A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A species of gram-negative, halophilic bacteria, in the genus VIBRIO. It is considered part of normal marine flora and commonly associated with ear infections and superficial wounds exposed to contaminated water sources.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.
The middle piece of the spermatozoon is a highly organized segment consisting of MITOCHONDRIA, the outer dense fibers and the core microtubular structure.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.
An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.
Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.

Potent immunoregulatory effects of Salmonella typhi flagella on antigenic stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (1/3084)

A key function of monocytes/macrophages (Mphi) is to present antigens to T cells. However, upon interaction with bacteria, Mphi lose their ability to effectively present soluble antigens. This functional loss was associated with alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and CD14 and a reduction in the uptake of soluble antigen. Recently, we have demonstrated that Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) markedly decrease CD14 expression and are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). In order to determine whether S. typhi and soluble STF also alter the ability of Mphi to activate T cells to proliferate to antigens and mitogens, hPBMC were cultured in the presence of tetanus toxoid (TT) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and either killed whole-cell S. typhi or purified STF protein. Both whole-cell S. typhi and STF suppressed proliferation to PHA and TT. This decreased proliferation was not a result of increased Mphi production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, or oxygen radicals or the release of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, or interleukin-10 following exposure to STF. However, the ability to take up soluble antigen, as determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran uptake, was reduced in cells cultured with STF. Moreover, there was a dramatic reduction in the expression of CD54 on Mphi after exposure to STF. These results indicate that whole-cell S. typhi and STF have the ability to alter in vitro proliferation to soluble antigens and mitogens by affecting Mphi function.  (+info)

Components of the Salmonella flagellar export apparatus and classification of export substrates. (2/3084)

Until now, identification of components of the flagellar protein export apparatus has been indirect. We have now identified these components directly by establishing whether mutants defective in putative export components could translocate export substrates across the cytoplasmic membrane into the periplasmic space. Hook-type proteins could be exported to the periplasm of rod mutants, indicating that rod protein export does not have to precede hook-type protein export and therefore that both types of proteins belong to a single export class, the rod/hook-type class, which is distinct from the filament-type class. Hook-capping protein (FlgD) and hook protein (FlgE) required FlhA, FlhB, FliH, FliI, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR for their export to the periplasm. In the case of flagellin as an export substrate, because of the phenomenon of hook-to-filament switching of export specificity, it was necessary to use temperature-sensitive mutants and establish whether flagellin could be exported to the cell exterior following a shift from the permissive to the restrictive temperature. Again, FlhA, FlhB, FliH, FliI, and FliO were required for its export. No suitable temperature-sensitive fliQ or fliR mutants were available. FliP appeared not to be required for flagellin export, but we suspect that the temperature-sensitive FliP protein continued to function at the restrictive temperature if incorporated at the permissive temperature. Thus, we conclude that these eight proteins are general components of the flagellar export pathway. FliJ was necessary for export of hook-type proteins (FlgD and FlgE); we were unable to test whether FliJ is needed for export of filament-type proteins. We suspect that FliJ may be a cytoplasmic chaperone for the hook-type proteins and possibly also for FliE and the rod proteins. FlgJ was not required for the export of the hook-type proteins; again, because of lack of a suitable temperature-sensitive mutant, we were unable to test whether it was required for export of filament-type proteins. Finally, it was established that there is an interaction between the processes of outer ring assembly and of penetration of the outer membrane by the rod and nascent hook, the latter process being of course necessary for passage of export substrates into the external medium. During the brief transition stage from completion of rod assembly and initiation of hook assembly, the L ring and perhaps the capping protein FlgD can be regarded as bona fide export components, with the L ring being in a formal sense the equivalent of the outer membrane secretin structure of type III virulence factor export systems.  (+info)

Peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activity of the FlgJ protein, essential for flagellar rod formation in Salmonella typhimurium. (3/3084)

Because the rod structure of the flagellar basal body crosses the inner membrane, the periplasmic space, and the outer membrane, its formation must involve hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan layer. So far, more than 10 genes have been shown to be required for rod formation in Salmonella typhimurium. Some of them encode the component proteins of the rod structure, and most of the remaining genes are believed to encode proteins involved in the export process of the component proteins. Although FlgJ has also been known to be involved in rod formation, its exact role has not been understood. Recently, it was suggested that the C-terminal half of the FlgJ protein has homology to the active center of some muramidase enzymes from gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we showed that the purified FlgJ protein from S. typhimurium has a peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activity and that this activity is localized in its C-terminal half. Through oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, we constructed flgJ mutants with amino acid substitutions in the putative active center of the muramidase. The resulting mutants produced FlgJ proteins with reduced enzymatic activity and showed poor motility. These results indicate that the muramidase activity of FlgJ is essential for flagellar formation. Immunoblotting analysis with the fractionated cell extracts revealed that FlgJ is exported to the periplasmic space, where the peptidoglycan layer is localized. On the basis of these results, we conclude that FlgJ is the flagellum-specific muramidase which hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan layer to assemble the rod structure in the periplasmic space.  (+info)

Tn5-induced and spontaneous switching of Sinorhizobium meliloti to faster-swarming behavior. (4/3084)

Tn5 mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti RMB7201 which swarmed 1.5 to 2. 5 times faster than the parental strain in semisolid agar, moist sand, and viscous liquid were identified. These faster-swarming (FS) mutants outgrew the wild type 30- to 40-fold within 2 days in mixed swarm colonies. The FS mutants survived and grew as well as or better than the wild type under all of the circumstances tested, except in a soil matrix subjected to air drying. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis was reduced in each of the FS mutants when they were grown on defined succinate-nitrate medium, but the extent of reduction was different for each. It appears that FS behavior likely results from a modest, general derepression of motility involving an increased proportion of motile and flagellated cells and an increased average number of flagella per cell and increased average flagellar length. Spontaneous FS variants of RMB7201 were obtained at a frequency of about 1 per 10,000 to 20,000 cells by either enrichment from the periphery of swarm colonies or screening of colonies for reduced EPS synthesis on succinate-nitrate plates. The spontaneous FS variants and Tn5 FS mutants were symbiotically effective and competitive in alfalfa nodulation. Reversion of FS variants to wild-type behavior was sporadic, indicating that reversion is affected by unidentified environmental factors. Based on phenotypic and molecular differences between individual FS variants and mutants, it appears that there may be multiple genetic configurations that result in FS behavior in RMB7201. The facile isolation of spontaneous FS variants of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicates that switching to FS behavior may be fairly common among bacterial species. The substantial growth advantage of FS mutants and variants wherever nutrient gradients exist suggests that switching to FS forms may be an important behavioral adaptation in natural environments.  (+info)

Domain organization of flagellar hook protein from Salmonella typhimurium. (5/3084)

Hook forms a universal joint, which mediates the torque of the flagellar motor to the outer helical filaments. Domain organization of hook protein from Salmonella typhimurium was investigated by exploring thermal denaturation properties of its proteolytic fragments. The most stable part of hook protein involves residues 148 to 355 and consists of two domains, as revealed by deconvolution analysis of the calorimetric melting profiles. Residues 72-147 and 356-370 form another domain, while the terminal regions of the molecule, residues 1-71 and 371-403, avoid a compact tertiary structure in the monomeric state. These folding domains were assigned to the morphological domains of hook subunits known from EM image reconstructions, revealing the overall folding of hook protein in its filamentous state.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain 1b is required for flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas. (6/3084)

A second cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (cDhc) has recently been identified in several organisms, and its expression pattern is consistent with a possible role in axoneme assembly. We have used a genetic approach to ask whether cDhc1b is involved in flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas. Using a modified PCR protocol, we recovered two cDhc sequences distinct from the axonemal Dhc sequences identified previously. cDhc1a is closely related to the major cytoplasmic Dhc, whereas cDhc1b is closely related to the minor cDhc isoform identified in sea urchins, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Tetrahymena. The Chlamydomonas cDhc1b transcript is a low-abundance mRNA whose expression is enhanced by deflagellation. To determine its role in flagellar assembly, we screened a collection of stumpy flagellar (stf) mutants generated by insertional mutagenesis and identified two strains in which portions of the cDhc1b gene have been deleted. The two mutants assemble short flagellar stumps (<1-2 micrometer) filled with aberrant microtubules, raft-like particles, and other amorphous material. The results indicate that cDhc1b is involved in the transport of components required for flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas.  (+info)

The polar flagellar motor of Vibrio cholerae is driven by an Na+ motive force. (7/3084)

Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile bacterium which possesses a single polar flagellum as a locomotion organelle. Motility is thought to be an important factor for the virulence of V. cholerae. The genome sequencing project of this organism is in progress, and the genes that are highly homologous to the essential genes of the Na+-driven polar flagellar motor of Vibrio alginolyticus were found in the genome database of V. cholerae. The energy source of its flagellar motor was investigated. We examined the Na+ dependence and the sensitivity to the Na+ motor-specific inhibitor of the motility of the V. cholerae strains and present the evidence that the polar flagellar motor of V. cholerae is driven by an Na+ motive force.  (+info)

Cloning, sequencing, and nucleolar targeting of the basal-body-binding nucleolar protein BN46/51. (8/3084)

BN46/51 is an acidic protein found in the granular component of the nucleolus of the amebo-flagellate Naegleria gruberi. When Naegleria amebae differentiate into swimming flagellates, BN46/51 is found associated with the basal body complex at the base of the flagella. In order to determine the factors responsible for targeting BN46/51 to a specific subnucleolar region, cDNAs coding for both subunits were isolated and sequenced. Two clones, JG4.1 and JG12.1 representing the 46 kDa and 51 kDa subunits, respectively, were investigated in detail. JG12.1 encoded a polypeptide of 263 amino acids with a predicted size of 30.1 kDa that co-migrated with the 51 kDa subunit of BN46/51 when expressed in yeast. JG4.1 encoded a polypeptide of 249 amino acids with a predicted size of 28.8 kDa that co-migrated with the 46 kDa subunit of BN46/51. JG4.1 was identical to JG12.1 except for the addition of an aspartic acid between positions 94 and 95 of the JG12.1 sequence and the absence of 45 amino acids beginning at position 113. The predicted amino acid sequences were not closely related to any previously reported. However, the sequences did have 26-31% identity to a group of FKPBs (FK506 binding proteins) but lacked the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase domain of the FKBPs. Both subunits contained two KKE and three KKX repeats found in other nucleolar proteins and in some microtubule binding proteins. Using 'Far Western' blots of nucleolar proteins, BN46/51 bound to polypeptides of 44 kDa and 74 kDa. The 44 kDa component was identified as the Naegleria homologue of fibrillarin. BN46/51 bound specifically to the nucleoli of fixed mammalian cells, cells which lack a BN46/51 related polypeptide. When the JG4.1 and JG12.1 cDNAs were expressed in yeast, each subunit was independently targeted to the yeast nucleolus. We conclude that BN46/51 represents a unique nucleolar protein that can form specific complexes with fibrillarin and other nucleolar proteins. We suggest that the association of BN46/51 with the MTOC of basal bodies may reflect its role in connecting the nucleolus with the MTOC activity for the mitotic spindle. This would provide a mechanism for nucleolar segregation during the closed mitosis of Naegleria amebae.  (+info)

