A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves of Sterculiaceae are alternate and simple or palmately compound. Flowers have three to five sepals and five or no petals.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.

Noncytopathic flavivirus replicon RNA-based system for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. (1/427)

Noncytopathic replicons of the flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) were employed for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. Replicon vector C20DX2Arep, containing a unique cloning site followed by the sequence of 2A autoprotease of foot-and-mouth disease virus, was constructed and used for expression of a number of heterologous genes including chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), green fluorescent protein (GFP), beta-galactosidase, glycoprotein G of vesicular stomatitis virus, and the Core and NS3 genes of hepatitis C virus. The expression and proper processing of these genes upon transfection of BHK21 cells with the recombinant replicon RNAs were demonstrated by immunofluorescence, radioimmunoprecipitation, and appropriate reporter gene assays. Most of these recombinant KUN replicon RNAs were also successfully packaged into secreted virus-like particles (VLPs) by subsequent transfection with Semliki Forest virus replicon RNA expressing KUN structural genes. Infection of BHK21 and Vero cells with these VLPs resulted in continuous replication of the recombinant replicon RNAs and prolonged expression of the cloned genes without any cytopathic effect. We also developed a replicon vector for generation of stable cell lines continuously expressing heterologous genes by inserting an encephalomyelocarditis virus internal ribosomal entry site-neomycin transferase gene cassette into the 3'-untranslated region of the C20DX2Arep vector. Using this vector (C20DX2ArepNeo), stable BHK cell lines persistently expressing GFP and CAT genes for up to 17 passages were established. Thus noncytopathic KUN replicon vectors with the ability to be packaged into VLPs should provide a useful tool for the development of noninfectious and noncytopathic vaccines as well as for gene therapy applications.  (+info)

Mutation patterns for two flaviviruses: hepatitis C virus and GB virus C/hepatitis G virus. (2/427)

We studied the mutation patterns of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (HGV). Although the mutation patterns of the two viruses were similar to each other, they were quite different from that of HIV. In particular, the similarity of the patterns between HCV or HGV and human nuclear pseudogenes was statistically significant whereas there was no similarity between HIV and human nuclear pseudogenes. This finding suggests that the mutation patterns of HCV and HGV are similar to the patterns of spontaneous substitution mutations of human genes, implying that nucleotide analogues which are effective against HCV and HGV may have a side effect on the normal cells of humans.  (+info)

Degradation of Japanese encephalitis virus by neutrophils. (3/427)

The ability of neutrophils to degrade the phagocytosed Japanese encephalitis (JE) virion, via triggering of the respiratory burst and generation of toxic radicals has been investigated. JEV or JEV-induced macrophage derived factor (MDF) induces increase in intracellular oxidative signals with generation of superoxide anion (O2-), via activation of cytosolic NADPH and subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide, with maximum activity on day 7 post infection. The response was sensitive to anti-MDF antibody treatment. Further, the study revealed rapid degradation of phagocytosed JE viral protein and nucleic acid. The viral protein degradation was partially dependent on the generation of toxic oxygen species as it could be abrogated by pretreatment of the cells with staurosporine.  (+info)

Mutagenesis of the NS2B-NS3-mediated cleavage site in the flavivirus capsid protein demonstrates a requirement for coordinated processing. (4/427)

Analysis of flavivirus polyprotein processing has revealed the presence of a substrate for the virus-encoded NS2B-NS3 protease at the carboxy-terminal end of the C (capsid or core) protein. Cleavage at this site has been implicated in the efficient generation of the amino terminus of prM via signal peptidase cleavage. Yellow fever virus has four basic residues (Arg-Lys-Arg-Arg) in the P1 through P4 positions of this cleavage site. Multiple alanine substitutions were made for these residues in order to investigate the substrate specificity and biological significance of this cleavage. Mutants were analyzed by several methods: (i) a cell-free trans processing assay for direct analysis of NS2B-NS3-mediated cleavage; (ii) a trans processing assay in BHK-21 cells, using a C-prM polyprotein, for analysis of prM production; (iii) an infectivity assay of full-length transcripts to determine plaque-forming ability; and (iv) analysis of proteins expressed from full-length transcripts to assess processing in the context of the complete genome. Mutants that exhibited severe defects in processing in vitro and in vivo were incapable of forming plaques. Mutants that contained two adjacent basic residues within the P1 through P4 region were processed more efficiently in vitro and in vivo, and transcripts bearing these mutations were fully infectious. Furthermore, two naturally occurring plaque-forming revertants were analyzed and shown to have restored protein processing phenotypes in vivo. Finally, the efficient production of prM was shown to be dependent on the proteolytic activity of NS3. These data support a model of two coordinated cleavages, one that generates the carboxy terminus of C and another that generates the amino terminus of prM. A block in the viral protease-mediated cleavage inhibits the production of prM by the signal peptidase, inhibits particle release, and eliminates plaque formation.  (+info)

Transient expression of cellular polypyrimidine-tract binding protein stimulates cap-independent translation directed by both picornaviral and flaviviral internal ribosome entry sites In vivo. (5/427)

The regulation of cap-independent translation directed by the internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) present in some viral and cellular RNAs is poorly understood. Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTB) binds specifically to several viral IRESs. IRES-directed translation may be reduced in cell-free systems that are depleted of PTB and restored by reconstitution of lysates with recombinant PTB. However, there are no data concerning the effects of PTB on IRES-directed translation in vivo. We transfected cells with plasmids expressing dicistronic transcripts in which the upstream cistron encoded PTB or PTB deletion mutants (including a null mutant lacking amino acid residues 87 to 531). The downstream cistron encoded a reporter protein (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase [CAT]) under translational control of the poliovirus IRES which was placed within the intercistronic space. In transfected BS-C-1 cells, transcripts expressing wild-type PTB produced 12-fold more reporter protein than similar transcripts encoding the PTB null mutant. There was a 2.4-fold difference in CAT produced from these transcripts in HeLa cells, which contain a greater natural abundance of PTB. PTB similarly stimulated CAT production from transcripts containing the IRES of hepatitis A virus or hepatitis C virus in BS-C-1 cells and Huh-7 cells (37- to 44-fold increase and 5 to 5.3-fold increase, respectively). Since PTB had no quantitative or qualitative effect on transcription from these plasmids, we conclude that PTB stimulates translation of representative picornaviral and flaviviral RNAs in vivo. This is likely to reflect the stabilization of higher ordered RNA structures within the IRES and was not observed with PTB mutants lacking RNA recognition motifs located in the C-terminal third of the molecule.  (+info)

Phylogeny of the genus flavivirus using complete coding sequences of arthropod-borne viruses and viruses with no known vector. (6/427)

Attempts to define the evolutionary relationships and origins of viruses in the genus Flavivirus are hampered by the lack of genetic information particularly amongst the non-vectored flaviviruses. Using a novel protocol for sequence determination, the first complete coding sequence of St Louis encephalitis virus and those of two representative non-vectored flaviviruses, Rio Bravo (isolated from bat) and Apoi (isolated from rodent), are reported. The encoded polyproteins of Rio Bravo and Apoi virus are the smallest described to date within the genus FLAVIVIRUS: The highest similarities with other flaviviruses were found in the NS3 and NS5 genes. The proteolytic cleavage sites for the viral serine protease were highly conserved among the flaviviruses completely sequenced to date. Comparative genetic amino acid alignments revealed that p-distance cut-off values of 0.330-0.470 distinguished the arthropod-borne viruses according to their recognized serogroups and Rio Bravo and Apoi virus were assigned to two distinct non-vectored virus groups. Within these serogroups, cladogenesis based on the complete ORF sequence was similar to trees based on envelope and NS5 sequences. In contrast, branching patterns at the deeper nodes of the tree were different from those reported in the previous study of NS5 sequences. The significance of these observations is discussed.  (+info)

cis- and trans-acting elements in flavivirus RNA replication. (7/427)

Most of the seven flavivirus nonstructural proteins (NS1 to NS5) encoded in the distal two-thirds of the RNA positive-sense genome are believed to be essential components of RNA replication complexes. To explore the functional relationships of these components in RNA replication, we used trans-complementation analysis of full-length infectious RNAs of Kunjin (KUN) virus with a range of lethal in-frame deletions in the nonstructural coding region, using as helper a repBHK cell line stably producing functional replication complexes from KUN replicon RNA. Recently we showed that replication of KUN RNAs with large carboxy-terminal deletions including the entire RNA polymerase region in the NS5 gene, representing 34 to 75% of the NS5 coding content, could be complemented after transfection into repBHK cells. In this study we have demonstrated that KUN RNAs with deletions of 84 to 97% of the NS1 gene, or of 13 to 63% of the NS3 gene including the entire helicase region, were also complemented in repBHK cells with variable efficiencies. In contrast, KUN RNAs with deletions in any of the other four nonstructural genes NS2A, NS2B, NS4A, and NS4B were not complemented. We have also demonstrated successful trans complementation of KUN RNAs containing either combined double deletions in the NS1 and NS5 genes or triple deletions in the NS1, NS3, and NS5 genes comprising as much as 38% of the entire nonstructural coding content. Based on these and our previous complementation results, we have generated a map of cis- and trans-acting elements in RNA replication for the nonstructural coding region of the flavivirus genome. These results are discussed in the context of our model on formation and composition of the flavivirus replication complex, and we suggest molecular mechanisms by which functions of some defective components of the replication complex can be complemented by their wild-type counterparts expressed from another (helper) RNA molecule.  (+info)

A novel model for the study of the therapy of flavivirus infections using the Modoc virus. (8/427)

The murine Flavivirus Modoc replicates well in Vero cells and appears to be as equally sensitive as both yellow fever and dengue fever virus to a selection of antiviral agents. Infection of SCID mice, by either the intracerebral, intraperitoneal, or intranasal route, results in 100% mortality. Immunocompetent mice and hamsters proved to be susceptible to the virus only when inoculated via the intranasal or intracerebral route. Animals ultimately die of (histologically proven) encephalitis with features similar to Flavivirus encephalitis in man. Viral RNA was detected in the brain, spleen, and salivary glands of infected SCID mice and the brain, lung, kidney, and salivary glands of infected hamsters. In SCID mice, the interferon inducer poly IC protected against Modoc virus-induced morbidity and mortality and this protection was associated with a reduction in infectious virus content and viral RNA load. Infected hamsters shed the virus in the urine. This allows daily monitoring of (inhibition of) viral replication, by means of a noninvasive method and in the same animal. The Modoc virus model appears attractive for the study of chemoprophylactic or chemotherapeutic strategies against Flavivirus infections.  (+info)

