Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Osmium: Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Osmium Tetroxide: (T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.PicratesHistocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Paraffin: A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Collodion: A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.Hematoxylin: A dye obtained from the heartwood of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum Linn., Leguminosae) used as a stain in microscopy and in the manufacture of ink.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Alcian Blue: A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Cytological Techniques: Methods used to study CELLS.AcroleinEther: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Pharmaceutic Aids: Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.ParisCosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).

Freeze-fracture studies of the developing cell surface. II. Particle-free membrane blisters on glutaraldehyde-fixed corneal fibroblasts are artefacts. (1/723)

We describe, in sections and by freeze-fracture, four classes of intramembrane particle (IMP)-free membrane blebs or "blisters" associated with glutaraldehyde-fixed embryonic corneal fibroblasts: (a) Single blisters attached to the cell membrane; (b) free (detached) vesicles; (c) myelin figures; (d) multivesicular protrusions which resemble the "mounds" described by others on nerve growth cones. The IMP-free, membrane-bounded blisters contain no ground cytoplasm or organelles, in contrast to blebs on trypsin-isolated fibroblasts, which we show here do contain cytoplasm and IMP-rich membranes. That the IMP-free membrane blisters in embryonic corneas are artefacts of fixation is demonstrated by (a) their absence in replicas of fibroblasts frozen and fractured without prior aldehyde fixation and (b) their absence in sections of fibroblasts fixed in a combination of glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide. We suggest that the addition of osmium prevents postfixation movement of membrane lipids, especially the negatively charged "fluid" lipids which others have shown are capable of considerable mobility after aldehyde fixation alone. Recent literature has implicated membrane blistering in secretory processes and in growth of nerves, but before the functional significance of such IMP-free blisters is assessed, membrane mobility of the type shown here should be taken into consideration.  (+info)

Nucleoid-independent identification of cell division sites in Escherichia coli. (2/723)

The mechanism used by Escherichia coli to determine the correct site for cell division is unknown. In this report, we have attempted to distinguish between a model in which septal position is determined by the position of the nucleoids and a model in which septal position is predetermined by a mechanism that does not involve nucleoid position. To do this, filaments with extended nucleoid-free regions adjacent to the cell poles were produced by simultaneous inactivation of cell division and DNA replication. The positions of septa that formed within the nucleoid-free zones after division was allowed to resume were then analyzed. The results showed that septa were formed at a uniform distance from cell poles when division was restored, with no relation to the distance from the nearest nucleoid. In some cells, septa were formed directly over nucleoids. These results are inconsistent with models that invoke nucleoid positioning as the mechanism for determining the site of division site formation.  (+info)

A new rapid technique for the fixation of thyroid gland surgical specimens. (3/723)

One of the main diagnostic problems in thyroid pathology is to distinguish between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Thorough sampling of the nodule's capsule is recommended in order to identify capsular invasion. However, during the hardening of the tissue, by the usual fixatives the capsule shrinks and rolls downwards and sometimes the capsule separates from the remaining tissue. The present work evaluates the use of "Lymph Node Revealing Solution" (LNRS) for the rapid fixation (2h) of different thyroid lesions as compared to that of formalin. Fifty-one unselected consecutive cases of thyroid nodules, which included various benign and malignant lesions, were examined. Each specimen was cut in two equal parts; one was fixed in LNRS, the other in formalin. Fixation in LNRS for 2 hours gave adequate results in sectioning and staining of the tissue, and excellent immunostains. Its advantage over formalin is the conservation of the natural relationship between the capsule and the rest of the tissue, on the same plane, as well as the short time required for the final diagnosis.  (+info)

Slices have more synapses than perfusion-fixed hippocampus from both young and mature rats. (4/723)

Hippocampal slices have long been used to investigate properties of synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, for the first time, synapses in slices have been compared quantitatively with synapses occurring in perfusion-fixed hippocampus, which is presumed to represent the natural in vivo state. Relative to perfusion-fixed hippocampus, a remarkable 40-50% increase in spine number occurs in adult hippocampal slices, and a 90% increase occurs in slices from postnatal day 21 rats. Serial EM shows that all of the dendritic spines have normal synapses with presynaptic and postsynaptic elements; however, not all spine types are affected uniformly. Stubby and mushroom spines increase in the adult slices, and thin, mushroom, and branched spines increase in the immature slices. More axonal boutons with multiple synapses occur in the slices, suggesting that the new synapses form on preexisting axonal boutons. The increase in spine and synapse number is evident within a couple of hours after preparing the slices. Once the initial spine induction has occurred, no further change occurs for up to 13 hr in vitro, the longest time investigated. Thus, the spine increase is occurring during a period when there is little or no synaptic activity during the first hour, and the subsequent stabilization in spine synapse numbers is occurring after synaptic activity returns in the slice. These findings suggest that spines form in response to the loss of synaptic activity when slices are removed from the rest of the brain and during the subsequent 1 hr recovery period.  (+info)

