Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral
GB virus A
West Nile virus
Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
GB virus C
Classical swine fever virus
Encephalitis, St. Louis
Encephalitis Virus, Japanese
Yellow fever virus
West Nile Fever
Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease
Molecular Sequence Data
Viral Envelope Proteins
Amino Acid Sequence
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Carriage of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus RNA is associated with a slower immunologic, virologic, and clinical progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease in coinfected persons. (1/233)The prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is high in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. However, the long-term consequences of coinfection are unknown. HIV-positive persons with a well-defined duration of infection were screened on the basis of their GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA status and studied. GBV-C/HGV viremia was observed in 23, who carried the virus over a mean of 7.7 years. All parameters (survival, CDC stage B/C, HIV RNA load, CD4 T cell count) showed significant differences in terms of the cumulative progression rate between persons positive and negative for GBV-C/HGV RNA. When GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive and -unexposed subjects were matched by age, sex, baseline HIV RNA load, and baseline CD4 T cell count, HIV disease progression appeared worse in GBV-C/HGV RNA-negative subjects. The carriage of GBV-C/HGV RNA is associated with a slower progression of HIV disease in coinfected persons. (+info)
High prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) infections in dialysis staff. (2/233)BACKGROUND: Patients on renal replacement therapy, haemodialysis (HD), or after kidney transplantation (TX), are known to be at risk of acquiring blood-borne infections (HBV, HCV). GBV-C/Hepatitis G virus (HGV) has been described recently and is considered to cause blood-borne infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk for the medical staff of HD and TX patients to acquire HGV infection. METHODS: Eighty-five HD patients and 86 TX recipients were compared with 49 health-care workers and 64 blood donors as controls. The HGV prevalence was determined by RT-PCR and antibodies to E2 protein. RESULTS: A high prevalence of HGV was found in the medical staff (24%) which nearly corresponded to the prevalence of the patients (TX 36%, HD 25%) but not to the controls (9%). In contrast, the prevalence of HCV was low in the medical staff (2%) and controls (0%) but high in HD (13%) and TX (13%). Age and duration of employment in the department did not significantly influence the HGV prevalence in staff. The number of viraemic subjects in staff was high, possibly indicating a more recent infection. CONCLUSION: An occupational risk for HGV exists in medical staff of dialysis and transplant patients. Further routes of transmission than only parenteral may play a role in this setting. (+info)
Sequence heterogeneity within three different regions of the hepatitis G virus genome. (3/233)Two sets of primers derived from the 5'-terminal region and the NS5 region of the hepatitis G virus (HGV) genome were used to amplify PCR fragments from serum specimens obtained from different parts of the world. All PCR fragments from the 5'-terminal region (5'-PCR, n = 56) and from the NS5 region (NS5-PCR, n = 85) were sequenced and compared to corresponding published HGV sequences. The range of nucleotide sequence similarity varied from 74 and 78% to 100% for 5'-PCR and NS5-PCR fragments, respectively. Additionally, five overlapping PCR fragments comprising an approximately 2.0-kb structural region of the HGV genome were sequenced from each of five sera obtained from three United States residents. These sequences were compared to 20 published sequences comprising the same region of the HGV genome. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences obtained from different individuals were homologous from 82.9 to 93. 6% and from 90.4 to 99.0%, respectively. Sequences obtained from follow-up specimens were almost identical. Comparative analysis of deduced amino acid sequences of the HGV structural proteins and hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural proteins combined with an analysis of predicted secondary structures and hydrophobic profiles allowed prediction of processing sites within the HGV structural proteins. A phylogenetic sequence analysis performed on the 2.0-kb structural region supports the existence of three previously identified HGV genetic groups. However, phylogenetic analysis performed on only small DNA fragments yielded inconsistent genetic grouping and failed to confirm the existence of genetic groups. Thus, in contrast to HCV where almost any region can be used for genotyping, only large or carefully selected genome fragments can be used to identify consistent HGV genetic groups. (+info)