Previously, it was shown that the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of Kamiti River virus (KRV) is nearly twice as long as the 3′UTR of other flaviviruses (1208 nucleotides compared with 730 nucleotides for the longest 3′UTR of any virus in the Tick-borne encephalitis virus species). Additionally, KRV and the closely related Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) were shown to contain two short, almost perfect repeat sequences of 67 nucleotides. However, the construction of a robust comparative nucleotide alignment has now revealed that the double-length 3′UTR and the direct repeats resulted from the virtually complete duplication of a primordial KRV 3′UTR. We also propose that the CFAV 3′UTR was derived from a KRV-like precursor sequence with a large deletion that nevertheless preserved the two direct repeat sequences. These data provide new insights into the evolution of the flavivirus 3′UTR.
Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. The flavivirus genus is characterized by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The unique open reading frame of the viral RNA is transcribed and translated as a single polyprotein which is post-translationally cleaved to yield three structural and seven nonstructural proteins, one of which is the NS3 gene that encodes a C-terminal helicase domain consisting of 431 amino acids. Helicase inhibitors are potential antiviral drugs as the helicase is essential to viral replication. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P3121 (or P3221), with unit-cell parameters a = 88.6, c = 138.6 Å, and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å.. ...
In Europe, many flaviviruses are endemic (West Nile, Usutu, tick-borne encephalitis viruses) or occasionally imported (dengue, yellow fever viruses). Due to the temporal and geographical co-circulation of flaviviruses in Europe, flavivirus differentiation by diagnostic tests is crucial in the adaptation of surveillance and control efforts. Serological diagnosis of flavivirus infections is complicated by the antigenic similarities among the Flavivirus genus. Indeed, most flavivirus antibodies are directed against the highly immunogenic envelope protein, which contains both flavivirus cross-reactive and virus-specific epitopes. Serological assay results should thus be interpreted with care and confirmed by comparative neutralization tests using a panel of viruses known to circulate in Europe. However, antibody cross-reactivity could be advantageous in efforts to control emerging flaviviruses because it ensures partial cross-protection. In contrast, it might also facilitate subsequent diseases, through a
Flavivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae. This genus includes the West Nile virus, dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus and several other viruses which may cause encephalitis, as well as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) such as cell fusing agent virus (CFAV), Palm Creek virus (PCV), and Parramatta River virus (PaRV). Flaviviruses are named from the yellow fever virus, the type virus for the family; the word flavus means yellow in Latin. The name yellow fever in turn originated from its propensity to cause yellow jaundice in victims. Flaviviruses share several common aspects: common size (40-65 nm), symmetry (enveloped, icosahedral nucleocapsid), nucleic acid (positive-sense, single-stranded RNA around 10,000-11,000 bases), and appearance in the electron microscope. Most of these viruses are transmitted by the bite from an infected arthropod (mosquito or tick) and hence, classified as arboviruses. Human infections with most of these ...
The Flavivirus genus (Flaviviridae family) comprises the most important arboviruses in the world such as dengue virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Japanese encephalitis virus and yellow fever virus (YFV). Every year, several outbreaks caused by flaviviruses are reported worldwide (i.e.: ZIKV and YFV outbreaks in South America) with a huge impact on economy and public health. In the last few decades, many aspects of the flavivirus biology and the interaction of flaviviruses with host cells have been elucidated. However, many underlying mechanisms concerning receptor usage, entry process and viral interaction with host cell factors are still not completely understood. Integrins, the major class of cell adhesion molecules have been implicated in the infectious cycle of different viruses including flaviviruses. A previous report proposed that a particular integrin, the αVβ3 integrin, might act as a cellular receptor for WNV. However, this hypothesis was not confirmed by other groups. In the
Flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), rely heavily on the availability of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes throughout their lifecycle and degradation of ER membranes restricts flavivirus replication. Accordingly, DENV and ZIKV restrict ER turnover by protease-mediated cleavage of reticulophagy regulator 1 (RETREG1), also known as FAM134B, an autophagy receptor responsible for targeted ER sheet degradation. Given that the induction of autophagy may play an important role in flavivirus replication, the antiviral role of RETREG1 suggests specialized autophagic pathways may have differential effects on the flavivirus lifecycle. We previously identified BPI Fold Containing Family B Member 3 (BPIFB3) as a regulator of autophagy that negatively controls enterovirus replication. Here, we show that in contrast to enteroviruses, BPIFB3 functions as a positive regulator of DENV and ZIKV infection and that its RNAi-mediated silencing inhibits the formation of viral ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile and Other Flavivirus Infections. AU - Watts, Douglas M.. AU - Granwehr, Bruno P.. AU - Shope, Robert E.. AU - Solomon, Tom. AU - Tesh, Robert B.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=36448954021&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=36448954021&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/B978-0-443-06668-9.50078-8. DO - 10.1016/B978-0-443-06668-9.50078-8. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:36448954021. SN - 9780443066689. VL - 1. SP - 823. EP - 830. BT - Tropical Infectious Diseases. PB - Elsevier Inc.. ER - ...
The data presented here provide functional evidence that a highly conserved loop at the tip of each subunit of the flavivirus E protein is important for fusion activity and may be directly involved in interactions with target membranes during the initial stages of membrane fusion. The notion that this portion of the protein serves as an internal fusion peptide is consistent with earlier observations that antipeptide antibodies recognizing the region from amino acids 98 to 110 are capable of blocking low-pH-induced fusion of TBE virus with artificial membranes (47) and react more strongly with the low-pH form of the dengue 2 virus E protein than with the native neutral form (40). We have recently observed that the flavivirus cross-reactive MAb A1, whose binding was shown in the present study to be abolished by amino acid substitutions at Leu 107, is also capable of inhibiting virus-liposome fusion and binding of isolated E proteins to artificial membranes (K. Stiasny et al., unpublished data). ...
Antigen-capture solid phase immunoassays employing flavivirus monoclonal antibodies MAB for the detection of yellow fever YF or dengue DEN viruses in cell cultures and serum have recently been reported. The assays, which employs virus type-specific, complex-reactive or group-reactive MAB in the capture phase, are reasonably sensitive and specific. The goal of our work has been the development of a generic flavivirus detection system and emphasis has been placed on an enzyme-linked immunoassay ELISA for the detection of DEN-infected mosquitoes. Attention has been directed at the identification and characterization of MAB with broad flavivirus group-reactive domain as determined by competitive binding assay with the expectation that such antibody combination will provide the best opportunity for antigen binding and therefore maximum assay sensitivity. However, since the available broadly group-reactive MAB has been found to exhibit at least some degree of cross-competition, flavivirus type-specific
Recently, we have shown that the ability of the flavivirus NS2B-NS3 protease complex to promote efficient signalase processing of the C-prM precursor, as well as secretion of prM and E, does not appear to depend strictly on cleavage of the precursor at its Lys-Arg-Gly dibasic site by the protease. We suggested that the association of the protease with the precursor via NS2B may be sufficient by itself for the above effects. To study the proposed association in more detail, we have developed an assay in which processing at the C-prM dibasic cleavage site is abolished by Lys--,Gly conversion. We constructed deletion mutants and chimeras of the West Nile (WN) flavivirus NS2B protein and expressed them in the context of [5-C--,NS3(243)] containing either wild-type C-prM or its cleavage site mutant. All NS2B variants were able to form active protease complexes. Deletion of the carboxy-terminal cluster of hydrophobic amino acids in NS2B had no apparent effect on the formation of prM and prM-E ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 30650657. Viruses 2019 01;11(1). Flaviviruses, such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses, are mosquito-borne pathogens that present a major risk to global public health. To identify host factors that promote flavivirus replication, we performed a genome-wide gain-of-function cDNA screen for human genes that enhance the replication of flavivirus reporter particles in human cells. The screen recovered seventeen potential host proteins that promote viral replication, including the previously known dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycosyltransferase non-catalytic subunit (DDOST). Using silencing approaches, we validated the role of four candidates in YFV and WNV replication: ribosomal protein L19 (RPL19), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), DDOST and importin 9 (IPO9). Applying a panel of virological, biochemical and microscopic methods, we validated further the role of RPL19 and DDOST as host factors required for optimal ...
Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne viruses representing an immense global health problem. The prominent viruses of this group include dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus tick borne encephalitis virus and Zika Virus. These are endemic in many parts of the world. They are responsible for the illness ranging from mild flu like symptoms to severe hemorrhagic, neurologic and cognitive manifestations leading to death. NS1 is a highly conserved non-structural protein among flaviviruses, which exist in diverse forms. The intracellular dimer form of NS1 plays role in genome replication, whereas, the secreted hexamer plays role in immune evasion. The secreted NS1 has been identified as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection of the infections caused by flaviviruses. In addition to the diagnostic marker, the importance of NS1 has been reported in the development of therapeutics. NS1 based subunit vaccines are at various stages of development. The
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses. With its compact surface, ZIKV is more thermally stable than the dengue virus (DENV). ZIKV E proteins have a characteristic herringbone structure with a single glycosylation site. The ZIKV E protein, the major protein involved in receptor binding and fusion, is formed as a head-to-tail dimer on the surfaces of viral particles. The E monomer consists of three distinct domains: DI, DII, and DIII. The finger-like DII ...
Abstract. Rocio virus (ROCV) is a flavivirus, probably transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and maintained in nature as a zoonosis of wild birds. Rocio virus caused a human epidemic of severe encephalitis that lasted from 1973 to 1980 in the Ribeira valley, in the southeastern coast of Brazil. After this outbreak, serologic evidence of ROCV circulation has been reported and public health authorities are concerned about a return of ROCV outbreaks in Brazil. We show here a study on the pathogenesis and the physiopathology of ROCV disease in the central nervous system of a Balb/C young adult mice experimental model. The animals were intraperitoneally infected by ROCV and followed from 0 to 9 days after infection, when all of them died. Nervous tissue samples were collected from infected animals for immunohistochemistry and molecular biology analysis. We observed the virus in the central nervous system, the inflammatory changes induced by Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and the final irreversible damage of nervous
Baltimore Classification and Taxonomy== Group IV: (+) sense single-stranded RNA virus ,br>,br> , Order = [[Unassigned]] , Family = [[Flaviviridae]] , Genus = [[Flavivirus]] , species = [[Zika virus]],br> {,NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=64320&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy] Genome: ,font size=2>[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/6441 Genome],/font>,} ==Description and Significance== ,br> Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first isolated from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. [[#Reference,[3]]] In 1968, isolation from human hosts occurred in residents of Nigeria. [[#Reference,[2]]] Since then, multiple studies have confirmed ZIKV antibody in humans from a multitude of countries in Africa and parts of Asia. [[#Reference,[2]]] In 2015, ZIKV first appeared outside of Africa and Asia when it was isolated in Brazil where is has caused a minor outbreak following the 2014 FIFA World Cup. ...
Baltimore Classification and Taxonomy== Group IV: (+) sense single-stranded RNA virus ,br>,br> , Order = [[Unassigned]] , Family = [[Flaviviridae]] , Genus = [[Flavivirus]] , species = [[Zika virus]],br> {,NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=64320&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock Taxonomy] Genome: ,font size=2>[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/6441 Genome],/font>,} ==Description and Significance== ,br> Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first isolated from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. [[#Reference,[3]]] In 1968, isolation from human hosts occurred in residents of Nigeria. [[#Reference,[2]]] Since then, multiple studies have confirmed ZIKV antibody in humans from a multitude of countries in Africa and parts of Asia. [[#Reference,[2]]] In 2015, ZIKV first appeared outside of Africa and Asia when it was isolated in Brazil where is has caused a minor outbreak following the 2014 FIFA World Cup. ...
Molecular characterization of two rocio flavivirus strains isolated during the encephalitis epidemic in são paulo state, brazil and the development of a one-step rt-pcr assay for diagnosis; Caracterização molecular de duas cepas do flavivírus Rocio, isoladas durante a epidemia de encefalite no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil e desenvolvimento do teste one-step RT-PCR para ...
GenWay provides the Zika Virus Capsid Protein for various research applications. The Zika virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus. The Zika Virus Capsid Protein is offered along with other various Zika virus products.
We analysed the complete coding sequences of all recognized species of Aedes-borne flavivirus, including previously uncharacterized viruses within the yellow fever virus (YFV), Spondweni virus (SPOV) and dengue virus (DENV) groups. Two major phylogenetic lineages were revealed: one included the YFV and Entebbe bat virus groups, and the other included the DENV, SPOV and Culex-borne flavivirus groups. This analysis supported previous evidence that Culex-borne flaviviruses have evolved from ancestral Aedes-borne viruses. However, the topology at the junction between these lineages remains complex and may be refined by the discovery of viruses related to the Kedougou virus. Additionally, viral evolution was found to be associated with the appearance of new biological characteristics; mutations that may modify the envelope protein structure were identified for seven viruses within the YFV group, and an expansion of host-vector range was identified in the two major evolutionary lineages, which in turn ...
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Flavivirus replication is mediated by a complex machinery that consists of viral enzymes, nonenzymatic viral proteins, and host factors. Many of the nonenzymatic viral proteins, such as NS4B, are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. How these membrane proteins function in...read more ...