Experience with external quality control in spermatology. (5/723)

Results are presented from participation in an external quality control (EQC) programme for semen analysis (UK NEQAS). Formalin-fixed semen samples and videotapes of motile spermatozoa were distributed four times a year over a 3-4 year period. Over the entire period there was close agreement for sperm concentration with, initially, the average of values from the other groups participating in the scheme, and later, values designated as reference values obtained from six laboratories of several chosen that consistently agreed with each other. The initial underestimation of the percentage of normal forms was abolished at the time of change in derivation of designated values and this largely eliminated the difference to establish closer agreement with the designated values. A consistent bias in the assessment of different categories of progressive sperm motility appeared to be resolved by a conscious decision to consider most spermatozoa as grade b and the exceptions as grade a, rather than the converse. Feedback of results to the technicians of the laboratory participating in an external quality control programme leads to reappraisal of subjective evaluation and to harmonization of results between laboratories.  (+info)

Polymerase chain reaction detection of Puumala virus RNA in formaldehyde-fixed biopsy material. (6/723)

BACKGROUND: Infections with hantaviruses, mainly Clethrionomys-derived Puumala viruses, are known causes of acute renal failure [hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)] in western Europe. Laboratory diagnosis is primarily based on serology. At the time of clinical symptoms, viral RNA can hardly be detected in the blood or urine, indicating that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is of little diagnostic value for these infections. Biopsy material is usually formaldehyde-fixed and, thus, regarded as poor quality for PCR applications. The aim of this study was to establish a technique to retrieve such material for laboratory diagnostic. METHODS: Formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney biopsies of 14 patients with renal failure either clinically suspected for HFRS (7 cases) or caused by unknown (2 cases) or known other causes (drugs, sarcoidosis; 5 cases) were histologically investigated. An established S segment-specific PCR assay was applied to RNA isolated from the biopsies, and amplification products were verified by direct sequence determination. RESULTS: Investigations revealed a typical histopathological appearance for hantavirus infections in all seven suspected HFRS cases and one case of unknown cause. With five of the suspected HFRS cases, hantavirus-specific RNA was detected. Sequence comparison revealed a close relationship to corresponding nucleoproteins of known Puumala viruses. CONCLUSION: The established technique provides a simple and powerful tool that expands the diagnostic possibilities, especially for otherwise unidentified or retrospective cases. It further allows insight into the molecular epidemiology of HFRS-causing agents.  (+info)

Detection of translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) in mantle cell lymphoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (7/723)

To assess an unequivocal diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), we have developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, enabling the demonstration of t(11;14)(q13;q32) directly on pathological samples. We have first selected CCND1 and IGH probes encompassing the breakpoint regions on both chromosomes. Then, we have defined experimental conditions enabling us to obtain bright clear-cut signals in all of the samples, independently of the initial fixation conditions. We have analyzed single-cell suspensions from 26 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded MCL samples with this set of probes. In all cases, we have found a fusion signal (ie, a t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation) in 14% to 99% of cells (median, 87%). So far, IGH-CCND1 fusions have been detected in all of the 51 MCL patients that we have analyzed by FISH (either on paraffin-embedded tumor samples or on peripheral blood samples). Regarding the low sensitivity of other techniques used to diagnose t(11;14)(q13;q32) (ie, 70% to 75% for cytogenetics and 50% to 60% for polymerase chain reaction), our FISH assay is by far the most sensitive technique. Moreover, because of the quality of the fluorescent signals and the rapidity of the experiment, this technique is widely applicable, even in routine cytogenetics or pathology laboratories. As MCL patients are usually refractory to standard therapy, an unambiguous diagnosis is needed to propose adapted therapeutic strategies, and this highly sensitive assay may be of great value for accurate diagnosis in difficult cases.  (+info)

Mechanical properties of mesenteric arteries in diabetic rats: consequences of outward remodeling. (8/723)