RNA-Stimulated ATPase and RNA helicase activities and RNA binding domain of hepatitis G virus nonstructural protein 3. (4/233)Hepatitis G virus (HGV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) contains amino acid sequence motifs typical of ATPase and RNA helicase proteins. In order to examine the RNA helicase activity of the HGV NS3 protein, the NS3 region (amino acids 904 to 1580) was fused with maltose-binding protein (MBP), and the fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified with amylose resin and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified MBP-HGV/NS3 protein possessed RNA-stimulated ATPase and RNA helicase activities. Characterization of the ATPase and RNA helicase activities of MBP-HGV/NS3 showed that the optimal reaction conditions were similar to those of other Flaviviridae viral NS3 proteins. However, the kinetic analysis of NTPase activity showed that the MBP-HGV/NS3 protein had several unique properties compared to the other Flaviviridae NS3 proteins. The HGV NS3 helicase unwinds RNA-RNA duplexes in a 3'-to-5' direction and can unwind RNA-DNA heteroduplexes and DNA-DNA duplexes as well. In a gel retardation assay, the MBP-HGV/NS3 helicase bound to RNA, RNA/DNA, and DNA duplexes with 5' and 3' overhangs but not to blunt-ended RNA duplexes. We also found that the conserved motif VI was important for RNA binding. Further deletion mapping showed that the RNA binding domain was located between residues 1383 and 1395, QRRGRTGRGRSGR. Our data showed that the MBP-HCV/NS3 protein also contains the RNA binding domain in the similar domain. (+info)
Identification of a novel genotype of hepatitis G virus in Southeast Asia. (5/233)Hepatitis G virus (HGV) isolates obtained from 20 Myanmarese and 10 Vietnamese subjects were analyzed. A cluster of isolates not belonging to any known genotype of HGV was found in five Myanmarese subjects and three Vietnamese subjects by phylogenetic analysis, and we classified this new genotype as type 4. These results revealed that the HGV genome can be classified into at least four major genotypes. (+info)
Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and GB virus-C infections in Siberia. (6/233)We studied the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus-C (GBV-C) infections in 348 Siberian natives who lived in the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia. Of 348 samples studied, the seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBs were 11.8% (41 of 348 samples) and 35.9% (125 of 348 samples), respectively. The prevalence of HCV infection was 1.4% (5 of 348 samples), and that of GBV-C RNA, using RT-PCR methods, was 7.5% (26 of 348 samples). In Siberia, the prevalences of HBV and GBV-C infections were about tenfold higher than those in Japan. The prevalence of HBsAg in subjects under 50 years of age was significantly higher than that in those over 50 years old (P < 0.05). Because HBV infection is highly endemic in Siberia, we propose that the community-based mass immunization must be conducted as soon as possible in this area. (+info)
Analysis of hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA, antibody to HGV envelope protein, and risk factors for blood donors coinfected with HGV and hepatitis C virus. (7/233)Serologic, biochemical, and molecular analyses were used to study hepatitis G virus (HGV), antibody to the HGV envelope protein (anti-E2), risk factors, clinical significance, and the impact of HGV on coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV). Among 329 donors with confirmed HCV infection, 12% were HGV RNA-positive and 44% were anti-E2-positive (total exposure, 56%). HGV RNA and anti-E2 were mutually exclusive except in 9 donors (1.5%); 8 of 9 subsequently lost HGV RNA but anti-E2 persisted. HGV had little impact on alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, or gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in donors with HGV infection alone or those coinfected with HCV. A multivariate analysis showed that intravenous drug abuse was the leading risk factor for HGV transmission, followed by blood transfusion, snorting cocaine, imprisonment, and a history of sexually transmitted diseases. In summary, HGV and HCV infections were frequently associated and shared common parenteral risk factors; HGV did not appear to cause hepatitis or to worsen the course of coexistent hepatitis C. (+info)
Early acquisition of TT virus (TTV) in an area endemic for TTV infection. (8/233)TT virus (TTV) is widely distributed, with high frequencies of viremia in South America, Central Africa, and Papua New Guinea. The incidence and timing of infection in children born in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo was investigated. TTV viremia was detected in 61 (58%) of 105 women attending an antenatal clinic and in 36 (54%) of 68 infants. Most infants acquired the infection at >/=3 months postpartum. Surprisingly, TTV infection was detected in a large proportion of children with TTV-negative mothers (13 [43%] of 30). Nucleotide sequences of TTV-infected children were frequently epidemiologically unlinked to variants detected in the mother. These three aspects contrast with the maternal transmission of hepatitis G virus/GB virus C in this cohort and suggest an environmental source of TTV infection comparable to hepatitis A virus and other enterically transmitted infections. (+info)
Flaviviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Flaviviridae. These viruses are primarily transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes, although some can also be transmitted through contact with infected blood or other bodily fluids. The most well-known member of the Flaviviridae family is the yellow fever virus, which causes a severe and often fatal disease characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and jaundice. Other members of the family include dengue virus, which causes dengue fever, a disease characterized by fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, and a characteristic rash, and West Nile virus, which can cause a range of symptoms from mild flu-like illness to severe neurological disease. Flaviviridae infections are typically diagnosed through blood tests or other laboratory tests. Treatment is generally supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and providing supportive care to help the body fight off the infection. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection. Prevention of flaviviridae infections involves avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes can breed.
Flavivirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, although transmission can also occur through other means, such as blood transfusions, sexual contact, and from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Flavivirus infections can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms such as fever and headache to more severe conditions such as dengue fever, yellow fever, and West Nile virus disease. Some flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, can also cause serious birth defects in babies born to infected mothers. The diagnosis of flavivirus infections is typically made through laboratory testing of blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment is generally supportive, with antipyretics used to reduce fever and pain relievers used to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Prevention of flavivirus infections involves avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes can breed. Vaccines are available for some flaviviruses, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis, but not for others.
Viral nonstructural proteins (NSPs) are proteins that are not part of the viral capsid or envelope, but are instead synthesized by the virus after it has entered a host cell. These proteins play important roles in the replication and assembly of the virus, as well as in evading the host immune system. NSPs can be classified into several functional groups, including proteases, helicases, polymerases, and methyltransferases. For example, the NSP1 protein of the influenza virus is a protease that cleaves host cell proteins to create a favorable environment for viral replication. The NSP3 protein of the hepatitis C virus is a helicase that unwinds the viral RNA genome to allow for transcription and replication. NSPs can also be targeted by antiviral drugs, as they are often essential for viral replication. For example, the protease inhibitors used to treat HIV target the viral protease enzyme, which is an NSP. Similarly, the NS5B polymerase inhibitors used to treat hepatitis C target the viral polymerase enzyme, which is also an NSP. Overall, NSPs play important roles in the life cycle of viruses and are an important target for antiviral therapy.
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a highly contagious virus that affects pigs, causing a disease known as classical swine fever (CSF). The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or their bodily fluids, as well as through contaminated feed, water, or equipment. Symptoms of CSF in pigs can include high fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, and hemorrhaging. The disease can be fatal in young pigs and can cause significant economic losses to pig farmers and the pork industry. CSFV is classified as a notifiable disease in many countries, meaning that outbreaks must be reported to the relevant authorities. Control measures typically involve quarantine and slaughter of infected pigs, as well as vaccination of susceptible pigs.
Nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) into nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). NTPases are found in a variety of cellular compartments, including the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum, and play important roles in various cellular processes, such as energy metabolism, nucleotide synthesis, and signal transduction. In the medical field, NTPases are of interest because they are involved in the regulation of many cellular processes that are disrupted in various diseases. For example, mutations in NTPase genes have been implicated in several genetic disorders, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a peripheral neuropathy, and Cockayne syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs. Additionally, NTPases are potential targets for the development of new drugs for the treatment of cancer, as they are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival.
Encephalitis, St. Louis is a type of viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). It is primarily found in the United States, particularly in the central and southern regions. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly the Culex species. Symptoms of St. Louis encephalitis can include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and a stiff neck. In severe cases, the virus can cause inflammation of the brain, leading to confusion, seizures, and even coma. The disease is usually self-limiting, and most people recover fully within a few weeks. However, in some cases, there can be long-term neurological effects. There is no specific treatment for St. Louis encephalitis, but supportive care such as hydration, pain management, and anticonvulsants can be provided to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes can breed. Vaccines are also available to prevent the disease in certain high-risk groups.
In the medical field, "Culex" refers to a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases to humans and animals. The most common species of Culex mosquitoes that transmit diseases are Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus. These mosquitoes are found worldwide and are known to transmit diseases such as West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever. The bite of a Culex mosquito can cause an itchy red bump on the skin, but the real danger comes from the diseases that they can transmit. Therefore, it is important to take precautions to avoid being bitten by Culex mosquitoes, such as wearing protective clothing and using insect repellent.
Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus. It is one of the most common viral infections in the world, with an estimated 390 million infections occurring annually, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected female Aedes mosquito, which feeds on the blood of humans and other animals. There are four different serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), and each serotype can cause dengue fever, a viral illness characterized by fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, and a rash. In some cases, dengue fever can progress to more severe forms of the disease, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening. Dengue virus is a significant public health concern, as it can cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in children and pregnant women. There is currently no vaccine available for dengue virus, and treatment is primarily supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and preventing complications. Prevention efforts include vector control measures to reduce mosquito populations and public education campaigns to promote personal protection measures, such as the use of insect repellent and bed nets.
RNA helicases are a class of enzymes that play a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, RNA metabolism, and DNA replication. These enzymes are responsible for unwinding the double-stranded RNA or DNA helix, thereby facilitating the access of other proteins to the nucleic acid strands. RNA helicases are involved in several biological processes, including transcription, translation, splicing, and RNA degradation. They are also involved in the initiation of reverse transcription during retroviral replication and in the unwinding of RNA-DNA hybrids during DNA repair. In the medical field, RNA helicases are of particular interest due to their involvement in various diseases. For example, mutations in certain RNA helicases have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Additionally, RNA helicases have been implicated in various types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, and lung cancer. Overall, RNA helicases are essential enzymes that play a critical role in many cellular processes and are of significant interest in the medical field due to their involvement in various diseases.
Hepatitis, viral, animal refers to a type of viral infection that affects the liver and is caused by viruses that are specific to animals. These viruses can be transmitted to humans through various means, such as contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, consumption of contaminated food or water, or through the bites of infected insects. There are several different types of viral hepatitis that can affect animals, including hepatitis E, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. These viruses can cause a range of symptoms in animals, including fever, loss of appetite, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and liver damage. In severe cases, viral hepatitis can lead to liver failure and death. In humans, viral hepatitis can also cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and jaundice. Some types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A and E, are generally mild and self-limiting, while others, such as hepatitis B and C, can be chronic and require long-term treatment. Prevention of viral hepatitis in animals and humans involves measures such as avoiding contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, practicing good hygiene, and consuming safe food and water. Vaccines are also available for some types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A and B, which can help prevent infection.
Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are transmitted to humans and animals by arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. These viruses can cause a wide range of diseases, including mild fevers, encephalitis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic fever. Arboviruses are classified into several different families, including Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Reoviridae. Some well-known examples of arboviruses include West Nile virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. In the medical field, arboviruses are a significant public health concern, as they can cause widespread outbreaks and epidemics, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Diagnosis and treatment of arboviral infections often involve supportive care, such as hydration and pain management, as well as antiviral medications in some cases. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks.
RNA, Viral refers to the genetic material of viruses that are composed of RNA instead of DNA. Viral RNA is typically single-stranded and can be either positive-sense or negative-sense. Positive-sense RNA viruses can be directly translated into proteins by the host cell's ribosomes, while negative-sense RNA viruses require a complementary positive-sense RNA intermediate before protein synthesis can occur. Viral RNA is often encapsidated within a viral capsid and can be further protected by an envelope made of lipids and proteins derived from the host cell. RNA viruses include a wide range of pathogens that can cause diseases in humans and other organisms, such as influenza, hepatitis C, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19).
West Nile fever is a viral infection caused by the West Nile virus (WNV). It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. The virus can also be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ transplants, and from mother to fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms of West Nile fever can range from mild to severe and may include fever, headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. In more severe cases, the virus can cause encephalitis, which is inflammation of the brain, or meningitis, which is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. These severe cases can be life-threatening and may result in long-term neurological problems. West Nile fever is most common in warmer months, particularly in areas where mosquitoes are prevalent. The risk of infection is highest for people who spend a lot of time outdoors, especially during dawn and dusk when mosquitoes are most active. Treatment for West Nile fever typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. There is no specific antiviral medication available to treat the virus.
