A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves of Sterculiaceae are alternate and simple or palmately compound. Flowers have three to five sepals and five or no petals.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.

Noncytopathic flavivirus replicon RNA-based system for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. (1/427)

Noncytopathic replicons of the flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) were employed for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. Replicon vector C20DX2Arep, containing a unique cloning site followed by the sequence of 2A autoprotease of foot-and-mouth disease virus, was constructed and used for expression of a number of heterologous genes including chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), green fluorescent protein (GFP), beta-galactosidase, glycoprotein G of vesicular stomatitis virus, and the Core and NS3 genes of hepatitis C virus. The expression and proper processing of these genes upon transfection of BHK21 cells with the recombinant replicon RNAs were demonstrated by immunofluorescence, radioimmunoprecipitation, and appropriate reporter gene assays. Most of these recombinant KUN replicon RNAs were also successfully packaged into secreted virus-like particles (VLPs) by subsequent transfection with Semliki Forest virus replicon RNA expressing KUN structural genes. Infection of BHK21 and Vero cells with these VLPs resulted in continuous replication of the recombinant replicon RNAs and prolonged expression of the cloned genes without any cytopathic effect. We also developed a replicon vector for generation of stable cell lines continuously expressing heterologous genes by inserting an encephalomyelocarditis virus internal ribosomal entry site-neomycin transferase gene cassette into the 3'-untranslated region of the C20DX2Arep vector. Using this vector (C20DX2ArepNeo), stable BHK cell lines persistently expressing GFP and CAT genes for up to 17 passages were established. Thus noncytopathic KUN replicon vectors with the ability to be packaged into VLPs should provide a useful tool for the development of noninfectious and noncytopathic vaccines as well as for gene therapy applications.  (+info)

Mutation patterns for two flaviviruses: hepatitis C virus and GB virus C/hepatitis G virus. (2/427)

We studied the mutation patterns of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (HGV). Although the mutation patterns of the two viruses were similar to each other, they were quite different from that of HIV. In particular, the similarity of the patterns between HCV or HGV and human nuclear pseudogenes was statistically significant whereas there was no similarity between HIV and human nuclear pseudogenes. This finding suggests that the mutation patterns of HCV and HGV are similar to the patterns of spontaneous substitution mutations of human genes, implying that nucleotide analogues which are effective against HCV and HGV may have a side effect on the normal cells of humans.  (+info)

Degradation of Japanese encephalitis virus by neutrophils. (3/427)

The ability of neutrophils to degrade the phagocytosed Japanese encephalitis (JE) virion, via triggering of the respiratory burst and generation of toxic radicals has been investigated. JEV or JEV-induced macrophage derived factor (MDF) induces increase in intracellular oxidative signals with generation of superoxide anion (O2-), via activation of cytosolic NADPH and subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide, with maximum activity on day 7 post infection. The response was sensitive to anti-MDF antibody treatment. Further, the study revealed rapid degradation of phagocytosed JE viral protein and nucleic acid. The viral protein degradation was partially dependent on the generation of toxic oxygen species as it could be abrogated by pretreatment of the cells with staurosporine.  (+info)

Mutagenesis of the NS2B-NS3-mediated cleavage site in the flavivirus capsid protein demonstrates a requirement for coordinated processing. (4/427)

Analysis of flavivirus polyprotein processing has revealed the presence of a substrate for the virus-encoded NS2B-NS3 protease at the carboxy-terminal end of the C (capsid or core) protein. Cleavage at this site has been implicated in the efficient generation of the amino terminus of prM via signal peptidase cleavage. Yellow fever virus has four basic residues (Arg-Lys-Arg-Arg) in the P1 through P4 positions of this cleavage site. Multiple alanine substitutions were made for these residues in order to investigate the substrate specificity and biological significance of this cleavage. Mutants were analyzed by several methods: (i) a cell-free trans processing assay for direct analysis of NS2B-NS3-mediated cleavage; (ii) a trans processing assay in BHK-21 cells, using a C-prM polyprotein, for analysis of prM production; (iii) an infectivity assay of full-length transcripts to determine plaque-forming ability; and (iv) analysis of proteins expressed from full-length transcripts to assess processing in the context of the complete genome. Mutants that exhibited severe defects in processing in vitro and in vivo were incapable of forming plaques. Mutants that contained two adjacent basic residues within the P1 through P4 region were processed more efficiently in vitro and in vivo, and transcripts bearing these mutations were fully infectious. Furthermore, two naturally occurring plaque-forming revertants were analyzed and shown to have restored protein processing phenotypes in vivo. Finally, the efficient production of prM was shown to be dependent on the proteolytic activity of NS3. These data support a model of two coordinated cleavages, one that generates the carboxy terminus of C and another that generates the amino terminus of prM. A block in the viral protease-mediated cleavage inhibits the production of prM by the signal peptidase, inhibits particle release, and eliminates plaque formation.  (+info)

Transient expression of cellular polypyrimidine-tract binding protein stimulates cap-independent translation directed by both picornaviral and flaviviral internal ribosome entry sites In vivo. (5/427)

The regulation of cap-independent translation directed by the internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) present in some viral and cellular RNAs is poorly understood. Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTB) binds specifically to several viral IRESs. IRES-directed translation may be reduced in cell-free systems that are depleted of PTB and restored by reconstitution of lysates with recombinant PTB. However, there are no data concerning the effects of PTB on IRES-directed translation in vivo. We transfected cells with plasmids expressing dicistronic transcripts in which the upstream cistron encoded PTB or PTB deletion mutants (including a null mutant lacking amino acid residues 87 to 531). The downstream cistron encoded a reporter protein (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase [CAT]) under translational control of the poliovirus IRES which was placed within the intercistronic space. In transfected BS-C-1 cells, transcripts expressing wild-type PTB produced 12-fold more reporter protein than similar transcripts encoding the PTB null mutant. There was a 2.4-fold difference in CAT produced from these transcripts in HeLa cells, which contain a greater natural abundance of PTB. PTB similarly stimulated CAT production from transcripts containing the IRES of hepatitis A virus or hepatitis C virus in BS-C-1 cells and Huh-7 cells (37- to 44-fold increase and 5 to 5.3-fold increase, respectively). Since PTB had no quantitative or qualitative effect on transcription from these plasmids, we conclude that PTB stimulates translation of representative picornaviral and flaviviral RNAs in vivo. This is likely to reflect the stabilization of higher ordered RNA structures within the IRES and was not observed with PTB mutants lacking RNA recognition motifs located in the C-terminal third of the molecule.  (+info)

Phylogeny of the genus flavivirus using complete coding sequences of arthropod-borne viruses and viruses with no known vector. (6/427)

Attempts to define the evolutionary relationships and origins of viruses in the genus Flavivirus are hampered by the lack of genetic information particularly amongst the non-vectored flaviviruses. Using a novel protocol for sequence determination, the first complete coding sequence of St Louis encephalitis virus and those of two representative non-vectored flaviviruses, Rio Bravo (isolated from bat) and Apoi (isolated from rodent), are reported. The encoded polyproteins of Rio Bravo and Apoi virus are the smallest described to date within the genus FLAVIVIRUS: The highest similarities with other flaviviruses were found in the NS3 and NS5 genes. The proteolytic cleavage sites for the viral serine protease were highly conserved among the flaviviruses completely sequenced to date. Comparative genetic amino acid alignments revealed that p-distance cut-off values of 0.330-0.470 distinguished the arthropod-borne viruses according to their recognized serogroups and Rio Bravo and Apoi virus were assigned to two distinct non-vectored virus groups. Within these serogroups, cladogenesis based on the complete ORF sequence was similar to trees based on envelope and NS5 sequences. In contrast, branching patterns at the deeper nodes of the tree were different from those reported in the previous study of NS5 sequences. The significance of these observations is discussed.  (+info)

cis- and trans-acting elements in flavivirus RNA replication. (7/427)

Most of the seven flavivirus nonstructural proteins (NS1 to NS5) encoded in the distal two-thirds of the RNA positive-sense genome are believed to be essential components of RNA replication complexes. To explore the functional relationships of these components in RNA replication, we used trans-complementation analysis of full-length infectious RNAs of Kunjin (KUN) virus with a range of lethal in-frame deletions in the nonstructural coding region, using as helper a repBHK cell line stably producing functional replication complexes from KUN replicon RNA. Recently we showed that replication of KUN RNAs with large carboxy-terminal deletions including the entire RNA polymerase region in the NS5 gene, representing 34 to 75% of the NS5 coding content, could be complemented after transfection into repBHK cells. In this study we have demonstrated that KUN RNAs with deletions of 84 to 97% of the NS1 gene, or of 13 to 63% of the NS3 gene including the entire helicase region, were also complemented in repBHK cells with variable efficiencies. In contrast, KUN RNAs with deletions in any of the other four nonstructural genes NS2A, NS2B, NS4A, and NS4B were not complemented. We have also demonstrated successful trans complementation of KUN RNAs containing either combined double deletions in the NS1 and NS5 genes or triple deletions in the NS1, NS3, and NS5 genes comprising as much as 38% of the entire nonstructural coding content. Based on these and our previous complementation results, we have generated a map of cis- and trans-acting elements in RNA replication for the nonstructural coding region of the flavivirus genome. These results are discussed in the context of our model on formation and composition of the flavivirus replication complex, and we suggest molecular mechanisms by which functions of some defective components of the replication complex can be complemented by their wild-type counterparts expressed from another (helper) RNA molecule.  (+info)