Diabetes induces hemodynamic and biochemical changes that can influence mechanical properties of arteries. Structure and mechanics of mesenteric small arteries were investigated in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (duration 7-9 wk). The external diameter of mesenteric artery branches was measured in control (n = 9) and diabetic (n = 7) Wistar Rp rats at baseline and during pressurization in situ (0-150 mmHg) under normal and passive smooth muscle conditions. Mean arterial pressure and mesenteric artery pressure were not significantly different. Baseline mesenteric artery diameter was larger in the diabetes-induced group (439 +/- 12 vs. 388 +/- 18 micrometers, P < 0.05). Media cross-sectional area of arteries from diabetic rats was not significantly increased (0.0149 +/- 0.0015 vs. 0.0122 +/- 0.0007 mm2). Cross-sectional compliance was significantly increased in diabetic rats at intraluminal pressures ranging from 25 to 75 mmHg (P < 0.005), whereas cross-sectional distensibility was not modified. Wall tension and circumferential wall stress were increased in diabetes. These results indicate that mesenteric small arteries of diabetic rats display eutrophic outward remodeling associated with increased wall tension and circumferential wall stress.  (+info)

  • A group of scientists from Russia and Ireland found out how quality of tissue-engineered biomeshes (biological 'frame' which is used for tissue repair) is affected by various chemical fixatives (cross-linkers). (
  • This Forma-Scent® fixative is for use in histological applications of fixation and storage of tissue specimens. (
  • In addition, we offer a comprehensive line of solvents and fixatives for sample preparation, mounting media for routine and fluorescent applications, and tissue quality control slides. (
  • Bouin's fixative is excellent for use in preserving soft and delicate tissue structures. (
  • O-Fix is an exciting new tissue fixative formulated with alcohol, formalin and acetic acid. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare RNA quality, performance in real time RT PCR and histology of formalin-fixed tissue to that of tissue fixed and stabilized with a formalin-free fixative, the PAXgene Tissue System (PAXgene), in an animal model under highly controlled preanalytical conditions. (
  • In comparison to formalin, Davidson's fixative solution provided excellent preservation of the retinal tissue. (
  • Directly replaces common fixatives, including formaldehyde-based, alcohol-based, Zenker's, B5 and B3, and Bouin's fixative.Fixed tissues exhibit vibrant staining, better nuclear and cytoplasmic detail,a crisp appearance even after long-term storage, and a much more natural look and feel than formalin-fixed tissue. (
  • Alternative fixatives generally had better DNA amplification than formalin, although results varied somewhat depending on the tissue examined. (
  • The ultimate tissue fixative for histopathology would create tissue histomorphology identical to formalin, pose no hazard to human health, preserve nucleic material for an extended period of time preferably at room temperatures, and be cost effective. (
  • However it is perceived that alcohols are not as efficient at preserving tissue morphology as aldehyde based fixatives. (
  • formaldehyde has a greater chance for oxidation in this concentration of tissue fixative and eventually the solution will start to drop in pH, in spite of the buffer. (
  • A methanol-free fixative will give the best preservation, particularly if you plan to use the tissue for antibody staining at a later time. (
  • Storage of tissue in this fixative beyond several hours should be strongly discouraged. (
  • Tissue specimens should be placed in fixative as rapidly as is reasonable after they have been removed from an animal, the fixative should be at least 20 times the volume of the tissue and the fixative should be changed after the first hour of fixation. (
  • If the tissue or organ has a thick capsule (e.g. kidney) , users should be aware that fixative penetration will not be as rapid through the capsule. (
  • However, alcohols do not preserve tissue morphology as well as formaldehyde-based fixatives, the solutions are highly flammable, (neuro) toxic and ethanol possesses the same group 1 carcinogen classification as formaldehyde by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (
  • This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a discussion on chemical fixation, with particular reference to fixatives and the hazards, precautions, and safe handling of reagents, as well as the preparation of buffers and tissue blocks. (
  • Ischaemic time (time until the submerging of tissue in fixative) should be minimised and recorded in relevant cases. (
  • Size of tissue blocks taken should be small enough to allow adequate permeation of fixative (and subsequent processing solutions) through the perforations in cassettes. (
  • Anatomical barriers to fixation must be removed or incised (e.g. fascia, bone, faeces, thick tissue) and large specimens must be sectioned or inflated with fixative (e.g. lung) or opened and cleaned (gastrointestinal tract) to allow penetration. (
  • What Are the Different Types of Spray Fixative? (
  • There are a number of types of spray fixatives, each with different attributes and sometimes designed for a specific purpose. (
  • One commonly used spray fixative in art and design is a workable fixative that allows an artist to secure part of a painting or sketch and then continue working on it without affecting the area that has been treated. (
  • A specially formulated spray fixative can be used to seal inkjet computer prints to paper to increase their longevity and sometimes make them waterproof. (
