva for the presence of ... It may involve infection of the primary neural stem cells of the fetal brain, known as neural progenitor cells. The main roles ...
Molecular genetic analysis has shown that Yokose virus is a new member of the Flavivirus genus. Flaviviruses are typically ... So far there has been no reported infections of Yokose virus in humans or other animals. Researchers found that Yokose can be ... Yokose virus is a new member of the Flavivirus family that has only been identified in a few bat species. Bats have been ... The genus Flavivirus includes over 50 known viruses, including Yellow Fever, West Nile Virus, Zika Virus, and Japanese ...
Best researches interactions between pathogenic viruses and the host immune response using flavivirus as a model. Best earned a ... Best investigates the mechanisms underpinning early immune activation after infection with RNA viruses and how emerging viruses ... She investigated virus-host interactions involved in flavivirus pathogenesis. It was during this time that she developed her ... Her virus models include emerging flaviviruses (such as Zika virus and encephalitis) and filoviruses (Ebola virus). In 2011, ...
Peters, C. J. (December 1998). Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting (PDF). ... and flaviviruses" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved ... Simpson DI (1977). Marburg and Ebola virus infections: a guide for their diagnosis, management, and control. World Health ... Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system.[50][52] EBOV proteins blunt the human ...
2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Chen LH, Wilson ME (October 2010). "Dengue and chikungunya infections in travelers". Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. ... 3.0 3.1 3.2 Gould EA, Solomon T (February 2008). "Pathogenic flaviviruses". The Lancet 371 (9611): 500-9. doi:10.1016/S0140- ... Wolff K, Johnson RA (eds.) (2009). "Viral infections of skin and mucosa". Fitzpatrick's color atlas and synopsis of clinical ... "Vector-borne viral infections". World Health Organization. பார்த்த நாள் 17 January 2011. ...
Flavivirus: Akhurma virus,[13]Dengue,[14] Hepatit C, Kyasanur Forest disease virus,[15] Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus,[15] Sarı ... infections transmitted through blood transfusion". Wiad Parazytol. 57 (2), s. 77-81. PMID 21682090.. KB1 bakım: Birden fazla ad ... Review of the literature". Infection. 35 (4), s. 212-8. doi:10.1007/s15010-007-6006-2. PMID 17646920.. KB1 bakım: Birden fazla ... Gritsun TS, Nuttall PA, Gould EA (2003). "Tick-borne flaviviruses". Adv. Virus Res. Cilt 61, s. 317-71. PMID 14714436.. KB1 ...
Unidentified infection of the pigs amplified the force of infection, eventually transmitting the virus to farmers and causing ... Flavivirus birds, horses mosquito bite Zika fever Zika virus chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, monkeys, baboons mosquito bite ... Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous anthrax infection, whereas inhalation anthrax infection is more common for ... Taenia crassiceps infection Taenia crassiceps wolves, coyotes, jackals, foxes contact with soil contaminated with feces ...
HBV was identified as a new DNA virus in the 1960s, followed a couple of decades later by the discovery of the flavivirus ... Hepatis B Virus (HBV) was identified as an infection distinct from Hepatitis A through its contamination of measles, mumps, and ... Diseases associated with this family include: liver infections, such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinomas (chronic ... cell to infect others or are immediately dismantled so the new viral genomes can enter the nucleus and magnify the infection. ...
Unidentified infection of the pigs amplified the force of infection, eventually transmitting the virus to farmers and causing ... Flavivirus. birds, horses. mosquito bite. Zika fever. Zika virus. chimpanzees, monkeys, apes, baboons. mosquito bite, sexual ... Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous anthrax infection, whereas inhalation anthrax infection is more common for ... Toxocariasis is infection of humans of any of species of roundworm, including species specific to the dog (Toxocara canis) or ...
en:Group A streptococcal infection (10). *en:Group B streptococcal infection (4) ... en:Flavivirus (22). *en:Flexner Report (2). *en:Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (12) ...
জাপানিজ এনকেফেলাইটিছ ভাইৰাছ 'flavivirus' গোটৰ এটা ভাইৰাছ আৰু ই ৱেষ্ট নীল ভাইৰাছ (West Nile virus) তথা ছেইন্ট লুইছ এনকেফেলাইটিছ ... "Japanese encephalitis virus infection initiates endoplasmic reticulum stress and an unfolded protein response". J. Virol. খণ্ড ... Monath, TP (1986). "Pathobiology of the flaviviruses". In Schlesinger, Milton J.; Schlesinger, Sondra. The Togaviridae and ...
Zikafeber,[34] forårsages af Zikavirus, se en:Zika virus, der er en Flavivirus med en membrankappe og en proteinkappe og et ... May 17, 2007, Science Daily: Herpes infection might have an up side Citat: "...U.S. medical scientists say a herpes virus ... Denguefeber forårsages af Denguevirus, DENV, en Flavivirus med membrankappe og en proteinkappe og et genom af +ssRNA på 11.000 ... infection has an unexpected up side, at least in mice, since it protects them against bacterial infections..." ...
জাপানি এনসেফালাইটিস ভাইরাস 'flavivirus' গোত্রের একটি ভাইরাস ও ওয়েস্ট নীল ভাইরাস (West Nile virus) তথা সেইন্ট লুইস এনসেফালাইটিস ... "Japanese encephalitis virus infection initiates endoplasmic reticulum stress and an unfolded protein response"। J. Virol.। 76 ... Monath, TP (১৯৮৬)। "Pathobiology of the flaviviruses"। Schlesinger, Milton J.; Schlesinger, Sondra। The Togaviridae and ...
C. J. Peters (December 1998). Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting (PDF). Centers ... and flaviviruses" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved ... Weingartl HM, Nfon C, Kobinger G (May 2013). Review of Ebola virus infections in domestic animals. Dev Biol. Developments in ... Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system.[44][46] EBOV proteins blunt the human ...
... α/β during early mosquito-borne virus infection.[៧៣] The contribution of type I interferons (IFN) in recovery from infection ... but not demonstrated in flavivirus resistant mice"។ Parasite Immunology 21 (1): 35-44។ 1999។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1046/j.1365-3024.1999. ... Culex and Culiseta are vectors of tularemia, as well as arbovirus infections such as West Nile virus.[៨៩] ... In passing from host to host, some transmit extremely harmful infections such as malaria, yellow fever, Chikungunya, West Nile ...
Antibody-based assay discriminates Zika virus infection from other flaviviruses» (en anglès). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2017; ... El virus del Zika (ZIKV) [1] és un virus del gènere Flavivirus, família Flaviviridae, grup IV de la Classificació de Baltimore. ... Zika virus infection» (en anglès). [Consulta: 6 febrer 2016]. *↑ Petersen, LR; Jamieson, DJ; Powers, AM; Honein, MA «Zika Virus ... Meinhardt, A «Infection: A new threat on the horizon - Zika virus and male fertility» (en anglès). Nat Rev Urol, 2017 Mar; 14 ( ...
Some viruses such as flaviviruses use Fc receptors to help them infect cells, by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent ... FcεRI is the Fc receptor on granulocytes, that is involved in allergic reactions and defense against parasitic infections. When ... Anderson R (2003). "Manipulation of cell surface macromolecules by flaviviruses". Advances in Virus Research. 59: 229-74. doi: ... and therefore reduces the chance of immune cell activation in the absence of infection. This also prevents agglutination ( ...
Cytomegalovirus infection Cytomegalovirus Dengue fever Dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) - Flaviviruses ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection One of the Human papillomaviruses Human parainfluenza virus infection Human parainfluenza ... Infections associated with diseases. References[edit]. *^ Walsh TJ, Dixon DM (1996). Baron S, et al., eds. Spectrum of Mycoses ... Acinetobacter infections Acinetobacter baumannii Actinomycosis Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae and ...
Severe progressions of infection have been linked to the development of microcephaly in the unborn child, while mild infections ... Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae family and the genus Flavivirus, thus is related to the dengue, yellow fever, ... Infection during pregnancy causes microcephaly and other brain malformations in some babies.[7][8] Infection in adults has been ... The infection, known as Zika fever or Zika virus disease, often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a very mild form of ...