Arbovirus infections are a group of viral diseases that are transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. The term "arbovirus" is derived from the words "arthropod-borne virus." There are many different types of arboviruses, including dengue, Zika, chikungunya, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. These viruses can cause a range of symptoms, from mild fever and rash to more severe illness, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever. Arbovirus infections are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions, but they can also occur in temperate regions during the summer months when the vectors are most active. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes can breed. Vaccines are available for some arboviruses, such as Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever, but not for all. Treatment is typically supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and preventing complications.
RNA replicase is an enzyme that is responsible for replicating RNA molecules. In the context of the medical field, RNA replicases are particularly important in the replication of viruses that use RNA as their genetic material. These enzymes are responsible for copying the viral RNA genome, which is then used to produce new viral particles. RNA replicases are also involved in the replication of certain types of retroviruses, which are viruses that use RNA as their genetic material but reverse transcribe their RNA genome into DNA, which is then integrated into the host cell's genome. In this process, the RNA replicase enzyme is responsible for copying the viral RNA genome and producing a complementary DNA strand, which is then used to produce new viral particles. RNA replicases are also important in the replication of certain types of bacteria, such as the bacteria that cause the disease Q fever. In these bacteria, the RNA replicase enzyme is responsible for copying the bacterial RNA genome and producing new bacterial particles. Overall, RNA replicases play a critical role in the replication of viruses and certain types of bacteria, and understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is important for the development of new treatments for viral and bacterial infections.
Culicidae is a family of insects that includes mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue fever, Zika virus, and West Nile virus. In the medical field, understanding the biology and behavior of mosquitoes is important for developing strategies to control their populations and prevent the spread of diseases they transmit.
Hepatitis, viral, human refers to a group of infectious diseases caused by various types of viruses that affect the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for filtering toxins from the blood, producing bile, and regulating metabolism. When the liver is infected with a virus, it can become inflamed, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. There are several types of viruses that can cause viral hepatitis in humans, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Each type of virus has its own unique characteristics and can cause different levels of liver damage. Hepatitis A is typically caused by consuming contaminated food or water and is usually a self-limiting illness that resolves on its own. Hepatitis B and C are more serious and can lead to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Hepatitis D is a rare form of viral hepatitis that only occurs in people who are already infected with hepatitis B. Hepatitis E is primarily a disease of pregnant women and can cause severe liver damage in some cases. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis typically involves blood tests to detect the presence of the virus and to measure liver function. Treatment depends on the type of virus and the severity of the illness. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help the body fight off the virus, while in other cases, supportive care may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease (BVD-MD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects cattle and other ruminants. It is caused by the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), which is a member of the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. The disease can present in two forms: acute and persistent. Acute BVDV infection is characterized by fever, loss of appetite, and diarrhea, and is usually self-limiting. Persistent BVDV infection, on the other hand, is characterized by the presence of the virus in the animal's body for an extended period, often for the animal's entire life. This can lead to a range of clinical signs, including weight loss, reproductive problems, and increased susceptibility to other diseases. BVD-MD can have a significant impact on the cattle industry, as it can cause reduced productivity, increased mortality, and decreased reproductive success. It is also a significant source of economic loss, as it can lead to increased veterinary costs, decreased herd value, and reduced milk and meat production. Prevention and control of BVD-MD typically involve vaccination, quarantine, and testing of animals for the presence of the virus.
Serine endopeptidases are a class of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, specifically at the carboxyl side of serine residues. These enzymes are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including digestion, blood clotting, and immune response. In the medical field, serine endopeptidases are often studied for their potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders. They are also used as research tools to study protein function and regulation. Some examples of serine endopeptidases include trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase.
In the medical field, "Aedes" refers to a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit several important human diseases, including dengue fever, Zika virus, and chikungunya. These mosquitoes are found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and are often found near standing water, such as in containers or in areas with poor drainage. The female Aedes mosquito requires a blood meal to lay her eggs, and she is attracted to humans and other animals for this purpose. The bites of Aedes mosquitoes can be painful and itchy, but the real danger comes from the diseases they can transmit.
Antiviral agents are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by inhibiting the replication of viruses within host cells, thereby reducing the severity and duration of the infection. Antiviral agents can be classified into several categories, including nucleoside analogues, protease inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, and entry inhibitors. They are commonly used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C. Antiviral agents are an important tool in the management of viral infections and have been instrumental in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases.
