A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The combination of genetic and optical methods in controlling specific events with temporal precision in targeted cells of a functioning intact biological system.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Nucleus in the NEOSTRIATUM of bird brains that sends signals for song production and receives auditory input. In some adult SONGBIRDS, research has shown that the size of this nucleus changes seasonally and that it exhibits neurogenesis.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Networks of nerve cells that control the firing patterns of MOTOR NEURONS to produce rhythmic movements such as MASTICATION; WALKING; SWIMMING; RESPIRATION; and PERISTALSIS.
Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
... "the Federal Circuit can find some way to rein in the unnecessarily expansive language of Mayo." But if the Federal Circuit is ... Chris Holman, Federal Circuit Decides Ariosa, and It's Not Good News for Innovation in the Life Sciences, Holman's Biotech IP ... 2015),[1] was a controversial decision of the Federal Circuit in which the court applied the Mayo v. Prometheus test[2] to ... Ruling of the Federal Circuit[edit]. Panel decision[edit]. A three-judge panel affirmed the judgment of the district court. The ...
Neural circuits and systems[edit]. Main articles: Neural circuit and Systems neuroscience ... Lauwereyns, Jan (February 2010). The Anatomy of Bias: How Neural Circuits Weigh the Options. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT ... At the systems level, the questions addressed in systems neuroscience include how neural circuits are formed and used ... In other words, they address how these neural circuits function and the mechanisms through which behaviors are generated. For ...
High-voltage DC circuit breaker[edit]. HVDC circuit breakers are difficult to build because some mechanism must be included in ... In November 2012, ABB announced development of the world's first ultrafast HVDC circuit breaker.[35][36] Mechanical circuit ... Mercury arc valves require an external circuit to force the current to zero and thus turn off the valve. In HVDC applications, ... This results from requiring the AC circuit to turn off the thyristor current and the need for a short period of 'reverse' ...
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on ... This circuit can accept new operands before finishing the previous ones and produces results as fast as the very complex ALU, ... An ALU is usually implemented either as a stand-alone integrated circuit (IC), such as the 74181, or as part of a more complex ... Modern integrated circuit (IC) transistors are orders of magnitude smaller than those of the early microprocessors, making it ...
"First glimpse of brain circuit that helps experience to shape perception". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2 March 2014.. ... The function of cerebellar circuits is entirely dependent on processes carried out by the granular layer. Therefore, the ...
Independent circuit (2003-2005)[edit]. Anthony Carelli started his career on the Ontario independent circuit as Johnny Geo ...
Distortion and overdrive circuits each 'clip' the signal before it reaches the main amplifier (clean boost circuits do not ... Theory and circuits[edit]. Waveform plot showing the different types of clipping. Valve overdrive is a form of soft limiting, ... but by running the circuit at voltages that are too low for the circuit components, resulting in greater non-linearity and ... Such effects units can use a preamp valve such as the 12AX7 in a power-valve circuit configuration (as in the Stephenson's ...
Equivalent circuit[edit]. See also: Steinmetz equivalent circuit. Referring to the diagram, a practical transformer's physical ... the secondary circuit load impedance can be expressed as eq. 6. *the apparent load impedance referred to the primary circuit is ... Early series circuit transformer distribution[edit]. Induction coils with open magnetic circuits are inefficient at ... Circuit application: Such as power supply, impedance matching, output voltage and current stabilizer or circuit isolation. ...
Integrated circuits[edit]. X-ray diffraction has been demonstrated as a method for investigating the complex structure of ... "X-rays Map the 3D Interior of Integrated Circuits". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. Retrieved 27 ...
A basic electric circuit. The voltage source V on the left drives a current I around the circuit, delivering electrical energy ... Integrated Circuit Engineering Corporation. Smithsonian Institution. 1997. Retrieved 16 October 2019.. *^ "MOS Memory Market ... Integrated Circuit Engineering Corporation. Smithsonian Institution. 1998. Retrieved 16 October 2019.. *^ "The repulsive force ... Basic Concepts of Electricity chapter from Lessons In Electric Circuits Vol 1 DC book and series. ...