People in this world are posing many health issues and different serious viruses which are providing harms to the human beings and also to the animals. Moreover, in this world with the development in the human brains, discoveries are often unlocking the conditions and seriousness of the various deceases and viruses, against which many time people need to gather together and fight simultaneously. This situation has already been occurred in relation to the cases of many deceases and viruses, like HIV/ AIDS, Cancer, etc. And now a day, as per experts research and ongoing circumstances, there is a major threat to the human community on this earths by the most terrifying Zika virus. As per experts analysis and meaning to this term, this Zika Virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, which is transmitted by daytime- active Aedes mosquitoes. The name Zika Virus is brought from the Zika Forest of Uganda, where this virus was first isolated in the year ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of transfusion-associated hepatitis caused by non-A, non-B, non-C flavivirus.. AU - Takács, M.. AU - Berencsi, G.. AU - Mezey, I.. AU - Brojnás, J.. AU - Barcsay, E.. AU - Garamvölgyi, E.. AU - Hütter, E.. AU - Ferenczi, E.. AU - Pipirász, E.. AU - Hollós, I.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Sera of patients suffering from acute hepatitis, and different forms of chronic hepatitis were found to be reactive to reagents prepared from the yellow fever virus (YF) vaccine strain. Serum samples of 1974 patients were tested, and 133 of them were positive. Hepatitis C virus specific antibodies were absent from the majority of them. The frequency of antibodies to other flaviviruses (tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile) and hepatitis B virus markers was similar to that measured among the population in Hungary positive for any of the surrogate markers of hepatitis infections. Results of both immunofluorescence tests, and Western blots suggest that there is a non-A, non-B, non-C ...
As a result of increasing knowledge about the Zika virus, the CDC updated their recommendations. The changes are based on declining trends in the number of reported cases of Zika virus infection in the Americas, emerging evidence on prolonged detection of Zika IgM antibodies, and new limitations for interpreting serologic tests during pregnancy. IgM is most likely to be detected in the first 12 weeks after infection but may persist beyond 12 weeks in some infected individuals, limiting the ability of testing to determine whether an infection occurred during or prior to pregnancy. False positive results and cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses can occur with IgM assays. Therefore, it is important to ascertain whether a woman had exposure to flaviviruses other than Zika virus before the current pregnancy because a positive IgM result might have been caused by cross-reactivity from a previous flavivirus exposure. Given the possibility of a false positive result, laboratory test results should ...
Background The genus Flavivirus encompasses a lot more than 50 specific species of arthropod-borne infections including several main human pathogens such as for example West Nile pathogen yellow fever FXV 673 pathogen Japanese encephalitis pathogen and the 4 serotypes of dengue infections (DENV type 1-4). flavivirus NS3 and NS5 protein. Using our display results and books curation we performed a worldwide evaluation FXV 673 from the NS3 and NS5 mobile focuses on based on practical annotation using the Gene Ontology features. We finally developed the first flavivirus NS3 and NS5 proteins discussion network and analysed the topological top features of this network. Our proteome mapping display identified 108 human being proteins getting together with NS3 or NS5 proteins or both. The global evaluation from the mobile focuses on exposed the enrichment of sponsor protein involved with RNA binding transcription rules vesicular transportation or innate immune system response rules. Conclusions We ...
Zika virus: Zika virus, infectious agent of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Zika virus was first isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey that had been caged in the canopy
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease that is a member of the flavivirus group. This group includes several other viruses that cause serious, sometimes life-threatening diseases such as yellow fever, dengue fever, West Nile and Japanese encephalitis.. Zika virus has been known for decades to circulate in Africa and Asia and more recently in the Pacific Islands, but very few cases of human disease were documented before 2007. In May of 2015, the first infections were confirmed in Brazil. Since then, millions people have been infected with Zika virus. Zika is now confirmed to be circulating in several countries and territories in the Americas including Mexico and is probably present in even more. The list of countries where Zika virus has been identified can change with new cases identified. What are the symptoms of Zika virus? In children and adults, Zika virus infection is generally mild - some develop flu-like symptoms, joint pain, eye inflammation and red rashes, while other people may not ...
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is transmitted through the bite of Aedes spp mosquitoes and less predominantly, through sexual intercourse. Prior to 2007, ZIKV was associated with only sporadic human infections with minimal or no clinical manifestations. Recently the virus has caused disease outbreaks from the Pacific Islands, the Americas, and off the coast of West Africa with approximately 1.62 million people suspected to be infected in more than 60 countries around the globe. The recent ZIKV outbreaks have been associated with guillain-barré syndrome, congenital syndrome (microcephaly, congenital central nervous system anomalies), miscarriages, and even death. This review summarizes the path of ZIKV outbreak within the last decade, highlights three novel modes of ZIKV transmission associated with recent outbreaks, and points to the hallmarks of congenital syndrome. The review concludes with a summary of challenges facing ZIKV research especially the control of ZIKV infection in
Scientists now have a way to target a number of insect-borne diseases, including dengue, West Nile, yellow fever and St. Louis encephalitis. Researchers from Purdue University and the California Institute of Technology have solved the three-dimensional structure of the dengue virus, providing the first detailed view of a virus from the flavivirus family. The findings open new avenues for developing vaccines and antiviral compounds to target diseases caused by flaviviruses.
For viruses, traits included how many different mosquito species they infect, whether they have ever infected humans and the severity of the diseases they cause.. Analyzing known mosquito-virus pairs, the researchers found that certain traits were strong predictors of whether a linkage would form. The most important of these for mosquitoes were the subgenus, the continents it occurred on and the number of viruses it was able to transmit. For viruses, the most important trait was the number of mosquito species able to act as a vector. Based on what they learned, they used the model to test the combination of Zika virus with all the mosquito species known to transmit at least one flavivirus. The model found 35 predicted Zika vectors, including 26 previously unsuspected possibilities. Seven of those species occur in the continental U.S., with ranges that in some cases differ from those of the known vectors. Evans and Murdock cautioned strongly against assuming that this means that Zika will spread ...
Zika virus (ZIKV), belonging to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, is an arthropod‐borne virus that was first discovered from the Zika forest in Uganda in 1947
Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that co-circulate in tropical regions and constitute major threats to global human health. Whether preexisting immunity to one virus affects disease caused by the other during primary or secondary infections is unknown but is critical in preparing for future outbreaks and predicting vaccine safety. Using a human skin explant model, we show that DENV-3 immune sera increased recruitment and infection of Langerhans cells, macrophages, and dermal dendritic cells following inoculation with DENV-2 or ZIKV. Similarly, ZIKV immune sera enhanced infection with DENV-2. Immune sera increased migration of infected Langerhans cells to the dermis and emigration of infected cells out of skin. Heterotypic immune sera increased viral RNA in the dermis almost 10-fold and reduced the amount of virus required to infect a majority of myeloid cells by 100- to 1000-fold. Enhancement was associated with cross-reactive IgG and ...
Better designed vaccines for insect-spread viruses like dengue and Zika are likely after researchers discovered models of immature flavivirus particles were originally misinterpreted.
Drug Innovation Ventures at Emory (DRIVE) and the Emory Institute for Drug Development (EIDD) have launched an effort to identify and develop antivirals to treat the infection caused by Zika virus. There are currently no treatments or vaccines against the virus, which has been declared a public health emergency and is linked to birth defects.. According to George Painter, PhD, CEO of DRIVE and director of EIDD, for the past three years, we have been synthesizing and developing antivirals against alphaviruses, such as chikungunya, and flaviviruses, such as dengue. Since Zika is a flavivirus in the same family as dengue and hepatitis C, we can apply what we have learned working on alphaviruses and flaviviruses, as well as from our past success with treatments for HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and herpes viruses, in our search for an effective drug.. We are making progress developing a Zika RNA Polymerase Assay, says Abel De La Rosa, PhD, chief scientific officer of DRIVE and EIDD. This assay ...
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which can cause severe disease in humans, including microcephaly and other congenital malformations in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. There are currently no approved prophylactics or therapeutics for Zika virus; the development of a safe and …
On March 18, 2016, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website. : Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus. Recent outbreaks of Zika virus disease in the Pacific Islands and the Region of the Americas have identifie ...
Flaviviruses are major human pathogens. They include West Nile, yellow fever and dengue viruses. These viruses cause millions of deaths each year in temperate a...
Neurotropic flaviviruses are human pathogens responsible for numerous viral encephalitic diseases. West Nile and Japanese encephalitis flaviviruses infect the
Animation of the structure of a Zika virus particle. The virus has an outer coat or envelope, studded with glycoproteins that help it bind to its target cell. Inside this is the protein capsid (red), which encloses the genetic material. This virus causes Zika fever, and is spread by the bites of infected mosquitoes. The disease originated in tropical east Africa, and was first detected in Uganda in 1947. Since April 2015 there has been a significant outbreak in South America, which started in Brazil and is spreading rapidly. The World Health Organisation stated it expected the disease to have spread to the majority of the Americas by the end of 2016. There have been reports of sexual transmission of the virus, and also of birth defects in pregnant women who become infected, with a rise in the rate of microcephaly being linked to the disease. Zika virus is a flavivirus, related to yellow fever. Each virus particle is around 50 nanometres in diameter. - Stock Video Clip K005/6534
Zika virus /ˈziːkə, ˈzɪkə/ (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus. It is spread by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus.
Joshua Rose. Joshua Roses capstone work was performed in the Arbovirology Laboratory [5], under the guidance of Dr. Alex Ciota [6] and Dr. Laura Kramer [7]. He utilized a unique flavivirus model to investigate genetic differences contributing to pathogenic emergence within vertebrate hosts, increasing the understanding of flavivirus evolution. With public health threats like Zika virus rapidly emerging, insights from his project will be helpful in understanding the capabilities of flaviviruses within vertebrate hosts. His project will also provide insights for antiviral drug design and vector control measures, giving the scientific community new potential targets to aim for when it comes to combating flaviviruses.. Ultimately, I want my research to benefit the health of the public, Rose said. I find great satisfaction in helping others and couldnt imagine a more suitable career for myself than that of a research scientist.. Rose earned his bachelors degree in biochemistry with a minor ...
in april, 1975, an epidemic of human encephalitis was detected in several counties in the state of são paulo, brazil; the epidemic continued into 1976. a virus was isolated from central nervous system (cns) tissues of a 39-year-old male who died on december 8, 1975; the virus was found to be a new flavivirus for which the name rocio virus is proposed. nine further isolations of rocio virus were obtained from cns tissues of 17 patients who died with clinical symptoms of encephalitis. isolations o ...
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus typically causing a dengue-like febrile illness, but neurological complications, such as microcephaly in newborns, have potentially been linked to this viral infection. We established a panel of in vitro assays to allow the identification of ZIKV inhibitor …
Definition: Zika virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti
Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Dengue is a disease caused by a virus of the Flavivirus genus and is transmitted by an arthropod. The prevalence is increasing worldwide. Characteristic findings on physical examination Classically, patients will complain of sudden onset of fever lasting 2-5 days, severe headache, intense myalgia, arthralgia, and retro-orbital pain. Careful…. ...
Zika differs most from other flaviviruses at a spot thought to be crucial to the cellular break-in. At this site, a carbohydrate molecule - made of different sugars - sits on the viruss protein shell. The so-called glycosylation site where Zika differs actually protrudes from the shell of the virus. In other viruses, similar protrusions act like strangers offering candy, tricking the human cell into binding with the invader. Like other flaviviruses, Zika seems to have a unique smattering of amino acids around that area ...
Flavivirus serostatus (i.e. dengue and JE) at baseline and safety data at each time point were summarized by vaccine group. The safety analysis set was defined for each dose as those children who received a vaccine; data were analyzed according to the vaccine received. Between. 14 August 2010 and 31 July 2012, 550 participants were enrolled and 468 completed the Selleck 3MA study (Fig. 2). The main reason for discontinuation was voluntary withdrawal. No child withdrew owing to an AE. Mean age at inclusion, BMI, and ratio of male:female were similar in the three groups (Table 1). All children except one were Asian. Before vaccination, 2 children (2.0%) in JE-CV Group, 18 children (9.1%) in MMR Group and 5 children (2.3%) in Co-Ad Group were flavivirus seropositive i.e. they presented with pre-existing antibodies against either JE or dengue virus. All groups had low seroprotection/seropositivity rates before vaccination for all antigens (JE, measles, mumps and rubella). Non-inferiority was ...
Ying Zhang, Jeroen Corver, Paul R. Chipman, Wei Zhang, Sergei V. Pletnev, Dagmar Sedlak, Timothy S. Baker, James H. Strauss, Richard J. Kuhn, Michael G. Rossmann ...
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Figure 2.Flavivirus. Flavivirus genome organization (not to scale) and polyprotein processing. The virion RNA is about 11 kb. At the top is the viral genome with the structural and nonstructural protein coding regions and the 5′- and 3′-NCRs. Boxes below the genome indicate viral proteins generated by the proteolytic processing cascade. P, H, and R symbols indicate the localization of the NS3 protease, the NS3 RNA helicase, and the NS5 RdRp domains, respectively.. Both the 5′-NCR and the 3′-NCR contain RNA sequence motifs that are involved in viral RNA translation, replication and possibly packaging. Although RNA secondary structure and function of some elements are conserved, sequence composition, length and exact localization can vary considerably between different members of the genus, in particular between tick-borne and mosquito-borne flaviviruses. In some cases, the 3′-NCR of tick-borne encephalitis virus, for example, contains an internal poly(A) tract. Viral infection induces ...
Flavivirus encephalitis include a number of entities which characteristically involve the basal ganglia and thalami. Clinical presentation Typically these conditions present with a prodrome which is nonspecific but indicative of a viral infect...
Flaviviruses were proposed to prevent rather than to induce host translation shutoff (36, 37, 40). Several technical aspects might explain this difference from our findings, including the use of nonhuman cells, different DENV serotype 2 strains, and time points p.i. chosen for analysis. Of note, polysome profiles of Huh7 cells infected with the DENV serotype 2 Bangkok strain 16681 (40) revealed in our experiments a similar translation repression to that induced by DENV1 infection (see Fig. 1F for reference), which also correlated with reduced cytopathic effect in Huh7 cells (data not shown). Analyses of human cells early p.i. by polysome profiling identified host cell translation repression as a new feature of flavivirus infection.. Flaviviruses actively block eIF2α-mediated stress response at different levels, supposedly to avoid the associated host translation suppression. First, WNV and DENV inhibit SG formation in nonhuman cells (36). Consistently, we observed that DENV and WNV, as well as ...
Mosquitoes collected in northern Italy were screened for flavivirus RNA. Positive amplicons were sequenced and found most similar to insect flavivirus (ISF), Usutu virus (USUV) and surprisingly also to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The sequence (167 bp), obtained from one pool of Culex pipiens, was found identical to JEV strains from bats in China. Unfortunately additional sequence data or virus isolations were not obtained in this study. Confirmation of potential introduction of JEV to Italy and other European countries is urgently needed.