Viral envelope proteins are proteins that are found on the surface of enveloped viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, as they are involved in the attachment of the virus to host cells, entry into the host cell, and release of new virus particles from the host cell. There are several different types of viral envelope proteins, including glycoproteins, which are proteins that have attached carbohydrates, and matrix proteins, which help to stabilize the viral envelope. These proteins can be important targets for antiviral drugs, as they are often essential for the virus to infect host cells. In addition to their role in viral infection, viral envelope proteins can also play a role in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. For example, some viral envelope proteins can trigger an immune response in the host, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Other viral envelope proteins can help the virus evade the host immune system, allowing the virus to persist and cause disease. Overall, viral envelope proteins are important components of enveloped viruses and play a critical role in the viral life cycle and pathogenesis of viral diseases.
In the medical field, the term "cattle" refers to large domesticated animals that are raised for their meat, milk, or other products. Cattle are a common source of food and are also used for labor in agriculture, such as plowing fields or pulling carts. In veterinary medicine, cattle are often referred to as "livestock" and may be treated for a variety of medical conditions, including diseases, injuries, and parasites. Some common medical issues that may affect cattle include respiratory infections, digestive problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cattle may also be used in medical research, particularly in the fields of genetics and agriculture. For example, scientists may study the genetics of cattle to develop new breeds with desirable traits, such as increased milk production or resistance to disease.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
Dengue is a viral infection caused by the dengue virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. It is a common disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and is estimated to affect between 300 million and 500 million people each year. Dengue fever is the most common form of the disease, and is characterized by fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and a rash. In some cases, the disease can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening. There is no specific treatment for dengue fever, but supportive care such as hydration and pain management can help alleviate symptoms. Prevention measures include eliminating mosquito breeding sites, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing. Vaccines are currently being developed for dengue fever, but are not yet widely available.
Viral proteins are proteins that are synthesized by viruses during their replication cycle within a host cell. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including attachment to host cells, entry into the cell, replication of the viral genome, assembly of new viral particles, and release of the virus from the host cell. Viral proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, non-structural proteins, and regulatory proteins. Structural proteins are the building blocks of the viral particle, such as capsid proteins that form the viral coat. Non-structural proteins are proteins that are not part of the viral particle but are essential for viral replication, such as proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual proteins. Regulatory proteins are proteins that control the expression of viral genes or the activity of viral enzymes. Viral proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines, as they are essential for viral replication and survival. Understanding the structure and function of viral proteins is crucial for the development of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
Hepatitis C is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids. The virus can be transmitted through sharing needles or other equipment used to inject drugs, sexual contact, or from mother to child during childbirth. Hepatitis C can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, and jaundice. In some cases, the virus can cause chronic liver disease, which can lead to liver failure, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. There are several different strains of the hepatitis C virus, and the severity of the infection can vary depending on the strain and the individual's immune system. Treatment for hepatitis C typically involves antiviral medications, which can help to eliminate the virus from the body and prevent further liver damage. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary for people with severe liver damage.
Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, voles, and lemmings. These animals are typically small to medium-sized and have a broad, flat head and a short, thick body. They are found in a variety of habitats around the world, including grasslands, forests, and deserts. In the medical field, Cricetinae are often used as laboratory animals for research purposes, as they are easy to care for and breed, and have a relatively short lifespan. They are also used in studies of genetics, physiology, and behavior.
U. C. Chaturvedi
Bovine viral diarrhea
GB virus C
Endothelial cell tropism
West Nile fever
Entebbe bat virus
Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens
Flaviviridae - Wikipedia
Flaviviridae | Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) | CDC
ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Flaviviridae. - Immunology
CBRNE - Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Cell Culture and Electron Microscopy for Identifying Viruses in Diseases of Unknown Cause - Volume 19, Number 6-June 2013 -...
ArboCat Virus: Hanzalova (HANV)
ArboCat Virus: Cowbone Ridge (CRV)
Viruses | Free Full-Text | Development, Characterization, and Application of Two Reporter-Expressing Recombinant Zika Viruses
Zika virus - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Molecular and genetic characteristics of the multicomponent flavi-like Kindia tick virus (Flaviviridae) found in ixodes ticks...