The Watkins Glen circuit had similarities to the British Brands Hatch circuit, in that a number of corners were banked and very ... 1971 was the first running on the completed full circuit (the circuit was not completed in time for previous races, so the ... small circuit into a fast and very tough up-and-down circuit where just about every corner was banked and long; uncommonly hard ... with the Manhattan skyline overlooking the circuit.[52] In May 2010, plans emerged for a circuit to be built in Jersey City's ...
Relationship with Federal Circuit Court[edit]. With the establishment of the Federal Magistrates' Court in 1999 (now the ... Together with the Federal Circuit Court of Australia, it covers family law matters in all states and territories of Australia ... only the more complex and intractable family law cases are transferred from the Federal Circuit Court to the Family Court.[2] ... having served as Chief Judge of the Federal Circuit Court of Australia since September 2017 and continuing to hold that ...
Neural circuits and systems[edit]. Main articles: Neural circuit and Systems neuroscience ... Lauwereyns, Jan (February 2010). The Anatomy of Bias: How Neural Circuits Weigh the Options. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT ... Designers focus on such analogies and model brain activity as a neural circuit.[42] Success in computational modeling of ... In other words, they address how these neural circuits function in large-scale brain networks, and the mechanisms through which ...
Road circuits[edit]. Main article: Street circuit. Flatter meandering motorsport courses are sometimes called 'road circuits', ... Maurice, Hamilton (2015). Grand Prix Circuits: History and Course Map For Every Formula One Circuit. London. ISBN 9780008136604 ... Circuit is a common alternate term for race track, given the circuit configuration of most race tracks, allowing races to occur ... originating in the fact that the earliest road racing circuits were simply closed-off public roads. True road circuits are ...
Open circuit scuba[edit]. See also: Mechanism of diving regulators § Malfunctions and failure modes ...
Damage to anterior cingulate circuit[edit]. The anterior cingulate circuit consists of the anterior cingulate cortex, also ... This circuit is essential for the initiation of behavior, motivation and goal orientation, which are the very things missing ... Unilateral injury or injury along any point in the circuit leads to abulia regardless of the side of the injury, but if there ... These tracts are part of a complex system of cortical and subcortical frontal circuits through which the flow of information ...
designing electronic circuits[edit]. How far is designing electronic circuits from writing programs? Couldn't the former be ... SPICE is the best-known circuit simulator for analog design. See also Category:Electronic circuit simulators. Tevildo (talk) 20 ... The circuitry in between was mostly logic circuits. The way I worked on it was by rewriting the logic circuits programming. ... then enable the track display circuit. It took a couple months, but I rewrote the entire mess of over 50 circuit boards as a ...
Circuit Potentiation[edit]. During high frequency stimulation synapses conveying nociceptive information may become hyper ... from other factors suggest that induction of chronic pain can cause anxio-depressive symptoms and that particular circuits in ...
Lamp circuit symbols. In circuit diagrams lamps usually are shown as symbols. There are two main types of symbols, these are: * ... This requires an electrical circuit called an igniter, which is part of the electrical ballast circuitry. After the arc is ... tungsten filament lamps have long been used as fast-acting thermistors in electronic circuits. Popular uses have included: * ...
... feedback circuit that amplifies Shh signaling.[28] In this circuit, expression of Gli transcription factors, the executors of ... Often, some amount of hysteresis is intentionally added to an electronic circuit to prevent unwanted rapid switching. This and ... Hysteresis is essential to the workings of some memristors (circuit components which "remember" changes in the current passing ... A Schmitt trigger is a simple electronic circuit that exhibits this property. ...
Schematic circuit diagram of topographic connections between the optic tectum and the two parts of nucleus isthmii. ... Recent studies employing circuit analysis tools on mouse superior colliculus have revealed several important functions. ... Thus, the tectum-Ipc-Imc circuit causes tectal activity to produce recurrent feedback that involves tightly focused excitation ... that these circuits are controlled by specific locomotor areas in the brainstem and midbrain, and that these areas in turn are ...
Theoretical circuits[edit]. *Repressor/Inducer: an activation of a sensor results in the change of expression of a gene ...