Zika fever is caused by Zika virus. Zika virus ( ZIKV ) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family and the Flavivirus genus, transmitted by daytime- active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti.. General. Zika virus is related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. The illness it causes is similar to a mild form of dengue fever, is treated by rest, and cannot yet be prevented by drugs or vaccines. There is a possible link between Zika fever and microcephaly in newborn babies by mother- to- child transmission, as well as a stronger one with neurological conditions in infected adults, including cases of the Gullain- Barre syndrome.. Along with other viruses in this family, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a non segmented, single- stranded, positive sense RNA genome. It is most closely related to the spondweni virus and is one of the two viruses in the spondweni virus Clade.. Transmission. Zika virus is transmitted by daytime- active mosquitoes and ...
The flavivirus envelope protein domain III (EDIII) was an effective immunogen against dengue virus (DENV) and other related flaviviruses. Whether this can be applied to the Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccinology remains an open question. Here, we tested the efficacy of ZIKV-EDIII against ZIKV infection, using several vaccine platforms that present the antigen in various ways. We provide data demonstrating that mice vaccinated with a ZIKV-EDIII as DNA or protein-based vaccines failed to raise fully neutralizing antibodies and did not control viremia, following a ZIKV challenge, despite eliciting robust antibody responses. Furthermore, we showed that ZIKV-EDIII encoded in replication-deficient Chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAdOx1-EDIII) elicited anti-ZIKV envelope antibodies in vaccinated mice but also provided limited protection against ZIKV in two physiologically different mouse challenge models. Taken together, our data indicate that contrary to what was shown for other flaviviruses like the dengue virus, which has
This report provides a competitor evaluation as of February 2016 in the field of vaccines on the market or in research & development for prevention of diseases caused by flavivirus such as Zika, Dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile, Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis & Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus.
Zika virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, is maintained in complex African zoonotic cycles, spilling from time to time into the Aedes aegypti mosquito urban transmission cycle (5). This spillover might be a very old phenomenon. Because many flaviviruses infect humans in Africa, it was logical to ask if antibodies to these viruses enhanced Zika virus infections. The answer obtained in vitro was affirmative (6). After having been first isolated in Africa in 1947, human Zika virus disease remained sparse and mild, with no reports of diverse clinical syndromes associated with infection (7). Nor was Zika disease reported from India or Southeast Asia, where Zika virus and DENV co-circulated, evidenced by detection of neutralizing antibodies in humans as early as 1954 (8-10). Zika virus was isolated from Ae. aegypti mosquitoes collected in rural Malaysia in 1966 (11). No alarms were raised in Asia until 2007, on the Yap Islands in the Western Pacific, when it was estimated that ≈900 cases of a ...
The flaviviruses are a group of medically important viruses that are mainly transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks; they include dengue, Japanese encephalitis, St Louis encephalitis, tick‐borne encephalitis, West Nile and yellow fever species
The recent emergence of a number of new viral diseases as well as the re-emergence of tuberculosis (TB), indicate an urgent need for new drugs against viral and bacterial infections.. Coronavirus nsp1 has been shown to induce suppression of host gene expression and interfere with host immune response. However, the mechanism behind this is currently unknown. Here we present the first nsp1 structure from an alphacoronavirus, Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nsp1. Contrary to previous speculation, the TGEV nsp1 structure clearly shows that alpha- and betacoronavirus nsp1s have a common evolutionary origin. However, differences in conservation, shape and surface electrostatics indicate that the mechanism for nsp1-induced suppression of host mRNA translation is likely to be different in the alpha- and betacoronavirus genera.. The Modoc virus is a neuroinvasive rodent virus with similar pathology as flavivirus encephalitis in humans. The flaviviral methyltransferase catalyses the two ...
101 - 1,000 = High, 1,001 - 10,000 = Very High, ,10,000 = Extreme.. 28/Apr/2010: Hanwood had a high catch of 144, with 30 Culex annulirostris. Barren Box yielded a low catch. 27/Apr/2010: There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 8/Mar/2010, 15/Mar/2010, 22/Mar/2010, 29/Mar/2010 or 6/Apr. 21/Apr/2010: Hanwood had a high catch of 234, with 52 Culex annulirostris. Barren Box yielded a medium catch of73 and included 42 Culex annulirostris. 16/Apr/2010: The flavivirus isolate from Culex annulirostris trapped at Hanwood on the 22/Mar/10 was Kokobera virus. 14Apr/2010: Hanwood had a high catch of 230, with 159 Culex quinquefasciatus. Barren Box had a low catch. 8/Apr/2010: There was one flavivirus isolate from Culex annulirostris trapped at Hanwood on 29/Mar/2010. 6/Apr/2010: Mosquito numbers continue to be well above average and high from both sites. Hanwood trapped 107 mosquitoes, with 65 Culex annulirostris. Barren Box collected a total of 413 ...
The Public Health Laboratory Network have developed a standard case definition for the diagnosis of diseases which are notifiable in Australia. This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas.
Author Summary Zika fever is a mosquito-borne illness caused by a flavivirus. Human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV) could cause fever, malaise and cutaneous rash. Despite several ZIKV reports since 1947 when it was first isolated at Zika forest in Uganda, molecular evolution of ZIKV as an emerging agent remains poorly understood. Moreover, despite several ZIKV reports from Africa and Asia, few human cases were notified until 2007 when an epidemic took place in Micronesia. In West Africa, surveillance programs have reported periodic circulation of the virus since 1968. To help fill the gap in understanding ZIKV evolution, 43 ZIKV samples were analyzed. We focused on: (i) adaptive genetic changes including protein glycosylation patterns, (ii) phylogenetic relationship among isolates and their spatiotemporal patterns of spread across Africa and Asia and, (iii) dispersion among vertebrate reservoirs and invertebrate vector species. Our results indicated that ZIKV may have experienced recombination in
The genomic RNA of all members of the family has a similar organization and is the viral mRNA found in infected cells. It contains a single long open reading frame (ORF) flanked by 5′- and 3′-terminal non-coding regions (NCRs) that form specific secondary structures required for genome replication and translation. Members of the genus Flavivirus, but not pestiviruses, hepaciviruses or pegiviruses produce a unique, subgenomic, small (0.3-0.5 kb) non-coding RNA that is derived from the 3′-NCR of genomic RNA (Lin et al., 2004) but which is essential for virus replication in cells and modulates pathogenicity in animals. Translation-initiation of genomic RNA is cap-dependent for members of the genus Flavivirus, whereas IRES elements are present in viruses of the other genera. Viral proteins are synthesized as part of a polyprotein that is co- and post-translationally cleaved by viral and cellular proteases. The structural proteins are contained in the N-proximal portion of this polyprotein and ...
Insect-specific viruses belonging to significant arboviral families have recently been discovered. These viruses appear to be maintained within the insect population without the requirement for replication in a vertebrate host. Mosquitoes collected from Badu Island in the Torres Strait in 2003 were analysed for insect-specific viruses. A novel bunyavirus was isolated in high prevalence from Culex spp. The new virus, provisionally called Badu virus (BADUV), replicated in mosquito cells of both Culex and Aedes origin, but failed to replicate in vertebrate cells. Genomic sequencing revealed that the virus was distinct from sequenced bunyavirus isolates reported to date, but phylogenetically clustered most closely with recently discovered mosquito-borne, insect-specific bunyaviruses in the newly proposed Goukovirus genus. The detection of a functional furin cleavage motif upstream of the two glycoproteins in the M segment-encoded polyprotein suggests that BADUV may employ a unique strategy to ...
CDC and partner researchers have developed six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from hybridoma technology with high sensitivity to the Zika virus (ZIKV) pre-membrane/envelope (ENV) protein and limited cross-reactivity to other flaviviruses, notably dengue virus. Multiple methods such as indirect ELISA, bio-layer interferometry (BLI), immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) were used to validate the data. Additionally, ZIKV pre-membrane/envelope protein is a candidate biomarker for diagnosis during active infection vs. serological tests (based on identification of IgM and/or IgG) after clearance of infection. The technology can be used for immunoassay development and immunodiagnostic reagents for clinical sample and tissue confirmation of ZIKV. The mAbs also offer improved differentiation between ZIKV and related flaviviruses ...
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that mostly causes asymptomatic infections or mild disease characterized by low-grade fever, rash, conjunctivitis, and malaise. However, the recent massive ZIKV epidemics in the Americas have also linked ZIKV infection to fetal malformations like microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and have uncovered previously unrecognized routes of vertical and sexual transmission. Here we describe inhibition of ZIKV replication by suramin, originally an anti-parasitic drug, which was more recently shown to inhibit multiple viruses. In cell culture-based assays, using reduction of cytopathic effect as read-out, suramin had an EC50 of ~40μM and a selectivity index of 48. In single replication cycle experiments, suramin treatment also caused a strong dose-dependent decrease in intracellular ZIKV RNA levels and a ,3-log reduction in infectious progeny titers. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that suramin inhibits a very early step of the ...
Perform clinical virology and immunology assays of dengue and other flavivirus vaccines. Perform cell culture, immunology, and molecular biology assays to study the immune response to infectious pathogens for the Vaccine Testing Center. Perform clinical virology and immunogenicity assays of dengue and other flavivirus for clinical research trials. Compile, analyze and present data. Maintain laboratory and order supplies. Work with the Principal Investigator, laboratory manager, and other technicians to update protocols and develop new assays. Assist with writing of abstracts, methods, and preparation for presentations. May also perform immunology/cellular/molecular biology assays to study the immune response to other infectious pathogens. ...
SUMMARY / ABSTRACTThe outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) and the alarming rise in fetal brain malformations highlight ZIKV as an urgentpublic health concern. ZIKV has recently met Shephards criteria for teratogenic classification because of thebrain anomalies reported. This application addresses the direct relationship between ZIKV infection and fetalbrain development using our established fetal primate model of intrauterine pathogenesis. The studies outlinedin this application leverage our prior discoveries and collaborative investigations on neural precursor cellfunction in relation to microglia in the fetal primate brain, and our expertise in primate development, imaging,virology, and immunology. Our track record and experienced team provides the means to pursue the goals ofthis proposal?understanding the mechanism(s) of ZIKV teratogenesis?and the steps necessary to progressto studies focused on interventions. Our goal is to determine how ZIKV alters cortical development bycapitalizing on our ...
ZIKV laboratory tests should be considered in pregnant women who travel to regions with active ZIKV, as well as neonates born to these women (68, 69). These laboratory tests include RT-PCR for symptomatic patients or those with exposure to the virus within the past 2 weeks and serological assessment for people, exposed to the infection within the past 2 to 12 weeks. However, false-positive test results could be detected in patients infected with other flaviviruses; in fact, a negative test result does not ultimately reject ZIKV infection (70).. A specific test of ZIKV is the plaque reduction neutralization test, which measures virus-specific neutralizing antibodies (anti-ZIKV IgM antibodies) (71). ZIKV RT-PCR test should be performed on both infants serum and urine samples. Also, ZIKV DetectTM IgM ELISA should be simultaneously performed on the serum within the first 2 days of life. In general, laboratory tests for pregnant women with ZIKV infection include RT-PCR to detect ZIKV RNA in maternal ...
Abstract. Although first isolated almost 70 years ago, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) has only recently been associated with significant outbreaks of disease in humans. Several severe ZIKV disease manifestations have also been recently documented, including fetal malformations, such as microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although principally transmitted by mosquitoes, sexual transmission of ZIKV has been documented. Recent publications of several interferon receptor knockout mouse models have demonstrated ZIKV-induced disease. Herein, outbred immunocompetent CD-1/ICR adult mice were assessed for susceptibility to disease by intracranial (i.c.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation with the Ugandan prototype strain (MR766; African genotype), a low-passage Senegalese strain (DakAr41524; African genotype) and a recent ZIKV strain isolated from a traveler infected in Puerto Rico (PRVABC59; Asian genotype). Morbidity was not observed in mice inoculated by the i.p. route with
Apart from drugs targeting viral components, those targeting cellular factors directly involved in the viral life cycle may also be useful, since their effect is less prone to evasion by mutations in the viral genome that frequently appear in RNA viruses. In this line, 2,000 compounds from a library of FDA-approved drugs, as well as molecules known to be bioactives, have been tested by means of a microscopy-based assay to uncover inhibitors of ZIKV infection (42). By using human osteosarcoma cells (U2OS), it was shown that up to 38 molecules blocked flavivirus infection, including nanchangmycin (IC50, 0.1 μM), a natural product of Streptomycesnanchangensis that was shown to have insecticidal activity against silkworms and anti-bacterial activity in vitro, tenovin-1 (IC50, 0.7 μM), which protects against MDM2-mediated p53 degradation, MPA (IC50, 0.4 μM), and gemcitabine (IC50, 0.3 μM). MPA and gemcitabine have also been reported to be ZIKV inhibitors by others (26, 43). A less potent effect ...
http://www.iflscience.com/sites/www.iflscience.com/files/styles/ifls_large/public/blog/%5Bnid%5D/zika.jpg?itok=IpBh1WLI http://www.scienceofwonder.org/world-health-orgaization-declares-zika-virus-a-global-health-emergency/ The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Zika virus an international health emergency on Monday,a rare moveprompted by the explosive spread of the mosquito-borne virus. The Zika virus is now in more than 20 countries and territories in the Americas, with no effective vaccine or treatmet yet developed. Although most cases of the…
Although closely related in structure flavivirus infections in humans have a vast range of tissue trophism and clinical syndromes starting from mild fever to h...
Despite the waning epidemiology, development of a vaccine for ZIKV infection remains a public health priority to protect against congenital ZIKV infection in future outbreaks. Here, we describe the preclinical selection and development of a potent ZIKV vaccine from nine constructs using SAM technology expressing various forms of the ZIKV prM-E antigen. One ZIKV SAM vaccine candidate provided complete protection from ZIKV challenge in both mice and NHPs. This is the first time that a SAM vaccine has been demonstrated to be protective in the NHP model. We used a CNE formulation as a delivery vehicle. This is a technology that has been well characterized and is known to generate a rapid immune response when administered. CNE is stable at 2° to 4°C for years and can easily be mixed with RNA at bedside by trained medical personnel. These properties make SAM CNE particularly suitable for rapid response to emerging outbreaks (26-28). Other RNA-based ZIKV vaccine candidates have been previously ...
Soldiers will be making house-to-house visits to spread awareness of the mosquito-borne virus. Brazil is deploying more than 200,000 soldiers to battle the Zika virus, which is believed to cause severe birth defects, the health ministry announced Wednesday. The troops will make house-to-house visits to spread awareness of the mosquito-borne virus, handing out leaflets…