"Infection and Immunity. 61 (6): 2273-2276. PMC 280844. PMID 8500868.. *^ Zhang, Jing-Ren; et al. (1997). "Antigenic Variation ... Flaviviruses[edit]. Flaviviridae is a family of viruses that encompasses well known viruses such as West Nile virus and Dengue ... but also allows re-infection of previously infected hosts. Immunity to re-infection is based on recognition of the antigens ... The genus Flavivirus has a prototypical envelope protein (E-protein) on its surface which serves as the target for virus ...
It has also shown the same behaviour in other flaviviruses, such as the West Nile virus. No negative side effects such as ... mission of the Influenza Antiviral Drug Search project is to find new drugs that can stop the spread of an influenza infection ...
Organism: TBEV (FSME) virus, a flavivirus from family Flaviviridae. *Vector: deer tick (Ixodes scapularis), Ixodes ricinus ( ... Infection Rate and B. grahamii in Ticks". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 18 (10): 1689-1690. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120390. PMC ... Organism: Powassan virus (POWV), a flavivirus from family Flaviviridae. Lineage 2 POWV is also known as deer tick virus (DTV) ... Tick-borne illnesses are caused by infection with a variety of pathogens, including rickettsia and other types of bacteria, ...
In the case of Puccinia graminis for example, Berberis and related genera act as alternate hosts in a cycle of infection of ... Figure 1. This figure shows how the Flavivirus is carried by mosquitos in the West Nile Virus and Dengue fever. The mosquito ... Pawan, J.L. "Rabies in the Vampire Bat of Trinidad with Special Reference to the Clinical Course and the Latency of Infection ... but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.[3] ...
Helminth infections, as the most common infection of humans, are often found to be in multi-infection systems. For example, in ... Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus, and is spread mostly by the bite of the A. Aegypti mosquito.[25] No treatment for ... There are 50-100 million dengue virus infections annually.[25] Dengue fever is usually not fatal, but infection with one of ... Cysticercosis is a tapeworm larvae infection, while taeniasis is infection with adult tapeworms .[56] Both are found in Asia, ...
77,0 77,1 77,2 Review of Ebola virus infections in domestic animals։ Dev Biol։ Developments in Biologicals 135։ May 2013։ էջեր ... and flaviviruses»։ Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից հոկտեմբերի 15, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 9 ... 117,0 117,1 C. J. Peters (December 1998)։ Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting։ ... Ryabchikova Elena I., Price Barbara B. (2004)։ Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy։ ...
ডেঙ্গু ফিভার ভাইরাস (DENV) Flavivirus জিনের Flaviviridaeপরিবারের একটি আরএনএ ভাইরাস। একই জিনের অন্য সদস্যদের মধ্যে আছে ইয়েলো ... Chen LH, Wilson ME (২০১০)। "Dengue and chikungunya infections in travelers"। Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.। 23 (5): 438-44। ডিওআই: ... Wolff K, Johnson RA (eds.) (২০০৯)। "Viral infections of skin and mucosa"। Fitzpatrick's color atlas and synopsis of clinical ... Gould EA, Solomon T (২০০৮)। "Pathogenic flaviviruses"। The Lancet। 371 (9611): 500-9। ডিওআই:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60238-X। ...
... α/β during early mosquito-borne virus infection.[69] The contribution of type I interferons (IFN) in recovery from infection ... but not demonstrated in flavivirus resistant mice". Parasite Immunology. 21 (1): 35-44. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3024.1999.00199.x. ... Sawada A, Inoue M, Kawa K (April 2017). "How we treat chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection". International Journal of ... Culex and Culiseta are vectors of tularemia, as well as arbovirus infections such as West Nile virus.[91] ...
... (ZIKV) er et virus i familien flavivirus. Viruset overføres av aedes-mygg og videre mellom mennesker ved seksuell ... Epidemiological update: Outbreaks of Zika virus and complications potentially linked to the Zika virus infection». European ...
Wolff K, Johnson RA (eds.) (2009). "Viral Infections of Skin and Mucosa". Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical ... Gould EA, Solomon T (February 2008). "Pathogenic flaviviruses". The Lancet. 371 (9611): 500-9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60238- ... It can happen when the dengue virus causes an infection in the brain. It can also happen when important organs, like the liver ... Infection of the heart, or sudden liver failure (these are very uncommon).[6][7] ...
... (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).[3] While most ... "Feasibility of cross-protective vaccination against flaviviruses of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex". Expert Rev ... The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has an incubation period of 2 to 26 days.[4] The vast majority of infections are ... Infection with Japanese encephalitis confers lifelong immunity. There are currently three vaccines available: SA14-14-2, IC51 ( ...
Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Escherichia coli O157:H7, O111 and O104:H4 ... Dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) - Flaviviruses. ... Clostridium botulinum; Note: Botulism is not an infection by ...
... flavivirus infection - Volume 10 - Theodore C. Pierson, Michael S. Diamond ... Structural Insights into the Mechanisms of Antibody-Mediated Neutralization of Flavivirus Infection: Implications for Vaccine ... 78Gollins, S.W. and Porterfield, J.S. (1985) Flavivirus infection enhancement in macrophages: an electron microscopic study of ... 135Gollins, S.W. and Porterfield, J.S. (1984) Flavivirus infection enhancement in macrophages: radioactive and biological ...
... infection with other flaviviruses has become a public health concern. Recently, reports of imported dengue cases, as well as ... Infection by other flaviviruses, including an increase in imported dengue cases and isolations of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE ... Kurane I, Takasaki T, Yamada K. Trends in Flavivirus Infections in Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):569-571. doi: ... Kurane, I., Takasaki, T., & Yamada, K. (2000). Trends in Flavivirus Infections in Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), ...
DENV4 and WNV NY infection induced a repression comparable to that observed with DENV2 NGC infection. Infection with DENV1, ... Flavivirus Infection Uncouples Translation Suppression from Cellular Stress Responses. Hanna Roth, Vera Magg, Fabian Uch, ... Flavivirus Infection Uncouples Translation Suppression from Cellular Stress Responses. Hanna Roth, Vera Magg, Fabian Uch, ... Flavivirus Infection Uncouples Translation Suppression from Cellular Stress Responses. Hanna Roth, Vera Magg, Fabian Uch, ...
... model involves culturing organs taken from Ixodes scapularis ticks and then infecting those organ cultures with flaviviruses, ... scientists have filled a research gap by developing a laboratory model to study ticks that transmit flaviviruses, such as ... Flavivirus infection of Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) ex vivo organotypic cultures and application for control. mBio ... Langat virus infection (bright green) in the tick midgut (black) is shown at six days after infection in this fluorescence ...
... or immune cell kinetics following ZIKV infection. These results indicate that prior infection with heterologous flaviviruses ... Impact of prior flavivirus immunity on Zika virus infection in rhesus macaques. dc.contributor.author. McCracken, Michael K.. ... "Impact of prior flavivirus immunity on Zika virus infection in rhesus macaques." PLoS Pathogens 13 (8): e1006487. doi:10.1371/ ... Impact of prior flavivirus immunity on Zika virus infection in rhesus macaques. en. ...
... and immunization strategies to design Aedes aegypti salivary protein based subunit vaccine tackling Flavivirus infection.. ... Flavivirus causes arthropod-borne severe diseases that sometimes lead to the death. The Flavivirus species including Dengue ... and immunization strategies to design Aedes aegypti salivary protein based subunit vaccine tackling Flavivirus infection.. ... and immunization strategies to design Aedes aegypti salivary protein based subunit vaccine tackling Flavivirus infection.. ...
CFAV filial infection rates in progeny of female mosquitoes from both colonies were , 90% after two generations of selection, ... Some of these agents are closely related to important mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens. Results of experimental studies ... ISFVs potentially could be used to alter the vector competence of mosquitoes and reduce transmission of specific flavivirus ... that mosquitoes and mosquito cell cultures infected with some ISFVs are refractory to superinfection with related flavivirus ...
Flaviviruses are responsible for a number of important mosquito-borne diseases of man and animals globally. The short vireamic ... This paper will focus on the traditional methods to diagnose flaviviral infections as well as describing the modern rapid ... for the Development of Rapid Serological Assays for Surveillance and Diagnosis of Infections Caused by Zoonotic Flaviviruses of ...
... of a syndrome based protein microarray for specific serological detection of multiple flavivirus infections in travelers. Open ... of a syndrome based protein microarray for specific serological detection of multiple flavivirus infections in travelers ...