  • A workable spray fixative is frequently used in art mediums that are granular, fragile or create dust. (
  • Matte spray fixative is used when a painting has been completed and needs to be protected. (
  • Gloss spray fixative functions in much the same way as a matte fixative, except the final finish on the surface is very shiny. (
  • There also are types of spray fixative that can be used to provide special attributes to enhance a painting or protect it further. (
  • If you're really keen to make waterproof paintings, for kitchens or bathrooms, perhaps, you might need to take it a step further than just using a spray fixative and try to get your paintings sealed in resin. (
  • Compared to some of the other things an artist might need to buy, fixative spray is really not that expensive and I think it's worth getting the real thing so that all my work (and money! (
  • If you don't have the funds to buy a special fixative or you just want to preserve something that doesn't have more than sentimental value, you can just use standard, cheap hair spray and it will work almost as well as an expensive can of fixative. (
  • Don't need to pay extra for the W&N fixative spray, this one do the same job. (
  • Schmincke Universal Fixative is an Aerosol spray that can be used as an intermediate or final fixative for charcoal, pencil, pastels, watercolour and gouache. (
  • Spray this fixative at room temperature and move the can from side to side, top to bottom to give the best coverage on your artwork. (
  • This makeup fixative spray is magic. (
  • Daler-Rowney Perfix Colourless Fixative is an aerosol spray that fixes charcoal and pastels. (
  • It couldn't be easier to use: simply hold the can about 30cm away from your work and spray on an even coat of fixative. (
  • EPA commends PLZ Aeroscience Corporation for removing TCE from its arts and crafts spray fixative product," said Jim Jones, assistant administrator for the office of chemical safety and pollution prevention. (
  • The TCE spray fixative product was used by artists, picture framers, graphic designers and printers to provide a water repellant and protective finish. (
  • EPA's June 2014 Work Plan Chemical Risk Assessment for TCE identified health risks associated with several TCE uses, including the arts and craft spray fixative use, aerosol and vapor degreasing, and as a spotting agent in dry cleaning facilities. (
  • In 2015, EPA worked with the only U.S. manufacturer of the TCE spray fixative product, PLZ Aeroscience Corporation of Addison, Illinois, resulting in an agreement to stop production of the TCE containing product and to reformulate the product with an alternate chemical. (
  • If you apply a spray of workable fixative, this will add tooth back on top. (
  • A fixative is a stabilizing or preservative agent: Dye fixatives or mordants, are chemical substances used in processing fabrics to create circumstances in the micro-substrates causing dye molecules to adhere and remain that way. (
  • Compared to conventional aldehydes having an odd number of backbone atoms, the even-numbered dialdehydes are approximately as effective in terms of decontaminant, fixative, preservative and embalming properties, yet they are substantially safer to people, animals, and plants, and the environment. (
  • A multipurpose fixative/preservative stool transport system for direct examination, concentration, and permanent stain from the same specimen. (
  • Leiden University Medical Center and Fix for Life BV have developed two low - hazardous fixatives which require no histopathology protocol adjustments (identical to neutral buffered formalin 10% protocol) and benefit from 10‑ to 15-fold lower concentration of hazardous formaldehyde and better yields and quality of extracted cDNA and RNA. (
  • Sodium silicate, Na 2 SiO 3 , can be used as a fixative for fiber reactive dyes , such as Procion MX or Remazol dyes. (
  • Without Retayne or another cationic dye fixative, all-purpose and direct dyes bleed badly whenever they are washed, often ruining other clothing if the colors are not washed separately, and they tend to fade quickly as a result. (
  • The accuracy of spectrophotometric osmium assay in fixatives with azo dyes has been confirmed with voltammetric investigations. (
  • New synthetic substitutes for natural, animal-derived fixative compounds are introduced to meet sustainability criteria and environmentalist concerns. (
  • Technological advancements have fostered new synthetic substitutes for natural, animal-derived fixative compounds, thereby meeting sustainability criteria and environmentalist concerns. (
  • parfum ) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds , fixatives and solvents , used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent . (
  • The fixative employs compounds that are less toxic, non-flammable, and that stabilize the cell with minimal damage to and alteration of the. (
  • MrsPramm - Hairspray can work as a low-grade fixative for things like pastels but I wouldn't use it if I wanted to do professional work. (
  • Made from a vinyl resin and alcohol base, this totally transparent fixative leaves a clear and glossy film to protect oil pastels against dust and smearing. (
  • In drawing, a fixative is a liquid, similar to varnish, which is usually sprayed over a finished piece of artwork, usually a dry media artwork, to better preserve it and prevent smudging. (
  • The goal of the study was to determine whether consolidated processing and concentration with the Parasep tubes using an alcohol-based fixative (Alcorfix) provide O&P examinations equivalent to or better than those done by processing of PVA-formalin-fixed stool using a SpinCon concentration device. (