A novel model for the study of the therapy of flavivirus infections using the Modoc virus. (8/427)

The murine Flavivirus Modoc replicates well in Vero cells and appears to be as equally sensitive as both yellow fever and dengue fever virus to a selection of antiviral agents. Infection of SCID mice, by either the intracerebral, intraperitoneal, or intranasal route, results in 100% mortality. Immunocompetent mice and hamsters proved to be susceptible to the virus only when inoculated via the intranasal or intracerebral route. Animals ultimately die of (histologically proven) encephalitis with features similar to Flavivirus encephalitis in man. Viral RNA was detected in the brain, spleen, and salivary glands of infected SCID mice and the brain, lung, kidney, and salivary glands of infected hamsters. In SCID mice, the interferon inducer poly IC protected against Modoc virus-induced morbidity and mortality and this protection was associated with a reduction in infectious virus content and viral RNA load. Infected hamsters shed the virus in the urine. This allows daily monitoring of (inhibition of) viral replication, by means of a noninvasive method and in the same animal. The Modoc virus model appears attractive for the study of chemoprophylactic or chemotherapeutic strategies against Flavivirus infections.  (+info)

Flavivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae. They are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that are primarily transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks. Many flaviviruses cause significant disease in humans, including dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and Zika fever. The name "flavivirus" is derived from the Latin word for "yellow," referring to the yellow fever virus, which was one of the first members of this genus to be discovered.

Flavivirus infections refer to a group of diseases caused by various viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family, specifically within the genus Flavivirus. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes and ticks.

Some well-known flavivirus infections include:

1. Dengue Fever: A mosquito-borne viral infection that is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It can cause a wide range of symptoms, from mild flu-like illness to severe complications like dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.
2. Yellow Fever: A viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by the Aedes and Haemagogus mosquitoes, primarily in Africa and South America. It can cause severe illness, including jaundice, bleeding, organ failure, and death.
3. Japanese Encephalitis: A mosquito-borne viral infection that is endemic to Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. While most infections are asymptomatic or mild, a small percentage of cases can lead to severe neurological complications, such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).
4. Zika Virus Infection: A mosquito-borne viral disease that has spread to many regions of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. Most Zika virus infections are mild or asymptomatic; however, infection during pregnancy can cause severe birth defects, such as microcephaly (abnormally small head size) and other neurological abnormalities in the developing fetus.
5. West Nile Virus Infection: A mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic to North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Most infections are mild or asymptomatic; however, a small percentage of cases can lead to severe neurological complications, such as encephalitis, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis (sudden weakness in the arms and legs).

Prevention measures for these diseases typically involve avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, staying indoors during peak mosquito hours, and removing standing water from around homes and businesses. Additionally, vaccines are available for some of these diseases, such as Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever, and should be considered for individuals traveling to areas where these diseases are common.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) viruses are a group of related viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. The main strains of TBE viruses include:

1. European tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-Eu): This strain is found mainly in Europe and causes the majority of human cases of TBE. It is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes ricinus.
2. Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-Sib): This strain is prevalent in Russia, Mongolia, and China, and is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes persulcatus.
3. Far Eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-FE): Also known as Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) virus, this strain is found in Russia, China, and Japan, and is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes persulcatus.
4. Louping ill virus (LIV): This strain is primarily found in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain, and is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes ricinus. It mainly affects sheep but can also infect humans.
5. Turkish sheep encephalitis virus (TSEV): This strain is found in Turkey and Greece and is primarily associated with ovine encephalitis, although it can occasionally cause human disease.
6. Negishi virus (NGS): This strain has been identified in Japan and Russia, but its role in human disease remains unclear.

TBE viruses are members of the Flaviviridae family and are closely related to other mosquito-borne flaviviruses such as West Nile virus, dengue virus, and Zika virus. The incubation period for TBE is usually 7-14 days after a tick bite, but it can range from 2 to 28 days. Symptoms of TBE include fever, headache, muscle pain, fatigue, and vomiting, followed by neurological symptoms such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Severe cases can lead to long-term complications or even death. No specific antiviral treatment is available for TBE, and management typically involves supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and promptly removing attached ticks. Vaccination is also recommended for individuals at high risk of exposure to TBE viruses.

Japanese Encephalitis Viruses (JEV) are part of the Flaviviridae family and belong to the genus Flavivirus. JEV is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected Culex mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui complex.

JEV has a complex transmission cycle involving mosquito vectors, amplifying hosts (primarily pigs and wading birds), and dead-end hosts (humans). The virus is maintained in nature through a enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and amplifying hosts. Humans become infected when bitten by an infective mosquito, but they do not contribute to the transmission cycle.

The incubation period for JEV infection ranges from 5 to 15 days. Most infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and malaise. However, a small percentage of infected individuals develop severe neurological manifestations, including encephalitis, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. The case fatality rate for JEV-induced encephalitis is approximately 20-30%, with up to half of the survivors experiencing long-term neurological sequelae.

There are no specific antiviral treatments available for Japanese encephalitis, and management primarily focuses on supportive care. Prevention strategies include vaccination, personal protective measures against mosquito bites, and vector control programs. JEV vaccines are available and recommended for travelers to endemic areas and for residents living in regions where the virus is circulating.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an Flavivirus, which is a type of virus that is spread by mosquitoes. It was first discovered in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937 and has since been found in many countries throughout the world. WNV can cause a mild to severe illness known as West Nile fever.

Most people who become infected with WNV do not develop any symptoms, but some may experience fever, headache, body aches, joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or a rash. In rare cases, the virus can cause serious neurological illnesses such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord). These severe forms of the disease can be fatal, especially in older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

WNV is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, but it can also be spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. There is no specific treatment for WNV, and most people recover on their own with rest and supportive care. However, hospitalization may be necessary in severe cases. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours.

Dengue virus (DENV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

The DENV genome contains approximately 11,000 nucleotides and encodes three structural proteins (capsid, pre-membrane/membrane, and envelope) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). There are four distinct serotypes of DENV (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), each of which can cause dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease.

Infection with one serotype provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype but only temporary and partial protection against the other three serotypes. Subsequent infections with different serotypes can increase the risk of developing severe dengue, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and original antigenic sin phenomena.

DENV is a significant public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, with an estimated 390 million annual infections and approximately 100-400 million clinical cases. Preventive measures include vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations and the development of effective vaccines against all four serotypes.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a type of flavivirus that is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, a mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

JEV is endemic in many parts of Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is estimated to cause around 68,000 clinical cases and 13,000-20,000 deaths each year. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds.

Most JEV infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. However, in some cases, the infection can progress to severe encephalitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the brain, leading to neurological symptoms such as seizures, tremors, paralysis, and coma. The case fatality rate for Japanese encephalitis is estimated to be 20-30%, and around half of those who survive have significant long-term neurological sequelae.

Prevention of JEV infection includes the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito feeding times. Vaccination is also an effective means of preventing Japanese encephalitis, and vaccines are available for travelers to endemic areas as well as for residents of those areas.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infectious disease that causes inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, primarily of the Ixodes species. The TBE virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae and has several subtypes, with different geographical distributions.

The illness typically progresses in two stages:

1. An initial viremic phase, characterized by fever, headache, fatigue, muscle pain, and sometimes rash, which lasts about a week.
2. A second neurological phase, which occurs in approximately 20-30% of infected individuals, can manifest as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), or meningoencephalitis (inflammation of both the brain and its membranes). Symptoms may include neck stiffness, severe headache, confusion, disorientation, seizures, and in severe cases, coma and long-term neurological complications.

Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and promptly removing attached ticks. Vaccination is available and recommended for individuals living or traveling to TBE endemic regions. Treatment is primarily supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and addressing complications as they arise. There is no specific antiviral treatment for TBE.

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, most commonly Aedes and Haemagogus species. The virus is named for the jaundice that can occur in some patients, giving their skin and eyes a yellowish color.

Yellow fever is endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America, with outbreaks occurring when large numbers of people are infected. After an incubation period of 3 to 6 days, symptoms typically begin with fever, chills, headache, back pain, and muscle aches. In more severe cases, the infection can progress to cause bleeding, organ failure, and death.

Prevention measures include vaccination, mosquito control, and personal protective measures such as wearing long sleeves and using insect repellent in areas where yellow fever is endemic or outbreaks are occurring.

Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus (MVEV) is a type of arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) that is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. The virus is named after the Murray Valley region in Australia where it was first identified.

MVEV is the causative agent of Murray Valley encephalitis, a serious illness that can affect the brain and cause inflammation (encephalitis). The virus is found primarily in Australia, Papua New Guinea, and parts of Southeast Asia.