The racing circuit[edit]. The Shorts were on the move during most of what remained of 1890. On April 24, Short was at the Belle ... "Doing the racing circuit" was a large part of Short's career as a sporting man. He and his friend, Jake Johnson, along with ... Following the racing circuit occupied much of Short's time during the late spring and early summer of 1890. The presence of the ... Short and Hattie then followed the racing circuit to Saratoga Springs, New York. A reporter from Albany described Short as "a ...
Brain nonsynaptic glutamatergic signaling circuits[edit]. Extracellular glutamate in Drosophila brains has been found to ...
Race circuit[edit]. The Bridgehampton Race Circuit was a 2.85-mile (4.59 km), thirteen-turn road course located near Sag Harbor ... Bridgehampton Race Circuit Archived February 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. *^ "Hamptons mansion Jay-Z and Beyoncé rented ...
In the 1950s, the power for these circuits was derived directly from the mains supply. A simple circuit consisted of a series ... The free-running oscillation of the horizontal circuit is especially critical, as the horizontal deflection circuits typically ... Timebase circuits[edit]. Further information: Oscilloscope. In an analog receiver with a CRT display sync pulses are fed to ... This type of circuit was used for the thermionic valve (vacuum tube) technology. It was inefficient and produced a lot of heat ...
Use as substrate for semiconducting circuits[edit]. Main article: silicon on sapphire ... now other substrates can also be used for the class of circuits known more generally as silicon on insulator. Besides its ... and the construction of extremely low power circuits. ... 3.1.2 Use as substrate for semiconducting circuits. *3.1.3 Use ... wafers were the first successful use of an insulating substrate upon which to deposit silicon to make the integrated circuits ...
This requires an electrical circuit called an igniter, which is part of the electrical ballast circuitry. After the arc is ... tungsten filament lamps have long been used as fast-acting thermistors in electronic circuits. Popular uses have included: * ...
Circuit laws[edit]. With phasors, the techniques for solving DC circuits can be applied to solve AC circuits. A list of the ... By treating polyphase AC circuit quantities as phasors, balanced circuits can be simplified and unbalanced circuits can be ... When the voltage source in this circuit is sinusoidal: v. S. (. t. ). =. V. P. ⋅. cos. ⁡. (. ω. t. +. θ. ). ,. {\displaystyle v ... In an AC circuit we have real power (P) which is a representation of the average power into the circuit and reactive power (Q) ...
The Exhibition comprised the Upstream Circuit: "The Land", the Dome of Discovery, the Downstream Circuit: "The People", and ... Downstream Circuit: "The People"[edit]. Architect: Hugh Casson Theme: M.Hartland Thomas Display Design: James Gardner ... Upstream Circuit: "The Land"[edit]. Architect: Misha Black Theme: Ian Cox Display Design: James Holland ...
Circuit Training. Circuit training was developed by R.E. Morgan and G.T. Anderson in 1953 at the University of Leeds in England ... Circuit and Interval Training Conclusion. Circuit training and interval training systems are splendid for improving physical ... Benefits of Circuit Training. Numerous investigations have been completed measuring the physiological benefits of circuit ... The Fitness Professionals Complete Guide to Circuits and Intervals. By Len Kravitz, Ph.D The deluge of various interval and ...
A Series circuit means the electricity flows from one terminal (-ive) to the other terminal through all the Components (in this ... The Voltage drop is shared in a series circuit and so the voltage, so the voltages drop from its high point to ground (or zero ... What happens if you disconnect a wire in the series circuit ? What happens if you disconnect a wire in the parallel part of the ... So you should set up both these circuits. Note that the schematic diagrams above do not really look like the actual thing, ...
Scaling Up Digital Circuit Computation with DNA Strand Displacement Cascades. Science 332: 1196-1201 (2011). ...
Series circuit, Parallel circuit. *Series and Parallel Circuits chapter from Lessons In Electric Circuits Vol 1 DC free ebook ... In a series circuit, every device must function for the circuit to be complete. If one bulb burns out in a series circuit, the ... Series-Parallel Combination Circuits chapter from Lessons In Electric Circuits Vol 1 DC free ebook and Lessons In Electric ... Series circuits are sometimes referred to as current-coupled or daisy chain-coupled. The current in a series circuit goes ...
