Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Encephalitis, Tick-Borne: Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)Flavivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.IndianaEncephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Encephalitis, Japanese: A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Hydranencephaly: A congenital condition where the greater portions of the cerebral hemispheres and CORPUS STRIATUM are replaced by CSF and glial tissue. The meninges and the skull are well formed, which is consistent with earlier normal embryogenesis of the telencephalon. Bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries in utero is a potential mechanism. Clinical features include intact brainstem reflexes without evidence of higher cortical activity. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p307)Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Border disease virus: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing a congenital sheep disease characterized by an abnormally hairy birth-coat, tremors, and poor growth.Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Border Disease: Congenital disorder of lambs caused by a virus closely related to or identical with certain strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus.Pestivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Job Application: Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Severe Dengue: A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. It was established in 1948.Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)

Noncytopathic flavivirus replicon RNA-based system for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. (1/427)

Noncytopathic replicons of the flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) were employed for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. Replicon vector C20DX2Arep, containing a unique cloning site followed by the sequence of 2A autoprotease of foot-and-mouth disease virus, was constructed and used for expression of a number of heterologous genes including chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), green fluorescent protein (GFP), beta-galactosidase, glycoprotein G of vesicular stomatitis virus, and the Core and NS3 genes of hepatitis C virus. The expression and proper processing of these genes upon transfection of BHK21 cells with the recombinant replicon RNAs were demonstrated by immunofluorescence, radioimmunoprecipitation, and appropriate reporter gene assays. Most of these recombinant KUN replicon RNAs were also successfully packaged into secreted virus-like particles (VLPs) by subsequent transfection with Semliki Forest virus replicon RNA expressing KUN structural genes. Infection of BHK21 and Vero cells with these VLPs resulted in continuous replication of the recombinant replicon RNAs and prolonged expression of the cloned genes without any cytopathic effect. We also developed a replicon vector for generation of stable cell lines continuously expressing heterologous genes by inserting an encephalomyelocarditis virus internal ribosomal entry site-neomycin transferase gene cassette into the 3'-untranslated region of the C20DX2Arep vector. Using this vector (C20DX2ArepNeo), stable BHK cell lines persistently expressing GFP and CAT genes for up to 17 passages were established. Thus noncytopathic KUN replicon vectors with the ability to be packaged into VLPs should provide a useful tool for the development of noninfectious and noncytopathic vaccines as well as for gene therapy applications.  (+info)

Mutation patterns for two flaviviruses: hepatitis C virus and GB virus C/hepatitis G virus. (2/427)

We studied the mutation patterns of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (HGV). Although the mutation patterns of the two viruses were similar to each other, they were quite different from that of HIV. In particular, the similarity of the patterns between HCV or HGV and human nuclear pseudogenes was statistically significant whereas there was no similarity between HIV and human nuclear pseudogenes. This finding suggests that the mutation patterns of HCV and HGV are similar to the patterns of spontaneous substitution mutations of human genes, implying that nucleotide analogues which are effective against HCV and HGV may have a side effect on the normal cells of humans.  (+info)

Degradation of Japanese encephalitis virus by neutrophils. (3/427)

The ability of neutrophils to degrade the phagocytosed Japanese encephalitis (JE) virion, via triggering of the respiratory burst and generation of toxic radicals has been investigated. JEV or JEV-induced macrophage derived factor (MDF) induces increase in intracellular oxidative signals with generation of superoxide anion (O2-), via activation of cytosolic NADPH and subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide, with maximum activity on day 7 post infection. The response was sensitive to anti-MDF antibody treatment. Further, the study revealed rapid degradation of phagocytosed JE viral protein and nucleic acid. The viral protein degradation was partially dependent on the generation of toxic oxygen species as it could be abrogated by pretreatment of the cells with staurosporine.  (+info)

Mutagenesis of the NS2B-NS3-mediated cleavage site in the flavivirus capsid protein demonstrates a requirement for coordinated processing. (4/427)