A review on zika virus: clinical aspects and therapeutic responses - Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
GRADE Analysis: CYD-TDV Dengue Vaccine | CDC
Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
SciELO - Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Volume: 55, Published: 2022
Zika Virus Infections Drugs in Development by Stages, Target, MoA, RoA, Molecule Type and Key Players, 2022 Update
KEGG Selected Viruses
Use of dry blots for serotyping and genotyping of dengue vir... : Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Development of Conventional and Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays to Detect Tembusu Virus in...
Yellow Fever Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Emergency Department Care, Deterrence and Prevention
Call Transcript: December 8, 2016|Clinicians Outreach and Outreach Communication (COCA)
Molecular mechanisms of viral hepatitis induced hepatocellular carcinoma
Fatty Liver (Steatosis) May Cause Fibrosis & Liver Cancer
Transfusion-Transmitted Diseases: Overview, Bacterial Infections, Viral Infections
Structural models for the design of novel antiviral agents against Spondweni virus helicase
Frontiers | Host immune response against DENV and ZIKV infections
bioLytical Laboratories Announces Patent Filings in U.S. for Zika Detection Assays
Hepatitis C Lab Paper - 1622 Words | Bartleby
- DENV are members of the genus Flavivirus , within the family Flaviviridae . (cdc.gov)
- Dengue Virus (DENV) belongs to the genus flavivirus in the Flaviviridae family. (lww.com)
- Spondweni virus (SPONV), a possible emerging virus, is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family, of the genus Flavivirus and belongs to a serogroup with the Zika virus. (spandidos-publications.com)
- A genus of virus in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. (bvsalud.org)
- The Flaviviridae are a family of positive, single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Flaviviridae is a family of enveloped positive-strand RNA viruses which mainly infect mammals and birds. (wikipedia.org)
- Members of the family Flaviviridae have monopartite, linear, single-stranded RNA genomes of positive polarity, and 9.6 to 12.3 kilobase in total length. (wikipedia.org)
- The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. (ox.ac.uk)
- It is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) within the family Flaviviridae class. (amrita.edu)
- Zika virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family. (reportlinker.com)
- Following the evaluation of the model and the identification of motifs characteristic of the Flaviviridae family, data from previous publications on the treatment of HCV were incorporated, with the aim of detecting the ideal residues in the Spondweni model, which are similar to those of the HCV structure and are inhibitor targets. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The different members of the Flaviviridae family share some common elements of viral organization. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Dengue virus (DENV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. (frontiersin.org)
- 1 With the high degree of cross-reactivity within the flaviviridae family, a diagnostic assay that can rapidly detect and differentiate between them, and determine new vs old infection, is of upmost importance and is a current area of focus for bioLytical. (prnewswire.com)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is from the virus family Flaviviridae with an RNA envelope serving as it's genetic material. (bartleby.com)
- Comparative analysis of genome-encoded viral sequences reveals the evolutionary history of flavivirids (family Flaviviridae ). (bvsalud.org)
- This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the taxonomy of the Flaviviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/flaviviridae. (ox.ac.uk)
- Arthropod vectors, mainly ticks and mosquitoes, constitute the transmission pathway of Flaviviridae viruses, causing epidemics and medical concerns due to the large number of diseases that they inflict on both humans and animals ( 1 , 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Being a promising antiviral target, helicase inhibition leads to the pause of the replication, proliferation and consequently, to the survival and transmission of Flaviviridae viruses ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- These febrile diseases result from infection by viruses from 4 viral families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, and Flaviviridae. (medscape.com)
- Examination of insect genomes has revealed endogenous viral sequences from members of the Bunyaviridae , Rhabdoviridae , Orthomyxoviridae , Reoviridae , and Flaviviridae . (virology.ws)
- Género de virus de la familia FLAVIVIRIDAE. (bvsalud.org)
- Aunque en general los pegivirus no son patógenos, en ocasiones se asocian coinfecciones por pegivirus al LINFOMA NO HODGKINIANO en el ser humano y a una hepatitis viral, la enfermedad de Theiler, en los caballos. (bvsalud.org)
- This FOA solicits for Centers proposing research on virus families from Flaviviridae and Togaviridae to be part of the ReVAMPP Network. (nih.gov)
- Zika virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae. (nih.gov)
- Dengue virus is from the Flaviviridae family of viruses and Aedes aegypti mosquito is its carrier. (healthians.com)
- Comparisons of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhoea virus with members of the flaviviridae. (nih.gov)