The transmission cycle of MVEV involves mosquitoes serving as vectors that transmit the virus between birds and mammals, including humans. Infection with MVEV can cause a range of symptoms, from mild fever and headache to severe neurological complications such as seizures, coma, and permanent brain damage. There is no specific treatment for Murray Valley encephalitis, and prevention efforts focus on reducing mosquito populations and avoiding mosquito bites in areas where the virus is known to be present.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

West Nile Fever is defined as a viral infection primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The virus responsible for this febrile illness, known as West Nile Virus (WNV), is maintained in nature between mosquito vectors and avian hosts. Although most individuals infected with WNV are asymptomatic, some may develop a mild, flu-like illness characterized by fever, headache, fatigue, body aches, skin rash, and swollen lymph glands. A minority of infected individuals, particularly the elderly and immunocompromised, may progress to severe neurological symptoms such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or acute flaccid paralysis (sudden weakness in the limbs). The diagnosis is confirmed through laboratory tests, such as serological assays or nucleic acid amplification techniques. Treatment primarily focuses on supportive care, as there are no specific antiviral therapies available for West Nile Fever. Preventive measures include personal protection against mosquito bites and vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations.

St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLEV) is a type of arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) from the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. It is the causative agent of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), a viral disease characterized by inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex spp.

The SLEV infection in humans is often asymptomatic or may cause mild flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting. However, in some cases, the virus can invade the central nervous system, leading to severe neurological manifestations like meningitis, encephalitis, seizures, and even coma or death. The risk of severe disease increases in older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

There is no specific antiviral treatment for SLE; management typically focuses on supportive care to alleviate symptoms and address complications. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellents, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes. Vaccines are not available for SLEV, but they have been developed and tested in the past, with potential for future use in high-risk populations during outbreaks.

Arbovirus encephalitis is a type of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) caused by a group of viruses that are transmitted through the bite of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes or ticks. The term "arbovirus" stands for "arthropod-borne virus."

There are many different types of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis, including:

* La Crosse virus
* St. Louis encephalitis virus
* West Nile virus
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus
* Western equine encephalitis virus
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

The symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis can vary, but may include fever, headache, stiff neck, seizures, confusion, and weakness. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or death. Treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral treatment for most types of arbovirus encephalitis. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

'Culicidae' is the biological family that includes all species of mosquitoes. It consists of three subfamilies: Anophelinae, Culicinae, and Toxorhynchitinae. Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and other animals, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The medical importance of Culicidae comes from the fact that only female mosquitoes require blood meals to lay eggs, and during this process, they can transmit pathogens between hosts.

Japanese encephalitis is a viral inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex mosquitoes, particularly in rural and agricultural areas. The majority of JE cases occur in children under the age of 15. Most people infected with JEV do not develop symptoms, but some may experience mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and vomiting. In severe cases, JEV can cause high fever, neck stiffness, seizures, confusion, and coma. There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis, and care is focused on managing symptoms and supporting the patient's overall health. Prevention measures include vaccination and avoiding mosquito bites in endemic areas.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

'Culex' is a genus of mosquitoes that includes many species that are vectors for various diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, and avian malaria. They are often referred to as "house mosquitoes" because they are commonly found in urban environments. These mosquitoes typically lay their eggs in standing water and have a cosmopolitan distribution, being found on all continents except Antarctica. The life cycle of Culex mosquitoes includes four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Both male and female adults feed on nectar, but only females require blood meals to lay eggs.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species of mosquitoes. It is caused by one of four closely related dengue viruses (DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3, or DENV 4). The infection can cause a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild fever and headache to severe flu-like illness, which is often characterized by the sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash. In some cases, dengue can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Dengue is prevalent in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world, particularly in urban and semi-urban areas with poor sanitation and inadequate mosquito control. There is no specific treatment for dengue, and prevention efforts focus on reducing mosquito populations and avoiding mosquito bites. Vaccines are available in some countries to prevent dengue infection, but they are not widely used due to limitations in their effectiveness and safety.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

West Nile Virus (WNV) vaccines are immunizations that are designed to protect against the West Nile virus, which is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly those of the Culex species.

There are currently no licensed WNV vaccines available for human use in the United States or Europe. However, there are several veterinary vaccines that have been developed and approved for use in horses and other animals, such as birds and geese. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus, which can help prevent infection and reduce the severity of symptoms in animals that do become infected.

Human WNV vaccine candidates are in various stages of development and testing. Some of these vaccines use inactivated or weakened forms of the virus, while others use only a portion of the viral protein to stimulate an immune response. While these vaccines have shown promise in clinical trials, further research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness in larger populations before they can be approved for widespread use.

St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE) is a type of viral brain inflammation caused by the St. Louis Encephalitis virus. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Culex species. The virus breeds in warm, stagnant water and is more prevalent in rural and suburban areas.

Most people infected with SLE virus do not develop symptoms or only experience mild flu-like illness. However, some individuals, particularly the elderly, can develop severe illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, headache, neck stiffness, disorientation, coma, seizures, and spastic paralysis. There is no specific treatment for SLE, and management is focused on supportive care, including hydration, respiratory support, and prevention of secondary infections. Vaccination against SLE is not available, and prevention measures include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water around homes to reduce mosquito breeding sites.

RNA helicases are a class of enzymes that are capable of unwinding RNA secondary structures using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes involving RNA, such as transcription, splicing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, and RNA degradation. RNA helicases can be divided into several superfamilies based on their sequence and structural similarities, with the two largest being superfamily 1 (SF1) and superfamily 2 (SF2). These enzymes typically contain conserved motifs that are involved in ATP binding and hydrolysis, as well as RNA binding. By unwinding RNA structures, RNA helicases facilitate the access of other proteins to their target RNAs, thereby enabling the coordinated regulation of RNA metabolism.

Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease that's transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The "yellow" in the name refers to the jaundice that can occur in some patients, resulting from liver damage caused by the virus. The disease is endemic in tropical regions of Africa and Central and South America.

The yellow fever virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It's closely related to other mosquito-borne viruses like dengue and Zika. The virus has three distinct geographical variants (West African, East African, and South American), each with different epidemiological patterns and clinical features.

The incubation period for yellow fever is typically 3 to 6 days after infection. The initial symptoms include fever, chills, headache, back pain, myalgia, and fatigue. Most patients recover after this initial phase, but around 15% of those infected enter a more severe phase characterized by high fever, jaundice, abdominal pain, vomiting, bleeding, and often rapid death within 7 to 10 days.

There is no specific treatment for yellow fever, and management is focused on supportive care, including fluid replacement, blood transfusions, and addressing any complications that arise. Prevention relies on vaccination and mosquito control measures. The yellow fever vaccine is safe and highly effective, providing immunity in 95% of those who receive it. A single dose offers lifelong protection in most individuals. Mosquito control efforts, such as reducing breeding sites and using insecticide-treated materials, can help prevent the spread of the virus in affected areas.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Togaviridae is a family of single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that includes several important pathogens affecting humans and animals. The most well-known member of this family is the genus Alphavirus, which includes viruses such as Chikungunya, Eastern equine encephalitis, Sindbis, O'nyong-nyong, Ross River, and Western equine encephalitis viruses.

Togaviridae infections typically cause symptoms such as fever, rash, arthralgia (joint pain), myalgia (muscle pain), and sometimes more severe manifestations like meningitis or encephalitis, depending on the specific virus and the host's immune status. The transmission of these viruses usually occurs through the bite of infected mosquitoes, although some members of this family can also be transmitted via other arthropod vectors or through contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids.

Prevention strategies for Togaviridae infections include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes. Vaccines are available for some members of this family, such as the Eastern and Western equine encephalitis viruses, but not for others like Chikungunya virus. Treatment is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications.

"Aedes" is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases, including Zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They are distinguished by their black and white striped legs and thorax. Aedes aegypti is the most common species associated with disease transmission, although other species such as Aedes albopictus can also transmit diseases. It's important to note that only female mosquitoes bite and feed on blood, while males feed solely on nectar and plant juices.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Flaviviridae is a family of viruses that includes many important human pathogens. According to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), Flaviviridae is divided into four genera: Flavivirus, Hepacivirus, Pegivirus, and Pestivirus. These viruses are enveloped and have a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome.

1. Flavivirus genus includes several medically important viruses, such as dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Zika virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. These viruses are primarily transmitted by arthropod vectors (mosquitoes or ticks) and can cause a wide range of symptoms, from mild febrile illness to severe hemorrhagic fever and neuroinvasive disease.
2. Hepacivirus genus contains hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a major causative agent of viral hepatitis and liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is primarily transmitted through percutaneous exposure to infected blood or blood products, sexual contact, and mother-to-child transmission during childbirth.
3. Pegivirus genus includes pegiviruses (formerly known as GB viruses) that are associated with persistent infection in humans and other animals. While pegiviruses can cause acute illness, they are mostly linked to asymptomatic or mild infections.
4. Pestivirus genus contains several animal pathogens, such as bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and border disease virus (BDV). These viruses can cause significant economic losses in the livestock industry due to reproductive failure, growth retardation, and immunosuppression.