Analysis of flavivirus polyprotein processing has revealed the presence of a substrate for the virus-encoded NS2B-NS3 protease at the carboxy-terminal end of the C (capsid or core) protein. Cleavage at this site has been implicated in the efficient generation of the amino terminus of prM via signal peptidase cleavage. Yellow fever virus has four basic residues (Arg-Lys-Arg-Arg) in the P1 through P4 positions of this cleavage site. Multiple alanine substitutions were made for these residues in order to investigate the substrate specificity and biological significance of this cleavage. Mutants were analyzed by several methods: (i) a cell-free trans processing assay for direct analysis of NS2B-NS3-mediated cleavage; (ii) a trans processing assay in BHK-21 cells, using a C-prM polyprotein, for analysis of prM production; (iii) an infectivity assay of full-length transcripts to determine plaque-forming ability; and (iv) analysis of proteins expressed from full-length transcripts to assess processing in the context of the complete genome. Mutants that exhibited severe defects in processing in vitro and in vivo were incapable of forming plaques. Mutants that contained two adjacent basic residues within the P1 through P4 region were processed more efficiently in vitro and in vivo, and transcripts bearing these mutations were fully infectious. Furthermore, two naturally occurring plaque-forming revertants were analyzed and shown to have restored protein processing phenotypes in vivo. Finally, the efficient production of prM was shown to be dependent on the proteolytic activity of NS3. These data support a model of two coordinated cleavages, one that generates the carboxy terminus of C and another that generates the amino terminus of prM. A block in the viral protease-mediated cleavage inhibits the production of prM by the signal peptidase, inhibits particle release, and eliminates plaque formation.  (+info)

Transient expression of cellular polypyrimidine-tract binding protein stimulates cap-independent translation directed by both picornaviral and flaviviral internal ribosome entry sites In vivo. (5/427)

The regulation of cap-independent translation directed by the internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) present in some viral and cellular RNAs is poorly understood. Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTB) binds specifically to several viral IRESs. IRES-directed translation may be reduced in cell-free systems that are depleted of PTB and restored by reconstitution of lysates with recombinant PTB. However, there are no data concerning the effects of PTB on IRES-directed translation in vivo. We transfected cells with plasmids expressing dicistronic transcripts in which the upstream cistron encoded PTB or PTB deletion mutants (including a null mutant lacking amino acid residues 87 to 531). The downstream cistron encoded a reporter protein (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase [CAT]) under translational control of the poliovirus IRES which was placed within the intercistronic space. In transfected BS-C-1 cells, transcripts expressing wild-type PTB produced 12-fold more reporter protein than similar transcripts encoding the PTB null mutant. There was a 2.4-fold difference in CAT produced from these transcripts in HeLa cells, which contain a greater natural abundance of PTB. PTB similarly stimulated CAT production from transcripts containing the IRES of hepatitis A virus or hepatitis C virus in BS-C-1 cells and Huh-7 cells (37- to 44-fold increase and 5 to 5.3-fold increase, respectively). Since PTB had no quantitative or qualitative effect on transcription from these plasmids, we conclude that PTB stimulates translation of representative picornaviral and flaviviral RNAs in vivo. This is likely to reflect the stabilization of higher ordered RNA structures within the IRES and was not observed with PTB mutants lacking RNA recognition motifs located in the C-terminal third of the molecule.  (+info)

Phylogeny of the genus flavivirus using complete coding sequences of arthropod-borne viruses and viruses with no known vector. (6/427)

Attempts to define the evolutionary relationships and origins of viruses in the genus Flavivirus are hampered by the lack of genetic information particularly amongst the non-vectored flaviviruses. Using a novel protocol for sequence determination, the first complete coding sequence of St Louis encephalitis virus and those of two representative non-vectored flaviviruses, Rio Bravo (isolated from bat) and Apoi (isolated from rodent), are reported. The encoded polyproteins of Rio Bravo and Apoi virus are the smallest described to date within the genus FLAVIVIRUS: The highest similarities with other flaviviruses were found in the NS3 and NS5 genes. The proteolytic cleavage sites for the viral serine protease were highly conserved among the flaviviruses completely sequenced to date. Comparative genetic amino acid alignments revealed that p-distance cut-off values of 0.330-0.470 distinguished the arthropod-borne viruses according to their recognized serogroups and Rio Bravo and Apoi virus were assigned to two distinct non-vectored virus groups. Within these serogroups, cladogenesis based on the complete ORF sequence was similar to trees based on envelope and NS5 sequences. In contrast, branching patterns at the deeper nodes of the tree were different from those reported in the previous study of NS5 sequences. The significance of these observations is discussed.  (+info)

cis- and trans-acting elements in flavivirus RNA replication. (7/427)