Circuits in Physics. Peter Pasero, a physics and chemistry teacher in Illinois ... When my students do electrical experiments in physics, the wires and electrical components of the circuits slide all over the ... Back to: Tools And Ideas / Advice & Support / Works4Me / C / Circuits in Physics ... place, making it difficult for my students and me to compare the circuits the students assemble with the really neat-looking ...
Chuas circuit (also known as a Chua circuit) is a simple electronic circuit that exhibits classic chaotic behavior. This means ... Analyzing the circuit using Kirchhoffs circuit laws, the dynamics of Chuas circuit can be accurately modeled by means of a ... Chuas circuit. The component NR is a nonlinear negative resistance called a Chuas diode. It is usually made of a circuit ... Chuas circuit is the simplest electronic circuit meeting these criteria.[3] As shown in the top figure, the energy storage ...
Edc(electronics devices and circuits) * 1. ELECTRONICS Electronics is that branch of science and technology which makes use of ... and integrated circuits; they are the active sites where the electronic action of the device takes place. For example, a common ...
Plànol del Circuit de Vilafranca del Penedès en la cursa de 1921.jpg 1,081 × 690; 193 KB. ... Media in category "Racing circuits". The following 29 files are in this category, out of 29 total. ... circuito de carreras (es); автодром (ky); lasterketa zirkuitu (eu); circuitu de carreres (ast); circuit (ca); Motorsport- ... circuit de course (fr); Autòdrom (ca); Rennbahn, Rennkurs (de); autodromo (pt); 賽車跑道, 公路賽道, 賽車賽道 (zh); racerbane (da); サーキットコース ...
One promising approach to such devices - potentially simpler than those based on complex silicon circuits - combines ... Tiny circuit elements called memristors have been used as connections in an artificial neural network - enabling the system to ... Tiny circuit elements called memristors have been used as connections in an artificial neural network - enabling the system to ... Prezioso and co-workers result is a proof-of-concept for hybrid CMOS-memristor neuromorphic circuits. If this design can be ...
"It is truly a shift in the way we view circuits and their ability to operate independently. They can now both diagnose and fix ... It felt like we were witnessing the next step in the evolution of integrated circuits," says Ali Hajimiri, the Thomas G. Myers ... The Caltech engineers wanted to give integrated-circuit chips a healing ability akin to that of our own immune system-something ... The team, made up of members of the High-Speed Integrated Circuits laboratory in Caltechs Division of Engineering and Applied ...
Circuits for the Hobbyist For your electronics hobby entertainment; ENJOY! It is assumed that you have AT LEAST the equivalent ... Dutch language only Bowdens Hobby Circuits - Collection of circuits, for everyone. Circuit Exchange International - Andys ... Back to Circuits page Copyright © Tony van Roon * 39. Simplest R/C Circuit by Tony van Roon A simple and effective receiver for ... Back to Circuits page * 69. Electronic Dazer By Rick Duker & Tony van Roon (circuit diagrams) Never walk in fear with this one- ...
Mitre M., Minder J., Morina E.X., Chao M.V., Froemke R.C. (2017) Oxytocin Modulation of Neural Circuits. In: Hurlemann R., ...
Working Electronic Circuits 3D-Printed With UV Light November 15, 2017 at 7:30 am The circuits are based on a conductive ... MIT creates carbon nanotube pencil, doodles some electronic circuits October 9, 2012 at 7:37 am A team of MIT chemists have ... High-quality inkjet-printed graphene circuits: One step closer to foldable computers May 21, 2013 at 7:20 am Researchers at ... First inkjet-printed graphene computer circuit is transparent, flexible November 24, 2011 at 10:11 am You can add another crazy ...
Discover how to build basic circuits using resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Learn how each component works, how they ... and follow along to assemble a circuit with those parts, but if you want to design your own circuits or debug problems in an ... Ill show you how to build filter circuits, so you can modify electrical signals by selectively removing certain parts that ... To build any electronic circuit, youll need some combination of three basic components, resistors, capacitors, and inductors. ...
Scientists have identified the brain circuits that play a key role in helping us pay attention, a finding that may help explain ... LONDON, July 16 (Reuters) - Scientists have identified the brain circuits that play a key role in helping us pay attention, a ...