In summary, Flaviviridae is a family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that includes several important human and animal pathogens. The family is divided into four genera: Flavivirus, Hepacivirus, Pegivirus, and Pestivirus.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccines are immunobiological preparations used for active immunization against Japanese Encephalitis, a viral infection transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The vaccines contain inactivated or live attenuated strains of the JE virus. They work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies and T-cells that provide protection against the virus. There are several types of JE vaccines available, including inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccine, live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine, and inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccine. These vaccines have been shown to be effective in preventing JE and are recommended for use in individuals traveling to or living in areas where the disease is endemic.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans and animals through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. The term "arbovirus" is short for "arthropod-borne virus."

Arboviruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the individual host's immune response. Some common symptoms associated with arboviral infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, arboviral infections can lead to serious complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or hemorrhagic fever (bleeding disorders).

There are hundreds of different arboviruses, and they are found in many parts of the world. Some of the most well-known arboviral diseases include dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika virus infection, West Nile virus infection, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.

Prevention of arboviral infections typically involves avoiding mosquito bites and other arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito feeding times. Public health efforts also focus on reducing vector populations through environmental management and the use of larvicides. Vaccines are available for some arboviral diseases, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Flaviviridae infections refer to a group of diseases caused by viruses that belong to the Flaviviridae family. This family includes several important human pathogens, such as dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Zika virus.

These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks. The symptoms of Flaviviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus, but they often include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, these infections can lead to serious complications such as hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or neuropathy.

Prevention measures for Flaviviridae infections include avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and getting vaccinated if vaccines are available for the specific virus. Treatment is generally supportive and may include fluid replacement, pain relief, and management of complications. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for most Flaviviridae infections.

Sterculiaceae is a former family of flowering plants that is now classified as a subfamily (Sterculioideae) within the family Malvaceae, according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV system. This group includes several genera of trees and shrubs, many of which have tropical distributions. Some well-known members of this subfamily include Sterculia, Cola, and Ficus (which contains various fig tree species). These plants are characterized by their typically large, simple leaves and showy flowers with numerous stamens. The fruits of Sterculiaceae are diverse in form, ranging from capsules to berries or schizocarps.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "replicon" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. It is a term that is used in the field of molecular biology, where it refers to a segment of DNA that contains an origin of replication. The origin of replication is the site on the DNA molecule where the process of DNA replication is initiated. This concept is important in the fields of genetics and virology, but it is not a term that is commonly used in clinical medicine.

If you have any questions related to the medical field, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

'Bird diseases' is a broad term that refers to the various medical conditions and infections that can affect avian species. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxic substances and can affect pet birds, wild birds, and poultry. Some common bird diseases include:

1. Avian influenza (bird flu) - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, decreased appetite, and sudden death in birds.
2. Psittacosis (parrot fever) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, fever, and lethargy in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
3. Aspergillosis - a fungal infection that can cause respiratory symptoms and weight loss in birds.
4. Candidiasis (thrush) - a fungal infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and other parts of the digestive system in birds.
5. Newcastle disease - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, neurological signs, and decreased egg production in birds.
6. Salmonellosis - a bacterial infection that can cause diarrhea, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
7. Trichomoniasis - a parasitic infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and digestive system in birds.
8. Chlamydiosis (psittacosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
9. Coccidiosis - a parasitic infection that can affect the digestive system in birds.
10. Mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause chronic weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and skin lesions in birds.

It is important to note that some bird diseases can be transmitted to humans and other animals, so it is essential to practice good hygiene when handling birds or their droppings. If you suspect your bird may be sick, it is best to consult with a veterinarian who specializes in avian medicine.

Virus internalization, also known as viral entry, is the process by which a virus enters a host cell to infect it and replicate its genetic material. This process typically involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The viral envelope proteins bind to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell.
2. Entry: The virus then enters the host cell through endocytosis or membrane fusion, depending on the type of virus.
3. Uncoating: Once inside the host cell, the viral capsid is removed, releasing the viral genome into the cytoplasm.
4. Replication: The viral genome then uses the host cell's machinery to replicate itself and produce new viral particles.

It's important to note that the specific mechanisms of virus internalization can vary widely between different types of viruses, and are an active area of research in virology and infectious disease.

A polyprotein is a long, continuous chain of amino acids that are produced through the translation of a single mRNA (messenger RNA) molecule. This occurs in some viruses, including retroviruses like HIV, where the viral genome contains instructions for the production of one or more polyproteins.

After the polyprotein is synthesized, it is cleaved into smaller, functional proteins by virus-encoded proteases. These individual proteins then assemble to form new virus particles. The concept of polyproteins is important in understanding viral replication and may provide targets for antiviral therapy.

Serine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins (endopeptidases) and utilize serine as the nucleophilic amino acid in their active site for catalysis. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Examples of serine endopeptidases include trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, and elastase.

Viral encephalitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the brain caused by a viral infection. The infection can be caused by various types of viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, enteroviruses, arboviruses (transmitted through insect bites), or HIV.

The symptoms of viral encephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and altered level of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage, coma, or even death. The diagnosis is usually made based on clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scan. Treatment typically involves antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of complications.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

Dengue vaccines are designed to protect against dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms and potentially life-threatening complications. Dengue is caused by four distinct serotypes of the virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), and infection with one serotype does not provide immunity against the others.

The first licensed dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV), is a chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur. It is approved for use in several countries and has demonstrated efficacy against dengue fever caused by all four serotypes in clinical trials. However, the vaccine has raised concerns about the risk of severe disease in individuals who have not been previously exposed to dengue. As a result, it is recommended primarily for people with a documented past dengue infection or living in areas with high dengue prevalence and where the benefits outweigh the risks.

Another dengue vaccine candidate, Takeda's TAK-003 (also known as TDV), is a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine that has shown efficacy against all four serotypes in clinical trials. It was granted approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and several other countries for use in individuals aged 4-16 years old, living in endemic areas.

Research and development of additional dengue vaccine candidates are ongoing to address concerns about safety, efficacy, and accessibility, particularly for at-risk populations in low- and middle-income countries where dengue is most prevalent.

Encephalitis viruses are a group of viruses that can cause encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain. Some of the most common encephalitis viruses include:

1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2: These viruses are best known for causing cold sores and genital herpes, but they can also cause encephalitis, particularly in newborns and individuals with weakened immune systems.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV): This virus causes chickenpox and shingles, and it can also lead to encephalitis, especially in people who have had chickenpox.
3. Enteroviruses: These viruses are often responsible for summertime meningitis outbreaks and can occasionally cause encephalitis.
4. Arboviruses: These viruses are transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Examples include West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus.
5. Rabies virus: This virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal and can cause encephalitis in its later stages.
6. Measles virus: Although rare in developed countries due to vaccination, measles can still cause encephalitis as a complication of the infection.
7. Mumps virus: Like measles, mumps is preventable through vaccination, but it can also lead to encephalitis as a rare complication.
8. Cytomegalovirus (CMV): This virus is a member of the herpesvirus family and can cause encephalitis in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients.
9. La Crosse virus: This arbovirus is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected eastern treehole mosquitoes and mainly affects children.
10. Powassan virus: Another arbovirus, Powassan virus is transmitted through the bites of infected black-legged ticks (also known as deer ticks) and can cause severe encephalitis.

It's important to note that many of these viruses are preventable through vaccination or by avoiding exposure to infected animals or mosquitoes. If you suspect you may have been exposed to one of these viruses, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Virus assembly, also known as virion assembly, is the final stage in the virus life cycle where individual viral components come together to form a complete viral particle or virion. This process typically involves the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins around the viral genome (DNA or RNA) and, in enveloped viruses, the acquisition of a lipid bilayer membrane containing viral glycoproteins. The specific mechanisms and regulation of virus assembly vary among different viral families, but it is often directed by interactions between viral structural proteins and genomic nucleic acid.

Alphaviruses are a genus of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that belong to the family Togaviridae. They are enveloped viruses and have a icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70 nanometers. Alphaviruses are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes and other arthropods, and can cause a range of diseases in humans and animals, including arthritis, encephalitis, and rash.

Some examples of alphaviruses that can infect humans include Chikungunya virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are usually found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and can cause outbreaks of disease in humans and animals.

Alphaviruses have a wide host range, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects. They replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and have a genome that encodes four non-structural proteins (nsP1 to nsP4) involved in viral replication, and five structural proteins (C, E3, E2, 6K, and E1) that form the virion.