The flavivirus IFA is a useful tool for the identification of flavivirus infections during the acute stage of disease. In ... Flavivirus infections are a significant public health problem, since several members of the Flaviviridae family are highly ... Forty-seven serum samples from patients with a defined flavivirus infection were tested. As controls, serum samples from ... Reactivity of serum samples from patients with a flavivirus infection measured by immunofluorescence assay and ELISA. ...
The Antigenic Structure of Zika Virus and Its Relation to Other Flaviviruses: Implications for Infection and Immunoprophylaxis ... The Antigenic Structure of Zika Virus and Its Relation to Other Flaviviruses: Implications for Infection and Immunoprophylaxis ... The antigenic structure of Zika virus and its relation to other flaviviruses: implications for infection and immunoprophylaxis ... The Antigenic Structure of Zika Virus and Its Relation to Other Flaviviruses: Implications for Infection and Immunoprophylaxis ...
Flavivirus Infections: Pathogens and Prevention - Project 1: Kamphaeng Phet Family Cohort Study. *Anderson, Katie B (PI) ... Flavivirus Infections: Pathogens and Prevention - Project 1: Kamphaeng Phet Family Cohort Study ...
The genetic drift of the parental virus during the course of a long term persistent infection in vitro appears to be minimal. ... particles are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of the MVE virus persistent infection. The persistently ... virus strain OR2 was serially passaged on Vero cells to establish a persistent infection which was maintained for over 300 days ... Persistent infection of Vero cells by the flavivirus Murray Valley encephalitis virus * Michael Poidinger, Robert J. Coelen and ...
Our study suggested that the sheep fetuses are fully susceptible to viral infections and may even develop neurolopathological ... lesions upon natural infection with mentioned pathogens .Therefore ,according to,specific lesions caused by viral infections, ... or Flavivirus strains that extensively shares common lesions with Rift Valley fever ,Wesselsbron ,Cache valley virus / or and ... we believe that the histopathological pattern were detected in this study could be associated with either viral infection and ...
Arbovirus Infections. Virus Diseases. Flavivirus Infections. Flaviviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Hemorrhagic Fevers ... Flavivirus infection in terms of dengue immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G per subject (ATP cohort for immunogenicity) [ ... A Phase I/II Trial of a Tetravalent Live Attenuated DEN Vaccine in Flavivirus Antibody Naive Children. The safety and ... Do children still have dengue antibodies intended to provide protection against dengue infection one year after the two doses ...
Arbovirus Infections. Virus Diseases. Flavivirus Infections. Flaviviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Hemorrhagic Fevers ... A Phase I/II Trial of Tetravalent Live Attenuated Dengue Vaccine in Flavivirus Antibody Naive Infants. This study has been ... Thirty-four flavivirus naïve infants will be randomized to the vaccine group and 17 infants to the control group. ... Safety and immunogenicity of a tetravalent live-attenuated dengue vaccine in flavivirus-naive infants. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 ...
Arbovirus Infections. Virus Diseases. Flavivirus Infections. Flaviviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Hemorrhagic Fevers ... Immunogenicity and Safety of Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Candidate (TDV) in Flavivirus-Naïve and Dengue-Immune Adults. The ... TDV 0.5 mL, subcutaneous (SC) injection on Day 1 (Month 0) and Day 90 (Month 3) in flavivirus-naïve participants (Group 1) and ... Group 1: Flavivirus-Naïve Participants Group 2: Dengue-Immune Participants. All participants will receive subcutaneous ...
This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections. ... Unspecified flavivirus infection if the IgG cannot be shown to be specific to a single virus. *Detection of IgM to a single ... Unspecified flavivirus infection if IgM is detected against more than one virus or the full range of flavivurses has not been ... A PDF version of this alphavirus and flavivirus infections case definitions (PDF file 28Kb) is available. Authorisation: PHLN. ...
FLAVIVIRUS INFECTIONS. *General description of disease domain. * Yellow fever *Introduction and general description ... TOGAVIRUS INFECTIONS. *General description of disease domain. *Basic biology. * Sindbis virus infection *Definition and ... PICORNAVIRUS INFECTIONS (ENTEROVIRUSES). *General description of disease domain. *Basic biology. * Foot and mouth disease * ... MYXOVIRUS INFECTIONS AND RELATED RNA VIRUSES. *General description of disease domain. * Measles *Definition and nomenclature ...
This article provides a brief overview of the function of the most prominent flaviviruses-induced or -hijacked cytoskeletal ... Host cell cytoskeletons have been reported to have close contact with flaviviruses during virus entry, intracellular transport ... The family of flaviviruses is one of the most medically important groups of emerging arthropod-borne viruses. ... structures including actin, microtubules and intermediate filaments, mainly focus on infection by dengue virus, Zika virus and ...
Flaviviruses Jingmen Tick Virus Northeastern United States Research Synanthropic Animals Tick-borne Viruses Ticks Vectorborne ... We confirmed Borrelia miyamotoi infection in 7 patients who had contracted an illness while near La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA, an ... Borrelia miyamotoi Infection in Patients from Upper Midwestern United States, 2014-2015 ... Among these viruses was a highly divergent segmented flavivirus whose genetic relatives were recently identified in ticks, ...
The results strongly indicate that the investigated integrins play an important role in flavivirus infection and might ... In the last few decades, many aspects of the flavivirus biology and the interaction of flaviviruses with host cells have been ... act as flavivirus cellular receptor or attachment factor since their ablation does not completely abrogate flavivirus infection ... on viral loads for all flaviviruses tested. Levels of flavivirus negative-strand RNA were substantially decreased in MEF-αVβ3 ...
All flavivirus NS1 genes share a high degree … ... The flavivirus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 is an enigmatic ... Flavivirus / genetics * Flavivirus / immunology * Flavivirus / pathogenicity* * Flavivirus Infections / diagnosis * Flavivirus ... All flavivirus NS1 genes share a high degree of homology, encoding a 352-amino-acid polypeptide that has a molecular weight of ... The flavivirus NS1 protein: molecular and structural biology, immunology, role in pathogenesis and application as a diagnostic ...
... which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses ... which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses ... Flaviviruses, from Flaviviridae virus family, comprises several human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever, West ... Flaviviruses, from Flaviviridae virus family, comprises several human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever, West ...
... of flavivirus infection, non-FcγR and FcγR-expressing cell lines were used in the EMNT to allow the detection of the sum of ... Using anti-flavivirus monoclonal antibodies and clinical samples, the utility of EMNT was evaluated by comparing the end-point ... is considered the gold standard for determining neutralizing antibody levels to flaviviruses, the assay is time-consuming and ... for the detection of neutralizing antibodies to mosquito-borne flaviviruses. The inhibition of viral growth due to neutralizing ...
Emerging CNS Flavivirus Infections: Zika and West Nile. Kenneth L. Tyler, M.D. - Chairman, Department of Neurology, University ... Neuroinfectious Diseases (Excluding HIV-Related Infections). Gretchen L. Birbeck, M.D., M.P.H. - Professor, Department of ... Kiran Thakur, MD - Department of Neurology, Division of Neuroimmunology and Neurological Infections, Johns Hopkins Medicine ...
The use of flavivirus rEDIII proteins in ELISA as a tool to detect and differentiate flavivirus infections already proved ... and found negative prior to flavivirus infection. One week before infection, they were moved into a biocontainment building at ... are flaviviruses responsible for severe neuroinvasive infections in humans and horses. The confirmation of flavivirus ... Louis encephalitis virus infections and from flavivirus vaccination," Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. ...
Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile and Other Flavivirus Infections. Douglas M. Watts, Bruno P. Granwehr, Robert E. Shope, Tom ... Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile and Other Flavivirus Infections. / Watts, Douglas M.; Granwehr, Bruno P.; Shope, Robert E ... Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile and Other Flavivirus Infections. In Tropical Infectious Diseases. Vol. 1. Elsevier Inc. ... title = "Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile and Other Flavivirus Infections",. author = "Watts, {Douglas M.} and Granwehr, { ...
Flaviviruses (FVs) represent a family of viral pathogens responsible for human life-threatening diseases such as Dengue Fever, ... This is an important finding; for, it helps clarify the mechanism of FV infections that impact many individuals throughout the ... During the process of infection (through arthropod vectors), the viral genome (gRNA) is successfully replicated and subgenomic ... an enzyme that is a part of the host cell defense against infection. In this scenario, host cell defenses inadvertently play a ...