The maintenance of flagellar length is believed to require both anterograde and retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT). However, it is difficult to uncouple the functions of retrograde transport from anterograde, as null mutants in dynein heavy ch
During intraflagellar transport (IFT), the regulation of motor proteins, the loading and unloading of cargo and the turnover of flagellar proteins all occur at the flagellar tip. To begin an analysis of the protein composition of the flagellar tip, we used difference gel electrophoresis to compare long versus short (i.e., regenerating) flagella. The concentration of tip proteins should be higher relative to that of tubulin (which is constant per unit length of the flagellum) in short compared with long flagella. One protein we have identified is the cobalamin-independent form of methionine synthase (MetE). Antibodies to MetE label flagella in a punctate pattern reminiscent of IFT particle staining, and immunoblot analysis reveals that the amount of MetE in flagella is low in full-length flagella, increased in regenerating flagella, and highest in resorbing flagella. Four methylated proteins have been identified in resorbing flagella, using antibodies specific for asymmetrically dimethylated ...
Flagella are extremely effective organelles of locomotion used by a variety of bacteria and archaea. Some bacteria, including Aeromonas, Azospirillum, Rhodospirillum, and Vibrio species, possess dual flagellar systems that are suited for movement under different circumstances. Swimming in liquid is promoted by a single polar flagellum. Swarming over surfaces or in viscous environments is enabled by the production of numerous peritrichous, or lateral, flagella. The polar flagellum is produced continuously, while the lateral flagella are produced under conditions that disable polar flagellar function. Thus at times, two types of flagellar organelles are assembled simultaneously. This review focuses on the polar and lateral flagellar systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Approximately 50 polar and 40 lateral flagellar genes have been identified encoding distinct structural, motor, export/assembly, and regulatory elements. The sodium motive force drives polar flagellar rotation, and the proton motive force
Bacteria propel themselves through liquid environments using rotation of a propeller like organelle, the flagellum. Flagella are energized by the membrane ion gradient and enable bacteria to swim towards nutrients and away from harmful substances. This unique nanomachine shares structural and functional similarities to the needle-like injectisome complex that pathogenic bacteria employ to inject virulence factors into eukaryotic host cells. Bacterial flagella and injectisomes contain a specialized protein export system, termed type III secretion, that functions to deliver structural subunits and effector proteins to the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. Type III secretion systems are made of multiple proteins, however, the function of individual subunits and the molecular mechanism of protein translocation is poorly understood.,br /,The first part of this thesis reports that the flagellar type III secretion system functions as a proton-driven protein exporter and demonstrates that many ...
Flagella and flagellum-mediated motility are integral to the virulence of several gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens (10). For L. monocytogenes, no link has been made between flagella and virulence, although the flagella are important for efficient invasion of tissue culture cells (2, 6). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which flagella influence the ability of L. monocytogenes to invade host cells and the role of flagella in colonizing mice early in infection. Our results clearly indicate that L. monocytogenes flagella do not function as adhesins to enhance bacterial attachment to and invasion of epithelial cells, but rather function as motility devices contributing more to invasion than a mere increase in probability of bacterium-host cell interaction. Moreover, we show that motile bacteria outcompete nonmotile bacteria for initial colonization of the intestinal tract and liver by L. monocytogenes.. Flagella can function as adhesins, independent of motility, to enhance ...
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Some bacteria boast a marvelous swimming device, the flagellum, which has no counterpart in more complex cells. In 1973 it was discovered that some bacteria swim by rotating their flagella. So the bacterial flagellum acts as a rotary propellor -- in contrast to the cilium, which acts more like an oar.. The structure of a flagellum is quite different from that of a cilium. The flagellum is a long, hairlike filament embedded in the cell membrane. The external filament consists of a single type of protein, called flagellin. The flagellin filament is the paddle surface that contacts the the liquid during swimming. At the end of the flagellin filament near the surface of the cell, there is a bulge in the thickness of the flagellum. It is here that the filament attaches to the rotor drive. The attachment material is comprised of something called hook protein. The filament of a bacterial flagellum, unlike a cilium, contains no motor protein; if it is broken off, the filament just floats stiffly in ...
The flagella connector (FC) of procyclic trypanosomes is a mobile, transmembrane junction important in providing cytotactic morphogenetic information to the daughter cell. Quantitative analyses of FC positioning along the old flagellum, involving direct observations and use of the MPM2 anti-phosphoprotein monoclonal reveals a `stop point is reached on the old flagellum which correlates well with the initiation of basal body migration and kinetoplast segregation. This demonstrates further complexities of the FC and its movement in morphogenetic events in trypanosomes than have hitherto been described. We used intraflagellar transport RNAi mutants to ablate the formation of a new flagellum. Intriguingly the FC could still move, indicating that a motor function beyond the new flagellum is sufficient to move it. When such a FC moves, it drags a sleeve of new flagellar membrane out of the flagellar pocket. This axoneme-less flagellar membrane maintains appropriate developmental relationships to the ...
cells have a single polar flagellum whose helical pitch and diameter characteristically change near the midpoint, resulting in a tapered wave. by three geometrical parameters: pitch, helical diameter, and handedness.5 There are three families of flagella defined by distinctive helical parameters: family I includes peritrichous flagella with large pitches and diameters, family II includes polar flagella with medium pitches and diameters, and family III contains lateral flagella with small pitches and diameters.6 There are exceptions that do not belong to these three families because their flagella have an irregular shape. Interestingly, the outstanding flagella are mostly produced by alpha-proteobacteria.6 Although are in the delta-proteobacteria, its flagella belong to this irregularly shaped group of flagella. Flagellar genes of are scattered all over the genome, forming small clusters buy 897383-62-9 of two or three genes,7 similar to those of or and and are both sheathed with a membranous ...
The maintenance of flagellar length is thought to require both anterograde and retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT). particles. The IFT particles then associate into linear arrays known as IFT trains (Pigino et al., 2009), which move processively from the base of the flagellum out to the tip. This anterograde transport Mouse monoclonal to CD74(PE) is driven by kinesin-2, a heterotrimeric complex composed of the FLA10 and FLA8 motor subunits (Walther et al., 1994) and the buy BS-181 HCl kinesin-associated protein KAP (Cole et al., 1993; Mueller et al., 2005). After their anterograde motion to the flagellar tip, IFT particles rearrange into a new set of IFT trains that move back to the base of the flagellum. This retrograde transport is powered by cytoplasmic dynein 1b, a large complex composed of the heavy chain motor subunit DHC1b (Pazour et al., 1999a; Porter et al., 1999; Signor et al., 1999) and numerous smaller components including D1bLIC (Perrone et al., 2003; Schafer et al., 2003; Hou ...
Swimming and chemotaxis in the photosynthetic bacterium R. sphaeroides have been intensively studied. Although analysis of the complete genome sequence of this bacterium revealed the presence of two flagellar systems, previous motility screening and phenotypic analyses of strains generated by random or directed mutagenesis allowed characterization of only genes that belong to the fla1 flagellar system. In this work we describe swimming of R. sphaeroides mediated by flagella synthesized by the genes of the second flagellar system (fla2) of this bacterium.. Detection of fla2-dependent swimming required an initial incubation for 1 week. After this, swimming of purified cells was observed after 3 days of incubation. This suggests that the swimming cells accumulated a mutation. The identity of the gene or genes responsible for this phenotypic change is unknown. Nevertheless, since no expression of the flgE2 gene was detected before selection of the SP18 fla2+ strain, we hypothesized that the mutation ...
The paraflagellar rod (PFR) of Trypanosoma brucei is a large, complex, intraflagellar structure that represents an excellent system in which to study flagellum assembly. Molecular ablation of one of its major constituents, the PFRA protein, in the snl-1 mutant causes considerable alteration of the PFR structure, leading to cell paralysis. Mutant trypanosomes sedimented to the bottom of the flask rather than staying in suspension but divided at a rate close to that of wild-type cells. This phenotype was complemented by transformation of snl-1 with a plasmid overexpressing an epitope-tagged copy of the PFRA gene. In the snl-1 mutant, other PFR proteins such as the second major constituent, PFRC, accumulated at the distal tip of the growing flagellum, forming a large dilation or blob. This was not assembled as filaments and was removed by detergent-extraction. Axonemal growth and structure was unmodified in the snl-1 mutant and the blob was present only at the tip of the new flagellum. Strikingly, the
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During a complex digenetic life cycle flagellated Leishmania parasites alternate between promastigote and amastigote forms which differ significantly in cellular morphology and flagellum length. Recent studies have provided important new insights into mechanisms by which Leishmania regulate expression of genes required for flagellum assembly, and mechanisms used to modify flagellum length. While the critical role of the promastigote flagellum in parasite biology has long been appreciated, the importance of the amastigote flagellum has often been disregarded. However, recent work suggests that the rudimentary amastigote flagellum may serve indispensable roles in cellular organisation, and/or sensory perception, which are critical for intracellular survival of Leishmania within host macrophages.. ...
Although a great deal is known about molecular motors that drive movement of the eukaryotic flagellum, little is known about mechanisms that regulate/coordinate flagellar beat (Cosson, 1996). Our results demonstrate that trypanin is required for directional cell motility in T. brucei. EM studies revealed that the unusual cell motility defect of trypanin(−) mutants results from uncoupling of the flagellar apparatus from the subpellicular cytoskeleton. The punctate distribution of trypanin along the cell body side of the paraflagellar rod (Fig. 5) supports the interpretation that trypanin is part of the attachment complex that connects the flagellum to the subpellicular cytoskeleton. Our data further indicate that this flagellum attachment complex has two components, a cytoskeletal component, of which trypanin is a part, and a membrane component that operates even in the absence of trypanin and stabilizes the direct cytoskeleton connection (Balber, 1990; Hemphill et al., 1991). The only other ...
Fig. 5. Adaptation of the L. mexicana flagellar pocket and FAZ structures in the amastigote. (A) Lateral view of the flagellar pocket structure of a representative amastigote 1K1N L. mexicana cell (see C), as determined using serial section electron tomography. Flagellum, flagellar pocket and associated structures are shown, relative to a small portion of the pellicular microtubules and membrane. The inferred path of the MtQ out of the tomogram volume is indicated with dashed structures. Generated from Tomogram AL2. (B) The structure shown in A rotated 90° around the horizontal axis. (C) Low-magnification electron micrograph of the cell whose flagellar pocket is shown in A and B. Section 1 of the three used to build the tomogram is shown. The location of the nucleus (N), kinetoplast (K), flagellar pocket (FP) and region reconstructed by using electron tomography (box) are indicated. (D-G) 10-nm virtual longitudinal sections (generated from tomogram volumes), illustrating electron densities ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Drosophila pericentrin-like protein is essential for cilia/flagella function, but appears to be dispensable for mitosis. AU - Martinez-Campos, Maruxa. AU - Basto, Renata. AU - Baker, James. AU - Kernan, Maurice. AU - Raff, Jordan W.. PY - 2004/6/7. Y1 - 2004/6/7. N2 - Centrosomes consist of a pair of centrioles surrounded by an amorphous pericentriolar material (PCM). Proteins that contain a Pericentrin/AKAP450 centrosomal targeting (PACT) domain have been implicated in recruiting several proteins to the PCM. We show that the only PACT domain protein in Drosophila (the Drosophila pericentrin-like protein [D-PLP]) is associated with both the centrioles and the PCM, and is essential for the efficient centrosomal recruitment of all six PCM components that we tested. Surprisingly, however, all six PCM components are eventually recruited to centrosomes during mitosis in d-plp mutant cells, and mitosis is not dramatically perturbed. Although viable, d-plp mutant flies are severely ...
Trypanosomes are flagellated protozoan parasites responsible for devastating diseases in human and cattle. Recently, they have emerged as new models to study cilia and flagella thanks to powerful reverse genetics approaches coupled to the full sequencing of the genome of several species. In this chapter, we describe the ultra-structural features of the Trypanosoma brucei flagellum, revealing evolutionarily conserved aspects of the axoneme or the basal body and specific elements such as the paraflagellar rod or the flagellum attachment zone. We update the numerous functions demonstrated for this organelle, keeping in mind that most data were obtained from cultured parasites. The next challenges will be the determination of the role of the flagellum in the complex T. brucei life cycle, transiting through tissues of the tsetse fly vector and swimming in the bloodstream of mammals. ...
The observation that the membranes of flagella are enriched in sterols and sphingolipids has led to the hypothesis that flagella might be enriched in raft-forming lipids. However, a detailed lipidomic analysis of flagellar membranes is not available. Novel protocols to detach and isolate intact flagella from Trypanosoma brucei procyclic forms in combination with reverse-phase liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry allowed us to determine the phospholipid composition of flagellar membranes relative to whole cells. Our analyses revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, ceramide and the sphingolipids inositol phosphorylceramide and sphingomyelin are enriched in flagella relative to whole cells. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol are strongly depleted in flagella. Within individual glycerophospholipid classes, we observed a preference for ether-type over diacyl-type molecular species in membranes of flagella. Our study provides direct ...
The microtubule axoneme is an iconic structure in eukaryotic cell biology and the defining structure in all eukaryotic flagella (or cilia). Flagella occur in taxa spanning the breadth of eukaryotic evolution, which indicates that the organelles origin predates the radiation of extant eukaryotes from a last common ancestor. During evolution, the flagellar architecture has been subject to both elaboration and moderation. Even conservation of 9+2 architecture-the classic microtubule configuration seen in most axonemes-belies surprising variation in protein content. Classically considered as organelles of motility that support cell swimming or fast movement of material across a cell surface, it is now clear that the functions of flagella are also far broader; for instance, the involvement of flagella in sensory perception and protein secretion has recently been made evident in both protists and animals. Here, we review and discuss, in an evolutionary context, recent advances in our understanding of ...
We show in this study that P. aeruginosa, already known for its swimming and twitching motility, is also able to propagate on semisolid surfaces by swarming. This makes P. aeruginosa one of the rare bacteria to possess three types of motility. Swarming, described so far only for peritrichously flagellated organisms, requires in P. aeruginosa the interplay of several features, namely amino acids as a nitrogen source, the presence of both flagella and type IV pili, and the secretion of rhamnolipids as a surface-active compound.. The surprising finding that P. aeruginosa swarmer cells can express two polar flagella is in agreement with a recent report of afleN mutant of P. aeruginosa (13) which was found to express between three and six polar flagella. Although the fleN mutant was nonmotile, this observation suggests that flagellum number is indeed regulated in this organism. Swarming could be a natural situation where flagellum upregulation could provide a more efficient propagation on semisolid ...
Cell biologists are becoming increasingly aware that cilia and flagella are important sensory organelles, which detect changes in the extracellular environment and convey these signals to the cell body. The biflagellate green alga, Chlamydomonas, is a model organism for the study of flagella function and has allowed researchers to link ciliary dysfunction to a range of human genetic disorders. We are using molecular, biochemical and cell physiological techniques to study signalling processes in Chlamydomonas flagella. We have developed techniques to image Ca2+ in both the cytosol and the flagella of Chlamydomonas and have recently demonstrated that intraflagellar Ca2+ elevations regulate the important process of intraflagellar transport (IFT) (Collingridge et al, 2013). This project aims to understand the mechanisms that generate Ca2+ signals in flagella and how they act to regulate the transport of flagellar proteins ...
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The bacterial flagellum. (A) Electron micrograph of a Salmonella cell. (B) Electron micrograph of the Salmonella flagellum. (C) Schematic diagram of the flagellum. The flagellum consists of at least three part: the basal body as a bi-directional rotary motor, the hook as a universal joint and the filament as a helical screw.
To perform their multiple functions, cilia and flagella are precisely positioned at the cell surface by mechanisms that remain poorly understood. The protist
Most biological processes are performed by multiprotein complexes. Traditionally described as static entities, evidence is now emerging that their components can be highly dynamic, exchanging constantly with cellular pools. The bacterial flagellar motor contains ∼13 different proteins and provides an ideal system to study functional molecular complexes. It is powered by transmembrane ion flux through a ring of stator complexes that push on a central rotor. The Escherichia coli motor switches direction stochastically in response to binding of the response regulator CheY to the rotor switch component FliM. Much is known of the static motor structure, but we are just beginning to understand the dynamics of its individual components. Here we measure the stoichiometry and turnover of FliM in functioning flagellar motors, by using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of E. coli expressing genomically encoded YPet derivatives of FliM at physiological levels. We show that the ∼30 FliM molecules per motor
Chemotaxis and Motility are crucial the different parts of pathogenesis for most infectious bacterias, including mutant cells was indistinguishable from that of wild-type cells, the mutant exhibited a defective-motility phenotype. 33, 35). The existing swimming model shows that a operate happens when the anterior periplasmic flagella rotate in a single path (e.g., counterclockwise [CCW]) as well as the posterior flagella rotate in the BMS-790052 contrary path (clockwise [CW]). Reversals happen when periplasmic flagella at both poles from the cell modification their path of rotation. Throughout a nontranslational setting (flex), the periplasmic flagella at both cell poles rotate in the same path (9, 20, 35). Bacterial flagella are comprised of three main parts: the engine, connect, and filament. The engine can be split into two practical devices, the rotor as well as the stator. The stator may be the torque generator comprising the MotA-MotB complicated. The rotor is made up, BMS-790052 ...