Prevention and control of alphavirus infections rely on avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and reducing mosquito breeding sites. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for alphavirus infections, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. Vaccines are available for some alphaviruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis virus and Western equine encephalitis virus, but not for others, such as Chikungunya virus.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

5 Xishuangbanna Aedes flavivirus Aedes flavivirus Aedes cinereus flavivirus Aedes vexans flavivirus Culex theileri flavivirus ... virus Chaoyang virus Culex flavivirus Culex theileri flavivirus Spanish Culex flavivirus Wang Thong virus Culiseta flavivirus ... crangon flavivirus Cuacua virus Donggang virus Firefly squid flavivirus Gammarus chevreuxi flavivirus Gammarus pulex flavivirus ... Flaviviridae Rfam entry for Flavivirus 3'UTR stem loop IV Rfam entry for Flavivirus DB element Rfam entry for Flavivirus 3' UTR ...
... are untranslated regions in the genome of viruses in the genus Flavivirus. The Flavivirus positive-oriented, ... The 5' UTR of flaviviruses are highly structured, has a length of approximately 100 nucleotides and harbors two conserved RNA ... terminal regions in flavivirus RNA synthesis and viral replication". Virology. 374 (1): 170-185. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2007.12. ... "Structures of flavivirus RNA promoters suggest two binding modes with NS5 polymerase". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 2530. ...
... are untranslated regions in the genome of viruses in the genus Flavivirus. The Flavivirus positive-oriented, ... Flaviviruses are therefore classified into four different groups: Mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFV), tick-borne flaviviruses ( ... UTR of flavivirus - and sometimes even a small part of the 3' end of the coding region - is also called subgenomic flavivirus ... are encoded by dual-host insect-specific flaviviruses and classical insect-specific flaviviruses but while short stem-loops are ...
Page for flavivirus capsid hairpin cHP at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Flaviviruses, All stub articles, Molecular ... The Flavivirus capsid hairpin cHP is a conserved RNA hairpin structure identified within the capsid coding region of several ... flavivirus genomes. These positive strand RNA genomes are translated as a single polypeptide and subsequently cleaved into ...
As with other Flavivirus infections, no cure is known for yellow fever. Hospitalization is advisable and intensive care may be ... The virus is an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus. The disease may be difficult to tell apart from other illnesses, especially ... As these tests can cross-react with other flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, these indirect methods cannot conclusively prove ... Roby JA, Pijlman GP, Wilusz J, Khromykh AA (January 2014). "Noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA: multiple functions in West ...
In testing for IgG and IgM antibodies there may be cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses which may result in a false ... Dengue fever virus (DENV) is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus. Other members of the same genus include ... ISBN 978-0-07-149618-6. Gould EA, Solomon T (February 2008). "Pathogenic flaviviruses". Lancet. 371 (9611): 500-9. doi:10.1016/ ... Sampath A, Padmanabhan R (January 2009). "Molecular targets for flavivirus drug discovery". Antiviral Research. 81 (1): 6-15. ...
Ghosh Roy S, Sadigh B, Datan E, Lockshin RA, Zakeri Z (May 2014). "Regulation of cell survival and death during Flavivirus ... It is a mosquito-borne, single positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus. Four serotypes of the ... In recent years, many studies have shown that flaviviruses, especially dengue virus, has the ability to inhibit the innate ... McLean JE, Wudzinska A, Datan E, Quaglino D, Zakeri Z (June 2011). "Flavivirus NS4A-induced autophagy protects cells against ...
... (POWV) is a Flavivirus transmitted by ticks, found in North America and in the Russian Far East. It is named ... Powassan virus (POWV) is a Flavivirus named after the town of Powassan, Ontario, Canada, where it was identified in a 5-year- ... As of 2010[update], Powassan virus has been noted as the only tick-borne Flavivirus in North America with human pathogenicity. ... "Genus: Flavivirus" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2019. Kemenesi G ...
Molecular genetic analysis has shown that Yokose virus is a new member of the Flavivirus genus. Flaviviruses are typically ... Yokose virus is a new member of the Flavivirus family that has only been identified in a few bat species. Bats have been ... The genus Flavivirus includes over 50 known viruses, including Yellow Fever, West Nile Virus, Zika Virus, and Japanese ... Protein 2K is not found in many other flaviviruses. NS3 functions as a protease and helicase. NS5 functions as the RNA- ...
Zika fever: The Zika virus is caused by the single stranded RNA Flavivirus that uses the Aedes mosquito as a vector to infect ... Yellow fever viruses, Dengue fever viruses, and Zika viruses are of the Flavivirus genera and Chikungunya virus is of the ... Dengue fever: The Dengue virus is a flavivirus also transmissible by Aedes mosquito vectors to other animal hosts. Dengue was ... Kuno, G.; Chang, G. J.; Tsuchiya, K. R.; Karabatsos, N.; Cropp, C. B. (January 1998). "Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus". ...
The genus Flavivirus can further be broken down into clades based on whether the vector that transmits the virus to humans, and ... The genus Flavivirus is one of the largest viral genera and encompasses over 50 viral species, including tick and mosquito ... Sepik virus is in the genus Flavivirus, which means it is similar to yellow fever virus, as Yellow Fever Virus is the type ... Sepik virus causes a fever in humans, much like other viruses in the genus Flavivirus like dengue virus and Yellow fever virus ...
Similarly, arthropod viruses in the Flavivirus and Phlebovirus genera are numerous and often transmitted to humans. ... Holbrook MR (30 April 2017). "Historical Perspectives on Flavivirus Research". Viruses. 9 (5): 97. doi:10.3390/v9050097. PMC ...
Like most other flaviviruses, WNV is an enveloped virus with icosahedral symmetry. Electron microscope studies reveal a 45-50 ... The flavivirus lipid membrane has been found to contain cholesterol and phosphatidylserine, but other elements of the membrane ... It is a member of the family Flaviviridae, from the genus Flavivirus, which also contains the Zika virus, dengue virus, and ... Davidson, Andrew D. (2009). Chapter 2 New Insights into Flavivirus Nonstructural Protein 5. Advances in Virus Research. Vol. 74 ...
Similarly, arthropod viruses in the Flavivirus and Phlebovirus genera are numerous and often transmitted to humans. ... Holbrook MR (30 April 2017). "Historical Perspectives on Flavivirus Research". Viruses. 9 (5): 97. doi:10.3390/v9050097. PMC ...
The Flavivirus genus includes nearly 80 viruses, both vector-borne and no known vector (NKV) species. Known flavivirus vector- ... Typically, flaviviruses cause encephalitis in host organisms. MODV causes flavivirus-like encephalitis in SCID (severe combined ... and tick-borne flaviviruses (Fig.2). Similar to most positive (+) ssRNA viruses, flaviviruses generate organelle-like ... A mature flavivirus has a spherical shape and contains multiple copies of three structural proteins (C, M, and E), a host- ...
The KFD virus is a typical flavivirus measuring about 40-60 nm in diameter. The genome of KFDV consists of 10,774 nucleotides ... EA Gould; T Solomon (February 9, 2008). "Pathogenic flaviviruses". The Lancet. 371 (961): 500-509. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08) ... Dobler, Gerhard (2010). "Zoonotic tick-borne flaviviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. 140 (3/4): 221-228. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic. ... Gerhard Dobler (27 January 2010). "Zoonotic tick-borne flaviviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. 140 (3-4, Zoonoses: Advances and ...
ISBN 978-0-19-570506-5.[page needed] Gould, EA; Solomon, T (February 2008). "Pathogenic flaviviruses". The Lancet. 371 (9611): ...
Since the genome size of flaviviruses is small, flaviviruses maximize their use of the encoded proteins. Most of flavivirus ... A unique step in the viral replication cycle of flaviviruses is viral entry. For flaviviruses, Env proteins on the virion ... Similar to other flaviviruses, SPONV has a positive-sense, single stranded RNA genome, which is about 11 kilobases in length. ... The Spondweni virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus. Due to its phylogeny, it is related to the ...
... (EC 3.4.21.91, Yellow fever virus (flavivirus) protease, NS2B-3 proteinase) is an enzyme. Chambers TJ, Hahn CS, ... Galler R, Rice CM (1990). "Flavivirus genome organization, expression, and replication". Annual Review of Microbiology. 44: 649 ...
"Regulation of Apoptosis during Flavivirus Infection". Viruses. 9 (9): 243. doi:10.3390/v9090243. PMC 5618009. PMID 28846635. ...
... flaviviruses, pestiviruses, statoviruses, tombusviruses, single-stranded RNA bacteriophages, hepatitis C virus and a subset of ... an alphavirus supergroup plus a flavivirus supergroup; the dsRNA viruses; and the -ve strand viruses. The lentivirus group ... This analysis suggests that alphaviruses and flaviviruses can be separated into two families-the Togaviridae and Flaviridae, ...
Several other tick-borne flaviviruses have not been known to cause human nor animal diseases, and their potential pathogenicity ... Turell, Michael J.; Apperson, Charles (18 August 2015). "Experimental Transmission of Karshi (Mammalian Tick-Borne Flavivirus ... Gerhard Dobler (January 2010). "Zoonotic tick-borne flaviviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. 140 (3-4): 221-228. doi:10.1016/j. ... Tick-borne flaviviruses are among the most important viruses in the world, primarily Europe and Asia. Tick-borne encephalitis ...
Dobler G (January 2010). "Zoonotic tick-borne flaviviruses". Veterinary Microbiology. Zoonoses: Advances and Perspectives. 140 ... a flavivirus from family Flaviviridae. Lineage 2 POWV is also known as deer tick virus (DTV) Vector: Ixodes cookei, Ix. ... a flavivirus from family Flaviviridae Vector: deer tick (Ixodes scapularis), Ixodes ricinus (Europe), Ixodes persulcatus ( ... jingmenvirus group in the flavivirus family Vector: tick (likely Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus), mosquitoes Region: Inner ...
Duplicated xrRNAs in PaRV and other insect-specific Flaviviruses appear to be evolutionarily selected for to provide functional ... Comparison with the genomes of other viruses showed that its closest relatives are the Mediterranean Ochlerotatus flavivirus ( ... 2022). "Structural analysis of 3'UTRs in insect flaviviruses reveals novel determinants of sfRNA biogenesis and provides new ... "Novel Flaviviruses Detected in Different Species of Mosquitoes in Spain" (PDF). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 12 (3): 223 ...