  • Some of these agents are closely related to important mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens. (ajtmh.org)
  • and it has been proposed that ISFVs potentially could be used to alter the vector competence of mosquitoes and reduce transmission of specific flavivirus pathogens, such as dengue, West Nile, or Zika viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Flaviviruses (FVs) represent a family of viral pathogens responsible for human life-threatening diseases such as Dengue Fever, West Nile, Yellow Fever and Japanese Encephalitis. (joessciencescorner.net)
  • Flaviviruses are globally distributed pathogens causing millions of human infections every year. (mdpi.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to the human pathogens including yellow fever virus, dengue virus and West Nile virus. (virosin.org)
  • The results will provide insights into incompletely understood aspects of human T cell responses that contribute to protective immunity against emerging flavivirus pathogens. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • The complement system plays a pivotal protective role in the innate immune response to many pathogens including flaviviruses. (jimmunol.org)
  • When cells are dying from a flavivirus infection, their freshly exposed PS is grabbed by the exiting virus, and phagocytes-cells that devour invading pathogens and dead and dying cells-engulf the virus as if it were a dying cell. (scripps.edu)
  • Towards objective 2, we will determine the impact of seasonal variation of larval developmental conditions including temperature and photoperiod on the mosquito's ability to overcome infection as adults to a variety of pathogens, including bacteria and fungi. (usda.gov)
  • Flaviviruses constitute an increasing source of public health concern, with growing numbers of pathogens causing disease and geographic spread to temperate climates. (asm.org)
  • The Flavivirus genus (Flaviviridae family) comprises the most important arboviruses in the world such as dengue virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Japanese encephalitis virus and yellow fever virus (YFV). (uni-greifswald.de)
  • In this review, we will describe the inflammation and stress responses triggered by members of flavivirus and hepacivirus genus only. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mosquito-borne viruses of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae , including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are major public health threats in approximately a third of the world population that lives in transmission areas [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The causative agent of Zika fever (ZIKV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. (nsu.ru)
  • The flavivirus genus consists of more than 70 members. (nsu.ru)
  • The family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, holds many of the world's most prevalent arboviral diseases that are also considered the most important travel related arboviral infections. (cdc.gov)
  • We describe the development of a multiplex serological protein microarray using recombinant NS1 proteins for detection of medically important viruses within the genus Flavivirus. (cdc.gov)
  • Serological diagnosis of flavivirus infections is complicated by the antigenic similarities among the Flavivirus genus. (mdpi.com)
  • Zika virus belongs to the Flavivirus genus and is transmitted through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Flavivirus . (medscape.com)
  • Malaria is caused by infection with a protozoan blood parasite from the genus Plasmodium that has been transmitted by a species of mosquito from the genus Anopheles . (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • genus Flavivirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dengue virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae . (asm.org)
  • Approximately half of the world's population is at risk of being infected with members of the genus Flavivirus , with 2.5 billion people at risk of infection from the dengue viruses alone ( 8 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • A member of the genus Flavivirus , and Flavivirida e family ( 1 , 3 , 4 , 6 ) . (canada.ca)
  • Flavivirus infections are a significant public health problem, since several members of the Flaviviridae family are highly pathogenic to humans. (eur.nl)
  • The flaviviruses have been posing threats to human health in the New World for the past four centuries, most notable has been the Yellow fever virus (YFV) (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae). (scielo.br)
  • Flaviviruses are the cause of diseases spread by mosquitoes (e.g., dengue fever and West Nile fever) and by ticks (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • This article provides a brief overview of the function of the most prominent flaviviruses-induced or -hijacked cytoskeletal structures including actin, microtubules and intermediate filaments, mainly focus on infection by dengue virus, Zika virus and West Nile virus. (virosin.org)
  • Tesh, Robert B. / Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile and Other Flavivirus Infections . (utmb.edu)
  • West Nile (WN) virus infection is an emerging disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Here, we observed increased susceptibility of mice to severe West Nile (WNV), Dengue, and Zika virus infections after treatment with oral antibiotics (Abx) that depleted the gut microbiota. (inpst.net)
  • West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are flaviviruses responsible for severe neuroinvasive infections in humans and horses. (hindawi.com)
  • Many flaviviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), or dengue virus are emerging or reemerging diseases threatening humans and/or animals [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on virion structural organization and amino acid composition of proteins, this virus resembles other flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever and West Nile (WNV) posing a threat to human health. (nsu.ru)
  • West Nile virus infections are here! (rsbmt.org.br)
  • In this study, we developed a high-throughput and multiplex IgG microsphere immunoassay (MIA) using the NS1 proteins of DENV1-DENV4, ZIKV and West Nile virus (WNV) to test samples from reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain reaction-confirmed cases, including primary DENV1, DENV2, DENV3, WNV and ZIKV infections, secondary DENV infection, and ZIKV infection with previous DENV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • In Europe, many flaviviruses are endemic (West Nile, Usutu, tick-borne encephalitis viruses) or occasionally imported (dengue, yellow fever viruses). (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we report that mice deficient in Peli1 (Peli1-/-) were more resistant to lethal West Nile virus (WNV) infection and exhibited reduced viral loads in tissues and attenuated brain inflammation. (jci.org)
  • In addition, differential testing was performed for other flaviviruses, namely dengue, Zika and West Nile viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection of cells by dengue or West Nile viruses is markedly enhanced when phagocytes express receptors that recognize and bind PS. (scripps.edu)
  • West Nile virus is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a primary cause of viral encephalitis. (bookdepository.com)
  • Studies in mammalian systems have dissected the viral and host factors that determine the pathogenesis and outcome of West Nile virus infection. (bookdepository.com)
  • In West Nile Encephalitis Virus Infection, leading scientists and researchers discuss the West Nile virus, a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a primary cause of viral encephalitis. (bookdepository.com)
  • Flaviviruses comprise several medically important viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV). (asm.org)
  • Studies have demonstrated cross-reactivity of anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in human sera against Zika virus (ZIKV), promoting increased ZIKV infection in vitro. (harvard.edu)
  • The results obtained from this study indicate that IFA showed a significantly better discrimination for flavivirus specific IgM antibodies than did the standard IgM specific EIAs (the overall cross-reactivity varied between 4 and 10% by IFA and 30-44% by EIA for the respective viruses). (eur.nl)
  • In contrast, the detection of flavivirus specific IgG antibodies showed high cross-reactions in both IFA and EIAs (overall cross-reactivity 16-71 and 62-84%, respectively). (eur.nl)
  • Do children still have dengue antibodies intended to provide protection against dengue infection one year after the two doses of vaccine given in study Dengue-003? (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mice receiving the treatment produced their own monoclonal antibodies and survived infection with the life-threatening pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (the-scientist.com)
  • A memory B cell response to Zika virus in dengue-infected patients produced antibodies that were poorly neutralizing in vitro and instead enhanced infection. (the-scientist.com)
  • Complicating these efforts is the potential for antibodies elicited by natural infection or vaccination to modulate DENV pathogenesis and enhance disease. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of antibodies to enhance the efficiency of infection is called antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE). (nih.gov)
  • This estimate of the number of antibodies required to neutralize and enhance WNV infection has provided a useful foundation to explore the genetic and biochemical complexity of factors that modulate antibody function. (nih.gov)
  • This study, therefore, aimed to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based microneutralization test (EMNT) for the detection of neutralizing antibodies to mosquito-borne flaviviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Using anti-flavivirus monoclonal antibodies and clinical samples, the utility of EMNT was evaluated by comparing the end-point titers of the EMNT and the PRNT. (mdpi.com)
  • Several antigens bearing ZIKV E surface protein fragments were constructed to assess an opportunity for conducting differential diagnostics for distinct flaviviruses based on detection of virus-specific antibodies. (nsu.ru)
  • Human sera containing no antibodies against flavivirus types were used as a negative control. (nsu.ru)
  • It was found that serum IgM class antibodies derived from patients with flavivirus infections demonstrated a high level of cross-reactivity by interacting with ZEa187 and ZEa40. (nsu.ru)
  • Further studies indicated that antibodies induced by the soluble recombinant flavivirus DIII partially protected mice against lethal JEV challenge. (virosin.org)
  • Their partially overlapping geographic distribution and symptoms, combined with increase in travel, and preexisting antibodies due to flavivirus vaccinations, expand the need for rapid and reliable multiplex diagnostic tests to supplement currently used methods. (cdc.gov)