Far Circuits provides circuit boards for many ham radio projects.. Express PCB can provide inexpensive circuit boards if you ... Printed Circuit Boards. Printed Circuit Board Software. Abacom sells low cost software for designing and printing PCB layouts. ... "Build a Custom Circuit Board" IEEE article on using software provided by a PCB supplier ...
Much is known about the role of entire brain areas in such processes, but what happens at the level of neuronal circuits is ... Blame it on the specific neural circuits hardwired in the brain that control fear recognition, and fear renewal even when fear ... Figure 1: Neural circuits that mediate fear.. a, During fear conditioning, convergence of inputs from the conditioned stimulus ... Two papers in this issue, by Herry et al.2 (page 600) and Likhtik et al.3 (page 642), pinpoint the neural circuits that mediate ...
... Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Apr;23(2):275-82. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Dec 5. ... how this modulation can be afforded by the engagement of antagonistic motivational systems or by cognitive control circuits, ...
The second circuit is for supplying configuration data sets to the first logic circuit. The second circuit has a first set of ... The IC includes first and second circuits. The first circuit is a logic circuit for receiving configuration data sets and ... The second circuit communicatively couples to the first logic circuit. ... The integrated circuit also has a second set of input terminals for carrying data. Several the second set of input terminals ...
"It created its own set of circuits," Eidelberg explained. "The disease circuitry continues -- so this is not a cure." ...
Olfactory maps, circuits and computations.. Giessel AJ1, Datta SR2.. Author information. 1. Harvard Medical School, Department ... We argue that in contrast to brain circuits for other sensory modalities, both the piriform and the olfactory tubercle largely ...
is assumed to be hidden to the circuit of interest, that circuit might have access to indirect readouts of Z. (. t. ). . For ... Generalized filtering circuits. (A) Schematic illustration. The signal of interest Z. i. (. t. ). relates to a sensed signal Z ... Finally, we tested the function of our circuit as an estimator of Z. (. t. ). . We generated a random trajectory Z. 2. (. t. ) ... Ensemble filtering circuit in E. coli. (A) Schematic diagram. Transcription of mRNA M. (. t. ). is activated by an inducible ...
Long term, he says, "If we understand where the brain circuits are that are important and how they are involved in regulating ... Altered Brain Circuits When Depressed. By Rick Nauert PhD. ~ 3 min read ... Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison used brain imaging to look at the neural circuits involved in emotional ... Identifying the involvement of emotional brain circuits may also help focus the development of new treatment strategies for ...
Cable short circuits. Stuart Cable breaks his silence to tell all about what felt to him like the worst betrayal when he was ...
For example, the MCNC benchmark set [11] includes more than 70 combinatorial circuits (and also other types of circuits). Those ... controlled fan-in and automated initial-circuit production, were made over the random generator of benchmark circuits ... However, it is an unforgettable fact that only a finite number of particular circuits are involved. Natural concern is it... ... increasing the naturality of random circuits by controlling their attributes, and obtaining test results by which the ...
The Communications, Circuits, and Sensing-Systems (CCSS) Program supports innovative research in circuit and system hardware ... Communications, Circuits, and Sensing-Systems (CCSS) CONTACTS Name. Email. Phone. Room. Mohammod Ali [email protected] (703) 292- ... sensing circuits and systems. The goal is to create new complex and hybrid systems ranging from nano- to macro-scale with ...
Printed Circuit Board Background A printed circuit [1] board, or PCB, is a self-contained module of interconnected electronic ... Two other types of circuit assemblies are related to the printed circuit board. An integrated circuit, sometimes called an IC ... printed circuit, electric circuit in which the conducting paths connecting circuit components are affixed to a flat, insulating ... An etched circuit is a subtractive method in which a metallic foil is bonded to the base, the circuit pattern drawn on the foil ...
... is a microscopic array of electronic circuits and components that has been diffused or implanted onto the surface of a single ... Integrated Circuit Background An integrated circuit [1], commonly referred to as an IC, ... Integrated circuit. An integrated circuit is a single, miniature circuit with many electronically connected components etched ... Circuit: The complete closed path through which an electric current travels.. Electric circuit: The closed path through which ...