This mechanism has been shown for Ebola virus in vitro and some flaviviruses in vivo. When an antibody to a virus is unable to ... It has been observed mainly with positive-strand RNA viruses, including flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, and Zika; ... Cardosa MJ, Porterfield JS, Gordon S (July 1983). "Complement receptor mediates enhanced flavivirus replication in macrophages ...
Like other flaviviruses, the TBEV genome codes for ten viral proteins, three structural, and seven nonstructural (NS). The ... TBEV is a member of the genus Flavivirus. Other close relatives, members of the TBEV serocomplex, include Omsk hemorrhagic ... is a positive-strand RNA virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis in the genus Flavivirus. ...
... virus belongs to genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. There are four subtypes: British, Irish, Spanish and ...
Best researches interactions between pathogenic viruses and the host immune response using flavivirus as a model. Best earned a ... She investigated virus-host interactions involved in flavivirus pathogenesis. It was during this time that she developed her ... Her virus models include emerging flaviviruses (such as Zika virus and encephalitis) and filoviruses (Ebola virus). In 2011, ... Best was awarded a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers for her work on flavivirus suppression of ...
As in other flaviviruses, such as the similarly sized West Nile virus, the RNA genome encodes seven nonstructural proteins and ... Flaviviruses replicate in the cytoplasm, but Zika antigens have been found in infected cell nuclei. The viral protein numbered ... Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, 10 kilobase, positive ... Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, thus is related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese ...
... (GGYV) is an arbovirus, a member of the genus flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) isolated first time from a ... "Delimitation of the Tick-Borne Flaviviruses. Resolving the Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus and Louping-Ill Virus Paraphyletic ...
5 Xishuangbanna Aedes flavivirus Aedes flavivirus Aedes cinereus flavivirus Aedes vexans flavivirus Culex theileri flavivirus ... virus Chaoyang virus Culex flavivirus Culex theileri flavivirus Spanish Culex flavivirus Wang Thong virus Culiseta flavivirus ... crangon flavivirus Cuacua virus Donggang virus Firefly squid flavivirus Gammarus chevreuxi flavivirus Gammarus pulex flavivirus ... Flaviviridae Rfam entry for Flavivirus 3UTR stem loop IV Rfam entry for Flavivirus DB element Rfam entry for Flavivirus 3 UTR ...
Although some dengue infections are asymptomatic, severe infections of this flavivirus can cause hemorrhagic fever and dengue ... Dengue infection is caused by any of four related flaviviruses. ...
The flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) functions in genome replication as an intracellular dimer and in immune s … ... Flaviviruses, the human pathogens responsible for dengue fever, West Nile fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and yellow fever, are ... Flavivirus NS1 structures reveal surfaces for associations with membranes and the immune system Science. 2014 Feb 21;343(6173): ... Flaviviruses, the human pathogens responsible for dengue fever, West Nile fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and yellow fever, are ...
... asymptomatic individuals had flavivirus-reactive antibodies at enrollment, and nine flavivirus-naïve individuals seroconverted ... In summary, we provide evidence for the co-circulation of multiple flaviviruses in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, on the Mexico-U.S. ... Sera from the household cohort were tested for flavivirus-reactive antibodies by immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG ELISAs using ... and other flaviviruses among residents of the city of Reynosa, Tamaulipas, on the Mexico-U.S. border in 2014-2016. The sample ...
New Mapoon and other non-individually listed flaviviruses for the purpose of notification. ... Flaviviruses in this category include Alfuy, Kokobera, Edge Hill, Stratford, ... Flaviviruses in this category include Alfuy, Kokobera, Edge Hill, Stratford, New Mapoon and other non-individually listed ...
Chapter Abstract from The Flavivirus NS3 Protein: Structure and Functions ... The Flavivirus NS3 Protein: Structure and Functions Dahai Luoa, Siew Pheng Lim and Julien Lescar ... from: Molecular Virology and Control of Flaviviruses (Edited by: Pei-Yong Shi). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2012) ... The non-structural protein 3 (NS3) of flaviviruses is the second most conserved amongst the viral proteins. It bears a ...
Transmission by both mosquito and tick vectors, and broad host tropism contribute to the presence of flaviviruses globally. ... Here, we review protein interactions between flavivirus and host proteins that contribute to virus replication, immune evasion ... Flaviviruses comprise a genus of viruses that pose a significant burden on human health worldwide. ... interactions between viral proteins and their host protein targets is essential in our comprehension of how flaviviruses ...
Culex Flavivirus. *Dakar bat virus. *Deer tick virus. *Dengue virus type 1 ...
The ER membrane protein complex is important for the biogenesis of flavivirus polyproteins. Ashley M Ngo, Matthew J Shurtleff, ... Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV) or West Nile virus (WNV) translate their genome as a single multi-pass ... Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV) or West Nile virus (WNV) express their genome as a single multi-pass ... Figure 1: EMC is required for flavivirus infection. (A) Luminescence of WT and EMC subunit KO Huh7.5.1 cells infected with DENV ...
flavivirushepacivirusstructurevirusreporter tagsluminescencecryo-EMviral dynamicsmorphogenesisviral proteinsVirology ... Engineering Reporter Tags in Flaviviruses to Probe Viral Structure and Morphogenesis. Cite. Download (. 1.51 MB. ). Share. ... Flavivirus virions undergo major conformational rearrangements during the life cycle, including the assembly and maturation ... The family Flaviviridae includes important genera such as flavivirus and hepacivirus which comprise significant human pathogens ...
Documentation for PepStar™ Antigen Collection Pan-Flavivirus Ultra (Zika) * PepStar-Peptide-Microarray_Protocol.pdf ... References for PepStar™ Antigen Collection Pan-Flavivirus Ultra (Zika) References:. Read References with PepStar & RepliTope ... PepStar Antigen Collection Pan-Flavivirus Ultra (Zika) JPT Peptide Technologies applies its unique peptide microarray platform ... non-redundant 15-meric peptides from antigenic proteins of Flaviviruses (ZIKA virus, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Yellow ...
Flavivirus. Dec 14, 2011. The next stage of evolution. Most SovCit stuff seems like prototype rituals - its a good job none of ... Flavivirus posted:. Most SovCit stuff seems like prototype rituals - its a good job none of them have found the charging ... Flavivirus posted:. Most SovCit stuff seems like prototype rituals - its a good job none of them have found the charging ...
Flavivirus cross-reactivity would explain the apparent findings of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in Nigeria ... Flavivirus cross-reactivity would explain the apparent findings of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in Nigeria ...
... our study demonstrates great strives to develop efficacious therapeutics and potent vaccine candidates against Flaviviruses in ... Flavivirus infections are emerging as significant threats to human health around the globe. Among them West Nile(WNV) and ... Flavivirus infections are emerging as significant threats to human health around the globe. Among them West Nile(WNV) and ... Flavivirus infections are emerging as significant threats to human health around the globe. Among them West Nile(WNV) and ...
... mpounds Containing Sulfur and Oxygen Chalcogens [ Vol. 30 , Issue. ... One of the most alarming features of flaviviruses is their ability to co-infect the host, thus aggravating the symptoms of the ... Among RNA viruses, the flavivirus genus (e.g. Dengue, West Nile, Yellow Fever and Zika viruses) holds a relevant place within ... As a consequence, the drug discovery process aimed at identify new anti- flavivirus agents is of great relevance and will help ...
Decades of research suggest a paradoxical role of the immune response against flaviviruses: although the immune response is ... This Review examines the dual role of the adaptive immune response against flaviviruses, particularly emphasizing the most ... Arthropod-borne flaviviruses are important human pathogens that cause a diverse range of clinical conditions, including severe ... Arthropod-borne flaviviruses are important human pathogens that cause a diverse range of clinical conditions, including severe ...
Presence of segmented flavivirus infections in North America. / Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Himanshu et al. In ... Presence of segmented flavivirus infections in North America. Kurt J. Vandegrift, Arvind Kumar, Himanshu Sharma, Satyapramod ... Presence of segmented flavivirus infections in North America. In: Emerging infectious diseases. 2020 ; Vol. 26, No. 8. pp. 1810 ... Presence of segmented flavivirus infections in North America. Emerging infectious diseases. 2020 Aug;26(8):1810-1817. doi: ...
title = "Flavivirus transmission focusing on Zika",. abstract = "Flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 ... Flavivirus transmission focusing on Zika. / Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott C. In: Current Opinion in Virology, Vol. 22, 01.02. ... Vasilakis, N., & Weaver, S. C. (2017). Flavivirus transmission focusing on Zika. Current Opinion in Virology, 22, 30-35. https ... Vasilakis, N & Weaver, SC 2017, Flavivirus transmission focusing on Zika, Current Opinion in Virology, vol. 22, pp. 30-35. ...
... and Flavivirus is that the structural proteins of alphavirus are at the 5 end; Flavivirus ... What is Flavivirus. Flavivirus is also a disease-causing virus that causes encephalitis. The viruses that cause encephalitis ... Similarities Between Alphavirus and Flavivirus. *Alphavirus and Flavivirus are two RNA viruses that contain a positive-stranded ... 2. What is Flavivirus. - Definition, Features, Importance. 3. Similarities Between Alphavirus and Flavivirus. - Outline of ...
Flavivirus Information From. Dr. J. Rampas, Dr. J. Kolman Address. Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Srobarova 48, ...
Flavivirus Information From. Arbovirology Unit (1) Address. Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA ...
Culicidae; Dengue; Infecções por Flavivirus; Flavivirus; Vacinas Virais; Febre Amarela; Infecção por Zika virus; Zika virus; ... Recent Advancements in Mosquito-Borne Flavivirus Vaccine Development. Recent Advancements in Mosquito-Borne Flavivirus Vaccine ... Infecções por Flavivirus / Dengue / Flavivirus / Zika virus / Infecção por Zika virus / Culicidae Limite: Animais / Humanos ... Infecções por Flavivirus / Dengue / Flavivirus / Zika virus / Infecção por Zika virus / Culicidae Limite: Animais / Humanos ...