  • Indeed, most flavivirus antibodies are directed against the highly immunogenic envelope protein, which contains both flavivirus cross-reactive and virus-specific epitopes. (mdpi.com)
  • Flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies in human sera create a serious problem for serodiagnosis, especially for secondary flavivirus infections, due to the difficulty of differentiating primary from secondary cross-reactive serum antibodies. (asm.org)
  • The presence of subneutralizing levels of flavivirus cross-reactive serum antibodies may result in a dramatic increase in the severity of secondary flavivirus infections via antibody-dependent enhancement. (asm.org)
  • Human infections by flaviviruses elicit humoral immune responses resulting in the production of virus species-specific as well as flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies ( 9 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • The presence of flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies in human sera creates two public health concerns upon secondary infection with heterologous flaviviruses. (asm.org)
  • Firstly, serodiagnosis of secondary flavivirus infections, especially in areas with multiple cocirculating flaviviruses, can be particularly difficult due to the inability to differentiate cross-reactive antibodies elicited by primary infections from those elicited by secondary infections, using the currently available viral antigens. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, the presence of subneutralizing levels of flavivirus cross-reactive serum antibodies may result in an increase in the severity of secondary flavivirus infections due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), particularly after secondary DENV infection ( 18 , 27 , 50 , 52 ). (asm.org)
  • Cross-reactivity between Zika virus and other flaviviruses occurs both with IgM and neutralizing antibodies and makes distinguishing Zika virus from dengue virus infections especially challenging. (cdc.gov)
  • We collected serum specimens from patients with Zika virus infection confirmed by molecular testing to determine the proportion of patients with detectable Zika virus IgM and the ratio of Zika virus and dengue virus neutralizing antibodies at 12–19 months after their acute illness. (cdc.gov)
  • As obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on host cell translation for the production of new progeny, yet infected cells also synthesize antiviral proteins to limit virus infection. (asm.org)
  • The researchers say the culture model will greatly increase knowledge about how flaviviruses infect ticks and could become a tool to evaluate medical countermeasures against tick-borne viruses. (nih.gov)
  • The family of flaviviruses is one of the most medically important groups of emerging arthropod-borne viruses. (virosin.org)
  • Identifying viruses in synanthropic animals is necessary for understanding the origin of many viruses that can infect humans and developing strategies to prevent new zoonotic infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Among these viruses was a highly divergent segmented flavivirus whose genetic relatives were recently identified in ticks, mosquitoes, and vertebrates, including febrile humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Integrins, the major class of cell adhesion molecules have been implicated in the infectious cycle of different viruses including flaviviruses. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Flaviviruses are a group of RNA viruses responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are mainly transmitted by either ticks or mosquitoes. (mdpi.com)
  • TBEV, another encephalitic flavivirus known to cause severe infections in humans and dogs, belongs to the group of mammalian tick-borne viruses [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Seroepidemiological survey on healthy humans indicated that the northern part of Chiang Mai Province in the region of the Maekong Valley has not yet been invaded so much by dengue viruses , compared with the Chiang Mai Valley, where dengue infection apparently became more prevalent than 12 years ago. (bvsalud.org)
  • Beyond its lytic capacity, complement protects against viral infections by priming adaptive B and T cell responses, triggering leukocyte chemotaxis through the release of anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a),and opsonizing viruses for phagocytosis and destruction by macrophages (reviewed in Refs. (jimmunol.org)
  • The principal vector of all these exotic viruses in the Americas is Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): often called the yellow fever mosquito and which, together with the flaviviruses, is also an invasive alien species from Africa ( Powell & Tabachnick 2013 ). (scielo.br)
  • Flaviviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses, some of which are associated with epidemic encephalitis in various regions of the world. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • In Australia, the flaviviruses of public health importance are the dengue viruses (DENV) with frequent seasonal outbreaks, 3-6 Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) with occasional outbreaks, 7-12 and sporadic cases of infection with Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) or Kunjin virus (KUNV). (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • This family of viruses, called "flavivirus," affect some 2.5 billion people worldwide and cause hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. (scripps.edu)
  • While some viruses (influenza A for example) do not use PS in their life cycle, the flavivirus exploits this opportunity to the hilt. (scripps.edu)
  • involve generating recombinant cDNA clones for several viruses in the alpha- and flavivirus genera. (juju.com)
  • The Flavivirus species including Dengue virus, Zika virus and yellow fever virus are transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Zika virus is a flavivirus primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes ( 1 , 2 ) that has recently spread in the Region of the Americas ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Most flaviviruses are arboviruses that can be transmitted by ticks, Aedes or Culex mosquitoes, or by unknown vectors [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, was first identified in the Zika Forest by the Virus Research Institute in Uganda in a non-human primate in 1947 and from Aedes africanus mosquitoes in 1948. (cdc.gov)
  • In spite of many apparent encephalitis cases, infection of vector mosquitoes by JE virus was not demonstrated. (bvsalud.org)
  • In two independent experiments using different DENV serotypes, mosquitoes were less susceptible to virus infection and died faster under larger DTR around the same mean temperature. (pnas.org)
  • Isolating only the obviously sick member of the family (the symptomatic member) doesn't stop the chain of infection because mosquitoes can bite the asymptomatic (showing no symptoms) members of the family, thus becoming infected and spread the disease to other families. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • As for Objective 1, infections will be carried out once the adult mosquitoes have been switched to a common environment to minimize impact on pathogen growth and insect metabolic rates. (usda.gov)
  • Thus, we evaluated the impact of heterotypic flavivirus immunity on ZIKV titers in biofluids of rhesus macaques. (harvard.edu)
  • Address correspondence to Robert B. Tesh, Department of Pathology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555-0609. (ajtmh.org)
  • A major focus of our laboratory is to understand the mechanisms of humoral immunity against flaviviruses in biochemical and structural detail. (nih.gov)
  • Our main research focus is to understand the mechanisms of protective immunity against flaviviruses. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • we also address the consequences of flavivirus circulation and vaccination for host immunity. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, antagonism of IRF-1 is a novel mechanism that synergizes with the noted ability of flaviviruses to suppress IFN-α/β receptor-dependent signaling, resulting in the orchestrated evasion of host innate immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Specifically, ZIKV infection induces kynurenine (Kyn) production, which activates AHR, limiting the production of type I interferons (IFN-I) involved in antiviral immunity. (nature.com)
  • In healthy humans and animals, infections are usually eliminated by the immune system, which can provide lifetime immunity to the host for that virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those vaccines that produce lifelong immunity can prevent some infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flavivirus E glycoprotein, the primary antigen that induces protective immunity, is essential for membrane fusion and mediates binding to cellular receptors. (asm.org)
  • Accurate diagnosis and differentiation of the infecting virus is important, especially in areas where many flaviviruses are circulating. (eur.nl)
  • This study clearly stated the complexity of flavivirus diagnosis, showing that one cannot rely on one assay or search for one virus only. (eur.nl)
  • This innovative multiplex immunoassay is a powerful alternative to ELISAs and VNTs for veterinary diagnosis of flavivirus-related diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Only low levels of viremia are induced after infection with most flaviviruses (apart from dengue), so diagnosis is confirmed mainly through serological tools. (hindawi.com)
  • In most cases, flavivirus diagnosis in travelers is primarily based on serology as viremia is often low and typically has already been reduced to undetectable levels when symptoms set in and patients seek medical attention. (cdc.gov)
  • Her special interest is diagnosis and treatment of emerging viral infections. (stanford.edu)
  • Because of high rates of co-infection, evaluation for other flaviviruses should also be assessed at the time of diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • These findings indicate that NS1 protein detection may allow early diagnosis of infection. (asm.org)
  • In order to provide timely information for the care of the patient, it is important to establish a diagnosis of dengue virus infection during the first few days of clinical symptoms. (asm.org)
  • Neutralizing antibody cross-reactivity occurs between Zika virus and related flaviviruses, but the degree to which this confounds diagnosis is uncertain. (cdc.gov)
  • These results indicate that prior infection with heterologous flaviviruses neither conferred protection nor increased observed ZIKV titers in this non-human primate ZIKV infection model. (harvard.edu)
  • In this paper, the E protein domain III (DIII) of six heterologous flaviviruses (DENV1-4, WNV and JEV) was expressed in Escherichia coli successfully. (virosin.org)
  • Mosquito-borne flavivirus infections, including dengue virus and Zika virus, are major public health threats globally. (mdpi.com)
  • Host genetic control of mosquito-borne Flavivirus infections. (nih.gov)