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What function might a flagellar membrane-associated CrKCBP have? One function might include a role in intraflagellar transport (IFT). IFT involves a plus-end-directed heterotrimeric kinesin as well as a minus-end-directed cytoplasmic dynein and is required for the assembly, disassembly and structural maintenance of cilia and flagella (for a review, see Cole, 2003). Presumably, a minus-end-directed kinesin (CrKCBP) and cytoplasmic dynein would have redundant functions in IFT. However, it is possible that two minus-end-directed motors are required during rapid flagellar resorption. In Chlamydomonas, flagellar resorption can be induced by removal of Ca2+ from the medium and is reversed by re-addition of Ca2+ to the medium (Lefebvre et al., 1978). If CrKCBP is negatively regulated by Ca2+-calmodulin in the same way as AtKCBP (see Song et al., 1997), removal of Ca2+ from the medium would activate KCBP, consistent with a role for CrKCBP during flagellar resorption.. Several key observations provide ...
Many species of bacteria actively propel themselves in a low Reynolds number environment via the rotation of one or more flagella. At the base of each flagella, you find Natures version of the rotary motor, called the Bacterial Flagellar Motor (BFM). At a diameter of 50 nm and composed of about a dozen different proteins, the BFM is able to rotate at hundreds of hertz, change direction within milliseconds, and attain very high thermodynamic efficiencies. Moreover, the motor can sense the environmental conditions and dynamically adapt its power output accordingly. This talk will introduce some of the basic physical mechanisms underlying the operation of this remarkable molecular machine which drives bacterial motility, with a particular focus on the motors ability to sense its mechanical environment.. ...
Figure S6. The growth defect of ΔthiA is recovered by co-culture with non-motile mutants.. (A) We co-cultured an A. nidulans ΔthiA strain with three non-motile B. subtilis strains as follows. MotB; H+-coupled MotA-MotB flagellar stator. FliG; flagellar motor switch protein, physically transduces force from MotA to the rotation of FliF. FliM; flagellar motor switch protein, part of the basal body C-ring. The ΔthiA fungal colony shows a severe growth defect on the plate without thiamine, which is recovered by adding thiamine. The growth defect of ΔthiA is not recovered by co-culture with the non-motile mutants as co-culture with wild-type B. subtilis. Fungal colonies of A. nidulans (ΔthiA) monoculture or co-cultivated with B. subtilis (ΔmotB, ΔfliG, or ΔfliM) on minimal medium with/without thiamine grown for 2 d at 30°C. Each deletion strain expressing ZsGreen. Because flagella are required for bacterial dispersal on the hyphae, the non-motile mutants grow at the center of the fungal ...
The flagellar systems of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica exhibit a significant level of genetic and functional synteny. Both systems are controlled by the flagellar specific master regulator FlhD4C2. Since the early days of genetic analyses of flagellar systems it has been known that E. coli flhDC can complement a ∆flhDC mutant in S. enterica. The genomic revolution has identified how genetic changes to transcription factors and/or DNA binding sites can impact the phenotypic outcome across related species. We were therefore interested in asking: using modern tools to interrogate flagellar gene expression and assembly, what would the impact be of replacing the flhDC coding sequences in S. enterica for the E. coli genes at the flhDC S. entercia chromosomal locus? We show that even though all strains created are motile, flagellar gene expression is measurably lower when flhDCEC are present. These changes can be attributed to the impact of FlhD4C2 DNA recognition and the protein-protein ...
The bacterial flagellum is an amazingly complex molecular machine with a diversity of roles in pathogenesis including reaching the optimal host site, colonization or invasion, maintenance at the infection site, and post-infection dispersal. Multi-megadalton flagellar motors self-assemble across the cell wall to form a reversible rotary motor that spins a helical propeller - the flagellum itself - to drive the motility of diverse bacterial pathogens. The flagellar motor responds to the chemoreceptor system to redirect swimming toward beneficial environments, thus enabling flagellated pathogens to seek out their site of infection. At their target site, additional roles of surface swimming and mechanosensing are mediated by flagella to trigger pathogenesis. Yet while these motility-related functions have long been recognized as virulence factors in bacteria, many bacteria have capitalized upon flagellar structure and function by adapting it to roles in other stages of the infection process. Once at their
Author: Lefèvre, Christopher T. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2015; Open Access; Keywords: Open Access; Title: Positioning the flagellum at the center of a dividing cell to combine bacterial division with magnetic polarity
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chlamydomonas shortens its flagella by activating axonemal disassembly, stimulating IFT particle trafficking, and blocking anterograde cargo loading. AU - Pan, Junmin. AU - Snell, William J.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Drs. Fred Grinnell, Joachim Seeman, Masahide Kikkawa, and Olivier Belzile for critical reading of the manuscript. We are especially grateful to Joel Rosenbaum, Dennis Diener, Lotte Pedersen, and George Witman for their generosity in providing us with antibodies, which were invaluable for these studies. We are greatly indebted to Dr. Joachim Seeman for his assistance with the live cell imaging and to Dr. Paul Nakonezny for statistical advice. This work was supported by grant GM25661 from the National Institutes of Health. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - Almost all eukaryotic cells form cilia/flagella, maintain them at their genetically specified lengths, and shorten them. Here, we define the cellular mechanisms that bring about shortening of flagella prior to ...
Central microtubule function in eukaryotic flagella and cilia - posted in Research Idea, Design and Collaboration: Hi! I am an undergrad student at U of C in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. I asked my professor a question about the function of the central pair of microtubules enclosed by the central sheath in eukaryotic cilia and flagella and he replied simply saying that it is not clearly understood. I am wondering if anyone can either direct me to a peer-reviewed journal article that...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
In recent years, different studies of bacterial flagella have unmasked novel features regarding their complex and sophisticated structure as well as their biological relevance beyond motility. This chapter focuses on these new structural and functional features of flagella, with emphasis on their ability to favor adherence, colonization, penetration, and translocation by bacterial pathogens and the resulting activation of innate immunity. For most bacterial pathogens, flagella and flagellum-driven motility are recognized as essential elements in their virulence scheme. Klose and Mekalanos constructed an rpoN (encoding s54)-null mutant of Vibrio cholerae and found that this strain was defective in motility, flagellation, and colonization in the infant-mouse colonization assay. In this study, they also identified three flagellar regulatory genes (flrABC), among which flrA and flrC encode σ54-activators; mutations in these two genes yielded mutants defective in colonization. Flagella purified from
In nearly all of the contexts in biology in which groups of cilia or flagella are found they exhibit some form of synchronized behaviour. Since the experimental observations of Lord Rothschild in the late 1940s and G.I. Taylors celebrated waving-sheet model, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony is due in large part to hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. But it is only in the last few years that suitable methods have been developed to test this hypothesis. Those methods have led to the discovery of significant intrinsic biochemical noise in the beating of eukaryotic flagella. This stochasticity occurs at the level of individual beats, with interesting variations within the cycle, and is correlated and even recurrent, with memory extending to hundreds of beats. Possible biological origins of this behaviour will be discussed ...
cells have a single polar flagellum whose helical pitch and diameter characteristically change near the midpoint, resulting in a tapered wave. by three geometrical parameters: pitch, helical diameter, and handedness.5 There are three families of flagella defined by distinctive helical parameters: family I includes peritrichous flagella with large pitches and diameters, family II includes polar flagella with medium pitches and diameters, and family III contains lateral flagella with small pitches and diameters.6 There are exceptions that do not belong to these three families because their flagella have an irregular shape. Interestingly, the outstanding flagella are mostly produced by alpha-proteobacteria.6 Although are in the delta-proteobacteria, its flagella belong to this irregularly shaped group of flagella. Flagellar genes of are scattered all over the genome, forming small clusters buy 897383-62-9 of two or three genes,7 similar to those of or and and are both sheathed with a membranous ...
Cilia and flagella are widespread cell organelles which have been highly conserved throughout development and play important functions in motility, sensory belief, and the life cycles of eukaryotes ranging from protists to humans. to miss many proteins that function in both the flagellum and cytoplasm. In contrast, such proteins can be readily recognized by a proteomics approach, which also can uniquely provide an indication of the abundance of a protein and its distribution in the flagellum. A preliminary proteomic analysis of detergent-extracted ciliary axonemes from cultured human being bronchial epithelial cells recognized 214 proteins (Ostrowski et al., 2002); however, this study was jeopardized by the presence of additional cellular constructions in PF 431396 IC50 the axonemal preparation, and by restrictions in the quantity of materials available and/or series data obtained, with the full total end result that only 89 from the proteins were identified by greater than a single peptide. ...
The radial spoke is known to play a role in the mechanical movement of the flagellum/cilium. For example, mutant organisms lacking properly functioning radial spokes have flagella and cilia that are immotile. Radial spokes also influence the cilium waveform; that is, the exact bending pattern the cilium repeats. How the radial spoke carries out this function is poorly understood. Radial spokes are believed to interact with both the central pair microtubules and the dynein arms, perhaps in a way that maintains the rhythmic activation of the dynein motors. For example, one of the radial spoke subunits, RSP3, is an anchor protein predicted to hold another protein called protein kinase A (PKA). PKA would theoretically then be able to activate/inactivate the adjacent dynein arms via its kinase activity. However, the identities and functions of the many radial spoke subunits are just beginning to be elucidated. ...
That biological features may change their function during evolution has long been recognized. Particularly, the acquisition of new functions by molecules involved in developmental pathways is suspected to cause important morphologic novelties. However, the current terminology describing functional changes during evolution (co-option or recruitment) fails to recognize important biologic distinctions between diverse evolutionary routes involving functional shifts. The main goal of our work is to stress the importance of an apparently trivial distinction: Whether or not the element that adopts a new function (anything from a morphologic structure to a protein domain) is a single or a duplicated element. We propose that natural selection must act in a radically different way, depending on the historic succession of co-option and duplication events; that is, co-option may provide the selective pressure for a subsequent gene duplication or could be a stabilizing factor that helps maintain redundancy ...
The flagellum is sheathed by an apparent extension of the cell membrane (2). The mechanism of how a sheathed flagellum rotates has not been elucidated. Potentially, the flagellar filament could rotate within the sheath or the two could rotate as a unit (50). Little is known about the composition, formation, or function of flagellar sheaths, which are found in many bacteria, including marine Vibrio species, V. cholerae, B. bacteriovorus, and Helicobacter pylori (reviewed in reference 164). Evidence from these organisms suggests that the sheath contains both lipopolysaccharide and proteins and that it may exist as a stable membrane domain distinct from the outer membrane (42, 51, 58, 69, 144). The lipid content of the sheath of B. bacteriovorus is distinct from that of the outer membrane, and the sheath appears to be a highly fluid, symmetric bilayer (179). How the sheath is formed remains essentially uninvestigated. It has been postulated that the sheath forms concomitantly with the elongation of ...
Bacterial flagella are many, diverse, and complicated. Behe concludes that any bacterial flagellum is composed of at least three parts: a paddle, a rotor, and a motor, and so with swimming as the specified function must be IC (page 72). Even at this crude level, the ICness of a flagellum is not so clear. The problem is that there are additional parts to a complete flagellum. For instance, there are proteins at the base that react to external stimuli and turn the motor on and off, and in some flagella cause it to change directions. And there are other proteins that are arranged in rings where the flagellum passes through the cell membrane. But the more interesting question is: could a flagellum be IC with proteins, not paddles etc. as parts? Remember, IC is supposed to be the biochemical challenge to evolution. Weve already seen that it isnt such a challenge after all, but so much has been made of the purported ICness of the flagellum that one should be well informed on the subject just to be ...
CsgD, the master regulator of biofilm formation, activates the synthesis of curli fimbriae and extracellular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli. To obtain insights into its regulatory role, we have identified a total of 20 novel regulation target genes on the E. coli genome by using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip analysis with a high-density DNA microarray. By DNase I footprinting, the consensus CsgD-binding sequence predicted from a total of 18 target sites was found to include AAAAGNG(N(2))AAAWW. After a promoter-lacZ fusion assay, the CsgD targets were classified into two groups: group I genes, such as fliE and yhbT, are repressed by CsgD, while group II genes, including yccT and adrA, are activated by CsgD. The fliE and fliEFGH operons for flagellum formation are directly repressed by CsgD, while CsgD activates the adrA gene, which encodes an enzyme for synthesis of cyclic di-GMP, a bacterial second messenger, which in turn inhibits flagellum production and rotation. Taking these
TY - JOUR. T1 - Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in flagella biogenesis and flagellin secretion. AU - Radomska, Katarzyna A.. AU - Wösten, Marc M.S.M.. AU - Ordoñez, Soledad R.. AU - Wagenaar, Jaap A.. AU - van Putten, Jos P.M.. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, ...
Assembly of flagellar radial spoke proteins in Chlamydomonas: identification of the axoneme binding domain of radial spoke protein 3 ...
The flagellum is attached along the length of the cell body in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei and is a defining morphological feature of this parasite. The flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) is a complex structure and has been characterised morphologically as comprising a FAZ filament struct …
Previous physiological and pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that the Chlamydomonas flagellar axoneme contains a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) that regulates axonemal motility and dynein activity. However, the mechanism for anchoring PKA in the axoneme is unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that the axoneme contains an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). By performing RII blot overlays on motility mutants defective for specific axonemal structures, two axonemal AKAPs have been identified: a 240-kD AKAP associated with the central pair apparatus, and a 97-kD AKAP located in the radial spoke stalk. Based on a detailed analysis, we have shown that AKAP97 is radial spoke protein 3 (RSP3). By expressing truncated forms of RSP3, we have localized the RII-binding domain to a region between amino acids 144-180. Amino acids 161-180 are homologous with the RII-binding domains of other AKAPs and are predicted to form an amphipathic helix. Amino acid substitution of the central residues of ...
Dynein-2 is the motor responsible for retrograde intraflagellar transport. In situ, dynein-2 comprises four subunits: the dynein-2 heavy chain (DYH2); the dynein-2 intermediate chain; the dynein-2 light-intermediate chain (D2LIC); and dynein light chain 8 (Rompolas et al. 2007. Chlamydomonas FAP133 …
[In the mouthparts of the crayfish, we find the flagellar exopods of the symmetrical 1st, 2nd, and 3rd maxillipeds, which do not participate in food processing but occasionally generate water currents by their repetitive beating. Earlier, we have observed and filmed the flagellar movements in freely behaving Procambarus cubensis reared in the laboratory, and suggested that these movements were an overt expression of the excited state of the crayfish. Recently, we used a high-speed scan camera (100-240 fps) to observe and document the flagellar movements in the tethered crayfish. Beating of all six flagella occurs with the same frequency (8.3-8.4 Hz). There is, however, an obvious phase shift between various ipsilateral and bilaterally symmetrical flagella. All right and left flagella can beat simultaneously, or only one side can be active. Each flagellum can stop for a short time, which, however, has no influence on the beating of the other flagella. Flagellar movements seen in slowly
Flagella are bacterial structures that allow directed movement, called motility. Motility enables bacteria to move towards favorable environments and away from unfavorable ones and is sometimes important in the characterization and identification of bacteria. Arrangement of flagella varies among species. A flagellum may occur singly at one end, or there may be more than one flagella at one or both ends (polar). Flagella may occur in tufts, or they can be arranged all around the cell (peritrichous). Not all motile bacteria have flagella and many bacteria are non-motile. There are different ways to examine motility or motility organelles. You should begin with the motility part of the SIMS test and if that is positive, do a wet mount to confirm motility and/or do a fagella stain to see if you can see flagella ...
The flagellum is required for bacterial swimming and swarming motility. In the biphasic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), the flagellar filament is build up by two distinct monomeric subunits, flagellin FliC and FljB. S. Typhimurium has the ability to switch between two flagellins, FliC and FljB, in a phase-variable manner. The switch to FliC is called phase H1 and considered important for bacterial growth and survival in the spleen in a murine infection model of typhoid fever. Flagellin is secreted as monomeric subunits, but the majority of flagellin is polymerized upon secretion as the flagellar filament. Salmonella flagellin has traditionally been isolated through a process involving multiple steps of centrifugation and acid treatment. Here, we delineate a simplified protocol for preparing Salmonella´s flagellin for analytical purpose to determine the amount of flagellin without the aid of antibodies. The growth conditions used were stationary phase, logarithmic phase and a
The flagellum is required for bacterial swimming and swarming motility. In the biphasic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), the flagellar filament is build up by two distinct monomeric subunits, flagellin FliC and FljB. S. Typhimurium has the ability to switch between two flagellins, FliC and FljB, in a phase-variable manner. The switch to FliC is called phase H1 and considered important for bacterial growth and survival in the spleen in a murine infection model of typhoid fever. Flagellin is secreted as monomeric subunits, but the majority of flagellin is polymerized upon secretion as the flagellar filament. Salmonella flagellin has traditionally been isolated through a process involving multiple steps of centrifugation and acid treatment. Here, we delineate a simplified protocol for preparing Salmonella´s flagellin for analytical purpose to determine the amount of flagellin without the aid of antibodies. The growth conditions used were stationary phase, logarithmic phase and
Looking for Cilia and flagella? Find out information about Cilia and flagella. Centriole-based, motile cell extensions. These organelles are usually indistinguishable in fine structure as seen with the electron microscope, but... Explanation of Cilia and flagella