Diseases caused by flaviviruses, including dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis, are major health problems in Vietnam. This ... for antibodies to the pr-E protein of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses due to cross-reactivity. The overall flavivirus ... dogs; mosquito-borne flavivirus; seroprevalence; Hanoi; Vietnam Publicerad i. Viruses. 2021, Volym: 13, nummer: 3, ... Diseases caused by flaviviruses, including dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis, are major health problems in Vietnam. This ...
Get the latest agricultural and food business news on Previous exposure to flaviviruses increases effects of Zika. Source link ... Previous exposure to flaviviruses increases effects of Zika. March 31, 2017. 3077 ...
Pediatric aseptic meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges caused mainly by nonbacterial organisms, specific agents, or other disease processes. Aseptic meningitis (including viral meningitis) is the most common infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in the pediatric population, occurring most frequently in children younger than 1...
Roles of pro-viral host factors in mosquito-borne flavivirus infections. Rafael K. Campos, Mariano A. Garcia-Blanco, Shelton S ... Investigations into flavivirus-host interactions has led to new discoveries in viral and cell biology, and will potentially ... Campos, R. K., Garcia-Blanco, M. A., & Bradrick, S. S. (2018). Roles of pro-viral host factors in mosquito-borne flavivirus ... Campos, RK, Garcia-Blanco, MA & Bradrick, SS 2018, Roles of pro-viral host factors in mosquito-borne flavivirus infections. in ...
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Cacipacore virus as an emergent mosquito-borne Flavivirus Short Communications. Figueiredo, Mario Luis Garcia de; Amarilla, ... Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cacipacore virus (CPCV), a possible bird-associated flavivirus, has yet to be detected in mosquitoes. ... were collected from the Amazon region during 2002-2006 and analyzed using a Flavivirus genus-specific reverse transcription- ...
  • Flavivirus is a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses in the family Flaviviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The family Flaviviridae includes important genera such as flavivirus and hepacivirus which comprise significant human pathogens that affect hundreds of millions annually. (purdue.edu)
  • DENV are members of the genus Flavivirus , within the family Flaviviridae . (cdc.gov)
  • Zika virus is a single stranded RNA flavivirus and a member of the Flaviviridae family. (canada.ca)
  • The genus includes the West Nile virus, dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus and several other viruses which may cause encephalitis, as well as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) such as cell fusing agent virus (CFAV), Palm Creek virus (PCV), and Parramatta River virus (PaRV). (wikipedia.org)
  • The known non-arboviruses of the flavivirus family reproduce in either arthropods or vertebrates, but not both, with one odd member of the genus affecting a nematode. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryos virus (DTMUV), a member of the Ntaya virus group in died within 3-5 days after inoculation, with severe cu- the genus Flavivirus ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Flaviviruses comprise a genus of viruses that pose a significant burden on human health worldwide. (escholarship.org)
  • Among RNA viruses, the flavivirus genus (e.g. (currentmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • The Flavivirus genus is composed of more than 70 arthropod-transmitted viruses, of which 30 are known to cause human disease. (medscape.com)
  • Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV) or West Nile virus (WNV) translate their genome as a single multi-pass transmembrane (TM) protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. (biorxiv.org)
  • Peptide microarray with a comprehensive collection of overlapping, non-redundant 15-meric peptides from antigenic proteins of Flaviviruses (ZIKA virus, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Yellow fever virus and Saint Louis encephalitis virus) and Chikungunya virus. (jpt.com)
  • Dengue, West Nile, Yellow Fever and Zika viruses) holds a relevant place within zoonotic pathogens and thus flavivirus infections are considered a growing risk for the public health. (currentmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus closely related to West Nile, dengue, Spondweni, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, remained in obscurity since its discovery in 1947, but has recently emerged to cause a series of epidemics in the South Pacific, and most recently reaching nearly pandemic levels with its introduction in the Americas. (utmb.edu)
  • Vasilakis, N & Weaver, SC 2017, ' Flavivirus transmission focusing on Zika ', Current Opinion in Virology , vol. 22, pp. 30-35. (utmb.edu)
  • Most clinically significant flaviviruses are mosquito -borne, such as the four serotypes of dengue virus , Zika virus , West Nile virus , Japanese encephalitis virus and yellow fever virus . (bvsalud.org)
  • The emergence of Zika virus, another mosquito-borne flavivirus, has illustrated additional potential routes of non-vector transmission in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We highlight some reports on dengue virus that have documented non-vector transmission and that are relevant to the transmission of Zika virus and other flaviviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Until the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks in the Americas led to the recognition of non-mosquito-borne transmission, most reports on flavivirus transmission via non-vector routes have been on DENV, with rare reports on other flaviviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • En Paraguay los virus dengue, fiebre amarilla y Zika fueron detectados en infecciones humanas, pero los estudios de flavivirus en mosquitos son aún escasos. (bvsalud.org)
  • In Paraguay, dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses were detected in human infections, but studies of flaviviruses in mosquitoes are still scarce. (bvsalud.org)
  • Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. (medscape.com)
  • Although some dengue infections are asymptomatic, severe infections of this flavivirus can cause hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome and have a higher risk of complications and death. (uvm.edu)
  • Flavivirus infections are emerging as significant threats to human health around the globe. (asu.edu)
  • Campos, RK , Garcia-Blanco, MA & Bradrick, SS 2018, Roles of pro-viral host factors in mosquito-borne flavivirus infections . (utmb.edu)
  • appealing, provided the preponderance of related flavivirus attacks (such as for example dengue and Western world Nile infections) in areas where ZIKV continues to be most widespread. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • This patent application claims live attenuated flavivirus vaccines, live attenuated multivalent flavivirus vaccines, and methods of preventing flavivirus infections as well as methods of making the vaccines claimed in the application. (nih.gov)
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate or commercialize vaccine(s) for prophylaxis against flavivirus infections. (nih.gov)
  • Among these viruses was a highly divergent segmented flavivirus whose genetic relatives were recently identified in ticks, mosquitoes, and vertebrates, including febrile humans. (psu.edu)
  • Flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 species recognized. (utmb.edu)
  • Alphavirus and Flavivirus are two viruses with a positive-strand RNA genome . (pediaa.com)
  • Alphavirus and Flavivirus are two RNA viruses that contain a positive-stranded RNA genome. (pediaa.com)
  • In contrast, Flavivirus refers to any group of RNA viruses, mostly having arthropod vectors, which cause several serious human diseases. (pediaa.com)
  • In brief, Alphavirus and Flavivirus are two genera of viruses that contain positive-sense RNA genomes. (pediaa.com)
  • St.Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Powassan, tick-borne encephalitis viruses, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus are examples of the Flavivirus . (pediaa.com)
  • Structural biology of beneficial viruses: the anatomy of a flagellotropic bacteriophage and surprises in the architecture of flaviviruses. (pasteur.fr)
  • Flaviviruses are viruses transmitted by arthropods, mainly mosquitoes. (bvsalud.org)
  • The sequencing of 19/91 pools positive for flavivirus was carried out, identifying flavivirus in all cases of insects (mainly detecting Culex Flavivirus, cell fusing agents Flavivirus and Kamiti river virus), evidencing the high distribution of these viruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • The means by which flaviviruses establish persistent infection in their competent vectors and cause disease in humans depends upon several virus-host interactions, including the intricate interplay between flavivirus-encoded immune antagonists and the host antiviral innate immune effector molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reported 40 percent of the world's population is at risk for dengue infection, with a rising number of home-grown cases occurring in the U.S. Dengue infection is caused by any of four related flaviviruses. (uvm.edu)
  • Several genetic knockout (KO) screens identified the ER membrane protein complex (EMC) as a critical host component for flavivirus infection. (biorxiv.org)
  • Decades of research suggest a paradoxical role of the immune response against flaviviruses: although the immune response is crucial for the control, clearance and prevention of infection, poor clinical outcomes are commonly associated with virus-specific immunity and immunopathogenesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Lately, the global incidence of flavivirus infection has been increasing dramatically and presents formidable challenges for public health systems around the world. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we address the current knowledge of prominent host factors required for the flavivirus life-cycle and mechanisms by which they promote infection. (utmb.edu)
  • We utilized a system to package TBEV replicons into virus particles to allow the infection of different cell types to study different aspects of the flavivirus biology including RNA recombination and packaging. (univie.ac.at)
  • Taken together these results demonstrate the usefulness of SCFVs like RepliVAX WN as vaccines to prevent flavivirus disease, and tools with which to examine immune responses to viral infection. (tdl.org)
  • Phylogenetic relatedness and cocirculation of several major human pathogen flaviviruses are recognized as a possible cause of deleterious immune responses to mixed infection or immunization and call for a greater understanding of the inter-Flavivirus protein homologies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The multitude of WNV sequences shared with other flaviviruses as interspecies variants highlights the possible hazard of defective T-cell activation by altered peptide ligands in the event of dual exposure to WNV and other flaviviruses, by either infection or immunization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Tick-borne flavivirus infection occurring in the Kyasanur Forest in India. (bvsalud.org)