Most of the seven flavivirus nonstructural proteins (NS1 to NS5) encoded in the distal two-thirds of the RNA positive-sense genome are believed to be essential components of RNA replication complexes. To explore the functional relationships of these components in RNA replication, we used trans-complementation analysis of full-length infectious RNAs of Kunjin (KUN) virus with a range of lethal in-frame deletions in the nonstructural coding region, using as helper a repBHK cell line stably producing functional replication complexes from KUN replicon RNA. Recently we showed that replication of KUN RNAs with large carboxy-terminal deletions including the entire RNA polymerase region in the NS5 gene, representing 34 to 75% of the NS5 coding content, could be complemented after transfection into repBHK cells. In this study we have demonstrated that KUN RNAs with deletions of 84 to 97% of the NS1 gene, or of 13 to 63% of the NS3 gene including the entire helicase region, were also complemented in repBHK cells with variable efficiencies. In contrast, KUN RNAs with deletions in any of the other four nonstructural genes NS2A, NS2B, NS4A, and NS4B were not complemented. We have also demonstrated successful trans complementation of KUN RNAs containing either combined double deletions in the NS1 and NS5 genes or triple deletions in the NS1, NS3, and NS5 genes comprising as much as 38% of the entire nonstructural coding content. Based on these and our previous complementation results, we have generated a map of cis- and trans-acting elements in RNA replication for the nonstructural coding region of the flavivirus genome. These results are discussed in the context of our model on formation and composition of the flavivirus replication complex, and we suggest molecular mechanisms by which functions of some defective components of the replication complex can be complemented by their wild-type counterparts expressed from another (helper) RNA molecule.  (+info)

A novel model for the study of the therapy of flavivirus infections using the Modoc virus. (8/427)

The murine Flavivirus Modoc replicates well in Vero cells and appears to be as equally sensitive as both yellow fever and dengue fever virus to a selection of antiviral agents. Infection of SCID mice, by either the intracerebral, intraperitoneal, or intranasal route, results in 100% mortality. Immunocompetent mice and hamsters proved to be susceptible to the virus only when inoculated via the intranasal or intracerebral route. Animals ultimately die of (histologically proven) encephalitis with features similar to Flavivirus encephalitis in man. Viral RNA was detected in the brain, spleen, and salivary glands of infected SCID mice and the brain, lung, kidney, and salivary glands of infected hamsters. In SCID mice, the interferon inducer poly IC protected against Modoc virus-induced morbidity and mortality and this protection was associated with a reduction in infectious virus content and viral RNA load. Infected hamsters shed the virus in the urine. This allows daily monitoring of (inhibition of) viral replication, by means of a noninvasive method and in the same animal. The Modoc virus model appears attractive for the study of chemoprophylactic or chemotherapeutic strategies against Flavivirus infections.  (+info)