  • 2017). Roles of Pro-viral Host Factors in Mosquito-Borne Flavivirus Infections. (utmb.edu)
  • Vaccination and immunization strategies to design Aedes aegypti salivary protein based subunit vaccine tackling Flavivirus infection. (ncbs.res.in)
  • This study was designed to develop a subunit vaccine using Aedes mosquito salivary proteins targeting the aforementioned Flaviviruses. (ncbs.res.in)
  • The aim of this trial is to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a two-dose schedule of a tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine in flavivirus antibody naïve infants beginning at 12-15 months of age. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The new EMNT assay combines the biological functional assessment of virus neutralization activity and the technical advantages of ELISA and, is simple, reliable, practical, and could be automated for high-throughput implementation in flavivirus surveillance studies and vaccine trials. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we sought to define how host cell translation is regulated during infection of human cells with dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), two positive-strand RNA flaviviruses. (asm.org)
  • Animals previously infected (≥420 days) with DENV2, DENV4, or yellow fever virus were compared to flavivirus-naïve animals following infection with a Brazilian ZIKV strain. (harvard.edu)
  • Sera from DENV-immune macaques demonstrated cross-reactivity with ZIKV by antibody-binding and neutralization assays prior to ZIKV infection, and promoted increased ZIKV infection in cell culture assays. (harvard.edu)
  • Despite these findings, no significant differences between flavivirus-naïve and immune animals were observed in viral titers, neutralizing antibody levels, or immune cell kinetics following ZIKV infection. (harvard.edu)
  • The cell lines were then inoculated with different flaviviruses of public health relevance: WNV, YFV-17D, Usutu virus (USUV), Langat virus (LGTV) and ZIKV. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • In contrast to that, loss of αVβ3 integrin in the MEF-αVβ3-/- cells showed a statistically significant decrease in WNV and USUV internalization while ZIKV, YFV-17D and LGTV internalization remained unaffected suggesting that αVβ3 integrin might be involved in the internalization process of at least some flaviviruses. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Taken together, this is the first report highlighting the involvement of integrins in ZIKV, USUV, LGTV and YFV infection. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • In 2007, an outbreak of ZIKV disease occurred on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia and the ensuing investigation included the first population-based epidemiological study of ZIKV infection and disease. (cdc.gov)
  • It was estimated that 75% (attack rate) of the island's inhabitants were infected with ZIKV resulting in 18% symptomatic and 82% asymptomatic infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Due to the rapidly evolving epidemic of Zika virus infection, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) Executive Board developed an interim position statement to establish standardized case definitions for Zika virus disease and ZIKV congenital infection dated February 26, 2016, and to add these conditions to the Nationally Notifiable Diseases List. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, numerous asymptomatic persons, particularly pregnant women are tested for ZIKV infection and will meet laboratory criteria for infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Because asymptomatic infection might be epidemiologically significant, revisions to the interim surveillance case definitions are proposed to include ZIKV infections without disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Public health jurisdictions are encouraged to evaluate, report, and monitor identified ZIKV infections, particularly in pregnant women, that don't meet the clinical criteria of the confirmed and probable congenital and non-congenital disease case classifications. (cdc.gov)
  • ZIKV displays a marked antigenic similarity with other flaviviruses. (nsu.ru)
  • The explosive spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated complications in flavivirus-endemic regions underscore the need for sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests to distinguish ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV) and other flavivirus infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, secondary DENV infection and ZIKV infection with previous DENV infection, both common in endemic regions, cannot be discriminated. (cdc.gov)
  • The multiplex and high-throughput assay could be applied to serodiagnosis and serosurveillance of DENV, ZIKV and WNV infections in endemic regions. (cdc.gov)
  • ZIKV infection causes both targeted suppression of type I interferon responses and general suppression by reducing RNA polymerase II protein levels and DNA occupancy. (pnas.org)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus linked to multiple birth defects including microcephaly, known as congenital ZIKV syndrome. (nature.com)
  • In genome-wide transcriptional studies, we found that ZIKV infection triggers aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation. (nature.com)
  • AHR inhibition suppressed the replication of multiple ZIKV strains in vitro and also suppressed replication of the related flavivirus dengue. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 5: Transcriptional effects of AHR antagonism during ZIKV infection in vivo. (nature.com)
  • Whereas, the pathways of virus infection of the fetus and potential protective mechanisms, notably exerted by the innate immune system, are poorly understood despite the fact that transplacental virus infections account for considerable mortality and morbidity in both animals and humans [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Will a third dose of dengue help to further stimulate the part of the immune system intended to help protect against dengue infection? (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study will look at the immunogenicity and safety of TDV in flavivirus-naïve and dengue-immune adults. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • TDV 0.5 mL, subcutaneous (SC) injection on Day 1 (Month 0) and Day 90 (Month 3) in flavivirus-naïve participants (Group 1) and dengue- immune participants (Group 2). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Given the significance of Fcγ-receptors (FcγR) in antibody-mediated neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of flavivirus infection, non-FcγR and FcγR-expressing cell lines were used in the EMNT to allow the detection of the sum of neutralizing and immune-enhancing antibody activity as the neutralizing titer. (mdpi.com)
  • Mosquito-borne flaviviruses and their interactions with the innate immune response have been well-studied and reviewed extensively, thus this review will discuss tick-borne flaviviruses and their interactions with the host innate immune response. (mdpi.com)
  • The microspheres coupled to WNV.sE or rEDIIIs were assayed with about 300 equine immune sera from natural and experimental flavivirus infections and 172 nonimmune equine sera as negative controls. (hindawi.com)
  • Previous work has defined an immune evasion role of flavivirus NS1 in limiting complement activation by forming a complex with C1s and C4 to promote cleavage of C4 to C4b. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together, these studies further define the immune evasion potential of NS1 in reducing the functional capacity of C4 in complement activation and control of flavivirus infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Improved Immune Responses Against Zika Virus After Sequential Dengue and Zika Virus Infection in Humans. (nih.gov)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs), as early cellular targets of infection, provide an opportunity for flaviviruses to inhibit innate and adaptive immune responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • This book gives an in-depth view of manifestations of CMV infection in immunocompromised individuals: how it affects the immune system and how it is diagnosed. (intechopen.com)
  • It has been postulated that prior infection with dengue or chikungunya may promote or be necessary to lead to the development of Zika immune-mediated GBS. (medscape.com)
  • Human flavivirus infections stimulate virus species-specific as well as flavivirus cross-reactive immune responses. (asm.org)
  • Assess the influence of the innate immune system and temperature on vector competence to viral infection of Culicoides biting midges, important arboviral vectors with great impact on animal health 2. (usda.gov)
  • Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Flaviviruses are small spherical virions composed of a single copy of an ~11 kb genomic RNA of positive polarity, a capsid protein (C), a lipid envelope derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, and two envelope glycoproteins: envelope (E) and pre-membrane/membrane (prM/M). The E proteins are incorporated into virions as a dense symmetrical array that orchestrates the process of virus entry, assembly, and budding from infected cells. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of our laboratory is to understand the function of flavivirus E proteins and their interactions with the host. (nih.gov)
  • Flaviviruses bind to cells via interactions between the envelope (E) proteins of the virion and a diverse group of cellular factors on the target cell. (nih.gov)
  • Competitive inhibition showed that all recombinant flavivirus DIII proteins blocked the entry of JEV into BHK-21 cells. (virosin.org)
  • These results demonstrated that recombinant flavivirus DIII proteins could inhibit JEV infection competitively, and immunization with proper folding flavivirus DIII induced cross-protection against JEV infection in mice, implying a possible role of DIII for the cross-protection among flavivirus as well as its use in antigens for immunization in animal models. (virosin.org)
  • Based on the known crystallographic structures of flavivirus proteins, immunodominant regions of T cell epitopes have been mapped to specific structural domains in the context of human infections as well as vaccination with different flavivirus vaccines. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • CD4 T cell epitope mapping, analyses of immunodominant epitopes in the context of the three-dimensional structures of flavivirus proteins, class II allele-specific affinity predictions and informatics-based approaches as well as in vitro T cell activation assays using structurally defined antigen preparations. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • Identification of ribosomal stalk proteins that are essential for translation of flavivirus genomes. (utmb.edu)