  • Synthetic fixatives include substances of low volatility (diphenylmethane,cyclopentadecanolide, ambroxide, benzyl salicylate) and virtually odorless solvents with very low vapor pressures (benzyl benzoate, diethyl phthalate, triethyl citrate). (
  • There has been increased interest in these fixatives or coatings recently due to the growing concern of contamination from a radioactivity dispersal device (RDD also known as a dirty bomb) and because radioactivity fixatives in use today lose the ability to contain the radioactivity to the surface during a fire. (
  • Radioactivity fixatives reduce or eliminate the movement of radionuclides from surfaces thereby lowering the health risk of inhalation or other exposure to radioactive isotopes. (
  • Photographic fixatives are chemicals used to develop photographs. (
  • We have reviewed (in the first 5 articles ) some physical factors and some chemicals, used alone, as fixatives. (
  • SVP Chemicals are leading players of fragrance fixatives market. (
  • The global fragrance fixatives market is projected to reach USD 1.79 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Increasing consumption of aroma chemicals and essential oils has contributed to industry growth, especially in emerging economies with rising income levels. (
  • Global Fragrance Fixative Market size will increase to xx Million US$ by 2025, from xx Million US$ in 2017, at a CAGR of xx% during the forecast period. (
  • In this study, 2017 has been considered as the base year and 2018 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Fragrance Fixative. (
  • This report researches the worldwide Fragrance Fixative market size (value, capacity, production and consumption) in key regions like United States, Europe, Asia Pacific (China, Japan) and other regions. (
  • This report focuses on the top manufacturers' Fragrance Fixative capacity, production, value, price and market share of Fragrance Fixative in global market. (
  • Global Fragrance Fixatives Market was valued US$ 1.52 Bn in 2017 and is estimated to reach US$1.81 Bn by 2026 at a CAGR of 2.2% during the forecast period. (
  • The report covers the total market for fragrance fixatives and the impact of the different market factors, such as drivers, restraints, and opportunities, challenges key issues SWOT analysis, and technology forecasting is also illustrated in the report. (
  • The fragrance fixatives market volume was nearly 5.60 kilo tons in 2015 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 1.9% from 2016 to 2025 Iso E Super was the dominant product and accounted for over 30% of volume share in 2015. (
  • We performed this study to determine whether Giardia could be isolated from the formalin fixative of biopsy samples, and to evaluate the value of fluid analysis in the assessment for potential infection. (
  • Fixatives diluted and/or contaminated by bodily fluids (e.g. bile, blood, faeces) will be reduced in concentration and must be replaced to ensure effectiveness. (
  • A group of dialdehydes is disclosed having an even number of atoms in the shortest backbone chain connecting the two aldehyde groups which are useful as decontaminants, fixatives, preservatives, and embalming agents. (
  • The generally used aldehyde containing fixatives, result in a loss of immunoreactivity. (
  • Formalin is an aldehyde-based fixative that works by cross-linking proteins, which irreversibly damages proteins and nucleic acids ( Srinivasan, Sedmak & Jewell, 2002 ). (
  • We therefore evaluated three alternative fixatives, TissueTek ® Xpress ® Molecular Fixative, modified methacarn, and PAXgene ® , all of which have been proposed as formalin alternatives, to determine their suitability for routine use in a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. (
  • Acetone is also a coagulating fixative, which changes the hydration state of the cellular components. (
  • But, in itself, this specialization is good, and this is why ( as they will be seen by my two readers, whether they followed me and reviewed the formulae as I recommended ), acetic is part of most of the best histological fixatives of general use. (
  • Formalin has stood as the 'gold standard' fixative in pathology labs largely due to its high degree of accuracy, compatibility with downstream histological applications, low cost and ease of use. (
Guidelines for Safe Work Practices in Human and Animal Medical Diagnostic Laboratories
Guidelines for Safe Work Practices in Human and Animal Medical Diagnostic Laboratories (
Perfume - Wikipedia
Perfume - Wikipedia (
Glutaraldehyde - Wikipedia
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RCPA - Fixation (
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Genome Visualization by Classic Methods in Light Microscopy: 1st Edition (Hardback) - Routledge (
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CDC - DPDx - Diagnostic Procedures - Stool Specimens (
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Picric acid (CHEBI:46149) (
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Setacolor - Transparent & Fluorescent Colors (
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Reagents for Histology: Fixing, Dehydrating, Clearing and Staining (
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Insect Histology: Practical Laboratory Techniques | Entomology | Life Sciences | Subjects | Wiley (
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Most Popular Articles : Pathology - Journal of the RCPA (
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