Pyrococcus furiosus (rushing fireball) was named for the ability of this archaeal coccus to rapidly swim at its optimal growth temperature, around 100 degrees C. Early electron microscopic studies identified up to 50 cell surface appendages originating from one pole of the coccus, which have been called flagella. We have analyzed these putative motility organelles and found them to be composed primarily (,95%) of a glycoprotein that is homologous to flagellins from other archaea. Using various electron microscopic techniques, we found that these flagella can aggregate into cable-like structures, forming cell-cell connections between ca. 5% of all cells during stationary growth phase. P. furiosus cells could adhere via their flagella to carbon-coated gold grids used for electron microscopic analyses, to sand grains collected from the original habitat (Porto di Levante, Vulcano, Italy), and to various other surfaces. P. furiosus grew on surfaces in biofilm-like structures, forming microcolonies ...
TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport. Schmidts, Miriam, Hou, Yuqing, Cortes, Claudio R., Mans, Dorus A., Huber, Celine, Boldt, Karsten, Patel, Mitali, van Reeuwijk, Jeroen, Plaza, Jean-Marc, van Beersum, Sylvia E. C., Yap, Zhi Min, Letteboer, Stef J. F., Taylor, S. Paige, Herridge, Warren, Johnson, Colin A., Scambler, Peter J., Ueffing, Marius, Kayserili, Hulya, Krakow, Deborah, King, Stephen M., Beales, Philip L., Al-Gazali, Lihadh, Wicking, Carol, Cormier-Daire, Valerie, Roepman, Ronald, Mitchison, Hannah M., Witman, George B., Al-Turki, Saeed, Anderson, Carl, Anney, Richard, Antony, Dinu, Asimit, Jennifer, Ayub, Mohammad, Barrett, Jeff, Barroso, Ines, Bentham, Jamie, Bhattacharya, Shoumo, Blackwood, Douglas, Bobrow, Martin, Bochukova, Elena, Bolton, Patrick, Boustred, Chris, Breen, Gerome, Brion, Marie-Jo, Brown, Andrew, Calissano, Mattia, Carss, Keren, Chatterjee, Krishna, Chen, Lu, Cirak, Sebhattin, Clapham, ...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 21501571. Biol Aujourdhui 2011;205(1):5-28. Cilia and flagella are ubiquitous organelles that protrude from the surfaces of many cells, and whose architecture is highly conserved from protists to humans. These complex organelles, composed of over 500 proteins, can be either immotile or motile. They are involved in a myriad of biological processes, including sensing (non-motile cilia) and/or cell motility or movement of extracellular fluids (motile cilia). The ever-expanding list of human diseases linked to defective cilia illustrates the functional importance of cilia and flagella. These ciliopathies are characterised by an impressive diversity of symptoms and an often complex genetic etiology. A precise knowledge of cilia and flagella biology is thus critical to better understand these pathologies. However, multi-ciliated cells are terminally differentiated and difficult to manipulate, and a primary cilium is assembled only when the cell exits from the cell cycle. In ...
Bacteria are exposed to constantly changing environments. An efficient way to navigate towards favourable conditions is flagella-mediated motility. Flagellar rotation is achieved by the bacterial flagellar motor, composed of the rotor and stator complexes which surround the rotor in a ring-like stru.... Ausführliche Beschreibung. ...
Find and characterize flagellar genes in organisms that lack motility. If you dig into the literature, youll find that there are many examples of supposedly immotile organisms (like the intracellular parasite Buchnera, which lives inside aphids) that not only harbor flagellum genes but express some of them-yet have no external flagellum. Obviously, organisms that retain flagellum genes but actually dont make a flagellum (that little whip-like tail that makes single-celled organisms swim around) must be retaining those genes for a reason. The gene products must be doing something. But what? Also: Paramecium and diatoms and other eukaryotes make flagella and/or cilia. Most animals also make cilia. (Ever get a tickle deep in your throat or bronchia? It was probably something tangling with the cilia lining your bronchial system.) Whats the relationship between cilia gene products in Paramecium, say, and cilia in animals? Do any plants conceal cilia genes? If so, how are they related ...
Flagellar biogenesis is a complex process that involves multiple checkpoints to coordinate transcription of flagellar genes with the assembly of the flagellum. In Helicobacter pylori, transcription of the genes needed in the middle stage of flagellar biogenesis is governed by RpoN and the two-component system consisting of the histidine kinase FlgS and response regulator FlgR. In response to an unknown signal, FlgS autophosphorylates and transfers the phosphate to FlgR, initiating transcription from RpoNdependent promoters. In the present study, export apparatus protein FlhA was examined as a potential signal protein. Deletion of its N-terminal cytoplasmic sequence dramatically decreased expression of two RpoN-dependent genes, flaB and flgE. Optical biosensing demonstrated a high-affinity interaction between FlgS and a peptide consisting of residues 1 to 25 of FlhA (FlhANT). The KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) was 21 nM and was characterized by fast-on (kon 2.9 104 M 1 s 1 ) and slow-off (koff
Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that are expressed on the surface of most cells in the mammalian body. Intraflagellar transport (IFT), the process by which cilia are formed and maintained, was first described in Chlamydomonas, and proteins required for IFT concentrate at the base of cilia, where they assemble into large protein complexes called IFT particles (Kozminski et al., 1995; Piperno and Mead, 1997). The IFT particles are trafficked along the axoneme by a heterotrimeric kinesin-II and a cytoplasmic dynein in the anterograde and retrograde directions, respectively. Cilia and flagella have diverse functions ranging from fluid and cell movement to mechanosensation and sensory perception (Davenport and Yoder, 2005; Scholey, 2003).. In mammals, Kif3a is a component of the kinesin-II motor protein complex required for cilia assembly while Ift88 (also known as Tg737 or polaris) is a core component of the IFT particle (Cole et al., 1998; Pazour et al., 2000; Taulman et al., 2001). Mice ...
As was mentioned above, Spirillum bacteria possess bipolar tufts of flagella. Although they were first thought to be singular flagella, they were found later to be fascicles of multiple aggregated flagella. It has been suggested that the neutralization of electrical charges is responsible for the aggregation of individual flagella due to an experiment in which the flagellar fascicles were no longer visible when the cell was washed in distilled water and visible again when as low as 0.001 M NaCl or other salts were added (Krieg 1976). Because Spirillum bacteria are large spirilla, they have the typical spirilla flagella long wavelength of over 3 micrometers and usually less than one full wave (this is in contrast to at least one large spirillum and those of medium or small diameter have flagella with several waves and a short wavelength). The fascicles are also very large and have about 75 individual flagella, each separately inserted into the cell and thus individually moving. Instead of being ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assembly and motility of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Lessons from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. AU - Silflow, Carolyn D.. AU - Lefebvre, Paul A.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85047681474&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85047681474&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1104/pp.010807. DO - 10.1104/pp.010807. M3 - Review article. C2 - 11743094. AN - SCOPUS:85047681474. VL - 127. SP - 1500. EP - 1507. JO - Plant Physiology. JF - Plant Physiology. SN - 0032-0889. IS - 4. ER - ...
1. BergHC, AndersonRA (1973) Bacteria swim by rotating their flagellar filaments. Nature 245: 380-382.. 2. ChevanceFFV, HughesKT (2008) Coordinating assembly of a bacterial macromolecular machine. Nature Reviews Microbiology 6: 455-465.. 3. KearnsDB (2010) A field guide to bacterial swarming motility. Nature Reviews Microbiology 8: 634-644.. 4. DuanQ, ZhouM, ZhuL, ZhuG (2013) Flagella and bacterial pathogenicity. Journal of Basic Microbiology 53: 1-8... 5. CornelisGR (2006) The type III secretion injectisome. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4: 811-825.. 6. MacnabRM (2004) Type III flagellar protein export and flagellar assembly. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1694: 207-217.. 7. ThomasDR, FrancisNR, XuC, DeRosierDJ (2006) The three-dimensional structure of the flagellar rotor from a clockwise-locked mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Journal of Bacteriology 188: 7039-7048.. 8. FanF, OhnishiK, FrancisNR, MacnabRM (1997) The FliP and FliR proteins of Salmonella typhimurium, putative ...
Summary: Flagella from Bacillus firmus RAB, an alkalophilic bacterium, were purified to homogeneity. The flagella were shown to consist of a single protein subunit (flagellin) with an apparent molecular weight of 40000. The amino acid composition of B. firmus RAB flagellin was similar to that of other bacilli except that the former had far fewer basic amino acids. The paucity of basic amino acics may render the flagella more stable at external pH values as high as 11.0.
In this chapter, the authors aimed to characterize the cascade of flaA regulation to obtain more information about mechanisms of gene regulation and about virulence of Legionella pneumophila. To analyze the cascade of flagellar gene regulation, the authors identified, cloned and characterized the regulators which may be involved in flaA regulation. Specific mutants of the identified regulators were generated and analyzed for flagellar gene expression. The authors also showed, that the sigma-54 activator protein FleQ is the master regulator of the flagellar regulon. Recently, the ability to analyze flagellar gene expression by transcriptome analysis using wild-type L. pneumophila strain Paris and the isogenic fliA mutant strain was developed. The regulation of the flagellum is linked to the expression of the virulent phenotype of Legionella. Phenotypic characteristics which are associated with the virulence of L. pneumophila have the ability to lyse human erythrocytes, to infect host cells, and to
Many bacteria are motile. They use one or more helical flagella as propellers, rotating them like the corkscrew on a wine bottle opener. Despite the limited morphological repertoire of the propulsive system, radically different movement strategies have evolved, likely reflecting the diversity of physicochemical conditions among bacterial habitats. In PNAS, Xie et al. (1) report on a newly discovered mechanism for turning used by Vibrio alginolyticus, an inhabitant of the coastal ocean: These monotrichous (single-haired) bacteria change direction with a flick of their flagellum. Intriguingly, Xie et al. (1) show that less can be more when it comes to bacterial flagella: With its single flagellum, V. alginolyticus outperforms the multiflagellated Escherichia coli in climbing nutrient gradients (chemotaxis), suggesting that the flick is part of an advanced chemotaxis system ...
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De Mot, R., and Vanderleyden, J. (1994) The C-terminal sequence conservation between OmpA-related outer membrane proteins and MotB suggests a common function in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, possibly in the interaction of these domains with peptidoglycan. Mol Microbiol 12: 333-334 ...
The gene rpoF (RNA polymerase, flagellum F) encodes the sigma factor sigma-28 (σ28, or RpoF), a protein in Escherichia coli and other species of bacteria. Depending on the bacterial species, this gene may be referred to as sigD or fliA. The protein encoded by this gene has been found to be necessary for flagellum formation. Helmann, JD; Márquez, LM; Chamberlin, MJ (Apr 1988). Cloning, sequencing, and disruption of the Bacillus subtilis sigma 28 gene. Journal of Bacteriology. 170 (4): 1568-74. PMC 211003 . PMID 2832368. Fitzgerald, DM; Bonocora, RP; Wade, JT (Oct 2014). Comprehensive Mapping of the Escherichia coli Flagellar Regulatory Network. PLOS Genetics. 10 (10): e1004649. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004649. PMC 4183435 . PMID 25275371. Makinoshima, H.; Aizawa, S.-I.; Hayashi, H.; Miki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Ishihama, A. (15 February 2003). Growth Phase-Coupled Alterations in Cell Structure and Function of Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology. 185 (4): 1338-1345. ...
Cilia (sing.: cilium) and flagella (sing.: flagellum) are hair-like outgrowths of the cell membrane. Cilia are small structures which work like oars,
Professor Koons believes Darwinism may have so far reached stage 1. He also mentioned in his talk the writings of several other creationist authors, including Jonathan Wells and Michael Behe. In particular he touched on Behes argument for irreducible complexity as exemplified by the bacterial flagellum. Readers will recall that Behes book Darwins Black Box3 goes to great lengths to explain that the bacterial flagellum could not have arisen in small steps by Darwinian evolution, because some of the intermediate stages do not provide a selective advantage to the organism. Evolutionary biologists have pointed out possible evolutionary pathways in which components of the flagellum could have, by themselves, provided a selective advantage, and, further, that a complete flagellum, with a definite selective advantage, could have been assembled by co-opting these components. Obviously Professor Koons is not buying any of this. Show me the money he seems to be saying. All this got me to thinking, ...
There is provided a control system for a powertrain system including an electro-mechanical transmission that is selectively operative in a plurality of fixed gear modes and continuously variable modes. The control system is adapted to identify preferred operating conditions for operating the powertrain in a fixed gear operating range state. The method comprises determining a range of permissible input torques and motor torques input from a first electrical machine to the transmission, and determining a plurality of motor torques input from a second electrical machines based thereupon. Costs are determined, based upon the engine inputs and the motor torques for the first and second electrical machines determined thereupon. A preferred input torque input and a preferred motor torque input is identified based upon the determined costs.
In Caulobacter crescentus, the temporal and spatial expression of late flagellar genes is regulated by the 54 transcriptional activator, FlbD. Genetic experiments have indicated that the trans-acting factor FliX regulates FlbD in response to the progression of flagellar assembly, repressing FlbD activity until an early flagellar basal body structure is assembled. Following assembly of this structure, FliX is thought to function as an activator of FlbD. Here we have investigated the mechanism of FliX-mediated regulation of FlbD activity. In vitro transcription experiments showed that purified FliX could function as a repressor of FlbD-activated transcription. Transcription activated by a gain-of-function mutant of FlbD (FlbD-1204) that is active in vivo in the absence of an early flagellar structure, was resistant to the repressive effects of FliX. DNA binding studies showed that FliX inhibited the interaction of wild-type FlbD with enhancer DNA but did not effect FlbD-catalysed ATPase ...
INITIAL-#-BACTERIA-PER-VARIATION is the number of bacteria you start with in each of the six possible variations in flagella number. The overall population of bacteria is determined by multiplying this value by 6.. ENERGY-COST-PER-FLAGELLA determines how much energy is lost for every flagella that a bacteria has, each time step. Bacteria with 6 flagella will lose 6 times this value, whereas bacteria with one flagellum will lose 1 times this value. This energy loss is deducted on top of a base metabolism energy loss for all bacteria each time step.. VISUALIZE-VARIATION helps you apply different visualization cues to see which variation each a bacterium has. When set to flagella and color, the number of flagella will appear on each bacterium and these will flap/twist back and forth as the bacteria moves. The color of the bacteria will correspond to how many flagella it has (red = 6, orange = 5, yellow = 4, green = 3, blue = 2, and violet = 1). When set to either flagella only or color only ...
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Lets start out with city limits. So as you approach the city of Eukaryopolis there is a chance that you will notice something that a traditional city never has, which is either cilia or flagella. Some eukaryotic cells have either one or the other of these structures, cilia being a bunch of tiny little arms that wiggle around, flagella being one, long whip-like tail. Some cells have neither; sperm cells, for instance, have flagella, and our lungs and throat cells have cilia that push mucus up and out of our lungs. Cilia and flagella are made out of long protein fibers called microtubules and they both have the same basic structure: nine pairs of microtubules forming a ring around two central microtubules. This is often called the nine plus two structure. Anyway, thats just so you know that when youre approaching this city, watch out for the cilia and flagella ...
The class Bolidophyceae includes a single genus Bolidomonas and two species (Bolidomonas pacifica and B. mediterranea) described from marine waters.. The Bolidophyceae was established by Guillou et al. (1999), as a new class of picoplankton isolated from both the equatorial Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea. One genus, Bolidomonas, and two species, Bolidomonas pacifica and B. mediterranea, have been described. Guillou et al. also proposed a subspecies of B. pacifica: B. pacifica var. eleuthra. Bolidomonas pacifica swims differently than B. mediterranea, and their flagella are oriented differently with respect to one another (Fig. 1). B. pacifica swims in a consistently straight pattern, and the flagella are oriented at a 90° angle with respect to one another. In contrast, B. mediterranea demonstrates frequent changes in swimming direction, and flagella are oriented at a 180° angle with respect to one another ...
Small rab-related GTPase; Small GTPase-like component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex B. Forms a subcomplex within the IFT complex B with IFT25. Has very low GTPase activity either because it lacks the conserved catalytic Gln in position 79 or because it requires some GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for GTP turnover (204 aa ...
FLIR Systems today announced the FLIR Elara™ FR-345-EST, a fixed-mount radiometric thermal security camera that measures elevated skin temperature (EST) accurately without contact or the need for a reference temperature source. This system provides a safe and effective environment at high-traffic airports, stadiums, commercial buildings, and manufacturing facilities to quickly asses skin temperature at access control points.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for a self-organized compliant mechanism for the spontaneous steady beating of cilia. AU - Foster, Kenneth W.. AU - Vidyadharan, Jyothish. AU - Sangani, Ashok S.. PY - 2017/7. Y1 - 2017/7. N2 - Cilia or eukaryotic flagella are slender 200-nm-diameter organelles that move the immersing fluid relative to a cell and sense the environment. Their core structure is nine doublet microtubules (DMTs) arranged around a central-pair. When motile, thousands of tiny motors slide the DMTs relative to each other to facilitate traveling waves of bending along the ciliums length. These motors provide the energy to change the shape of the cilium and overcome the viscous forces of moving in the surrounding fluid. In planar beating, motors walk toward where the cilium is attached to the cell body. Traveling waves are initiated by motors bending the elastic cilium back and forth, a self-organized mechanical oscillator. We found remarkably that the energy in a wave is nearly constant over a ...
After publishing the MS in JCB we received nice positive feedback (please see the attached pdf Happy_ending for details). Maybe the message here is: good work gets recognized no matter what journal it is published in :o).. ...
Flagella. Flagella are organelles for cellular mobility. The bacterial flagellum stretches from cytoplasm through the cell ... flagella made of flagellin flagella and cilia containing microtubules; lamellipodia and filopodia containing actin ... Motile eukaryotes can move using motile cilia or flagella. Motile cells are absent in conifers and flowering plants.[16] ... Blair, David F.; Dutcher, Susan K. (1992-01-01). "Flagella in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes". Current Opinion in Genetics & ...
Flagella. Flagella are organelles for cellular mobility. The bacterial flagellum stretches from cytoplasm through the cell ... flagella made of flagellin flagella and cilia containing microtubules; lamellipodia and filopodia containing actin ... Motile eukaryotes can move using motile cilia or flagella. Motile cells are absent in conifers and flowering plants.[15] ... On the outside, flagella and pili project from the cell's surface. These are structures (not present in all prokaryotes) made ...