  • Flaviviruses have a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome of 10.7 kb that is transcribed into a single polyprotein precursor encoding three structural proteins, the capsid (C), premembrane (prM), and envelope (E) proteins, and seven nonstructural proteins ( 36 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Aedes aegypti - the primary vector of the dengue, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses - is just such an invasive alien in the Americas where it arrived accidentally from its West African home during the slave trade. (scielo.br)
  • 8 Zika virus IgM positive result is reported as "presumptive positive or flavivirus infection" to denote the need to perform confirmatory PRNT titers against Zika virus, confirmation is not recommended. (cdc.gov)
  • Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus. (cdc.gov)
  • Zika virus infection during pregnancy has been causally linked to congenital microcephaly and has been associated with other adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss. (cdc.gov)
  • Among 1,541 persons with one or more Zika-virus associated symptoms who received testing and reported symptoms, 182 (11.8%) had confirmed Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Only seven (0.3%) of 2,425 asymptomatic pregnant women who received testing had confirmed Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Among persons from U.S. states and DC receiving testing for Zika virus, few persons had confirmed Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Approximately 99% of asymptomatic pregnant women who received testing did not have Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • In the current U.S. setting, where most exposure is travel-associated, the likelihood of Zika virus infection among asymptomatic persons is low. (cdc.gov)
  • Given the potential for adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes associated with Zika virus infection, health care providers should continue to offer Zika virus testing to asymptomatic pregnant women with potential exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Although risk for Zika virus infection might vary based on exposure-related factors (e.g., location and duration of travel), in the current setting in U.S. states, where there is no local transmission, most asymptomatic pregnant women who receive testing do not have Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic or cause mild clinical disease ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 2018. Structural influence on the dominance of virus-specific CD4 T cell epitopes in Zika virus infection. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • A novel virus-inclusive single cell RNA-Seq approach enables identification of novel pro- and antiviral host factors in human cells in response to dengue and Zika virus infection. (elifesciences.org)
  • Corrigendum: Optic neuropathy and congenital glaucoma associated with probable Zika virus infection in Venezuelan patients. (nih.gov)
  • Non-congenital severe ocular complications of Zika virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Most symptomatic Zika virus infections present with a nonspecific mild febrile illness such as fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash, but 80% of infections are asymptomatic. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus infection should be suspected in patients who live in or have recently traveled through endemic regions within 2 weeks of the onset of symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • As there is no specific treatment for Zika virus infection, supportive management is the mainstay of treatment. (medscape.com)
  • [ 54 ] Pregnant patients diagnosed with Zika virus infection should be educated and monitored for adverse outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study. (nature.com)
  • Macnamara, F. N. Zika virus: a report on three cases of human infection during an epidemic of jaundice in Nigeria. (nature.com)
  • However, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly and other severe brain defects. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Additionally, coinfection with and lack of rapid tests for zika virus and chikungunya complicate matters in real-world infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016). A Screen of FDA-Approved Drugs for Inhibitors of Zika Virus Infection. (utmb.edu)
  • Prolonged detection of IgM and neutralizing antibody cross-reactivity make it difficult to determine the timing of Zika virus infection and differentiate between related flaviviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • RNA detection is most sensitive during the acute phase of illness and confirms Zika virus infection, but sensitivity declines after the first week of illness and a negative result does not exclude infection. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to improve the serological differentiation of flavivirus infections, the recombinant soluble ectodomain of WNV E (WNV.sE) and EDIIIs (rEDIIIs) of WNV, JEV, and TBEV were synthesised using the Drosophila S2 expression system. (hindawi.com)
  • Serological differentiation between flaviviruses and the false-positive results caused by vaccination and cross-reactivity among the different species, are problematic for surveillance and diagnostics of flaviviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Due to the temporal and geographical co-circulation of flaviviruses in Europe, flavivirus differentiation by diagnostic tests is crucial in the adaptation of surveillance and control efforts. (mdpi.com)
  • In peripheral tissues such as the skin, immature DCs recognize RNA virus infection through expression of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) in the cytosol, such as the RNA helicases retinoic acid inducible gene I and melanoma differentiation associated gene-5, and in the endosome, through TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • to investigate antibody response against Flaviviruses and differentiation of Flavivirus antibody repertoirs after infection or vaccination. (juju.com)
  • On the other hand, despite the importance of fetal viral infections in both humans and animals, many questions regarding mechanisms of transplacental transmission, virus spread within the fetus and the consequences of infection for target cells and the fetus as a whole remain unanswered [ 8 - 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the last decade, the number of reported cases of WNV infection in humans and animals has increased in the Americas. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • Viral infections can cause disease in humans, animals and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this family that infect humans frequently cause severe morbidity and mortality, and epidemics of flaviviruses continue to be a major public health concern worldwide. (asm.org)
  • Infection of humans and other vertebrate animals is associated with a febrile illness that can progress to a lethal encephalitis or flaccid paralysis syndrome. (bookdepository.com)
  • Combination of four DENV NS1 IgG MIAs revealed a sensitivity of 94.3% and specificity of 97.2% to detect DENV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • There were 200 notifications of dengue virus (DENV) infection in 2005-06, of which 46 per cent (n=92) was reported as having been acquired overseas. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • DENV infection typically causes a self-limiting febrile illness known as dengue fever. (asm.org)
  • It is believed that DHF may result from risk associated with sequential infections by heterologous DENV serotypes via ADE ( 13 , 26 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • The clinical manifestations of dengue virus infections range from asymptomatic infection to dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever (5) . (cdc.gov)
  • this pathway may play a role in severe clinical manifestations of dengue virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • The MEF-αVβ3-/- cells in particular, showed a strong inhibition of flavivirus replication with a reduction of up to 99% on viral loads for all flaviviruses tested. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Nucleic acid-based inhibition of flavivirus infections. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Children older than 18 months may have preexisting flavivirus antibody. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Dengue virus infections were diagnosed in serum specimens of suspected dengue cases submitted from hospitals and clinics by IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hemagglutination inhibition tests, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. (cdc.gov)
  • While the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is considered the gold standard for determining neutralizing antibody levels to flaviviruses, the assay is time-consuming and laborious. (mdpi.com)
  • Compared with traditional envelope protein-based assays, several nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)-based assays showed improved specificity, however, none can detect and discriminate three flaviviruses in a single assay. (cdc.gov)
  • The flavivirus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 is an enigmatic protein whose structure and mechanistic function have remained somewhat elusive ever since it was first reported in 1970 as a viral antigen circulating in the sera of dengue-infected patients. (nih.gov)
  • The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein ectodomain is composed of three domains (D) named DI, DII, and DIII, with EDIII containing virus-specific epitopes. (hindawi.com)
  • Flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a secreted nonstructural glycoprotein that accumulates in plasma to high levels and is displayed on the surface of infected cells but absent from viral particles. (jimmunol.org)
  • An understanding of flavivirus E-glycoprotein cross-reactive epitopes is therefore critical for improving public health responses to these serious diseases. (asm.org)
  • We identified six E-glycoprotein residues that are incorporated into three distinct flavivirus cross-reactive epitopes. (asm.org)
  • 2015. Human CD4+ T Helper Cell Responses after Tick-Borne Encephalitis Vaccination and Infection. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • 2014. Variation of the specificity of the human antibody responses after tick-borne encephalitis virus infection and vaccination. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • Brault JB, Kudelko M, Vidalain PO, Tangy F, Despres P, Pardigon N (2011) The interaction of flavivirus M protein with light chain Tctex-1 of human dynein plays a role in late stages of virus replication. (virosin.org)
  • A high-throughput and multiplex microsphere immunoassay based on non-structural protein 1 can discriminate three flavivirus infections. (cdc.gov)
  • LGTV infection did not affect Irf-1 mRNA expression, but rather diminished IRF-1 protein levels and nuclear localization. (jimmunol.org)
  • During flavivirus infection in vitro, nonstructural protein NS1 is released in a host-restricted fashion from infected mammalian cells but not vector-derived insect cells. (asm.org)
  • RPLP1 and RPLP2 Are Essential Flavivirus Host Factors That Promote Early Viral Protein Accumulation. (utmb.edu)