  • The known non-arboviruses of the flavivirus family reproduce in either arthropods or vertebrates, but not both, with one odd member of the genus affecting a nematode. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since the available broadly group-reactive MAB has been found to exhibit at least some degree of cross-competition, flavivirus type-specific detector MAB directed at sites distant from the group-reactive domain have been extensively used to evaluate the properties of potential flavivirus group-reactive capture antibodies. (dtic.mil)
  • Initial assays demonstrated the capacity of the YF-derived antibodies to capture prototype flaviviruses. (dtic.mil)
  • The findings, published in Friday's (3/8) issue of the scientific journal Cell, provide the first detailed view of a flavivirus and offer structural information that can be used to unravel the processes that lead to viral infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the present study, murine cell lines lacking the expression of one or more integrin subunits were used to evaluate the involvement of different integrins in the flavivirus infection cycle. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Our findings clearly demonstrate that β1, β3 and αVβ3 integrins do not act as flavivirus cellular receptor or attachment factor since their ablation does not completely abrogate flavivirus infection in the investigated cell lines. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • The results strongly indicate that the investigated integrins play an important role in flavivirus infection and might represent a novel host cell factor that enhances flavivirus replication. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Attention has been directed at the identification and characterization of MAB with broad flavivirus group-reactive domain as determined by competitive binding assay with the expectation that such antibody combination will provide the best opportunity for antigen binding and therefore maximum assay sensitivity. (dtic.mil)
  • The goal of our work has been the development of a generic flavivirus detection system and emphasis has been placed on an enzyme-linked immunoassay ELISA for the detection of DEN-infected mosquitoes. (dtic.mil)
  • isoelectrofocusing of nonionic-detergent-disrupted flaviviruses separated the envelope glycoprotein of 53,000 to 58,000 daltons and the nucleocapsid protein of 14,000 daltons. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Development of a Rapid Solid Phase Immunoassay for the Detection of Flavivirus Antigens in Human Blood and Mosquito Vectors. (dtic.mil)
  • the isolation of saumarez reef virus, a new flavivirus, from bird ticks ornithodoros capensis and ixodes eudyptidis in australia. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • strains of a new flavivirus, for which the name saumarez reef virus is proposed, were isolated from seabird ticks collected from four localities. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • the buoyant densities of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (an alphavirus) and tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus (a flavivirus) antigens prepared by different methods were studied. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Results of both immunofluorescence tests, and Western blots suggest that there is a non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis virus circulating among the Hungarian population, which possesses antigenic cross-reactivity with the yellow fever virus, but the identity to any of the known flaviviruses could not be verified yet. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast to that, loss of αVβ3 integrin in the MEF-αVβ3-/- cells showed a statistically significant decrease in WNV and USUV internalization while ZIKV, YFV-17D and LGTV internalization remained unaffected suggesting that αVβ3 integrin might be involved in the internalization process of at least some flaviviruses. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • A second model using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1), a cell line that has been described to be refractory to some flaviviruses, were modified to express either αV (CHO-αV+/+) or β3 (CHO-β3+/+) integrin subunits. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • He utilized a unique flavivirus model to investigate genetic differences contributing to pathogenic emergence within vertebrate hosts, increasing the understanding of flavivirus evolution. (wadsworth.org)
  • The study released this week online in the Journal of Virology describes how a single virus protein--NS5--from the tick-borne Langat flavivirus counteracts the natural ability of interferon to combat the virus. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Recombinant subviral particles from tick-borne encephalitis virus are fusogenic and provide a model system for studying flavivirus envelope glycoprotein functions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Flaviviruses have been especially difficult to study in part because their properties make it difficult to produce the large amounts of undamaged particles needed for the high-resolution techniques used to study virus structures. (eurekalert.org)
  • To do these experiments, we need large amounts of undamaged virus, and the flaviviruses are difficult to culture," he says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Limited sequence identity with various isolates of hepatitis C virus and the relative positions of putative RNA helicases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases in the predicted protein products of these molecules suggested that the GB agent contains two unique flavivirus-like genomes. (pnas.org)
  • The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein ectodomain is composed of three domains (D) named DI, DII, and DIII, with EDIII containing virus-specific epitopes. (hindawi.com)
  • Langat virus (LGT) strain TP21 is the most attenuated of the tick-borne flaviviruses for humans. (pnas.org)
  • Even though LGT has low-level neurovirulence for humans, it, and its more attenuated egg-passage derivative, strain E5, exhibit significant neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness in normal mice, albeit less than that associated with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the most virulent of the tick-borne flaviviruses. (pnas.org)
  • RML's Sonja Best, Ph.D., who spearheaded the Langat virus work, says the group will continue to study tick-borne flaviviruses by examining the role and location of NS5 in Powassan virus. (rxpgnews.com)