The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system,[101][102] while archaeal flagella appear ... Archaea flagella operate like bacterial flagella-their long stalks are driven by rotatory motors at the base. These motors are ... However, archaeal flagella are notably different in composition and development.[95] The two types of flagella evolved from ... Ng SY; Chaban B; Jarrell KF (2006). "Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison of genes and ...
Flagella, Genevieve. "A Fine Pointed Belonging" (PDF). Modern Fuel. "The most native BDSM thing ever': Dayna Danger's fetish ...
Lowndes, A. G. (1941). "Mechanics of a Flagellum". Nature. 148 (3746): 198. doi:10.1038/148198a0. S2CID 4080682. Lowndes, A. G ... 1936). "Flagella Movement". Nature. 138 (3483): 210-211. doi:10.1038/138210a0. S2CID 4014457. Lowndes, A. G. (2009-08-21). "The ...
It differs from cyanobacteria in its ability to move by flagella (like gram-negative flagella), though some members (e.g. ... Gastranaerophilales) lack flagella. Melainabacteria are not able to perform photosynthesis, but obtain energy by fermentation. ...
The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system,[104][105] while archaeal flagella appear ... Archaea flagella operate like bacterial flagella-their long stalks are driven by rotatory motors at the base. These motors are ... However, archaeal flagella are notably different in composition and development.[98] The two types of flagella evolved from ... Ng SY; Chaban B; Jarrell KF (2006). "Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison of genes and ...
Flagella and other characteristicsEdit. A common characteristic of opisthokonts is that flagellate cells, such as the sperm of ... The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios)="rear, posterior" + κοντός (kontós)="pole" i.e. "flagellum") are a broad group of ... In contrast, flagellate cells in other eukaryote groups propel themselves with one or more anterior flagella. However, in some ... most animals and the spores of the chytrid fungi, propel themselves with a single posterior flagellum. It is this feature that ...
Prokaryotic flagella use a rotary motor, and the eukaryotic flagella use a complex sliding filament system. Eukaryotic flagella ... Torque in the flagella of bacteria is created by particles that conduct protons around the base of the flagellum. The direction ... Archaeal flagella are called archaella, and function in much the same way as bacterial flagella. Structurally the archaellum is ... Jarrell K (2009). "Archaeal Flagella and Pili". Pili and Flagella: Current Research and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ...
They argue that the name flagella should be restricted only to prokaryotic organelles, such as bacterial flagella and ... The consensus terminology is the use of cilium and flagellum for all purposes. Flagellum Cilium Hülsmann N (1992). " ... It is basically synonymous to flagella and cilia which are differing terms for similar molecular structures used on different ... Haimo LT, Rosenbaum JL (December 1981). "Cilia, flagella, and microtubules". J. Cell Biol. 91 (3 Pt 2): 125s-130s. doi:10.1083/ ...
Inside cilia and flagella is a microtubule-based cytoskeleton called the axoneme. The axoneme of a primary cilium typically has ... Motile cilia and flagella possess the same 9+2 axoneme structure. The 9 indicates the number of doublets present around the ... An example of each would be the flagellum present on a sperm cell and the cilium on the epithelial tissue of the lungs that ... Since the flagellum of human sperm is actually a modified cilium, ciliary dysfunction can also be responsible for male ...
It has two flagella. The cell is in a cup-like lorica which has a stem that attaches to a surface. When the cell reproduces, by ...
Margulis, L (1980). "Undulipodia, flagella and cilia". Biosystems. 12 (1-2): 105-108. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(80)90041-6. PMID ...
Cells also lack flagella. Initially described as containing 14 chromosomes, it is now known that the nucleus contains 20 ...
... s are distinguished from other bacterial phyla by the location of their flagella, sometimes called axial filaments, ... Macnab RM (2003). "How bacteria assemble flagella". Annu Rev Microbiol. 57: 77-100. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.57.030502.090832 ... Bacteriology Borrelia Flagellum Lyme disease microbiology Pinta (disease) Prokaryote Treponema pallidum Brevinema andersonii ...
Methods in Cilia and Flagella. Academic Press. 2015-03-26. ISBN 978-0-12-802640-3. "Renata Basto , Semantic Scholar". www. ... is considered a reference in the field of centrosomes biology and has edited a book about methods to study cilia and flagella. ...
This species has two flagella. Their resemblance to the legs of a girl dancing inspired its original name, Ceratoperidinium ...
... and very thin hooked flagella. It tends to clump and grow up into the shaded understory of Queensland's wet tropical forests, ...
They move via polar flagella. No known reliable sources of BFB resistance exist today, so seed hygiene and thorough testing of ...
Both flagella are inserted laterally. Thick-walled sexual spores, called oospores are produced which germinate, producing ...
In some flagellates, flagella direct food into a cytostome or mouth, where food is ingested. Flagella often support hairs, ... Flagella are generally used for propulsion. They may also be used to create a current that brings in food. In most such ... A flagellate is a cell or organism with one or more whip-like appendages called flagella. The word flagellate also describes a ... Flagella in eukaryotes are supported by microtubules in a characteristic arrangement, with nine fused pairs surrounding two ...
... has multiple flagella. It has an extremely versatile metabolism, and can be found in the soil and in ...
They are motile by flagella. Members of Thermoproteus are found in acidic hot springs and water holes; they have been isolated ...
2009). "Archaeal Flagella and Pili". Pili and Flagella: Current Research and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1- ... Bacterial type IV pili are similar in structure to the component flagellins of archaella (archaeal flagella), and both are ... as opposed to other forms of bacterial motility such as that produced by flagella. However, some bacteria, for example ... Bacterial nanowires Flagellum Sortase P fimbriae "pilus" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Brinton, Charles (1954). " ...
... the longitudinal flagellum, that beats posteriorly. The transverse flagellum is a wavy ribbon in which only the outer edge ... The flagella lie in surface grooves: the transverse one in the cingulum and the longitudinal one in the sulcus, although its ... The longitudinal flagellum is relatively conventional in appearance, with few or no hairs. It beats with only one or two ... and Kofoidinium spp.), draw prey to the sulcal region of the cell (either via water currents set up by the flagella or via ...
They move by using flagella. They grow in the presence of oxygen, although some have been reported to be able to grow without ...
To avoid the acidic environment of the interior of the stomach (lumen), H. pylori uses its flagella to burrow into the mucus ... Helicobacter pylori has four to six flagella at the same location; all gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter species are ... The other four families are porins, iron transporters, flagellum-associated proteins, and proteins of unknown function. Like ... Rust M, Schweinitzer T, Josenhans C (2008). "Helicobacter Flagella, Motility and Chemotaxis". In Yamaoka, Y. (ed.). ...
Each flagellum shows a typical 9+2 arrangement of the component fibrils. Contractile vacuoles are near the bases of flagella. ... Two anteriorly inserted whiplash flagella. Each flagellum originates from a basal granule in the anterior papillate or non- ... A key feature of the genus is its two anterior flagella, each as long as the other. Chlamydomonas acidophila Chlamydomonas ...
"Claims about evolution of flagella". Retrieved 19 March 2013. "Beware of VIDEA". Retrieved 19 March 2013. "Wessex to sue over ... Meyer reiterating claims disputing evolution of the bacterial flagellum. The paper was cited in the landmark Kitzmiller v. ...
They also have a short epiphallus and flagellum, lacking an appendix. A third possible subgenus, Goniodromus Bülow, 1905 (type ... Anatomically they have a long epiphallus and flagellum, and an appendix is usually present. Subgenus Syndromus Pilsbry, 1900 ... Reproductive systems isolated through dissection Amphidromus areolatus; at - atrium; e - epiphallus; fl - flagellum; fo - free ... a flagellum and an appendix), unbranched gametolytic duct, lack of vaginal accessory organs, and the basic condition of the ...
Coordinated beating of algal flagella is mediated by basal coupling Kirsty Y. Wan and Raymond E. Goldstein ...
Flagellum (sl); べん毛, 鞭毛装置 (ja); Джгутики (uk); flagellum (hu); Flagellum, Flageller, Flagella (sv); Flagellum, Flagellert, ... Flagellum, Flagelli, Flagella (fi); แฟลกเจลลา, Flagellum, แฟลจเจลลัม, แฟลกเจลลัม, Flagella (th); الأسواط, اسواط, السوط, Cilia, ... Flagellum (de-ch); Flagellum (de); Lascnaid (ga); تاژک (fa); 鞭毛 (zh); შოლტები (ka); 鞭毛 (ja); שוטון (he); Flagellum (la); ... Flagella (de); Flagelos (pt); Flagela,
Regulation of flagella.. McCarter LL1.. Author information. 1. Microbiology Department, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA ... Numerous regulators control the regulation of flagella, and one of the next challenges in the field is to integrate flagellar ...
... Walter Ogston ogston at HOBBES.KZOO.EDU Thu Sep 14 12:09:11 EST 1995 *Previous message: Expontential growth cequation ... David Kafkewitz (kafkwtz at andromeda.rutgers.edu) writes: [snip] , , 1. Flagella grow from the tip with the subunits being ... so when the flagella are complete the repressor accumulates in the cell. Neat, isnt it? On the question of energy, there would ... 1277-1280 These people showed that the repressor of one of the operons concerned is also exported through the flagella, ...
flagella synonyms, flagella pronunciation, flagella translation, English dictionary definition of flagella. n. Plural of ... flagellum. n., pl. -gel•la -gel•lums. 1. Biol. a long lashlike appendage serving as an organ of locomotion in protozoa, sperm ... flagella. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. fla·gel·la. (flə-jĕl′ə). n.. Plural of flagellum. ... Flagella - definition of flagella by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/flagella ...
flagellum. Not Exactly Rocket Science. Tag archives for flagellum. How sharks, penguins and bacteria find food in the big, wide ...
Flagella are highly conserved organelles comprised of several hundred proteins that are assembled using the equally conserved ... At the anterior end is the basal body complex (pink) and the two motile, sensory flagella (red). The flagella emerge from a ... Algal Flagella. Maureen Wirschell, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Susan K Dutcher, Washington University, St Louis, ... Flagella are highly conserved organelles comprised of several hundred proteins that are assembled using the equally conserved ...
The archaeal flagellum is a unique, tail‐like structure used for motility by single‐celled organisms belonging to the domain ... Although archaeal flagella are functionally similar to the flagella found on bacteria, they differ significantly in structure ... Ng SYM, Chaban B and Jarrell KF (2006) Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison of genes and ... Illustration of the structure and assembly of the archaeal flagellum. The flagellum is composed of three main components, the ...
Euzophera flagella is a species of snout moth in the genus Euzophera. It was described by Julius Lederer in 1869 and is known ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This article will focus on the role of helical surface-attached appendages known as flagella or cilia, that are present on many ... Flagella versus Cilia. While flagella and cilia are structurally identical, they can be distinguished by their length, density ... two flagella) strokes. In the absence of intracellular coupling due to mutation, and when three flagella are associated, the co ... Cilia and flagella in simple eukaryotes are simultaneously used to sense and move through their environment. This is ...
An ECF41 Family σ Factor Controls Motility and Biogenesis of Lateral Flagella in Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 Among ...
Cilia and flagella range in length from a few microns to more than 2 mm in the case of some insect sperm flagella. Although ... this section is so confused as well as the two video of cilia and flagella. there is no definition given for cilia and flagella ... Cilia and flagella are unicellular organisms. there are many ways in which a unicellular organism can move around and get food ... Define cilia and flagella : Swimming is the major form of movement exhibited by sperm and by many protozoans. Some cells ...
The evolution of flagella is of great interest to biologists because the three known varieties of flagella (eukaryotic, ... Similarly, flagella grow by exporting flagellin through the flagellar machinery. It is hypothesised that the flagellum evolved ... "Evolution of the Bacterial Flagellum: Cumulative evidence indicates that flagella developed as modular systems, with many ... Flagellum Evolution at The Pandas Thumb Matzke NJ (September 2006). "Evolution in (Brownian) space: a model for the origin of ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Over a broad range of distances between the flagella anchors and applied torque differences, we find a stable bundled state, ... In the slippage and drift states, the different rotation frequencies of the flagella generate a tilting torque on the bacterial ... Here, changes in the swimming direction (tumbling) are induced by a change of the rotational frequency of some flagella. ... Employing coarse-grained modeling and simulations, we investigate the dynamical properties of helical flagella bundles driven ...
Flagella O-glycosylation has been demonstrated in many polar flagellins from Gram-negative bacteria and in only the Gram- ... the O-linked pathway and the biological function of flagella glycosylation. ... Keywords: flagella; Gram-negative; glycosylation flagella; Gram-negative; glycosylation This is an open access article ... Flagella O-glycosylation has been demonstrated in many polar flagellins from Gram-negative bacteria and in only the Gram- ...
Masticophis flagellum. Click on image to zoom in. © JD Willson, 2006 Email full-size image and text title. Masticophis ... IM/I_JDW/0005/640/Masticophis_flagellum,I_JDW538.jpg. width=640 x height=480 pixels; size=122090 bytes Discover Life , Top ... identification and distribution of Masticophis flagellum image ...
Because site-directed mutants lacking periplasmic flagella are not irregularly shaped but are helical, the periplasmic flagella ... Attached at each end are 7-11 periplasmic flagella that overlap in the center of the cell (7). These periplasmic flagella ... and within this sheath are the cell cylinder and periplasmic flagella. A given periplasmic flagellum is attached subterminally ... Periplasmic flagella were readily evident in wild-type cells (Fig. 4 a and b). Mutant MC-1 completely lacked periplasmic ...
The flagellum -- a rotating, tail-like structure that makes a bacterium swim, is powered by a molecular engine at its base. But ... Clutch Stops Flagella. Photonics.com. Jun 2008 BLOOMINGTON, Inc., June 23, 2008 -- The flagellum -- a rotating, tail-like ... Scientists have long known what drives the flagellum to spin, but what causes the flagellum to stop spinning -- temporarily or ... Bacillus subtilisBiophotonicsEpsEflagellaflagellumHarvard UniversityIndiana Unjiversity Bloomingtonindustrialnanonanotechnology ...
Flagella, like cilia, are composed of microtubules that are connected to the plasma membrane.... ... Flagella help cellular bodies, such as sperm and bacteria, move through liquid. ... What functions do cilia flagella and pseudopods have in common?. A: Cilia, flagella and pseudopods all share a common purpose ... A: Cilia and flagella are both hair-like structures used for the movement of eukaryotic cells. Both cilia and flagella can be ...
The flagellum -- a rotating, tail-like structure that makes a bacterium swim, is powered by a molecular engine at its base. But ... Scientists have long known what drives the flagellum to spin, but what causes the flagellum to stop spinning -- temporarily or ... Bacillus subtilisBiophotonicsEpsEflagellaflagellumHarvard UniversityIndiana Unjiversity Bloomingtonindustrialnanonanotechnology ... The flagellum is one of natures smallest and most powerful motors -- ones like those produced by B. subtilis can rotate more ...
... flagella vary widely from one species to another, and some of the components can perform useful functions by themselves. They ... Actually, flagella vary widely from one species to another, and some of the components can perform useful functions by ... The best studied flagellum, of the E. coli bacterium, contains around 40 different kinds of proteins. Only 23 of these proteins ... In E. coli, it works by changing flagella rotation from anticlockwise to clockwise and back again, causing a cell to tumble and ...
This finding will help us get a handle on what s going on at the tip of the flagellum." The flagella beat rhythmically, moving ... "Particles move out to the tip of the flagella, turn around, and then move back to the base," says Sloboda, who conducted this ... The researchers found that the antibodies bound to the flagella tips, indicating that EB1 stays at the tip, and does not move ... The discovery of the protein EB1 at the tip of the flagella on Chlamydomonas furthers investigations into the role the protein ...
Archaeal flagellum. The archaeal flagellum is superficially similar to the bacterial (or eubacterial) flagellum; in the 1980s ... Eukaryotic flagellum. The eukaryotic flagellum is completely different from the prokaryote flagella in structure and assumedly ... Prokaryotes may have one or many flagella for locomotion, but these differ significantly from flagella in eukaryotes. Flagella ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a long, whip-like projection or appendage of a cell composed of microtubules (long, slender, ...
Cilia and Flagella - By: Heath Riddle, and Klarissa Bryson by Klarissa Bryson , This newsletter was created with Smore, an ... Cilia and Flagella are organelles that are located in eukaryotes structurally built to help the cell move. They are different ... Both Cilia and Flagella are made of microtubules which are covered by plasma membranes. The microtubules are motile and can ... The main purpose of Cilia is to help the cell move fluids, mucous, or other cells over their surface, while flagella are more ...
ASPM and flagella posted by p-ter @ 12/26/2006 04:40:00 PM ASPM and flagella ... This is all well and good, but to jump from a protein possibly "associated with cilia, flagella, the centrosome and the Golgi ... he reported that part of ASPMs DNA sequence resembles that of genes involved in the function of flagella, which propel sperm. ... flagella, the centrosome and the Golgi complex". ...
Flagella[edit]. Flagella (singular=flagellum), are extensions of the cell commonly found in many Bacteria and Archaea, and even ... Cells that have flagella often use their flagella as their main method of motility. Most bacterial cells use their flagella to ... There are three major types of flagella found among cells Peritrichous flagella are a series of flagella that appear around the ... When the flagella (or flagellum, for monotrichous cells) are spinning in the counterclockwise direction, the flagella is ...
B) Electron micrograph of the Salmonella flagellum. (C) Schematic diagram of the flagellum. The flagellum consists of at least ... The bacterial flagellum. (A) Electron micrograph of a Salmonella cell. ( ... B) Electron micrograph of the Salmonella flagellum. (C) Schematic diagram of the flagellum. The flagellum consists of at least ... The bacterial flagellum. (A) Electron micrograph of a Salmonella cell. ( ...
... which has peritrichous flagella, were simultaneously measured by laser dark-field microscopy (LDM). Clear periodic changes in ... the LDM signals from a rotating bundle indicated in-phase rotation of the flagella in the … ... Bacterial swimming speed and rotation rate of bundled flagella FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001 May 15;199(1):125-9. doi: 10.1111/j. ... The experimental v-f ratio was twice as large as the calculated one on the assumption that a cell had a single flagellum. A ...
  • The fusion protein also contains flagellin (FliC), a peptide found in nearly all bacteria with flagella (lash-like appendages) that acts as a strong catalyst when administered together with other antigens or foreign substances that induce an immune response in the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although archaeal flagella are functionally similar to the flagella found on bacteria, they differ significantly in structure and presumed mode of assembly. (els.net)
  • In this work, we revised the current advances in flagellar glycosylation from Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the structural diversity of glycans, the O -linked pathway and the biological function of flagella glycosylation. (mdpi.com)
  • By analyzing protruding periplasmic flagella from certain motility mutants of T. phagedenis , and from stationary-phase cells of several spirochete species, these organelles have been shown to rotate in a manner similar to that of flagella of other bacteria ( 4 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • In fact, some spirochetal motility genes are so similar to those of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium that their expression in these bacteria result in negative complementation effects on flagella synthesis and motility. (pnas.org)