  • Host cell cytoskeletons have been reported to have close contact with flaviviruses during virus entry, intracellular transport, replication, and egress process, although many detailed mechanisms are still unclear. (virosin.org)
  • iii) internalization and iv) replication of the investigated flaviviruses. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • On the other hand, flavivirus replication was substantially impaired in the integrin-deficient cell lines in comparison to their corresponding wild-type cells. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Levels of flavivirus negative-strand RNA were substantially decreased in MEF-αVβ3-/- cells indicating that integrins might influence flavivirus RNA replication. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • The ectopic expression of either αV or β3 integrin subunits in CHO cells slightly increased the replication of all flaviviruses tested. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • The results strongly indicate that the investigated integrins play an important role in flavivirus infection and might represent a novel host cell factor that enhances flavivirus replication. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Usually, Flavivirus replication takes place at a membranous web associated with the ER ( Pierson and Kielian, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A mathematical model that combines stochasticity and spatial structure describes the dynamics of the viral population during an infection cycle, and fitting the model to RNA and virus abundances over time shows that poliovirus follows a geometric replication mode. (elifesciences.org)
  • Collectively, our findings suggest a nonimmune regulatory role for Peli1 in promoting microglia activation during WNV infection and identify a potentially novel host factor for flavivirus cell entry and replication. (jci.org)
  • Although Japanese encephalitis has declined as an important cause of illness and death in Japan, infection with other flaviviruses has become a public health concern. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection by other flaviviruses, including an increase in imported dengue cases and isolations of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, is becoming a public health threat. (cdc.gov)
  • Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus strain OR2 was serially passaged on Vero cells to establish a persistent infection which was maintained for over 300 days. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Bily T, Palus M, Eyer L, Elsterova J, Vancova M, Ruzek D (2015) Electron tomography analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in human neurons. (virosin.org)
  • Infection by JE virus still constitutes major cause of encephalitis in Chiang Mai Area, although some cases of possible dengue encephalopathy were observed. (bvsalud.org)
  • There were two cases of Kunjin virus (KUNV) infection and one case of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infection reported in 2005-06, all from Western Australia. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • Sentinel chicken surveillance data for flaviviruses and sentinel pig surveillance data for Japanese encephalitis virus are reported. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • The eight notifiable mosquito-borne diseases under national surveillance include the alphaviruses (Barmah Forest virus and Ross River virus), the flaviviruses (dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Kunjin, Murray Valley encephalitis and flavivirus not elsewhere classified), and malaria. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • Flavivirus causes arthropod-borne severe diseases that sometimes lead to the death. (ncbs.res.in)
  • In the United States, WN is considered a public health threat because severe illness caused by WN infection has caused paralysis, coma, and death, especially in the elderly. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, analysis of Zika fever course in pregnant women unveiled a link between this disease and severe congenital disorders of the nervous system, including microcephaly, that allowed to deal with it as a dangerous infection thereafter. (nsu.ru)
  • Infection can cause severe disease, including haemorrhagic fever, and may lead to death. (phys.org)
  • Approximately one third of TBEV infections cause an acute febrile illness that progresses to severe neurologic disease including meningitis and meningoencephalitis with mortality rates ranging from 0.5 to 40% depending on the TBEV subtype ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Microparticles provide a novel biomarker to predict severe clinical outcomes of dengue virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Outbreak of severe zoonotic vaccinia virus infection, Southeastern Brazil. (utmb.edu)
  • Severe infections of the central nervous systems or lining of the heart may occur. (motesclearcreekfarms.com)
  • Are we prepared to face another flavivirus epidemic? (rsbmt.org.br)
  • World attention has focused on this latest invasive flavivirus because of its purported association with congenital neurological disorders, such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome ( Gatherer & Kohl 2016 , Plourde & Bloch 2016 , Wikan & Smith 2016 ). (scielo.br)
  • However following some infections - such as those due to the alphaviruses and flaviviruses - IgM persists for months to years, and may only be used as presumptive evidence of recent infection. (health.gov.au)
  • This program is combined with translational efforts to apply this knowledge for the development of broad-spectrum host-centered antiviral approaches to combat emerging viral infections, including dengue, encephalitic alphaviruses, and Ebola, and means to predict disease progression. (stanford.edu)
  • In Australia, Barmah Forest virus (BFV) infection and Ross River virus (RRV) infection are the alphaviruses of major public health significance. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
  • These tests suffer from poor specificity, mainly due to antigenic cross-reactivity among flavivirus members. (hindawi.com)
  • No outbreaks of dengue virus infection have been reported since then in Japan, and no domestic dengue virus infections have been identified. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, it might also facilitate subsequent diseases, through a phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement mainly described for dengue virus infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infections, Cambodia, 2012-2013. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, NS1 concentrations did not differ significantly in serum specimens obtained from patients experiencing primary or secondary dengue virus infections. (asm.org)
  • A complex interplay among virus, dendritic cells, T cells, and cytokines in dengue virus infections. (medscape.com)
  • One outcome of many virus infections is the regulation of cellular trafficking machinery. (bioscience.org)
  • It appears, however, that flaviviruses use only a subset of these receptors. (scripps.edu)
  • The high selectivity, and the potency with which some of these receptors promote flavivirus infection, suggest only a small number of receptors might be effectively targeted to treat these diseases. (scripps.edu)
  • We want to understand which PS receptors contribute the most to flavivirus infections and how we might block them," Choe said. (scripps.edu)
  • This paper will focus on the traditional methods to diagnose flaviviral infections as well as describing the modern rapid platforms and approaches for diagnostic antigen preparation. (hindawi.com)
  • 1. Understanding the pathogenesis of flaviviral infections via an integrative systems immunology single cell approach. (stanford.edu)
  • Endemic throughout Europe and Asia, TBEV is considered an emerging pathogen because of its recent expansion into new geographical areas and increased incidence of human infections ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the outcome of flavivirus infection can vary from asymptomatic to lethal, environmental factors modulating disease severity are poorly defined. (inpst.net)
  • Disease severity resulting from infection by these agents varies widely, but the most extreme manifestations include circulatory instability, increased vascular permeability, and diffuse hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
  • The critical factors determining mortality and severity of JE virus (JEV) infection remain unclear. (deepdyve.com)
  • Al-Obaidi MMJ, Bahadoran A, Wang SM, Manikam R, Raju CS, Sekaran SD (2018) Disruption of the blood brain barrier is vital property of neurotropic viral infection of the central nervous system. (virosin.org)
  • Its role in neurotropic flavivirus infection is largely unknown. (jci.org)
  • Our basic research program focuses on understanding the roles of virus-host interactions in viral infection and disease pathogenesis via molecular and systems virology single cell approaches. (stanford.edu)
  • During the process of infection (through arthropod vectors), the viral genome (gRNA) is successfully replicated and subgenomic flaviviral RNAs (sfRNAs) are also produced. (joessciencescorner.net)
  • In the present study, the complete genome of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) and partial sequences of other ISVs in Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 females (n = 3425) sampled in 200 urban areas census tracts of Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, were identified via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for a NS5 region of flaviviruses, nucleotide and high-throughput sequencing, and viral isolation in C6/36 cells. (qxmd.com)
  • Flaviviruses modulate DC function, but the mechanisms underpinning this are not defined. (jimmunol.org)
  • Powassan virus and the closely related deer tick virus are the only flaviviruses known to be spread by ticks in North America. (nih.gov)
  • The flavivirus IFA is a useful tool for the identification of flavivirus infections during the acute stage of disease. (eur.nl)
  • Infection usually begins as an acute inflammation with sudden onset of: inability to eat or drink for several days, drooling saliva, rapid loss of condition, painful and swollen tongue, and/or nodules and ulcers on the tongue. (motesclearcreekfarms.com)
  • Persons with asymptomatic infection, pregnant women, and infants with congenital infection were excluded from enrollment. (cdc.gov)
  • The genetic drift of the parental virus during the course of a long term persistent infection in vitro appears to be minimal. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Patent infections with the lymphatic filariae, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi , are associated with suppressed in vitro cellular responsiveness to filarial antigens. (ajtmh.org)
  • The confirmation of flavivirus infections is mostly based on rapid serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). (hindawi.com)
  • Abx treatment impaired the development of optimal T cell responses, with decreased levels of WNV-specific CD8+ T cells associated with increased infection and immunopathology. (inpst.net)