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists have filled a research gap by developing a laboratory model to study ticks that transmit flaviviruses, such as Powassan virus. (nih.gov)
  • Powassan virus and the closely related deer tick virus are the only flaviviruses known to be spread by ticks in North America. (nih.gov)
  • Kunjin virus (KUN) is an Australian flavivirus closely related to other members of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus subgroup ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Indeed, most flavivirus antibodies are directed against the highly immunogenic envelope protein, which contains both flavivirus cross-reactive and virus-specific epitopes. (mdpi.com)
  • Two major phylogenetic lineages were revealed: one included the YFV and Entebbe bat virus groups, and the other included the DENV, SPOV and Culex-borne flavivirus groups. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Researchers at The University of Queensland have developed a new chimeric virus platform suitable for use in flavivirus vaccine and diagnostic applications. (uniquest.com.au)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a zoonotic flavivirus that occurs on the Eurasian continent and causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans, is considered medically the most important arthropod vector transmitted virus in Europe. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The new EMNT assay combines the biological functional assessment of virus neutralization activity and the technical advantages of ELISA and, is simple, reliable, practical, and could be automated for high-throughput implementation in flavivirus surveillance studies and vaccine trials. (nih.gov)
  • Isolation of a new flavivirus related to Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) from field-collected. (deepdyve.com)
  • Results from cross-neutralization tests suggested that, although the BLAST search indicated homology to CFAV, the virus isolated represented a new insect flavivirus. (deepdyve.com)
  • We propose this new flavivirus be designated Kamiti River virus (KRV). (deepdyve.com)
  • Flavivirus NS1 is a nonstructural protein involved in virus replication and regulation of the innate immune response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Flavivirus NS1 is a multifunctional protein shown to play a role in virus replication and assembly ( 13 , 15 , 18 , 20 ), as well as in the modulation of the innate immune response ( 6 , 7 , 24 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is proposed that attenuation of flaviviruses following passage in HeLa cells is dependant on the tropism of the virus. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • JE virus, a mosquitoborne flavivirus, is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • Host cell cytoskeletons have been reported to have close contact with flaviviruses during virus entry, intracellular transport, replication, and egress process, although many detailed mechanisms are still unclear. (virosin.org)
  • Brault JB, Kudelko M, Vidalain PO, Tangy F, Despres P, Pardigon N (2011) The interaction of flavivirus M protein with light chain Tctex-1 of human dynein plays a role in late stages of virus replication. (virosin.org)
  • Detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks across Australia provides an early warning of increased levels of Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Kunjin virus activity. (health.gov.au)
  • The discovery may help scientists develop antiviral compounds and other strategies to target dengue and other diseases caused by flaviviruses, says Richard Kuhn, associate professor of biological sciences and lead author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Moreover, cross-reactive epitopes presented in this work may be involved in dynamics of diseases caused by flaviviruses worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • This innovative multiplex immunoassay is a powerful alternative to ELISAs and VNTs for veterinary diagnosis of flavivirus-related diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • The unusual model involves culturing organs taken from Ixodes scapularis ticks and then infecting those organ cultures with flaviviruses, according to researchers at Rocky Mountain Laboratories, part of NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). (nih.gov)
  • An understanding of flavivirus E-glycoprotein cross-reactive epitopes is therefore critical for improving public health responses to these serious diseases. (asm.org)
  • Flavivirus causes arthropod-borne severe diseases that sometimes lead to the death. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Development of a Rapid Solid Phase Immunoassay for the Detection of Flavivirus Antigens in Human Blood and Mosquito Vectors. (dtic.mil)
  • The goal of our work has been the development of a generic flavivirus detection system and emphasis has been placed on an enzyme-linked immunoassay ELISA for the detection of DEN-infected mosquitoes. (dtic.mil)
  • Detection of transfusion-associated hepatitis caused by non-A, non-B, non-C flavivirus. (elsevier.com)
  • NS5 protein of flaviviruses contains motifs for methyltransferase (MT) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) ( 25 , 26 , 34 ), and NS3 protein contains motifs for serine protease, nucleoside triphosphatase, and helicase ( 16 , 17 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • This review highlights the fact that the ER multiprotein complexes are crucial for the formation of flavivirus replication and assembly complexes, and the ER complexes could be considered as a target for developing successful broad-spectrum anti-flavivirus drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • Many areas of the world present both, vector fauna and geographical conditions compatible with co-circulation, importing, emergence, and epidemics of flaviviruses of different serocomplexes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Members of this family that infect humans frequently cause severe morbidity and mortality, and epidemics of flaviviruses continue to be a major public health concern worldwide. (asm.org)
  • Thus, T cell signaling to microglia drives post-infectious cognitive sequelae that are associated with emerging neurotropic flaviviruses. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, it is suggested that the attenuation of flaviviruses following passage in HeLa cells provides a model system to examine the molecular basis of attenuation of non-neurotropic flaviviruses. (surrey.ac.uk)