Zika Virus Disease (ZIKV) Infographics, Language-tailored: Innovations and Good Practices in Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme Kashmir, India 2016,
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemics, declared by WHO as a global public health emergency in 2016, captured an unprecedented attention of the general publi..
Zika virus is a mosquito borne flavivirus. This RNA virus was discovered long ago (1948) in Africa. It is transmitted through mosquitoes Aedes. This virus is now infecting the population in American countries like Mexico, Brazil, Colombia , FR340 real time PCR kit for detection in different samples: nasal swabs, plasma, serum, stool, nasopharnygeal swabs, respiratory tract samples.
We report the suitability of urine samples for diagnosis of ZIKV infection by showing that ZIKV RNA is detectable in urine at a higher load and with a longer duration than in serum. ZIKV infection has been poorly described because it is a benign, self-limiting illness in most cases (5). Thus, ZIKV infection has probably been underdiagnosed and underreported in disease-endemic settings (4) or in returning travelers. However, if perifocal vector control is to be implemented and severe neurologic complications are to be avoided, biological confirmation of ZIKV infection is essential. Because of the absence of specific IgM-based diagnostic tests, molecular confirmation is the only method available for routine diagnosis.. For ZIKV infection, date of onset of illness is difficult to establish because of sporadic and frequently mild fever. Although rash has been reported 3-5 days after the febrile phase (6,7), the 6 patients in our study had light asthenia and mild fever 2-3 days before the rash was ...
Supplementary Materialscells-08-01444-s001. wellness concern world-wide [1,2,3,4]. Latest ZIKV global outbreaks, with Brazil on the epicentre, highlighted what sort Mouse monoclonal to CD59(PE) of previously neglected flavivirus can turn into a severe threat for human being health. While human being ZIKV infections remained only sporadic and with a limited impact for decades [5,6,7,8], recent outbreaks exposed that ZIKV caused clusters of severe congenital and neurological abnormalities in babies and peripheral nervous system impairments in adults [9,10,11,12]. Considering the dramatic increase of severe human being cases, strategies to efficiently control this disease, either in terms of antiviral treatments or vaccines, are urgently needed and a granted requirement for more considerable studies. Flaviviruses contain a genomic single-stranded positive RNA encoding a single large polyprotein that is consequently cleaved by cellular and viral proteases into three structural proteins (C, prM/M and ...
A three-dimensional reconstruction of a chimera Binjaru virus particle containing genes from Zika virus. This material relates to a paper that appeared in the Dec. 11, 2019, issue of <i>Science Translational Medicine</i>, published by AAAS. The paper, by J. Hobson-Peters at institution in location; and colleagues was titled, "A recombinant platform for flavivirus vaccines and diagnostics using chimeras of a new insect-specific virus.". ...
By Jennifer Krasner The New York Times December 2, 2017 / 02:23:16By Jennifer KrakauerThe New York Time December 2.17, 2017 New York City officials are urging residents to keep away from areas where mosquitoes are transmitting the Zika virus.. In a statement to the Associated Press, Mayor Bill de Blasio said the mosquito-borne virus is a precautionary measure in a city with a huge and rapidly growing population who need to stay indoors.. The mayor also urged New Yorkers to wear masks and avoid mosquito bites during the flu season.. Mosquitoes transmit the Zika Virus, which can lead to severe illness and death, the mayor said.. This is a precautionary measure, but we must remain vigilant and work to control the spread of this virus.. We cannot allow the spread to continue.. Please remain safe, stay indoors, and heed the advice of health care providers.. Zika is the Zika of the Americas, a mosquito-transmitting virus that has spread across the Americas in recent months.. A person infected ...
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic yellow fever.
In the second of two shows recorded at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, Vincent meets up with faculty members to talk about how they got into science, their research on RNA viruses, and what they would be doing if they were not scientists.. ...
The |i|Quick|/i|-RNA Viral Kit is a quick, purification system for viral RNA from plasma, serum, cell culture media, cellular suspensions, urine, blood, saliva and any other biological samples stored in DNA/RNA Shield™. DNA/RNA Shield™ ensures nucleic acid stability during sample storage/transport at ambient temperatures (4-25¬∞C). The reagent effectively lyses cells and inactivates nucleases and infectious agents (virus). The kit also features a specialized buffer system that facilitates complete viral particle lysis for efficient RNA isolation from samples containing enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, HIV, HCV, influenza A virus, flaviviruses, measles virus, parainfluenza virus, parvovirus (a ssDNA virus), etc. Viral RNA is bound to the column, washed and eluted. The isolated high-quality viral RNA is ready for all downstream applications such as Next-Gen Sequencing, hybridization-based and RT/PCR detection.
Since the World Health Organization declared Zika a public health emergency in February, teams of scientists from all over the world have been attacking the virus from many different angles. They have made advances in understanding the structure of the virus, the historical path of the mosquitoes that carry it and the risk to babies still in the womb - important knowledge, but of little immediate practical use.. Now, the discoveries have finally led to something that might be able to stop the pathogen: a vaccine.. Pennsylvania vaccine maker Inovio Pharmaceuticals and South Koreas GeneOne Life Sciences said Monday that they had received approval from U.S. regulators to start testing a DNA vaccine, known as GLS-5700, on humans. The early-stage study will include 40 healthy subjects. It is primarily designed to assess the safety of the vaccine but will also measure the immune response generated by the injection. Zika, part of the flavivirus family of viruses that includes West Nile, dengue and ...
By Anthony Boadle RECIFE, Brazil (Reuters) - For scores of women in the epicenter of the Zika outbreak in Brazil, the joy of pregnancy has given way to fear. In the sprawling coastal city of Recife, panic has struck maternity wards since Zika - a mosquito-borne virus first detected in the Americas
Connecticuts health department said it is monitoring dozens of babies either born or currently living in the state to mothers who tested positive for the Zika virus for Flavivirus.
The song also gives a shout out to pregnant ladies to protect themselves. Although Jamaica has so far confirmed only one case of the Zika virus, the government is telling women to delay getting pregnant for the next six to 12 months because of a possible link between Zika infection in pregnant women and microcephaly. ...
Learn more about how the Roche diagnostics Zika test is enabling blood screening that helps healthcare authorities respond to challenging medical emergencies
We might think of Zika as a mosquito-borne virus that effects developing fetuses, but, it also can be passed through sex by either a man or a woman, just like herpes and other STD viruses. New research has shown that vaginal bacteria can inhibit sexually transmitted Zika virus and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 in women.
As a result of pre-natal or early post-natal exposure to a variety of agents (viruses, irradiation and cytotoxins) humans may develop microencephaly, characterized by reduction of brain size (Crome &...
Flaviviruses[edit]. Flaviviridae is a family of viruses that encompasses well known viruses such as West Nile virus and Dengue ... The genus Flavivirus has a prototypical envelope protein (E-protein) on its surface which serves as the target for virus ... Diamond, MS (2003). "Evasion of innate and adaptive immunity by flaviviruses". Immunology and Cell Biology. 81 (3): 196-206. ... Other flaviviruses that cause dengue, louping ill and yellow fever escape antibody neutralization via mutations in the domain ...
In testing for IgG and IgM antibodies there may be cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses which may result in a false ... Dengue fever virus (DENV) is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus. Other members of the same genus include ... ISBN 978-0-07-149618-6. Gould EA, Solomon T (February 2008). "Pathogenic flaviviruses". Lancet. 371 (9611): 500-9. doi:10.1016/ ... Sampath A, Padmanabhan R (January 2009). "Molecular targets for flavivirus drug discovery". Antiviral Research. 81 (1): 6-15. ...
Ghosh Roy S, Sadigh B, Datan E, Lockshin RA, Zakeri Z (May 2014). "Regulation of cell survival and death during Flavivirus ... It is a mosquito-borne, single positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus. Five serotypes of the ... In recent years, many studies have shown that flaviviruses, especially dengue virus, has the ability to inhibit the innate ... McLean JE, Wudzinska A, Datan E, Quaglino D, Zakeri Z (June 2011). "Flavivirus NS4A-induced autophagy protects cells against ...
... (POWV) is a Flavivirus transmitted by ticks, found in North America and in the Russian Far East. It is named ... Powassan virus (POWV) is a Flavivirus named after the town of Powassan, Ontario, Canada where it was identified in a 5 year old ... As of 2010[update], Powassan virus has been noted as the only tick-borne Flavivirus in North America with human pathogenicity. ... "Genus: Flavivirus" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2019. Kemenesi G ...
Molecular genetic analysis has shown that Yokose virus is a new member of the Flavivirus genus. Flaviviruses are typically ... Yokose virus is a new member of the Flavivirus family that has only been identified in a few bat species. Bats have been ... The genus Flavivirus includes over 50 known viruses, including Yellow Fever, West Nile Virus, Zika Virus, and Japanese ... Protein 2K is not found in many other flaviviruses. NS3 functions as a protease and helicase. NS5 functions as the RNA- ...
Zika fever: The Zika virus is caused by the single stranded RNA Flavivirus that uses the Aedes mosquito as a vector to infect ... Yellow fever viruses, Dengue fever viruses, and Zika viruses are of the Flavivirus genera and Chikungunya virus is of the ... Dengue fever: The Dengue virus is a flavivirus also transmissible by Aedes mosquito vectors to other animal hosts. Dengue was ... Kuno, G.; Chang, G. J.; Tsuchiya, K. R.; Karabatsos, N.; Cropp, C. B. (January 1998). "Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus". ...
The genus Flavivirus can further be broken down into clades based on whether the vector that transmits the virus to humans, and ... The genus Flavivirus is one of the largest viral genera and encompasses over 50 viral species, including tick and mosquito ... Sepik virus is in the genus Flavivirus, which means it is similar to yellow fever virus, as Yellow Fever Virus is the type ... Sepik virus causes a fever in humans, much like other viruses in the genus Flavivirus like dengue virus and Yellow fever virus ...
Similarly, arthropod viruses in the Flavivirus and Phlebovirus genera are numerous and often transmitted to humans. ... Holbrook MR (30 April 2017). "Historical Perspectives on Flavivirus Research". Viruses. 9 (5): 97. doi:10.3390/v9050097. PMC ...
Like most other flaviviruses, WNV is an enveloped virus with icosahedral symmetry. Electron microscope studies reveal a 45-50 ... The flavivirus lipid membrane has been found to contain cholesterol and phosphatidylserine, but other elements of the membrane ... It is a member of the family Flaviviridae, specifically from the genus Flavivirus, which also contains the Zika virus, dengue ... Davidson, Andrew D. (2009). Chapter 2 New Insights into Flavivirus Nonstructural Protein 5. Advances in Virus Research. 74. pp ...
The Flavivirus genus includes nearly 80 viruses, both vector-borne and no known vector (NKV) species. Known flavivirus vector- ... Typically, flaviviruses cause encephalitis in host organisms. MODV causes flavivirus-like encephalitis in SCID (severe combined ... and tick-borne flaviviruses (Fig.2). Similar to most positive (+) ssRNA viruses, flaviviruses generate organelle-like ... A mature flavivirus has a spherical shape and contains multiple copies of three structural proteins (C, M, and E), a host- ...
The KFD virus is a typical flavivirus measuring about 40-60 nm in diameter. The genome of KFDV consists of 10,774 nucleotides ... EA Gould; T Solomon (February 9, 2008). "Pathogenic flaviviruses". The Lancet. 371 (961): 500-509. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08) ... Dobler, Gerhard (2010). "Zoonotic tick-borne flaviviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. 140 (3/4): 221-228. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic. ... Gerhard Dobler (27 January 2010). "Zoonotic tick-borne flaviviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. 140 (3-4, Zoonoses: Advances and ...
ISBN 978-0-19-570506-5.[page needed] Gould, EA; Solomon, T (February 2008). "Pathogenic flaviviruses". The Lancet. 371 (9611): ...
Similar to other flaviviruses, SPONV has a positive-sense, single stranded RNA genome, which is about 11 kilobases in length. ... The Spondweni virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus. Due to its phylogeny, it is related to the ... Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus. J Virol 72:73-83 Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C. M.; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de ... 8 (1): e2636 Dai, Lianpan (11 May 2016). "Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus ...
... (EC 3.4.21.91, Yellow fever virus (flavivirus) protease, NS2B-3 proteinase) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the ... "Flavivirus genome organization, expression, and replication". Annual Review of Microbiology. 44: 649-88. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi ... each of the Xaa can be either Arg or Lys and Yaa can be either Ser or Ala This enzyme is present in classical flaviviruses ( ...
"Regulation of Apoptosis during Flavivirus Infection". Viruses. 9 (9): 243. doi:10.3390/v9090243. PMC 5618009. PMID 28846635. ...
"Feasibility of cross-protective vaccination against flaviviruses of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex". Expert Rev ...
... flaviviruses, pestiviruses, statoviruses, tombusviruses, single-stranded RNA bacteriophages, hepatitis C virus and a subset of ... an alphavirus supergroup plus a flavivirus supergroup; the dsRNA viruses; and the -ve strand viruses. The lentivirus group ... This analysis suggests that alphaviruses and flaviviruses can be separated into two families-the Togaviridae and Flaviridae, ...
Several other tick-borne flaviviruses have not been known to cause human nor animal diseases, and their potential pathogenicity ... Turell, Michael J.; Apperson, Charles (18 August 2015). "Experimental Transmission of Karshi (Mammalian Tick-Borne Flavivirus ... Gerhard Dobler (January 2010). "Zoonotic tick-borne flaviviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. 140 (3-4): 221-228. doi:10.1016/j. ... Tick-borne flaviviruses are among the most important viruses in the world, primarily Europe and Asia. Tick-borne encephalitis ...
Dobler G (January 2010). "Zoonotic tick-borne flaviviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. Zoonoses: Advances and Perspectives. 140 ... a flavivirus from family Flaviviridae. Lineage 2 POWV is also known as deer tick virus (DTV) Vector: Ixodes cookei, Ix. ... a flavivirus from family Flaviviridae Vector: deer tick (Ixodes scapularis), Ixodes ricinus (Europe), Ixodes persulcatus ( ... jingmenvirus group in the flavivirus family Vector: tick (likely Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus), mosquitoes Region: Inner ...
Comparison with the genomes of other viruses showed that its closest relatives are the Mediterranean Ochlerotatus flavivirus ( ... "Novel Flaviviruses Detected in Different Species of Mosquitoes in Spain" (PDF). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 12 (3): 223 ... "Novel insect-specific flavivirus isolated from northern Europe". Virology. 433 (2): 471-478. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2012.08.038. ... "A novel insect-specific flavivirus replicates only in Aedes-derived cells and persists at high prevalence in wild Aedes vigilax ...
Among them are Flaviviruses such as Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus, Zika virus, Coronaviruses, including alpha- and ... Cardosa, M. J.; Porterfield, J. S.; Gordon, S. (1983-07-01). "Complement receptor mediates enhanced flavivirus replication in ... This mechanism has been shown for Ebola virus in vitro and some flaviviruses in vivo. When an antibody to a virus is unable to ...
Like other flaviviruses, the TBEV genome codes for ten viral proteins, three structural, and seven nonstructural (NS). The ... TBEV is a member of the genus Flavivirus. Other close relatives, members of the TBEV serocomplex, include Omsk hemorrhagic ...
... virus belongs to genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. There are four subtypes: British, Irish, Spanish and ...