  • Flagella help cellular bodies, such as sperm and bacteria, move through liquid. (reference.com)
  • In bacteria, the flagellum allows the bacterial body to move up or down in a straight line and change direction. (reference.com)
  • While much remains to be discovered, we now know there are thousands of different flagella in bacteria, which vary considerably in form and even function. (newscientist.com)
  • This means that the vast majority of the components needed to make a flagellum might already have been present in bacteria before this structure appeared. (newscientist.com)
  • Finally, in some bacteria flagella became linked to an existing system for directing movement in response to the environment . (newscientist.com)
  • Unlike bacteria, eukaryote flagella have an internal structure comprised of nine doublets of microtubules forming a cylinder around a central pair of microtubules. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Flagella (singular=flagellum), are extensions of the cell commonly found in many Bacteria and Archaea, and even in some Eukaryotic cells. (wikibooks.org)
  • aeruginosa, free-swimming bacteria use flagella and pili to sense surfaces and initiate contact. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Spirillum volutans Bacteria showing lophotrichous flagella. (gettyimages.com)
  • Bacteria have flagella. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Swarming motility, a flagellum-dependent behavior that allows bacteria to move over solid surfaces, has been implicated in biofilm formation and bacterial virulence. (asm.org)
  • Aeromonas lateral flagella were optimally produced when bacteria were grown on solid medium for ≈8 h. (asm.org)
  • Cambridge scientists have uncovered the mechanism by which bacteria build their surface propellers (flagella) - the long extensions that allow them to swim towards food and away from danger. (phys.org)
  • Bacteria swim by rotating the helical, hairlike flagella that extend from their unicellular bodies. (phys.org)
  • Many bacteria swim using flagella, corkscrew-like appendages that push or pull bacterial cells like tiny propellers. (brown.edu)
  • The researchers used their imaging technique to look at bacteria called Caulobacter crescentus , a species with a kidney bean-shaped body and a single flagellum. (brown.edu)
  • As bacteria showing this form of flagella-mediated motility did not get caught on glass surfaces, we were able to show that this form of motility is effective on extracellular matrix surfaces. (labmanager.com)
  • Many species of swimming bacteria have a rotary structure called a "flagellum," consisting of more than 20 different kinds of proteins. (labmanager.com)
  • Such forms of flagella-mediated motility are adopted when moving in water, but they are also adopted by pathogenic bacteria to reach our internal organs. (labmanager.com)
  • Although bacterial flagella-mediated motility is closely linked to virulence, it is also known to have a significant role in allowing several symbiotic systems between animals and bacteria to function. (labmanager.com)
  • Eukaryotic flagella are quite different from the flagella of prokaryotes and bacteria . (wikidoc.org)
  • Different species of bacteria have different numbers and arrangements of flagella. (wikidoc.org)
  • Monotrichous bacteria have a single flagellum (e.g. (wikidoc.org)
  • Lophotrichous bacteria have multiple flagella located at the same spot on the bacteria's surfaces which act in concert to drive the bacteria in a single direction. (wikidoc.org)
  • Amphitrichous bacteria have a single flagellum on each of two opposite ends (only one flagellum operates at a time, allowing the bacteria to reverse course rapidly by switching which flagellum is active). (wikidoc.org)
  • Peritrichous bacteria have flagella projecting in all directions (e.g. (wikidoc.org)
  • Some species of bacteria (such as Spirochetes ) have a specialized type of flagellum called an "axial filament" that is located in the periplasmic space , the rotation of which causes the entire bacterium to move forward in a corkscrew-like motion. (wikidoc.org)
  • If we take a look at this picture here we see an ecoli bacteria and you can see the rotating shapes here of the flagella they basically operate kind of like an [upward] motor, whereas our flagella instead of operating like that ours undulates to create what's called a sinusoidal motion. (brightstorm.com)
  • Some bacteria boast a marvelous swimming device, the flagellum, which has no counterpart in more complex cells. (arn.org)
  • In 1973 it was discovered that some bacteria swim by rotating their flagella. (arn.org)
  • The bacterial flagellum is a remarkable molecular motor, whose primary function in bacteria is to facilitate motility through the rotation of a filament protruding from the bacterial cell. (nature.com)
  • A cap complex, consisting of an oligomer of the protein FliD, is localized at the tip of the flagellum, and is essential for filament assembly, as well as adherence to surfaces in some bacteria. (nature.com)
  • The bacterial flagellum is a macromolecular motor that rotates and acts as a propeller in many bacteria. (nature.com)
  • He proposes the bacterial flagellum motor (a motor made of protein that spins a long thin tail in some bacteria) as irreducibly complex. (patheos.com)
  • The flagella of domains bacteria and archaea are different. (study.com)
  • The flagella of archaeans are superficially similar to those of bacteria. (study.com)
  • Bacteria switch the direction their flagella rotate to control movement. (rcsb.org)
  • Some bacteria have only a single flagellum, others possess several flagella. (reasons.org)
  • Figure 2: Typical Bacteria with Flagella. (reasons.org)
  • This process does not involve the use of flagella, which is a more common means of motility in bacteria. (academic.ru)
  • Many bacteria use flagella-driven motility to navigate their environment and colonize favorable surroundings both individually and as a collective. (jove.com)
  • In terms of speed and agility, flagella-powered bacteria would leave Olympic swimmers for dead. (wordpress.com)
  • The archaeal flagellum is a unique, 'tail‐like' structure used for motility by single‐celled organisms belonging to the domain Archaea. (els.net)
  • While flagella and cilia are structurally identical, they can be distinguished by their length, density, and motility patterns. (news-medical.net)
  • A flagellum (plural, flagella ) is a long, whip-like projection or appendage of a cell composed of microtubules (long, slender, protein tubes) and used in motility. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cells that have flagella often use their flagella as their main method of motility. (wikibooks.org)
  • The primary function of flagella is to allow for cell motility. (wikibooks.org)
  • The eukaryotic flagellum is host to a variety of dynamic behaviors, including flagellar beating, the motility of glycoproteins in the flagellar membrane, and intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bidirectional traffic of protein particles between the flagellar base and tip. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • In this study, light and electron microscopic analyses and genetic and functional investigations have shown that at least 50% of Aeromonas isolates from the species most commonly associated with diarrheal illness produce lateral flagella which mediate swarming motility. (asm.org)
  • Whether lateral flagella and swarming motility contribute to Aeromonas intestinal colonization and virulence remains to be determined. (asm.org)
  • Such movement may be mediated in a variety of ways, including twitching motility (mediated by type IV pili) and swarming motility (mediated by flagella) ( 8 , 13 , 31 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • The flagellum is IC as a motility organelle, if you remove one part, the machine doesn't work. (wordnik.com)
  • Professor Takayuki Nishizaka and Dr. Yoshiaki Kinosita from Gakushuin University , together with Dr. Yoshitomo Kikuchi (Senior Researcher) from AIST , have discovered an unforeseen form of flagella-mediated motility shown by pest bean bug symbionts, in which they swim by wrapping their flagellar filaments around their cell bodies. (labmanager.com)
  • Flagella-mediated motility in the Burkholderia symbiont needs to be directly captured in order to verify our hypothesis. (labmanager.com)
  • Cilium- and flagellum-specific protein that plays a role in axonemal structure organization and motility. (uniprot.org)
  • The bipolar flagella of the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni confer motility, which is essential for virulence. (frontiersin.org)
  • The single flagellum of T. brucei is essential to a number of cellular processes such as motility, and has been a longstanding focus of scientific enquiry. (mdpi.com)
  • Given that these cytoskeletal structures also define three distinct plasma membrane regions (the flagellum membrane, the cell body membrane and the flagellar pocket membrane), the flagellum exhibits a pivotal role in morphogenesis of the trypanosome with many functions beyond those of motility ( Gull, 1999 ). (biologists.org)
  • Effects of number and configuration of flagella on motility of \textit{Helicobacter} species. (aps.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that motility and colonization are affected by helical body shape, number and configuration of flagella. (aps.org)
  • Motility of \textit{H. pylori} was strongly influenced by its multiple unipolar flagella. (aps.org)
  • Flagella-driven motility is the fastest of these, promoting the colonization of favorable locales in response to environmental signals, and contributing significantly to the pathogenic ability of some species 2 , 3 . (jove.com)
  • This work explores the effects of body shape and configuration of flagella on motility of Helicobacter pylori, a helical-shaped bacterium that inhabits the viscoelastic gastric mucosa and causes gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. (bu.edu)
  • In order to explore the effects of flagella configuration on motility, three members of the Helicobacter species were examined: H. suis (bipolar, multiple flagella), H. cetorum (bipolar, single flagellum) and H. pylori (unipolar, multiple flagella). (bu.edu)
  • Numerous regulators control the regulation of flagella, and one of the next challenges in the field is to integrate flagellar gene control into master blueprints of global gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, flagella grow by exporting flagellin through the flagellar machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the bubonic plague bacterium Yersinia pestis has an organelle assembly very similar to a complex flagellum, except that is missing only a few flagellar mechanisms and functions, such as a needle to inject toxins into other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These flagellar complexes then attach to the IFT machinery, which includes the IFT motors (kinesin in orange and dynein in red) and IFT particles (blue), for transport into the flagellum and subsequent assembly into the flagellar structure. (els.net)
  • Electron micrographs of (a) a Methanococcus maripaludis cell (approximately 1 μm in diameter) displaying numerous flagellar filaments and (b) purified archaeal flagella from Methanococcus maripaludis (flagella approximately 12 nm in diameter). (els.net)
  • Cohen‐Krausz S and Trachtenberg S (2008) The flagellar filament structure of the extreme acidothermophile Sulfolobus shibatae B12 suggests that archaeabacterial flagella have a unique and common symmetry and design. (els.net)
  • Specifically, the research focused on intraflagellar transport (IFT), the process where proteins required for flagellar growth and maintenance move within the flagella. (innovations-report.com)
  • The discovery of the protein EB1 at the tip of the flagella on Chlamydomonas furthers investigations into the role the protein plays in flagellar function and perhaps in regulating IFT itself. (innovations-report.com)
  • This is all well and good, but to jump from a protein possibly "associated with cilia, flagella, the centrosome and the Golgi complex" to saying the selective pressure on the gene is due to flagellar function in sperm is a serious leap indeed. (gnxp.com)
  • Swimming speed (v) and flagellar-bundle rotation rate (f) of Salmonella typhimurium, which has peritrichous flagella, were simultaneously measured by laser dark-field microscopy (LDM). (nih.gov)
  • A flagellar bundle was considered to propel a cell more efficiently than a single flagellum. (nih.gov)
  • However, flagella remained intact, and no flagellar fusion was evident. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Those that undulate like a whip with symmetrical traveling waves are called flagella (Fig. IFT is of particular interest, as it plays integral roles in flagellar length control, cell signaling, development, and human disease. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Strains of an Aeromonas caviae isolate in which lateral flagellum expression was abrogated by specific mutations in flagellar genes did not swarm, proving conclusively that lateral flagella are required for the surface movement. (asm.org)
  • An approach to the evolutionary origin of the bacterial flagellum is suggested by the fact that a subset of flagellar components can function as a Type III transport system . (wikidoc.org)
  • I think the evolution of the bacterial flagellum is far too improbable to happen without deliberate fine-tuning of the events that lead up to it, even though most of the flagellar components have precursor homologues. (wordnik.com)
  • When IFT was blocked, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of flagellar CrPKD2-GFP was attenuated and CrPKD2 accumulated in the flagella. (rupress.org)
  • Flagellar CrPKD2 increased fourfold during gametogenesis, and several CrPKD2 RNA interference strains showed defects in flagella-dependent mating. (rupress.org)
  • Professor Shin-Ichi Aizawa has decades of experience in the research of flagella, from developing a new method for the purification of flagella to the research of the flagellar with the electron microscope (EM). (indigo.ca)
  • The single flagellum exits the flagellar pocket at the posterior end of the trypanosome and is attached to the cell body along its length. (biologists.org)
  • This FAZ filament and specialised microtubules originate close to the basal bodies at the proximal end of the flagellum in the flagellar pocket zone ( Sherwin and Gull, 1989a ). (biologists.org)
  • The final animation steps through the process of flagellar beating by diving into the flagella structure and bringing the research to life. (xvivo.net)
  • It also revealed that flagella severed below the basal body, and were not contaminated by other cytoskeletal structures such as the flagellar pocket collar or the adhesion zone filament. (mcponline.org)
  • Nine of these were experimentally validated including a 14-3-3 protein not yet reported to be associated to flagella and eight novel proteins termed FLAM (FLAgellar Member). (mcponline.org)
  • Due to the large number of flagella in each pole, the flagellar bundle of H. suis could be visualized while it swam in broth and mucin. (bu.edu)
  • Flagella contains protein? (alison.com)
  • These periplasmic flagella consist of the major filament protein FlaB and a minor filament protein FlaA ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • A tiny but powerful engine that propels the bacterium Bacillus subtilis through liquids is disengaged from the corkscrew-like flagellum by a protein clutch, Indiana University Bloomington and Harvard University scientists have learned. (photonics.com)
  • A bacterium releases a protein (red) that disengages the clutch on its flagellum. (photonics.com)
  • Each flagellum is made of around 40 different protein components. (newscientist.com)
  • It has been proposed that the flagellum originated from a protein export system . (newscientist.com)
  • The flagella are comprised of protein monomers called flagellin. (wikibooks.org)
  • In this chapter we provide an overview of tools and approaches available for studying flagellum protein function in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • The primary component of both prokaryotic ( bacterial and archaeal ) flagella is the protein flagellin . (rationalwiki.org)
  • The bacterial flagellum is composed of the protein flagellin . (wikidoc.org)
  • The bacterial flagellum is driven by a rotary engine composed of protein , located at the flagellum's anchor point on the inner cell membrane . (wikidoc.org)
  • We hypothesize that Cj1388 and Cj0327 modulate post-translational modification of the flagella through yet unidentified mechanisms, and propose naming Cj1387 the Campylobacter Flagella Interaction Regulator CfiR, and the Cj1388 and Cj0327 protein as CfiP and CfiQ, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • A number of cytoskeletal structures are associated with the flagellum in T. brucei , and one such structure-a multiprotein complex containing the repeat motif protein TbMORN1-is the focus of this review. (mdpi.com)
  • the two smaller forms are cleavage products of the 210-kD protein and were the predominant forms in flagella. (rupress.org)
  • A. Gokhale, M. Wirschell, and W. S. Sale, "Regulation of dynein-driven microtubule sliding by the axonemal protein kinase CK1 in Chlamydomonas flagella," The Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 186, no. 6, pp. 817-824, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Returning to the flagellum, the precursor state to the working motor could've been the working motor with a random, unused protein that neither got in the way nor contributed anything. (patheos.com)
  • Adhiambo C, Blisnick T, Toutirais G, Delannoy E, Bastin P (2009) A novel function for the atypical small G protein Rab-like 5 in the assembly of the trypanosome flagellum. (springer.com)
  • Bastin P, Pullen TJ, Sherwin T, Gull K (1999b) Protein transport and flagellum assembly dynamics revealed by analysis of the paralysed trypanosome mutant snl-1. (springer.com)
  • The bacterial flagellum is just one of a large number of protein complexes with machine-like attributes. (reasons.org)
  • A combination of RNA interference and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching approaches demonstrated very different dynamics from one protein to the other, but also according to the stage of construction and the age of the flagellum. (mcponline.org)
  • A sperm cell moves by means of a single flagellum. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The experimental v-f ratio was twice as large as the calculated one on the assumption that a cell had a single flagellum. (nih.gov)
  • The differentiated cell types of the trypanosome life cycle are defined morphologically by the position of the single flagellum, nucleus and kinetoplast (the single mass of mitochondrial DNA). (biologists.org)
  • Objective: The centriole is the largest evolutionary conserved macromolecular structure responsible for building centrosomes and cilia or flagella in many eukaryotes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a multicellular organism, cilia or flagella can also extend out from stationary cells that are held in place as part of a tail goes into a layer of tissue. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nearly every cell in the human body has one or more protrusive structures called cilia or flagella. (cshlpress.com)
  • One of the more easily recognized cell structures in any cell is cilia or flagella. (brightstorm.com)
  • Well if we take a look at the basic structure of any cilia or flagella you'll see that they are essentially this column of microtubules that are covered in membrane and if you look at the shaft of the flagella you'll see you have these pairs of microtubules there's a set of 9 of them. (brightstorm.com)
  • In nearly all of the contexts in biology in which groups of cilia or flagella are found they exhibit some form of synchronized behaviour. (newton.ac.uk)
  • Although cilia and flagella are the same, they were given different names before their structures were studied. (alison.com)
  • Flagella are whip-like structures used by a flagellate like euglena for locomotion. (alison.com)
  • Cilia and flagella are both permanent structures. (reference.com)
  • Cilia and flagella are both hair-like structures used for the movement of eukaryotic cells. (reference.com)
  • Published in the November 11 edition of the journal Current Biology, the research examined the chemical motors that power events in flagella, antenna-like structures on some cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • These structures are quite unrelated to the flagella of eukaryotes . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Now, Michael Hagan , associate professor of physics, and his lab, have built the first viable computer model to generate flagella-like movement with man-made structures. (brandeis.edu)
  • The contributors dissect the complex structures of motile and nonmotile (primary) cilia, discuss how the intraflagellar transport machinery moves cargo across the central axoneme, and review how the ciliary gate controls the composition of cilia and flagella. (cshlpress.com)