  • Flaviviruses, the human pathogens responsible for dengue fever, West Nile fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and yellow fever, are endemic in tropical and temperate parts of the world. (nih.gov)
  • Arthropod-borne flaviviruses are important human pathogens that cause a diverse range of clinical conditions, including severe hemorrhagic syndromes, neurological complications and congenital malformations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Investigations into flavivirus-host interactions has led to new discoveries in viral and cell biology, and will potentially bolster strategies to control the important diseases caused by these pathogens. (utmb.edu)
  • Notably, only 51 were WNV specific, and the remaining 86, chiefly of E, NS3, and NS5, shared an identity of nine or more consecutive amino acids with sequences of 64 other flaviviruses, including several major human pathogens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Flaviviruses share several common aspects: common size (40-65 nm), symmetry (enveloped, icosahedral nucleocapsid), nucleic acid (positive-sense, single-stranded RNA around 10,000-11,000 bases), and appearance under the electron microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flaviviruses have positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes which are non-segmented and around 10-11 kbp in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yellow fever virus, a flavivirus, is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. (news-medical.net)
  • Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus transmitted via the bite of the female Aedes mosquitoes, usually Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the objective of the present study was the implementation of a flavivirus detection system in mosquitoes at IICS-UNA. (bvsalud.org)
  • For example, examining flaviviruses closely related to ZIKV, the phylogenetic framework indicates New World monkeys are the most likely candidates to be potential reservoirs for ZIKV. (springer.com)
  • We illustrate that process by presenting a Flavivirus phylogeny case study for ZIKV and its taxonomic relatives, asking within this framework, which animals might serve as reservoirs for ZIKV. (springer.com)
  • This review summarizes the current advancement, safety , efficacy , advantages and disadvantages of vaccines against mosquito -borne flaviviruses posing significant threats to human health . (bvsalud.org)
  • The data suggest the possible preferred use of sequences that are pathogen specific with minimum interspecies sequence homology for the design of Flavivirus vaccines. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Other forms of Flavivirus include Kyasanur Forest disease virus and sometimes dengue virus, which causes hemorrhagic fever, and yellow fever virus, which causes hemorrhagic fever with hepatitis. (pediaa.com)
  • Recent Advancements in Mosquito-Borne Flavivirus Vaccine Development. (bvsalud.org)
  • The non-structural protein 3 (NS3) of flaviviruses is the second most conserved amongst the viral proteins. (caister.com)
  • Thus, dissecting the physical interactions between viral proteins and their host protein targets is essential in our comprehension of how flaviviruses replicate and how they alter host cell behavior. (escholarship.org)
  • Here, we review protein interactions between flavivirus and host proteins that contribute to virus replication, immune evasion, and disease. (escholarship.org)
  • The main difference between Alphavirus (Togavirus) and Flavivirus is that Alphavirus contains structural proteins at the 5′ end, whereas Flavivirus contains structural proteins at the 3′ end. (pediaa.com)
  • Alphavirus contains structural proteins at the 5′ end, while Flavivirus contains structural proteins at the 3′ end. (pediaa.com)
  • The genome of the flavivirus TBEV consists of a single, positive-strand RNA molecule which encodes three structural and seven non-structural proteins. (univie.ac.at)
  • Flavivirus genomes defective in the production of infectious virus particles are constructed by deletion of one or more structural proteins and are characterized as replicons. (univie.ac.at)
  • A total of 475 dogs serum samples from 221 households in six districts of Hanoi were analyzed by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for antibodies to the pr-E protein of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses due to cross-reactivity. (slu.se)
  • Flavivirus is also a disease-causing virus that causes encephalitis. (pediaa.com)
  • Diseases caused by flaviviruses, including dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis, are major health problems in Vietnam. (slu.se)
  • A recent study in another flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis virus, in pigs has also demonstrated non-vector transmission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis is caused by a flavivirus that has 3 subtypes, European, Siberian, and Far Eastern. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Readers can be inspired by the contents of this review to design and synthesize more effective anti-flavivirus agents as well as to select viral or host targets to achieve an antiviral activity as broadly as possible. (currentmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • To address these needs we have developed RepliVAX WN, a single-cycle flavivirus (SCFV)-based vaccine to prevent West Nile disease. (tdl.org)
  • West Nile virus T-cell ligand sequences shared with other flaviviruses: a multitude of variant sequences as potential altered peptide ligands. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This study focused on the identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted West Nile virus (WNV) T-cell ligands and characterization of their distribution in reported sequence data of WNV and other flaviviruses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • While dual-host flaviviruses can infect vertebrates as well as arthropods, insect-specific flaviviruses are restricted to their competent arthropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) functions in genome replication as an intracellular dimer and in immune system evasion as a secreted hexamer. (nih.gov)
  • Let's Get Physical: Flavivirus-Host Protein-Protein Interactions in Replication and Pathogenesis. (escholarship.org)
  • Among the flaviviruses, DENV and yellow fever (YF) are known to cause hemorrhagic manifestations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Flaviviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of the host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CMPK2 identified as a potential pan-flavivirus inhibitor, restricting virus replication and providing a basis for developing new antiviral treatments. (news-medical.net)
  • It is a member of the flavivirus family (group B arbovirus). (medscape.com)
  • Los Flavivirus constituyen virus transmitidos por artrópodos, principalmente mosquitos. (bvsalud.org)
  • Por ello, el objetivo del presente estudio fue implementar un sistema de detección de flavivirus en mosquitos en el IICS-UNA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Se prepararon en total 201 pools de 1 a 35 mosquitos cada uno agrupados por especie, localidad, entre otros criterios. (bvsalud.org)
  • Overall, our study demonstrates great strives to develop efficacious therapeutics and potent vaccine candidates against Flaviviruses in plant expression systems. (asu.edu)
  • In recent years, flavivirus vaccine research has made major breakthroughs with several vaccine candidates showing encouraging results in preclinical and clinical trials. (bvsalud.org)
  • The cellular ribosome is crucial to the replication of the flavivirus, as it translates the RNA, in a similar fashion to cellular mRNA, resulting in the synthesis of a single polyprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, this patent application claims methods for attenuating a flavivirus or chimeric flavivirus using a synergistic dual strategy involving inserting miRNA-targeting sequences to restrict virus replication in target hosts, cells and/or tissues and placing one or more flavivirus genes under translational control of an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). (nih.gov)
  • In comparison, Flavivirus contains structural genes at the 3′ end. (pediaa.com)
  • Flaviviruses are enveloped and spherical and have icosahedral geometries with a pseudo T=3 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the spherical virion of the Flavivirus is 40-50 nm in size. (pediaa.com)
  • This Review examines the dual role of the adaptive immune response against flaviviruses, particularly emphasizing the most recent findings regarding cross-reactive T cell and antibody responses, and the effects that these concepts have on vaccine-development endeavors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mosquito control by using larvicides or electric traps could lower seropositivity, but other measures did not contribute to significant risk mitigation of flavivirus exposure in dogs. (slu.se)
  • These results will support better control of mosquito-borne diseases in Hanoi, and they indicate that dogs can be used as sentinels for flavivirus exposure. (slu.se)
  • Transmission by both mosquito and tick vectors, and broad host tropism contribute to the presence of flaviviruses globally. (escholarship.org)
  • This array was produced carefully selecting peptides with our ULTRA approach to represent the sequence diversity of Flaviviruses. (jpt.com)
  • In this review, we describe the most promising compounds having both sulfur and oxygen in their structures characterized by a broad-spectrum activity against different flaviviruses. (currentmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • As a consequence, the drug discovery process aimed at identify new anti- flavivirus agents is of great relevance and will help to find effective therapies not available yet. (currentmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • Flavivirus virions undergo major conformational rearrangements during the life cycle, including the assembly and maturation steps. (purdue.edu)
  • 50% in the analyzed sequences of one or more of six major flaviviruses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One of the most alarming features of flaviviruses is their ability to co-infect the host, thus aggravating the symptoms of the disease. (currentmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • Dengue Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a flavivirus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Molecular Virology and Control of Flaviviruses (Edited by: Pei-Yong Shi). (caister.com)
  • Para asegurar la integridad del RNA extraído se realizó la detección de un control interno (Actina-1), siendo todos los pools positivos para el mismo, 91/201 pools fueron positivos para flavivirus. (bvsalud.org)