Best researches interactions between pathogenic viruses and the host immune response using flavivirus as a model. Best earned a ... She investigated virus-host interactions involved in flavivirus pathogenesis. It was during this time that she developed her ... Her virus models include emerging flaviviruses (such as Zika virus and encephalitis) and filoviruses (Ebola virus). In 2011, ... Best was awarded a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers for her work on flavivirus suppression of ...
As in other flaviviruses, such as the similarly sized West Nile virus, the RNA genome encodes seven nonstructural proteins and ... Flaviviruses replicate in the cytoplasm, but Zika antigens have been found in infected cell nuclei. The viral protein numbered ... Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, 10 kilobase, positive ... Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, thus is related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese ...
In flavivirus virions, the fusion peptide is buried in dimmers of the fusion glycoprotein E. At low pH, the dimmers are ... Since Enebbe Bat Virus is in the Genus Flavivirus, the structure is Icosadedral-like with a Pseudo T=3 symmetry with a diameter ... Entebbe bat virus is an infectious disease caused by a Flavivirus that is closely related to yellow fever. Little is known ... Entebbe Bat Virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus within the family of Flaviviredae. Its order is Unassigned. Based on the ...
A positive test for West Nile IgG in the absence of a positive West Nile IgM is indicative of a previous flavivirus infection ... It is common in serologic testing for cross-reactions to occur among flaviviruses such as dengue virus (DENV) and tick-borne ... This structure is similar to the dengue fever virus; both belong to the genus Flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae. The ... Zeidner NS, Higgs S, Happ CM, Beaty BJ, Miller BR (1999). "Mosquito feeding modulates Th1 and Th2 cytokines in flavivirus ...
This compound also has weak in vitro activity against flavivirus. Berberine Jatrorrhizine Phellodendrine Wang YM, Zhao LB, Lin ...
... (LGTV) is a virus of the genus Flavivirus. The virus was first isolated in Malaysia in 1956 from a hard tick of ...
"Isolation of a novel species of flavivirus and a new strain of Culex flavivirus (Flaviviridae) from a natural mosquito ... Viruses transmitted almost exclusively by arthropods: Bunyavirus, Flavivirus, and Togavirus. Some Reoviruses are transmitted ...
WHO released the recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2021 southern hemisphere influenza season. They are: an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like.... read more ...
WHO released the recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2021 southern hemisphere influenza season. They are: an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like.... read more ...
WHO released the recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2021 southern hemisphere influenza season. They are: an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like.... read more ...
WHO released the recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2021 southern hemisphere influenza season. They are: an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like.... read more ...
WHO released the recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2021 southern hemisphere influenza season. They are: an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like.... read more ...
WHO released the recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2021 southern hemisphere influenza season. They are: an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like.... read more ...
WHO released the recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2021 southern hemisphere influenza season. They are: an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like.... read more ...
  • Flavivirus is a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses in the family Flaviviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus includes the West Nile virus, dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus and several other viruses which may cause encephalitis, as well as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) such as cell fusing agent virus (CFAV), Palm Creek virus (PCV), and Parramatta River virus (PaRV). (wikipedia.org)
  • The known non-arboviruses of the flavivirus family reproduce in either arthropods or vertebrates, but not both, with one odd member of the genus affecting a nematode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavivirus 5' UTR are untranslated regions in the genome of viruses in the genus Flavivirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zika virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus , and is an arbovirus transmitted mainly by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes (Stegomyia). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ZIKV is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family, Flavivirus genus, and is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitos (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Kuno G, Chang G‐JJ, Tsuchiya KR, Karabatsos N and Cropp CB (1998) Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus. (els.net)
  • The Flavivirus genus is composed by viral serocomplexes with relevant global epidemiological impact. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family is composed by over than 70 viral species with relevant global epidemiological impact. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Flavivirus genus is involved in important chapters of both, World and Brazilian epidemiology histories. (frontiersin.org)
  • Flaviviridae flavivirus is the largest genus and is often insect-borne. (healthmap.org)
  • Many dozens of species in the flavivirus genus have been identified, including some important zoonotic diseases. (healthmap.org)
  • The causative agent of this emerging disease was identified as the new duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), a member of the Ntaya virus group in the genus Flavivirus ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The Flavivirus genus constitutes some of the most serious human pathogens including Japanese encephalitis, dengue and yellow fever. (indigo.ca)
  • Approximately half of the world's population is at risk of being infected with members of the genus Flavivirus , with 2.5 billion people at risk of infection from the dengue viruses alone ( 8 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Serological diagnosis of flavivirus infections is complicated by the antigenic similarities among the Flavivirus genus. (mdpi.com)
  • The replication of dengue, West Nile and three strains of Zika (genus Flavivirus ), and Ross River, Barmah Forest and Sindbis (genus Alphavirus ) viruses was compared in w AlbB-infected cells with Wolbachia -free controls. (springer.com)
  • Dengue fever, a neglected emerging disease for which no vaccine or antiviral agents exist at present, is caused by dengue virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus in the genus Flavivirus , family Flaviviridae (1). (freethesaurus.com)
  • In addition to the flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus ), the family includes 2 other genera, the hepaciviruses (genus Hepacivirus, which includes hepatitis C virus and GB virus B) and pestiviruses (genus Pestivirus, which includes bovine viral diarrhea virus and classical swine fever virus). (freethesaurus.com)
  • The Flaviviridae family, Flavivirus genus, consists of a variety of viruses transmitted by blood-feeding arthropod species, several of which represent emergent or reemergent pathogens including Zika (ZIKV), Dengue (DENV), Yellow Fever (YFV), Japanese Encephalitis (JEV), and West Nile (WNV) viruses. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Members of this family belong to a single genus, Flavivirus , and cause widespread morbidity and mortality throughout the world. (eenzyme.com)
  • The embryos virus (DTMUV), a member of the Ntaya virus group in died within 3-5 days after inoculation, with severe cu- the genus Flavivirus ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a previously little-known flavivirus closely related to Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, and yellow fever viruses, all of which are primarily transmitted by blood-sucking mosquitoes. (springer.com)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) belongs to flavivirus family which was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest, Uganda in 1947 (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • UT Southwestern researchers report the use of CRISPR genome-wide screening to identify a gene that helps cells resist flavivirus infection, including West Nile virus, dengue fever, Zika virus, and yellow fever. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Flaviviruses, including Zika , West Nile virus and dengue virus , can lead to severe illness and death. (biotechniques.com)
  • Better designed vaccines for insect-spread viruses like dengue and Zika are likely after researchers discovered models of immature flavivirus particles were originally misinterpreted. (news-medical.net)
  • After collecting data and comparing it with every known mammal and bird species on Earth, scientists from the University of California, Davis, have identified wildlife species that are the most likely to host flaviviruses such as Zika, West Nile, dengue and yellow fever. (news-medical.net)
  • Flaviviruses comprise several medically important viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV). (asm.org)
  • The Competitive Intelligence Report „Flavivirus Vaccines: Zika, Dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile, Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis & Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Vaccines" provides a competitor evaluation in the field of vaccines on the market or in research & development for prevention of flavivirus-induced diseases as of February 2016. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Companies with experience and expertise with Flavivirus vaccine development are thought to have an advantage over competitors as they might be able to shorten the time until a Zika vaccine can be brought to market. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Envelope Protein - To complement our flavivirus NS1 and VLP proteins, we also offer soluble Zika virus Envelope protein for use in serological based diagnostic assays. (2bscientific.com)
  • Our chimeric flavivirus envelope antibody is based upon the popular clone 4G2, which is specific for a well-defined conserved epitope on many key flaviviruses, including Denque, Zika, West Nile and Yellow Fever viruses. (2bscientific.com)
  • Here we sought to define how host cell translation is regulated during infection of human cells with dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), two positive-strand RNA flaviviruses. (asm.org)
  • Flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), rely heavily on the availability of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes throughout their lifecycle and degradation of ER membranes restricts flavivirus replication. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The Flavivirus species including Dengue virus, Zika virus and yellow fever virus are transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. (ncbs.res.in)
  • and it has been proposed that ISFVs potentially could be used to alter the vector competence of mosquitoes and reduce transmission of specific flavivirus pathogens, such as dengue, West Nile, or Zika viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Common clinically-relevant flavivirus diseases include Zika, dengue fever, West Nile fever, yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis. (uniquest.com.au)
  • In addition, differential testing was performed for other flaviviruses, namely dengue, Zika and West Nile viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zika computer virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that offers rapidly pass on through the Americas and offers been associated with fetal abnormalities, including microcephaly. (columbiagypsy.net)
  • Flaviviruses are predominantly transmitted by a mosquito vector, but Zika virus is the first Flavivirus to demonstrate sexual transmission. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Like other Flaviviruses , Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral, and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, 10 kb positive-sense RNA genome. (eenzyme.com)
  • Flaviviruses are small enveloped viruses with virions comprised of three proteins called C, M and E [ PMID: 8676481 , PMID: 7913359 , PMID: 8437237 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Opening doors to the possibility of developing new vaccines and antiviral agents to fight a host of insect-borne diseases, scientists have, for the first time, determined the structure of a family of viruses known as the flaviviruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because all flavivirus are closely related, Kuhn says studying the structure of the dengue virus will reveal strategies that can be used to study other viruses in the family. (eurekalert.org)
  • The flavivirus family contains a number of medically important viruses that have proved to be difficult to control and study," he says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Flaviviruses are positive-sense RNA viruses, and many are important human pathogens. (springer.com)
  • involve generating recombinant cDNA clones for several viruses in the alpha- and flavivirus genera. (juju.com)
  • TBEV, another encephalitic flavivirus known to cause severe infections in humans and dogs, belongs to the group of mammalian tick-borne viruses [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The resulting 'hot spot' maps show regions of the world with high diversity of potential wildlife hosts of flaviviruses -- viruses mostly spread by mosquitoes and ticks. (news-medical.net)
  • Flaviviruses are small, positive sense RNA viruses that can cause yellow fever, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile virus in addition to tick-borne encephalitis (Hetnz and Stiasny 2012). (kenyon.edu)
  • Flaviviruses exact an enormous toll in terms of illness and death worldwide," notes NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "Because this is a relatively new field of study, everything we learn about how these viruses operate is significant. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The researchers say the culture model will greatly increase knowledge about how flaviviruses infect ticks and could become a tool to evaluate medical countermeasures against tick-borne viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Detection, Diagnosis and Vaccine Development , the third volume of The Flaviviruses details the current status of technologies for detection and differentiation of these viruses, their use in surveillance and outbreak investigation, and also reviews the latest clinical research. (indigo.ca)
  • These studies define BPIFB3 as a required host factor for both DENV and ZIKV replication and further contribute to our understanding of the requirements for autophagy during flavivirus infection.Flaviviruses and other arthropod transmitted viruses represent a widespread global health problem with limited treatment options currently available. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In Europe, many flaviviruses are endemic (West Nile, Usutu, tick-borne encephalitis viruses) or occasionally imported (dengue, yellow fever viruses). (mdpi.com)
  • This genome organization implies that mature viral proteins are produced by posttranslational cleavage of a polyprotein precursor and has implications for flavivirus RNA replication and for the evolutionary relation of this virus family to other RNA viruses. (caltech.edu)
  • We analysed the complete coding sequences of all recognized species of Aedes-borne flavivirus, including previously uncharacterized viruses within the yellow fever virus (YFV), Spondweni virus (SPOV) and dengue virus (DENV) groups. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • This analysis supported previous evidence that Culex-borne flaviviruses have evolved from ancestral Aedes-borne viruses. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • mutations that may modify the envelope protein structure were identified for seven viruses within the YFV group, and an expansion of host-vector range was identified in the two major evolutionary lineages, which in turn may facilitate the emergence of mosquito-borne flaviviruses. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • The new chimeric viruses are formed by splicing the genes that code for the specific antigenic elements of a vertebrate-infecting flavivirus (VIF) into the genome backbone of an insect-specific flavivirus (ISF). (uniquest.com.au)
  • Two genera of viruses responsible for significant numbers of human disease cases are Flavivirus and Alphavirus . (springer.com)
  • Although all four viruses caused placental infection, only infection with the neurotropic flaviviruses (WNV and POWV) resulted in fetal demise. (sciencemag.org)
  • The results obtained from this study indicate that IFA showed a significantly better discrimination for flavivirus specific IgM antibodies than did the standard IgM specific EIAs (the overall cross-reactivity varied between 4 and 10% by IFA and 30-44% by EIA for the respective viruses). (eur.nl)
  • We aim at characterizing the role of PDZ/PBM interactions in the life cycle of different flaviviruses, namely WNV, JEV, DV and ZIKV viruses. (pasteur.fr)
  • Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, several of which represent emerging or re-emerging pathogens responsible for widespread infections with consequences ranging from asymptomatic seroconversion to severe clinical diseases and congenital developmental deficits. (pasteur.fr)
  • Flaviviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses infecting more than 100 million people a year with the main representatives including West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Antigen-capture solid phase immunoassays employing flavivirus monoclonal antibodies MAB for the detection of yellow fever YF or dengue DEN viruses in cell cultures and serum have recently been reported. (dtic.mil)
  • The chimeric viruses are constructed to contain amino acid mutations in the nonstructural viral proteins of a flavivirus. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Chimeric viruses containing the attenuation-mutated nonstructural genes of the virus are used as a backbone into which the structural genes of a second flavivirus strain are inserted. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The attenuated chimeric viruses are effective as immunogens or vaccines and may be combined in a pharmaceutical composition to confer simultaneous immunity against several strains of pathogenic flaviviruses. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The findings, published in Friday's (3/8) issue of the scientific journal Cell, provide the first detailed view of a flavivirus and offer structural information that can be used to unravel the processes that lead to viral infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • However following some infections - such as those due to the alphaviruses and flaviviruses - IgM persists for months to years, and may only be used as presumptive evidence of recent infection. (health.gov.au)
  • to investigate antibody response against Flaviviruses and differentiation of Flavivirus antibody repertoirs after infection or vaccination. (juju.com)
  • Only low levels of viremia are induced after infection with most flaviviruses (apart from dengue), so diagnosis is confirmed mainly through serological tools. (hindawi.com)
  • A reported 40 percent of the world's population is at risk for dengue infection, with a rising number of home-grown cases occurring in the U.S. Dengue infection is caused by any of four related flaviviruses. (uvm.edu)
  • Interferon is so critical for recovery from these infections that it is being tested in clinical trials to treat infection with various flaviviruses. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Although Japanese encephalitis has declined as an important cause of illness and death in Japan, infection with other flaviviruses has become a public health concern. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection by other flaviviruses, including an increase in imported dengue cases and isolations of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, is becoming a public health threat. (cdc.gov)
  • Flavivirus infection of Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) ex vivo organotypic cultures and application for control. (nih.gov)
  • Animals previously infected (≥420 days) with DENV2, DENV4, or yellow fever virus were compared to flavivirus-naïve animals following infection with a Brazilian ZIKV strain. (harvard.edu)
  • Despite these findings, no significant differences between flavivirus-naïve and immune animals were observed in viral titers, neutralizing antibody levels, or immune cell kinetics following ZIKV infection. (harvard.edu)
  • These results indicate that prior infection with heterologous flaviviruses neither conferred protection nor increased observed ZIKV titers in this non-human primate ZIKV infection model. (harvard.edu)
  • Together, these studies further define the immune evasion potential of NS1 in reducing the functional capacity of C4 in complement activation and control of flavivirus infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • The presence of flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies in human sera creates two public health concerns upon secondary infection with heterologous flaviviruses. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, the presence of subneutralizing levels of flavivirus cross-reactive serum antibodies may result in an increase in the severity of secondary flavivirus infections due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), particularly after secondary DENV infection ( 18 , 27 , 50 , 52 ). (asm.org)
  • Vaccination and immunization strategies to design Aedes aegypti salivary protein based subunit vaccine tackling Flavivirus infection. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Here, we develop the rationale and strategy for a new approach to developing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) vaccines for ZKV flavivirus infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Koraka P , Zeller H , Niedrig M , Osterhaus AD , Groen J . Reactivity of serum samples from patients with a flavivirus infection measured by immunofluorescence assay and ELISA. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Forty-seven serum samples from patients with a defined flavivirus infection were tested. (eur.nl)
  • Interestingly, a larger NS1-related protein, NS1′, is often detected during infection with the members of the Japanese encephalitis virus serogroup of flaviviruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This challenge remains because of cross-reactivity among flaviviruses, especially in a context of secondary flavivirus infection or previous immunization. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Other studies have used CRISPR genetic screens to identify cellular genes that are required for flavivirus infection. (freethesaurus.com)
  • The interactions of the flavivirus envelope proteins: implications for virus entry and release. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Positive identification of NS4A, the last of the hypothetical nonstructural proteins of flaviviruses. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Organization of the flavivirus genome and expression of proteins (genes are not drawn to scale). (els.net)
  • Structure and functionality in flavivirus NS-proteins: perspectives for drug design. (springer.com)
  • We found that epitopes capable of eliciting flavivirus cross-protective immunity to a wide range of human populations are concentrated in proteins E, NS3, and NS5. (frontiersin.org)
  • The genomic RNA is translated into a viral polyprotein, which is cleaved by viral and cellular proteases, to originate flavivirus proteins ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Flaviviruses are small and have only seven nonstructural and three structural proteins. (kenyon.edu)
  • Kumar, M. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Proteins in Flavivirus Replication and Assembly Complexes. (mdpi.com)
  • 2019. "Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Proteins in Flavivirus Replication and Assembly Complexes" Pathogens 8, no. 3: 148. (mdpi.com)
  • The Native Antigen Company offers an extensive range of flavivirus antigens, expressed as both recombinant proteins in our mammalian expression system and native viral preparations. (2bscientific.com)
  • Most of the seven flavivirus nonstructural proteins (NS1 to NS5) encoded in the distal two-thirds of the RNA positive-sense genome are believed to be essential components of RNA replication complexes. (asm.org)
  • Flaviviruses have a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome of 10.7 kb that is transcribed into a single polyprotein precursor encoding three structural proteins, the capsid (C), premembrane (prM), and envelope (E) proteins, and seven nonstructural proteins ( 36 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • This study was designed to develop a subunit vaccine using Aedes mosquito salivary proteins targeting the aforementioned Flaviviruses. (ncbs.res.in)
  • The non-structural proteins were involved in flavivirus assembly (20). (freethesaurus.com)
  • Flavivirus replication is mediated by a complex machinery that consists of viral enzymes, nonenzymatic viral proteins, and host factors. (meta.org)
  • This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections. (health.gov.au)
  • Readers should be aware that cross-reacting IgM can occur, particularly with flavivirus infections. (health.gov.au)
  • West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are flaviviruses responsible for severe neuroinvasive infections in humans and horses. (hindawi.com)
  • The confirmation of flavivirus infections is mostly based on rapid serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). (hindawi.com)
  • In order to improve the serological differentiation of flavivirus infections, the recombinant soluble ectodomain of WNV E (WNV.sE) and EDIIIs (rEDIIIs) of WNV, JEV, and TBEV were synthesised using the Drosophila S2 expression system. (hindawi.com)
  • The microspheres coupled to WNV.sE or rEDIIIs were assayed with about 300 equine immune sera from natural and experimental flavivirus infections and 172 nonimmune equine sera as negative controls. (hindawi.com)
  • Although some dengue infections are asymptomatic, severe infections of this flavivirus can cause hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome and have a higher risk of complications and death. (uvm.edu)
  • Human flavivirus infections stimulate virus species-specific as well as flavivirus cross-reactive immune responses. (asm.org)
  • Flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies in human sera create a serious problem for serodiagnosis, especially for secondary flavivirus infections, due to the difficulty of differentiating primary from secondary cross-reactive serum antibodies. (asm.org)
  • The presence of subneutralizing levels of flavivirus cross-reactive serum antibodies may result in a dramatic increase in the severity of secondary flavivirus infections via antibody-dependent enhancement. (asm.org)
  • Human infections by flaviviruses elicit humoral immune responses resulting in the production of virus species-specific as well as flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies ( 9 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • Firstly, serodiagnosis of secondary flavivirus infections, especially in areas with multiple cocirculating flaviviruses, can be particularly difficult due to the inability to differentiate cross-reactive antibodies elicited by primary infections from those elicited by secondary infections, using the currently available viral antigens. (asm.org)
  • If these or other neurotropic flaviviruses take off in the human population, then we may again experience congenital infections with devastating effects. (sciencemag.org)
  • Flavivirus infections are a significant public health problem, since several members of the Flaviviridae family are highly pathogenic to humans. (eur.nl)
  • The flavivirus IFA is a useful tool for the identification of flavivirus infections during the acute stage of disease. (eur.nl)
  • Host genetic control of mosquito-borne Flavivirus infections. (pasteur.fr)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the host genes and variants which modify susceptibility or resistance to major mosquito-borne flaviviruses infections in mice and humans. (pasteur.fr)
  • Nucleic acid-based inhibition of flavivirus infections. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Routine diagnosis of Flavivirus infections is usually made either through antibody detection by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) or RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction), depending on the phase of the disease. (freethesaurus.com)
  • The flavivirus family includes a number of dangerous insect-borne diseases such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, tick-borne encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. (mdpi.com)
  • Many flaviviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), or dengue virus are emerging or reemerging diseases threatening humans and/or animals [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, have made the surprising discovery that flaviviruses, which cause such serious diseases as West Nile fever, yellow fever and forms of encephalitis, evade immune system defenses in different ways depending on whether they are transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. (rxpgnews.com)
  • So, the fact that West Nile virus first appeared or emerged in the U.S. in 1999 should warn us about the potential for tick-borne flaviviruses to emerge on other continents. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Flaviviruses are the cause of diseases spread by mosquitoes (e.g., dengue fever and West Nile fever) and by ticks (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate this, we tested the capacity of four emerging arboviruses [West Nile virus (WNV), Powassan virus (POWV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Mayaro virus (MAYV)] from related (flavivirus) and unrelated (alphavirus) genera to infect the placenta and fetus in immunocompetent, wild-type mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • The natural history and potential impact of mosquito-specific flaviviruses on the transmission efficiency of West Nile virus (WNV) is unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we report studies of the antigenic relationship of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), two zoonotic flaviviruses from Italy, together with a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain and compared them with their genetic relationship using the immunodominant viral E protein. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • 6. The tetravalent immunogenic composition of claim 1, further comprising an immunogenic composition for a flavivirus selected from the group consisting of West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, and a combination of two or more thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Flaviviruses are arboviruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family. (pasteur.fr)
  • Monash's Associate Professor Fasséli Coulibaly, a co-leader of the study, said the revelation could lead to new and better vaccines for flaviviruses, which have a huge disease burden globally. (news-medical.net)
  • Dr. Bloom says that all flaviviruses have a similar genomic structure, and many scientists thought they would use the same survival mechanism and respond to the same vaccines and therapies, but the RML work shows otherwise. (rxpgnews.com)
  • There are no antiviral drug therapies for any of the flaviviruses, and effective human vaccines are in high demand for many of the medically important species. (asm.org)
  • There are currently no WNV or DENV vaccines licensed for human use, yet vaccines exist against other flaviviruses. (sparrho.com)
  • The Flavivirus positive-oriented, single-stranded RNA genome has a length of 10,000 - 11,000 bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavivirus genome organization, expression, and replication. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Genome-wide investigations have identified a number of ER multiprotein complexes as vital factors for flavivirus replication. (mdpi.com)
  • Based on these and our previous complementation results, we have generated a map of cis - and trans -acting elements in RNA replication for the nonstructural coding region of the flavivirus genome. (asm.org)
  • The sequence of the entire RNA genome of the type flavivirus, yellow fever virus, has been obtained. (caltech.edu)
  • However, distinctive samples were also tested with universal primers for amplification of flavivirus genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Flaviviruses constitute an increasing source of public health concern, with growing numbers of pathogens causing disease and geographic spread to temperate climates. (asm.org)
  • The complement system plays a pivotal protective role in the innate immune response to many pathogens including flaviviruses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Some of these agents are closely related to important mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens. (ajtmh.org)
  • Flaviviruses are globally distributed and dengue virus alone infects around 400 million people annually,' Dr Coulibaly said. (news-medical.net)
  • Dengue virus-specific and Flavivirus group determinants identified with monoclonal antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. (atcc.org)
  • This region of the virus envelope is also highly conserved among other Flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus and Dengue virus (DV). (jimmunol.org)
  • Since immune cross reactivity has been reported within the Dengue virus serogroup, we hypothesized that T cells specific for this A*0201 restricted WNV stretch of envelope would cross-recognize different flaviviruses due to epitope conservation. (jimmunol.org)
  • In comparison, two tick-borne flaviviruses (louping-ill and Langat) and a member of the dengue virus subgroup (dengue-2 virus) remained virulent for mice following six passages in HeLa cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus classified into four serotypes (DENV-1-4) that causes Dengue fever (DF), Dengue hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) or Dengue shock syndrome (DSS). (elsevier.com)
  • These data demonstrate that cellular immunity is cross-reactive among different Flaviviruses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our NS1 antibodies are highly specific, and overcome the inherent cross-reactivity of patient sera to different flaviviruses. (2bscientific.com)
  • The 5' UTR of flaviviruses are highly structured, has a length of approximately 100 nucleotides and harbors two conserved RNA secondary structures which are vital for the viral life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structure of a novel conformational state of the flavivirus NS3 protein: implications for polyprotein processing and viral replication. (springer.com)