  • The structures and pattern of movement of prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella are different. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • They propose that the word "cilium" be used for both kinds of structures, and that "flagellum" be reserved for the prokaryote organelles. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Experiments have demonstrated that it is located at the base of the flagellum, where electron microscopy shows several ring structures occur. (arn.org)
  • In summary, as biochemists have begun to examine apparently simple structures like cilia and flagella, they have discovered staggering complexity, with dozens or even hundreds of precisely tailored parts. (arn.org)
  • Cilia and flagella are hair-like structures on cells that cause fluid flow. (xvivo.net)
  • Cilia and flagella are complex organelles made of hundreds of proteins of highly variable structures and functions. (mcponline.org)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a powerful model experimental system for studying flagella. (els.net)
  • In addition, the Chlamydomonas axoneme contains a structure called the 5-6 bridge and B‐tubule projections found in the proximal part of the flagellum on outer doublets 1, 5 and 6. (els.net)
  • Here, recent results on the structure of eukaryotic flagella, which is an ATP-driven bending organelle, from green algae Chlamydomonas are presented. (iucr.org)
  • a ) Chlamydomonas cell with two flagella (5-10 µm length, 0.25 µm diameter). (iucr.org)
  • Normally Chlamydomonas cells swim toward the light with two flagella making a breast-stroke-like asymmetric waveform, whereas they swim backward with a sperm-like symmetric waveform under intense light. (iucr.org)
  • Jens Boesger, Volker Wagner, Wolfram Weisheit, and Maria Mittag, "Application of Phosphoproteomics to Find Targets of Casein Kinase 1 in the Flagellum of Chlamydomonas ," International Journal of Plant Genomics , vol. 2012, Article ID 581460, 9 pages, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • The filament, located at the end of the flagellum, is attached to the hook and is composed of flagellin. (reference.com)
  • At the end of the flagellin filament near the surface of the cell, there is a bulge in the thickness of the flagellum. (arn.org)
  • There is good evidence [citation needed] that the bacterial flagellum has evolved from a Type III secretory and transport system, given the similarity of proteins in both systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flagella are highly conserved organelles comprised of several hundred proteins that are assembled using the equally conserved mechanism called intraflagellar transport (IFT). (els.net)
  • Proteins in this entry have been found in flagella [ PMID: 15998802 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The best studied flagellum, of the E. coli bacterium, contains around 40 different kinds of proteins. (newscientist.com)
  • Only 23 of these proteins, however, are common to all the other bacterial flagella studied so far. (newscientist.com)
  • What's more, of these 23 proteins, it turns out that just two are unique to flagella. (newscientist.com)
  • It has also been shown that some of the components that make up a typical flagellum - the motor, the machinery for extruding the "propeller" and a primitive directional control system - can perform other useful functions in the cell, such as exporting proteins. (newscientist.com)
  • These proteins include dynein, a molecular motor that can cause flagella to bend, and propel the cell relative to its environment or propel water or mucus relative to the cell. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The flagella is able to switch between the clockwise and counterclockwise directions through Fli proteins, which senses where the attractant/deterrent is, and switches the direction of rotation for the flagella in response to the chemical signal (therefore performing chemotaxis). (wikibooks.org)
  • But appearances can be deceptive: Flagella are composed of 650 different types of proteins. (brandeis.edu)
  • The nine peripheral doublets are linked to each other by proteins such as dynein , a molecular motor which can cause flagella to bend. (wikidoc.org)
  • Both the basal body and the filament have a hollow core, through which the component proteins of the flagellum are able to move into their respective positions. (wikidoc.org)
  • Tomographic analysis reveals asymmetric molecular arrangements, especially that of the dynein motor proteins, in flagella, giving insight into the mechanism of planar asymmetric bending motion. (iucr.org)
  • Cilia and flagella have a characteristic 9 + 2 structure in which a ring of nine microtubule doublets surrounds a central pair of two microtubules and numerous associated proteins. (biologists.org)
  • This phenotype is the consequence of a general downregulation of all the genes involved in the biosynthesis of flagella, suggesting that zinc is the cofactor of proteins involved in the initiation of the transcriptional regulatory cascade leading to flagella assembly. (rsc.org)
  • An ensemble of 30 to 40 different proteins makes up the typical bacterial flagellum. (reasons.org)
  • Their research showed that flagella get their whip-like motion by a coordinated activation of motor proteins on one side of the flagella and inhibition of motor proteins on the opposing side. (xvivo.net)
  • XVIVO was tasked with taking the research results and creating a 3D animation that helped viewers better appreciate how the motor proteins in flagella work. (xvivo.net)
  • Comparison with the cell debris fraction revealed that more than half of the flagellum markers were enriched in flagella and this enrichment criterion was taken into account to identify 212 proteins not previously reported to be associated to flagella. (mcponline.org)
  • Structural proteins are added to the distal tip of the elongating flagellum and exhibit slow turnover whereas membrane proteins such as the arginine kinase show rapid turnover without a detectible polarity. (mcponline.org)
  • This region has been proposed to act as a barrier restricting entry of cytoplasmic proteins and ensuring retention of flagellum matrix elements ( 10 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The axoneme shows the 9+2 arrangement of microtubules that is characteristic of motile flagella. (els.net)
  • Dyneins extend into the central strand of the cilium/flagellum called the axoneme. (news-medical.net)
  • The typical and plesiomorphic axoneme found in eukaryote flagella and cilia possess a 9 + 2 arrangement of the microtubules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The eukaryotic flagellum is composed of the cell membrane, which covers the axoneme (the "9+2" structure). (cichlidresearch.com)
  • A) An electron micrograph showing the internal structure (axoneme) of a flagellum, called the "9+2" structure, consisting of nine doublet microtubules surrounding the central pair microtubules, in transverse section. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • The axoneme, the bending core of flagella and cilia, has a `9 + 2' structure, where nine microtubule doublets surround two singlet microtubules. (iucr.org)
  • Although the basic architecture of this `9 + 2' axoneme is shared among most of the species, the waveform of the flagella shows amazing diversity depending on the species, organelles and conditions. (iucr.org)
  • C) Schematic of the basal body, when docked at the cell membrane and growing the axoneme of cilia/flagella. (rupress.org)
  • In ultrastructural terms, the flagellum exhibits a canonical `9+2' microtubule axoneme, as well as a lattice-like structure termed the paraflagellar rod (PFR). (biologists.org)
  • In this chapter, we describe the ultra-structural features of the Trypanosoma brucei flagellum, revealing evolutionarily conserved aspects of the axoneme or the basal body and specific elements such as the paraflagellar rod or the flagellum attachment zone. (springer.com)
  • Structural preservation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy that showed that flagella still contained typical elements such as the membrane, the axoneme, the paraflagellar rod, and the intraflagellar transport particles. (mcponline.org)
  • The names "cilia" and "flagella" are often related to historical reasons but they correspond to the same entity: a cylindrical organelle surrounded by a membrane and composed of an axoneme, a set of nine doublet microtubules originating from the basal body. (mcponline.org)
  • The size of the spirochete, the number of periplasmic flagella attached at each end, and whether the filaments overlap at the center of the cell varies from species to species ( 2 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Bacterial flagella are helical filaments that rotate like screws. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Both flagella consist of filaments extending outside of the cell, and rotate to propel the cell. (pheeds.com)
  • In addition, the construction of a set of internal cytoskeletal microtubules and filaments are influenced by, and at times defined by, the ontogeny of the external flagellum. (biologists.org)
  • Euzophera flagella is a species of snout moth in the genus Euzophera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organization of flagella gene families in selected archaeal species. (els.net)
  • Whilst flagella feature predominantly on prokaryotic cells, numerous other species possess specialized cells that employ cilia to displace themselves across space. (news-medical.net)
  • This article will discuss how data from specific species have informed our understanding of cilia/ flagella dynamics. (news-medical.net)
  • Actually, flagella vary widely from one species to another, and some of the components can perform useful functions by themselves. (newscientist.com)
  • In some bacterial species, the flagella twine together helically outside the cell body to form a bundle large enough to be visible in a light microscope . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When grown in plates, several bacterial species produced more flagella than when they grow in liquid medium. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some species, like Proteus mirabilis , have been observed to show an increase in the numbers of flagella. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, they have emerged as new models to study cilia and flagella thanks to powerful reverse genetics approaches coupled to the full sequencing of the genome of several species. (springer.com)
  • The conservation is also found at the molecular level as observed by comparative genomics between species with or without cilia and flagella ( 2 , 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • There are two competing groups of models for the evolutionary origin of the eukaryotic flagellum (referred to as cilium below to distinguish it from its bacterial counterpart). (wikipedia.org)
  • The structural similarity of cilia and eukaryote flagella, and the substantial differences between flagella in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, is such that some authorities group cilia and eukaryote flagella together and consider cilium simply a special type of flagellum-one organized such that many flagella (cilia) may work in synchrony (Patterson 2000). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The archaeal flagellum is similar (but non- homologous ) to the bacterial flagellum), and the eukaryotic flagellum/cilium is a whip-like structure that lashes back and forth. (rationalwiki.org)
  • This organelle is called variously a flagellum, cilium, or undulipodium, or sometimes other names. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Behe's first two major example systems were the eukaryotic flagellum/cilium (henceforth cilium) and the bacterial flagellum. (rationalwiki.org)
  • However, all non-dividing eukaryotic cells contain a flagellum (or cilium ), not only sperm cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • The eukaryotic flagellum, also called a cilium or undulipodium, is completely different from the prokaryote flagella in structure and in evolutionary origin. (pheeds.com)
  • Gradual evolution of the flagellum, like the cilium, therefore faces mammoth hurdles. (arn.org)
  • So the bacterial flagellum acts as a rotary propellor -- in contrast to the cilium, which acts more like an oar. (arn.org)
  • The structure of a flagellum is quite different from that of a cilium. (arn.org)
  • Darwinian theory has given no explanation for the cilium or flagellum. (arn.org)
  • Cilia are similar to flagella in structure and function, but a cilium is shorter and moves differently. (study.com)
  • It is similar to a cilium in structure, though cilia generally move in a back and forth motion, as opposed to the corkscrew movement of a flagellum. (study.com)
  • The flagellum is composed of three main components, the filament, hook and anchoring structure. (els.net)
  • The flagellum consists of at least three part: the basal body as a bi-directional rotary motor, the hook as a universal joint and the filament as a helical screw. (eurekalert.org)
  • The bacterial flagellum is a helical filament that rotates like a screw. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The flagellum is a long, hairlike filament embedded in the cell membrane. (arn.org)
  • We also demonstrate that the native C. jejuni flagellum filament is 11-stranded, contrary to a previously published cryo-EM structure, and propose a molecular model for the filament-cap interaction. (nature.com)
  • The flagellum of eukaryotes usually moves with an "S" motion and is surrounded by cell membrane . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Prokaryotes may have one or many flagella for locomotion, but these differ significantly from flagella in eukaryotes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In Protozoa - a diverse group of single-celled, microscopic or near-microscopic protist eukaryotes that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals-those organisms with flagella ( flagellates ) are generally placed in the phylum Zoomastigina (or Mastigophora), whereas those with cilia (ciliates) are placed in phylum Ciliophora. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cilia and Flagella are organelles that are located in eukaryotes structurally built to help the cell move. (smore.com)
  • Admittedly, all currently known nonflagellar Type III transport systems are for injecting toxin into eukaryotic cells, and are therefore presumably descended from the flagellum, which is likely older than eukaryotes. (wikidoc.org)
  • Here we compare rotational and translational speeds of \textit{H. cetorum} and \textit{H. suis} which have bipolar flagella, with \textit{H. cetorum} having single bipolar flagella and \textit{H. suis} having multiple flagella. (aps.org)
  • This article will focus on the role of helical surface-attached appendages known as flagella or cilia, that are present on many eukaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Cilia and flagella are tube-like appendages which allow for motion in eukaryotic cells. (brightstorm.com)
  • These never-before-seen pictures represent a wide variety of flagella, including Legionella pneumophila , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and many others. (indigo.ca)
  • The flagellum is one of nature's smallest and most powerful motors -- ones like those produced by B. subtilis can rotate more than 200 times per second, driven by 1400 piconewton-nms of torque. (photonics.com)
  • The flagella is able to rotate in either direction by generating torque in the basal body. (wikibooks.org)
  • Now with flagella, with the prokaryotes a there's weirdness about them in that their flagella rotate whereas ours undulate. (brightstorm.com)
  • When the flagella (or flagellum, for monotrichous cells) are spinning in the counterclockwise direction, the flagella is driving the cell forward towards the attractant or away from the deterring signal. (wikibooks.org)
  • Anticlockwise rotation of monotrichous polar flagella thrusts the cell forward with the flagellum trailing behind. (pheeds.com)
  • Illustration of the structure and assembly of the archaeal flagellum. (els.net)
  • the archaeal flagellum is too thin to allow this. (pheeds.com)
  • radial spokes, central apparatus, and inner/outer dynein arms, which are the motors that drive the movement of cilia and flagella (Fig. 1.2). (cichlidresearch.com)
  • To address this, three-dimensional structural analysis of dynein arms in flagella/cilia is required. (iucr.org)
  • Toyko, Japan) and Ghen Corporation (Gifu, Japan) has patented specific antibodies obtained from eggs laid by hens which have been immunized against urease of Helicobacter pylori as an antigen, and specific antibodies obtained from eggs laid by hens which have been immunized against flagella of Helicobacter pylori as an antigen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, the alga C. reinhardtii , from which a significant understanding of cilia and flagella is derived. (news-medical.net)
  • Adv. 2, e1601661 (2016)}, using fast time-resolution and high-magnification 2-D phase-contrast microscopy to image individual helical and rod-shaped \textit{H. pylori} we measured the rotation rate of the cell body and flagella and found that helical shape produces less than 15\% changes in swimming speeds as compared to the rod-shaped cell. (aps.org)
  • As with many aspects of science that creationists do not understand, the evolution of the flagellum is always on their "questions science cannot answer" [1] [2] lists, specifically with regards to irreducible complexity as Michael Behe postulates it: How could the flagellum have appeared? (rationalwiki.org)
  • In The Flagellum Unspun Ken Miller recreates the argument he used against Behe in the Dover Courthouse. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The bacterial flagellum is an example of what Michael Behe describes as an irreducibly complex system. (arn.org)
  • Intelligent Design advocate Michael Behe said about this situation, "[The argument against flagella coming from evolution] is that such interactive systems resist explanation by the tiny steps that a Darwinian path would be expected to take. (patheos.com)
  • You already know what to think of Behe and his magic flagellum, but it's good to have a single source to which one can point. (wordpress.com)
  • 2007) Systematic deletion analyses of the fla genes in the flagella operon identify several genes essential for proper assembly and function of flagella in the archaeon, Methanococcus maripaludis. (els.net)
  • In last May's issue of Bioinformatics, he reported that part of ASPM's DNA sequence resembles that of genes involved in the function of flagella, which propel sperm. (gnxp.com)
  • In this study on P. shigelloides 302-73 strain, we found two different gene clusters, one exclusively for the lateral flagella biosynthesis and the other one containing the biosynthetic polar flagella genes with additional putative glycosylation genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also show that both flagella in P. shigelloides 302-73 strain are glycosylated by a derivative of legionaminic acid (Leg), which explains the presence of Leg pathway genes between the two polar flagella regions in their biosynthetic gene cluster. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the presence of the lateral flagella cluster and Leg O -flagella glycosylation genes are widely spread features among the P. shigelloides strains tested. (frontiersin.org)
  • Absalon S, Blisnick T, Kohl L, Toutirais G, Dore G, Julkowska D, Tavenet A, Bastin P (2008b) Intraflagellar transport and functional analysis of genes required for flagellum formation in trypanosomes. (springer.com)
  • Eukaryotic cell flagella differ from bacterial cells in terms of how the flagella move in order to propel the cell forward. (wikibooks.org)
  • Because eukaryotic cells are much bigger than bacterial cells, instead of a clockwise/counterclockwise direction, most eukaryotic cell flagella move in a "whip-like" motion which is fueled by ATP hydrolysis in the cell. (wikibooks.org)
  • Because the bacterial flagellum is necessarily composed of at least three parts -- a paddle,a rotor, and a motor -- it is irreducibly complex. (arn.org)
  • Typically, when intelligent design proponents/creationists use the bacterial flagellum to make the case for a Creator, they focus the argument on its irreducibly complex nature. (reasons.org)
  • A mutant of Salmonella possessing straight flagella. (nih.gov)
  • B) Electron micrograph of the Salmonella flagellum. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here, we report that the accumulation of FliC, the structural subunit of Salmonella phase 1 flagella, is sharply reduced in a znuABC Salmonella enterica sv. (rsc.org)
  • The fliBfljC strain overgrows a fliCfljBznuABC mutant strain, but the difference in gut colonization between these two strains is less striking than that between the wild type and the znuABC strains, suggesting that the downregulation of flagella contributes to the loss of virulence of Salmonella znuABC . (rsc.org)
  • Flagella, like cilia, are composed of microtubules that are connected to the plasma membrane. (reference.com)
  • The microtubules in a flagellum are grouped into nine pairs surrounding a pair of microtubules. (reference.com)
  • The motion of flagella is a result of the microtubules sliding against each other. (reference.com)
  • Microtubules help chromosomes divide, combine with microfilaments to provide structure for a cell, and combine to form cilia and flagella that help cells m. (reference.com)
  • The flagella beat rhythmically, moving the organism, and are made of nine double strands of microtubules and a central pair. (innovations-report.com)
  • Eukaryote flagella are similar to cilia -another structure that extends out from the surface of cell and is used for movement-in that both are composed of nine pairs of microtubules (nine microtubule doublets) arranged around its circumference and one pair of microtubules (two microtubule siglets) running down the center, the 9 + 2 structure (Towle 1989). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Both Cilia and Flagella are made of microtubules which are covered by plasma membranes. (smore.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells with flagella also have many more microtubules in the membrane to help aid in support during cell chemotaxis. (wikibooks.org)
  • Eukaryotic flagella and cilia have a conserved common structure, named the 9+2 structure, in which nine doublet microtubules surround a pair of central singlet microtubules. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • flagella ) is a long, slender projection from the cell body , composed of microtubules and surrounded by the plasma membrane . (wikidoc.org)
  • I asked my professor a question about the function of the central pair of microtubules enclosed by the central sheath in eukaryotic cilia and flagella and he replied simply saying that it is not clearly understood. (protocol-online.org)
  • Archaeal flagella are superficially similar to bacterial flagella, but are different in many details and considered non- homologous . (wikidoc.org)
  • Cilia and flagella are highly conserved organelles. (els.net)
  • Eukaryotic flagella, whip-like organelles that elegantly propel microorganisms and pump fluid, seem to embody simplicity on the microscopic scale. (brandeis.edu)
  • Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles, while prokaryotic cells do … Q. Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are alternative names for the slender cylindrical protrusions exclusively of eukaryotic cells that propel a cell or move fluid. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Centrioles/basal bodies (CBBs) are microtubule-based cylindrical organelles that nucleate the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella. (rupress.org)
  • Cilia and flagella are prominent organelles of many eukaryotic cells. (mcponline.org)
  • Therefore many assume erroneously that there is only one basic kind of prokaryotic flagellum, and that archaeal flagella are homologous to it (an example is Cavalier-Smith (2002), who is aware of the differences in archaeal and bacterial flagellins, but retains the misconception that the basal bodies are homologous). (pheeds.com)
  • Cilia and flagella are unicellular organisms. (alison.com)
  • Movement of a unicellular organisms by flagella can be relatively swift, whether it be Euglena with its emergent flagellum or a sperm cell with its flagellum. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • hominis showing an undulating membrane, the flagella , and a rapid forward motion (Figure 4). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some cells are propelled at velocities approaching 1 mm/s by the beating of cilia and flagella, flexible membrane extensions of the cell. (alison.com)
  • Outermost is a membrane sheath, and within this sheath are the cell cylinder and periplasmic flagella. (pnas.org)
  • Bacterial flagella are entirely outside the cell membrane (plasma membrane) and are normally visible only with the aid of an electron microscope . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The eukaryotic flagellum is a long, rod-like structure that is surrounded by an extension of the cell membrane like a sheath. (study.com)
  • The base of cilia and flagella contains projections that link each microtubule triplet of the basal body to the flagellum membrane ( 9 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Extracellular flagella attach to and are driven by rotary motors embedded in the membrane, which harness the power of ion gradients to generate torque that causes rotation 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 . (jove.com)
  • There are three distinct groups of flagella, each of which has its own evolutionary pathway ( convergent evolution ). (rationalwiki.org)
  • Euglena gracilis is a tiny, single-celled organism with a long, oval body, tail-like flagella and chloroplasts for producing food energy from sunlight. (reference.com)
  • Transmission Electron Micrograph (TEM) of shadowcast tip of Euglena flagellum, showing unilateral array of fine hairs and tuft of hairs at very tip. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The term undulipodium is used for an intracellular projection of a eukaryote cell with a microtuble array and includes both flagella and cilia. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A eukaryote cell usually only has about one or two flagella. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The organisms which bear a special structure called flagellum aiding in locomotion belong to the category of falgellates. (alison.com)
  • While all three types of flagella are used for locomotion, they are structurally very different. (study.com)
  • Cilia and flagella range in length from a few microns to more than 2 mm in the case of some insect sperm flagella. (alison.com)
  • For example, sperm flagella generate a symmetric waveform, while the waveform of Tetrahymena cilia is asymmetric. (iucr.org)
  • The stability of biofilms can be jeopardized by hyperactive bacterial cells whose flagella continue to spin. (photonics.com)
  • Most bacterial cells use their flagella to travel randomly, a process called random walk, unless there is a chemical signal present, in which the cell would travel to the attractant (or away from a repellant) through chemotaxis. (wikibooks.org)
  • What organisms have cilia, and witch ones have flagella? (alison.com)
  • Two fascinating examples of this complexity are cilia and flagella, which accomplish various types of microscopic movement.The organisms which bear cilia over their body mostly belong to the category of ciliates. (alison.com)
  • flagella ) is a wiggly/spinny structure used by many single-celled organisms to move through a liquid medium. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Most of the flagellated organisms, regardless of the strain, had a single, relatively straight or undulant polar flagellum, about 25 nm in diameter. (annals.org)
  • flagella ) is a propulsive structure used by many single-celled organisms to move through a liquid medium. (pheeds.com)
  • One of the more dramatic ways that single-celled organisms get around is a whip-like structure called a flagellum. (study.com)
  • Learn the ways that different organisms make use of their flagella to move around their microscopic world. (study.com)
  • The product of years of research and data collection by the author, this book is a pictorial guide to flagella in a variety of organisms. (indigo.ca)
  • one well known example of this is the sperm cell, in which the "tail" of the sperm (a flagellum) is used to propel the cell forward. (wikidoc.org)
  • In E. coli , it works by changing flagella rotation from anticlockwise to clockwise and back again, causing a cell to tumble and then head off in a new direction. (newscientist.com)
  • Clear periodic changes in the LDM signals from a rotating bundle indicated in-phase rotation of the flagella in the bundle. (nih.gov)
  • Rotation of the flagellum(a) allows the bacterial cell to navigate its environment in response to various chemical signals. (reasons.org)
  • Typically, cells possess one or two long flagella, whereas ciliated cells have many short cilia. (alison.com)
  • Wild-type cells poisoned with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide- m -chlorophenylhydrazone retained their flat-wave morphology, indicating that the periplasmic flagella do not need to be energized for the cell to maintain this shape. (pnas.org)
  • Cilia, flagella and pseudopods all share a common purpose in helping individual cells move between places. (reference.com)
  • In eukaryotic cells , flagella are active in movements involving feeding and sensation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The main purpose of Cilia is to help the cell move fluids, mucous, or other cells over their surface, while flagella are more important and helpful to move the cell around. (smore.com)
  • Finding the fossils in a fused position and with their flagella shed is evidence that the two cells were having sex, Kar said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The research may pave the way to develop flagella-like microrobots to carry drugs to targeted cells or to create microfluidic devices that could pump and circulate fluid. (brandeis.edu)
  • Ventral flagella do not undergo further differentiation and are said to be in the 'mature' state whereas the daughter basal bodies give rise to new dorsal flagella in the daughter cells and these must undergo an additional round of cell division before reaching the mature or determinate state. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Drosophila cells tolerate the lack of centrioles and undertake mitosis but cannot form basal bodies and hence flagella. (nih.gov)
  • Stationary cells (such as kidney, intestine, and nerve cells) also contain flagella (cilia) which project from the cell body out into the extracellular environment. (wikidoc.org)
  • Eukaryotic flagella - those of animal, plant, and protist cells - are complex cellular projections that lash back and forth. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cells with short flagella produce impulses of small amplitude. (biologists.org)
  • Inactivation of the cj1387c gene, encoding a YheO-like PAS6 domain linked to a helix-turn-helix domain, resulted in the generation of a tightly associated "cell-train" morphotype, where up to four cells were connected by their flagella. (frontiersin.org)
  • Flagella are also required for autoagglutination [i.e., aggregation, AAG ( Golden and Acheson, 2002 )] in Campylobacter , which is thought to play a role in adherence to, and invasion of human embryonic intestinal cells ( Misawa and Blaser, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here is an actual picture of two cells and you can see there's lots of these short little projections that are sticking out of the cell whereas here with this cell has a few flagella but those flagella are much longer than the individual ones that are called cilia. (brightstorm.com)
  • The evolution of flagella is of great interest to biologists because the three known varieties of flagella (eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal) each represent a sophisticated cellular structure that requires the interaction of many different systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • BLOOMINGTON, Inc., June 23, 2008 -- The flagellum -- a rotating, tail-like structure that makes a bacterium swim, is powered by a molecular engine at its base. (photonics.com)
  • EpsE is thought to "sit down," as Kearns describes it, on the flagellum's rotor -- a donut-shaped structure at the base of the flagellum. (photonics.com)
  • The flagellum is a giant, very expensive structure. (photonics.com)
  • The proponents of an offshoot of creationism known as intelligent design argue that a flagellum is useless without every single one of these components, so such a structure could not have emerged gradually via mutation and selection. (newscientist.com)
  • Hagan's computer model significantly simplifies the motion of complex flagella, using spherical self-propelled particles called colloids in a structure resembling a string of beads. (brandeis.edu)
  • Since then, the 9+2 structure may have remained basically unchanged because this highly successful design drives the … For example, the sperm cell is a eukaryotic flagella cell. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Some people point out that eukaryotic flagella and cilia have fundamentally the same 9+2 tubulin structure (usually), dyneins, etc., and are really essentially the same thing. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Transmission and thin-section electron microscopy confirmed that these flagella do not possess a sheath structure. (asm.org)
  • Structure of a flagellum and its components in various dimensions. (iucr.org)
  • and is heavily glycosylated, which plays an important role in flagella structure and function in Campylobacter . (frontiersin.org)
  • The basal structure has many traits in common with some types of secretory pore which have a hollow rod-like "plug" in their centers extending out through the cell wall, and it is thought that bacterial flagella may have evolved from such pores. (pheeds.com)
  • A flagellum is a whip-like structure that allows a cell to move. (study.com)
  • Far from being a simple hair-like structure, the eukaryotic flagellum has a complex cross-section. (study.com)
  • Flagellum - For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). (academic.ru)
  • Flagella Mediate Endophytic Competence Rather Than Act as MAMPS in Rice-Azoarcus sp. (apsnet.org)
  • It is not clear whether, in endophytic interactions, flagella mediate endophytic competence or act as MAMPs (microbe-asscociated molecular patterns) inducing plant defense responses. (apsnet.org)
  • At the anterior end is the basal body complex (pink) and the two motile, sensory flagella (red). (els.net)
  • The basal body also acts as an anchoring system for the flagella, consisting of a set of rings known as the L, P, MS, and C rings. (wikibooks.org)
  • Peritrichous flagella are a series of flagella that appear around the cell in all directions. (wikibooks.org)
  • That would seem to fly in the face of all the claims that the evolution of the flagellum is a problem long since solved by biologists. (wordnik.com)
  • Behe's criticism of neo-Darwinian explanations for the evolution of things like the flagellum is essentially no different than Margulis's. (wordnik.com)
  • Seeking to counter Behe's argument in Darwin's Black Box , the article purports to explain how the bacterial flagellum is the result of Darwinian evolution. (evolutionnews.org)
  • Right-the flagellum was the result of evolution, and evolution is a lot more than chance. (patheos.com)
  • We have not discussed the bacterial flagellum on PT in a good long time - one of the last instances was Nick Matzke's 2007 article, The Edge of Creationism , a clever pun on Michael Behe's book title, The Edge of Evolution . (pandasthumb.org)
  • Using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), we first investigated the morphology (typology and topology) of cuticular sensilla on both the medial and lateral flagella of the antennules, with special attention paid to the aesthetasc sensilla. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Western blot analysis indicated that FlaB was no longer synthesized, and electron microscopy revealed that the mutants were completely deficient in periplasmic flagella. (pnas.org)
  • Light and scanning electron microscopic investigations revealed that lateral flagella formed bacterium-bacterium linkages on the agar surface. (asm.org)
  • Plesiomonas shigelloides is the unique member of the Enterobacteriaceae family able to produce polar flagella when grow in liquid medium and lateral flagella when grown in solid or semisolid media. (frontiersin.org)
  • P. shigelloides is the first Enterobacteriaceae were a complete lateral flagella cluster leading to a lateral flagella production is described. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is the first bacterium reported with O -glycosylated Leg in both polar and lateral flagella. (frontiersin.org)
  • The flagella O -glycosylation is essential for bacterial flagella formation, either polar or lateral, because gene mutants on the biosynthesis of Leg are non-flagellated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Baron DM, Ralston KS, Kabututu ZP, Hill KL (2007b) Functional genomics in Trypanosoma brucei identifies evolutionarily conserved components of motile flagella. (springer.com)
  • In this paper, we show that the morphology of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the result of a complex interaction between the cell cylinder and the internal periplasmic flagella. (pnas.org)
  • B. burgdorferi has a bundle of 7-11 helically shaped periplasmic flagella attached at each end of the cell cylinder and has a flat-wave cell morphology. (pnas.org)
  • Our results indicate that the periplasmic flagella of B. burgdorferi have a skeletal function. (pnas.org)
  • The periplasmic flagella of spirochetes have been characterized in detail. (pnas.org)
  • Recent results with B. burgdorferi indicate that the morphology of these spirochetes is likely to be influenced by the presence of the periplasmic flagella. (pnas.org)
  • Attached at each end are 7-11 periplasmic flagella that overlap in the center of the cell ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The trypanosome flagellum is now recognized as a major contributor to pathogenicity of these parasites. (biologists.org)
  • The intrinsic feature of the trypanosome flagellum is that the existing flagellum is maintained and a new flagellum is produced during each cell cycle. (biologists.org)
  • Wallace has been working up to this: testing the bacterial flagellum motor against his eight-test checklist. (patheos.com)
  • The alga was chosen not because of its colour or the two flagella it uses to swim but because, of all the primary producers in the aquatic environment at the the lowest level of the food chain of the food chain, it is the one whose genome has been fully sequenced. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Flagella help sperm swim, sponges eat, and sweep mucus from the lungs, among other functions. (brandeis.edu)
  • Caulobacter swim in two different ways - sometimes with the flagellum pushing from the rear, and sometimes with the flagellum pulling from the front. (brown.edu)
  • The motion of the cilia or flagellum moves the liquid outside the cell and if the cell is not anchored, it can "swim. (brightstorm.com)
  • Science 262: 1277-1280 These people showed that the repressor of one of the operon's concerned is also exported through the flagella, so when the flagella are complete the repressor accumulates in the cell. (bio.net)
  • The flagella emerge from a cell wall that encircles the cell (purple). (els.net)
  • A given periplasmic flagellum is attached subterminally at only one end of the cell cylinder, and it resides within the periplasmic space ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • They attached the tail end of the flagellum to a glass slide and examined the movement of the entire cell in the presence and absence of EpsE. (photonics.com)
  • Flagella use a whip-like action to create movement of the whole cell, such as the movement of sperm in the reproductive tract. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Lophotrichious flagella are a group of flagella that are bundled together on one side of the cell. (wikibooks.org)
  • When the flagella is rotating clockwise, the entire cell stops the forward movement in order to change direction. (wikibooks.org)
  • The posterior flagellum often lies between the cell and the substrate and for this reason is sometimes referred to as the ventral flagellum. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Those systems that work by sticking something large out of the cell and moving it are often called "flagella. (rationalwiki.org)
  • We model the chemotactic signaling pathway reactions, couple them to a multi-flagella model for propelling and take the effects of rotational diffusion into account to accurately reproduce the experimental observations of single cell swimming. (springer.com)
  • It's long been assumed that the flagella do all the work during swimming, while the rest of the cell body is just along for the ride. (brown.edu)
  • The impulses are produced when the flagella are sucked into the pipette but not when the cell body is sucked in leaving the flagella outside the pipette. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the site where the cell senses mechanical stimuli and generates the impulse current must be localized at the flagella. (biologists.org)
  • If a cell has a single appendage, which often looks tail-like, it is called a flagellum, but if it has many, they are called cilia . (brightstorm.com)
  • A commonly recognized example is the "tail" on a sperm cell, which is actually a flagellum. (brightstorm.com)
  • The only thing that the bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic flagella have in common is that they stick outside of the cell and wiggle to produce propulsion. (pheeds.com)
  • This causes the flagellum to bend, allowing the cell to move. (study.com)
  • They still move the cell, but they do so by rotating, rather than by bending from the inside like eukaryotic flagella. (study.com)
  • However, the tractable cell biology, reverse genetics and advanced genome project mean that the trypanosome is also emerging as an ideal model organism for the studies of eukaryotic flagella and cilia in general. (biologists.org)
  • The earliest morphological events in cell proliferation occur with duplication of the basal bodies, formation of the new flagellum and other connected cytoskeletal elements. (biologists.org)
  • The tail of a sperm cell is a flagellum. (xvivo.net)
  • In contrast, FLAM8 is progressively accumulating at the distal tip of growing flagella and half of it still needs to be added after cell division. (mcponline.org)
  • The export ring forms at the base of the flagellum and anchors the subsequent formation of the flagellum's other components. (the-scientist.com)
  • The components of the bacterial flagellum are capable of self-assembly without the aid of enzymes or other factors. (wikidoc.org)