  • Flaviviruses viral particles have icosahedral capsid, are enveloped and present a single stranded genomic RNA of positive sense ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 2021) The structure of an infectious immature flavivirus redefines viral architecture and maturation. (news-medical.net)
  • Juan Santiago Salas-Benito and Mónica De Nova-Ocampo, "Viral Interference and Persistence in Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses," Journal of Immunology Research , vol. 2015, Article ID 873404, 14 pages, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • We sought to reduce or ablate these viral phenotypes of TP21 and E5 by using a strategy that had been used successfully in the past to reduce neurovirulence and abolish neuroinvasiveness of TBEV, namely substitution of structural protein genes of the tick-borne flavivirus for the corresponding genes of dengue type 4 virus (DEN4). (pnas.org)
  • Flaviviruses are known for their complex life cycles and epidemic spread, and are considered a globally-emergent viral threat. (indigo.ca)
  • Flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a secreted nonstructural glycoprotein that accumulates in plasma to high levels and is displayed on the surface of infected cells but absent from viral particles. (jimmunol.org)
  • Structure, Replication and Evolution is the first volume of The Flaviviruses and presents the latest research covering the conceptual advances on aspects such as the characterization of virus structure, cellular receptors, mechanisms of virus entry, host and viral components of the RNA replicase. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The flavivirus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 is an enigmatic protein whose structure and mechanistic function have remained somewhat elusive ever since it was first reported in 1970 as a viral antigen circulating in the sera of dengue-infected patients. (nih.gov)
  • The study released this week online in the Journal of Virology describes how a single virus protein--NS5--from the tick-borne Langat flavivirus counteracts the natural ability of interferon to combat the virus. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Thus, we evaluated the impact of heterotypic flavivirus immunity on ZIKV titers in biofluids of rhesus macaques. (harvard.edu)
  • Our study highlights the importance of the host factor BPIFB3 in regulating flavivirus replication and further confirms that the RETREG1-dependent reticulophagy pathway is antiviral to both DENV and ZIKV. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Thus, ATCC ® VR-1852™ contains both MOPC21 protein and flavivirus group-specific antibody of the IgG2aκ isotype. (atcc.org)
  • The antibody is reported to be strongly reactive with many flaviviruses. (atcc.org)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody prepared against the group antigen of flaviviruses was purified from clone D1-4G2-4-15 hybridoma supernatant by protein G affinity chromatography. (atcc.org)
  • Children older than 18 months may have preexisting flavivirus antibody. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The aim of this trial is to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a two-dose schedule of a tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine in flavivirus antibody naïve infants beginning at 12-15 months of age. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, antibody cross-reactivity could be advantageous in efforts to control emerging flaviviruses because it ensures partial cross-protection. (mdpi.com)
  • Flavivirus-induced antibody cross-reactivity. (sparrho.com)
  • Attention has been directed at the identification and characterization of MAB with broad flavivirus group-reactive domain as determined by competitive binding assay with the expectation that such antibody combination will provide the best opportunity for antigen binding and therefore maximum assay sensitivity. (dtic.mil)
  • 1989) Antigenic relationships among flaviviruses as determined by cross‐neutralization tests with polyclonal antisera. (els.net)
  • These tests suffer from poor specificity, mainly due to antigenic cross-reactivity among flavivirus members. (hindawi.com)
  • These properties of antigenic crossreactivity and virulence polymorphism suggested that successful immunization might be achieved by using a live, naturally attenuated tick-borne flavivirus. (pnas.org)
  • This will provide a more in deep knowledge of antigenic relationships between flaviviruses. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Some of the antigenic changes have been proposed to have a bearing on the attenuation observed, however, it is believed that loss of HA ability has no function in the attenuation of flavivirus virulence. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Two major phylogenetic lineages were revealed: one included the YFV and Entebbe bat virus groups, and the other included the DENV, SPOV and Culex-borne flavivirus groups. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Recombinant subviral particles from tick-borne encephalitis virus are fusogenic and provide a model system for studying flavivirus envelope glycoprotein functions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein ectodomain is composed of three domains (D) named DI, DII, and DIII, with EDIII containing virus-specific epitopes. (hindawi.com)
  • The flavivirus E glycoprotein, the primary antigen that induces protective immunity, is essential for membrane fusion and mediates binding to cellular receptors. (asm.org)
  • An understanding of flavivirus E-glycoprotein cross-reactive epitopes is therefore critical for improving public health responses to these serious diseases. (asm.org)
  • We identified six E-glycoprotein residues that are incorporated into three distinct flavivirus cross-reactive epitopes. (asm.org)
  • Such identification of both, immunological determinants and patterns of immune response involved in flavivirus cross-protective immunity should be considered in future vaccine development. (frontiersin.org)
  • During the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the recognition and characterization of novel insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs). (ajtmh.org)
  • The cellular ribosome is crucial to the replication of the flavivirus, as it translates the RNA, in a similar fashion to cellular mRNA, resulting in the synthesis of a single polyprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flaviviruses encode a single polyprotein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Such epitopes were analyzed regarding their conservation, population coverage, and location along flavivirus polyprotein. (frontiersin.org)
  • we also address the consequences of flavivirus circulation and vaccination for host immunity. (mdpi.com)
  • This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations. (mdpi.com)
  • Vanlandingham, D.L. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • This review explores the transmission of mosquito-borne flaviviruses in urban areas of Vietnam. (ilri.org)
  • Six passages of the mosquito borne flavivirus, yellow fever (YF) wild-type strain Asibi in HeLa cells attenuates the virus for monkeys and newborn mice. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Development of a Rapid Solid Phase Immunoassay for the Detection of Flavivirus Antigens in Human Blood and Mosquito Vectors. (dtic.mil)
  • Most flaviviruses are arboviruses that can be transmitted by ticks, Aedes or Culex mosquitoes, or by unknown vectors [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Flaviviruses are predominantly carried and transmitted by mosquitoes and often infect humans, causing widespread morbidity and mortality. (uniquest.com.au)
  • The goal of our work has been the development of a generic flavivirus detection system and emphasis has been placed on an enzyme-linked immunoassay ELISA for the detection of DEN-infected mosquitoes. (dtic.mil)
  • By highlighting regions with a high diversity of species that should be newly prioritised in the global surveillance of flaviviruses, they have enabled the creation of maps highlighting the hotspots where new flavivirus outbreaks are most likely to emerge. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These include regions where flaviviruses have not been detected but that have wildlife species with the potential to harbor them. (news-medical.net)
  • For the study, researchers collected all the published data on wildlife species that have tested positive for flaviviruses. (news-medical.net)
  • However, in contrast to RNA polymerases of other Flavivirus species, purified KUN NS5 polymerase produced a single, full-length replicon RNA product, thus demonstrating efficient processivity. (nih.gov)
  • Here we test the ability of w AlbB to reduce or block the replication of a range of Flavivirus and Alphavirus species in cell culture. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, cross-reactive epitopes presented in this work may be involved in dynamics of diseases caused by flaviviruses worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, most flavivirus antibodies are directed against the highly immunogenic envelope protein, which contains both flavivirus cross-reactive and virus-specific epitopes. (mdpi.com)
  • Our portfolio includes a unique oanel of highly specific antibodies for flaviviruses, with no cross-reactivity to other members of the flavivirus family. (2bscientific.com)
  • In contrast, the detection of flavivirus specific IgG antibodies showed high cross-reactions in both IFA and EIAs (overall cross-reactivity 16-71 and 62-84%, respectively). (eur.nl)
  • To investigate flavivirus cross-reactivity, sera from a human cohort with a history of vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and yellow fever virus (YFV) were tested for antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test. (sparrho.com)
  • However, since the available broadly group-reactive MAB has been found to exhibit at least some degree of cross-competition, flavivirus type-specific detector MAB directed at sites distant from the group-reactive domain have been extensively used to evaluate the properties of potential flavivirus group-reactive capture antibodies. (dtic.mil)
  • Initial assays demonstrated the capacity of the YF-derived antibodies to capture prototype flaviviruses. (dtic.mil)
  • The translated download molecular virology and control of flaviviruses is not induce. (vortechonline.com)
  • Sawabe, Kyoko 2012-05-01 00:00:00 Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus that has recently been detected in various Culex spp. (deepdyve.com)
  • The discovery may help scientists develop antiviral compounds and other strategies to target dengue and other diseases caused by flaviviruses, says Richard Kuhn, associate professor of biological sciences and lead author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • This innovative multiplex immunoassay is a powerful alternative to ELISAs and VNTs for veterinary diagnosis of flavivirus-related diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • The unusual model involves culturing organs taken from Ixodes scapularis ticks and then infecting those organ cultures with flaviviruses, according to researchers at Rocky Mountain Laboratories, part of NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). (nih.gov)
  • Flavivirus causes arthropod-borne severe diseases that sometimes lead to the death. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Flavivirus structure and membrane fusion. (nih.gov)
  • Kunjin virus (KUN) is an Australian flavivirus closely related to other members of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus subgroup ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • The NS5 protein of the flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) contains conserved sequence motifs characteristic of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity. (nih.gov)
  • Accurate diagnosis and differentiation of the infecting virus is important, especially in areas where many flaviviruses are circulating. (eur.nl)
  • This study clearly stated the complexity of flavivirus diagnosis, showing that one cannot rely on one assay or search for one virus only. (eur.nl)
  • NS1 was discovered in 1970 in the serum of a patient infected with dengue and it was later discovered that all flavivirus NS1 genes were highly homologous. (kenyon.edu)
  • All flavivirus NS1 genes share a high degree of homology, encoding a 352-amino-acid polypeptide that has a molecular weight of 46-55 kDa, depending on its glycosylation status. (nih.gov)
  • Even though LGT has low-level neurovirulence for humans, it, and its more attenuated egg-passage derivative, strain E5, exhibit significant neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness in normal mice, albeit less than that associated with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the most virulent of the tick-borne flaviviruses. (pnas.org)
  • the less-familiar tick-borne flaviviruses are just as serious, causing tick-borne encephalitis or hemorrhagic fevers. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a zoonotic flavivirus that occurs on the Eurasian continent and causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans, is considered medically the most important arthropod vector transmitted virus in Europe. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NS5 protein of flaviviruses contains motifs for methyltransferase (MT) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) ( 25 , 26 , 34 ), and NS3 protein contains motifs for serine protease, nucleoside triphosphatase, and helicase ( 16 , 17 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • This review highlights the fact that the ER multiprotein complexes are crucial for the formation of flavivirus replication and assembly complexes, and the ER complexes could be considered as a target for developing successful broad-spectrum anti-flavivirus drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • Many areas of the world present both, vector fauna and geographical conditions compatible with co-circulation, importing, emergence, and epidemics of flaviviruses of different serocomplexes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Members of this family that infect humans frequently cause severe morbidity and mortality, and epidemics of flaviviruses continue to be a major public health concern worldwide. (asm.org)
  • The virus is closely related to Chinese DTMUVs and belongs to the Ntaya group of mosquitoborne flaviviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Powassan virus and the closely related deer tick virus are the only flaviviruses known to be spread by ticks in North America. (nih.gov)
  • Nonstructural protein 2B and 3 of the flaviviruses (NS2BNS3) form an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated hetero-dimeric complex through the NS2B transmembrane region. (springer.com)
  • Flavivirus NS1 is a nonstructural protein involved in virus replication and regulation of the innate immune response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Due to the temporal and geographical co-circulation of flaviviruses in Europe, flavivirus differentiation by diagnostic tests is crucial in the adaptation of surveillance and control efforts. (mdpi.com)
  • These results are discussed in the context of our model on formation and composition of the flavivirus replication complex, and we suggest molecular mechanisms by which functions of some defective components of the replication complex can be complemented by their wild-type counterparts expressed from another (helper) RNA molecule. (asm.org)
  • Memory T Cells in Flavivirus Vaccination. (sparrho.com)
  • In addition to E protein, flavivirus particles contains also another envelope protein (M) and the capsid protein (C) ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, T cell signaling to microglia drives post-infectious cognitive sequelae that are associated with emerging neurotropic flaviviruses. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, it is suggested that the attenuation of flaviviruses following passage in HeLa cells provides a model system to examine the molecular basis of attenuation of non-neurotropic flaviviruses. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • A general linear model was used to test for significant differences in replication between flaviviruses and alphaviruses. (springer.com)
  • In the search for a viable vaccine, over three decades of research has been focused on the structure and pathology of Flaviviruses. (kenyon.edu)
  • Langat virus (LGT) strain TP21 is the most attenuated of the tick-borne flaviviruses for humans. (pnas.org)
  • RML's Sonja Best, Ph.D., who spearheaded the Langat virus work, says the group will continue to study tick-borne flaviviruses by examining the role and location of NS5 in Powassan virus. (rxpgnews.com)
  • While dual-host flaviviruses can infect vertebrates as well as arthropods, insect-specific flaviviruses are restricted to their competent arthropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavivirus encephalitis include a number of entities which characteristically involve the basal ganglia and thalami . (radiopaedia.org)
  • 2. Turtle L, Griffiths MJ, Solomon T. Encephalitis caused by flaviviruses. (radiopaedia.org)
  • 3. Solomon T. Flavivirus encephalitis. (radiopaedia.org)
  • JE virus, a mosquitoborne flavivirus, is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • Tyrosine residue at 51th and 78th of piM are highly conserved during flaviviruses. (nii.ac.jp)

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