A method for packaging integrated circuit chips (die) is described that includes providing a base substrate with package level ... For example, circuit module 2000 is a printed circuit board having land patterns on which solder paste is applied, e.g., by ... Method for packaging circuits and packaged circuits. US7820484. May 13, 2008. Oct 26, 2010. Micron Technology, Inc. Wafer level ... shows an embodiment of an electronic system 2200 containing one or more circuit modules 2000. At least one of the circuit ...
MIT has just found an approach that uses the subtlety of the natural world to its advantage: the circuits themselves are analog ... The approach offers a much wider range of results than a binary circuit (10,000 versus 2), and it exploits the cell enzymes ... MIT has just found an approach that uses the subtlety of the natural world to its advantage: the circuits themselves are analog ... The approach offers a much wider range of results than a binary circuit (10,000 versus 2), and it exploits the cell enzymes& ...
  • Blame it on the specific neural circuits hardwired in the brain that control fear recognition, and fear renewal even when fear has seemingly been overcome. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Neural circuits that mediate fear. (nature.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison used brain imaging to look at the neural circuits involved in emotional control in patients with depression and found that brains of people with clinical depression react very differently than those of healthy people when trying to cope with negative situations. (psychcentral.com)
  • This finding suggests that healthy people are able to effectively regulate their negative emotions through conscious effort, but that the necessary neural circuits are dysfunctional in many patients with depression, the researchers say. (psychcentral.com)
  • Histamine: neural circuits and new medications. (nih.gov)
  • A study that combined electrical stimulation of the brain with advanced imaging has shown how correcting misfiring neural circuits can lessen the symptoms of a common psychiatric disorder. (technologyreview.com)
  • A dynamic route approach for analyzing the local dynamics of this class of neural circuits is used to steer the system trajectories into various stable equilibrium c. (ieee.org)
  • analyze the sinusoidal steady-state behavior of single- and three-phase ac circuits using phasors, and study the effect of resistive, inductive, and capacitive loads in single-phase ac circuits. (informit.com)
  • This VI provides a highly flexible virtual instrument to study the complex power definitions and the power factor correction concept in single-phase ac circuits. (informit.com)
  • Although there can be many combinations of settings in the VI, the following studies are sufficient to understand the power factor correction in single-phase ac circuits. (informit.com)
  • WESTFORD, Mass. , Feb. 4, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- SLAS2018 - Performance Motion Devices today announced Juno® Velocity and Torque Control Integrated Circuits (ICs), the industry's first family of compact ICs for velocity and torque control capable of four-quadrant current control. (prnewswire.com)
  • This research had a threefold purpose: (1) to determine the range of typical values for power system characteristics that affect short circuits and motor starts on high-voltage longwalls, (2) to identify how motor-start waveforms differ from those for short circuits, and (3) to devise a method to provide short-circuit protection without intentional time delays to account for motor starts. (cdc.gov)
  • An attribute of motor-start signatures that distinguished them from short circuits was the relatively large phase angle between voltage and current. (cdc.gov)
  • Synthetic neuromorphic circuits use the same massively parallel architecture in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, which underpins much of the circuitry in conventional computers. (nature.com)
  • But communication between emulated neurons is a crucial factor, and so most of the chip area and power usage of neuromorphic hardware are inefficiently consumed by CMOS circuits that act as artificial synapses. (nature.com)
  • He is the author of the books Low-Voltage High-Resolution A/D Converters: Design,Test and Calibration (Springer, 2011, Chinese translation, China Machine Press, 2015), and Stochastic Process Variations in Deep-Submicron CMOS: Circuits and Algorithms (Springer, 2014). (springer.com)
  • The circuits are based on a conductive metallic ink along with an insulating polymeric ink printed in a single process. (extremetech.com)
  • In the 1943, Paul Eisler of the United Kingdom patented a method of etching the conductive pattern, or circuits, on a layer of copper foil bonded to a glass-reinforced, non-conductive base. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We are particularly interested in instant inkjet printing - this is a way of quickly and cheaply printing conductive circuits onto photo-paper using a domestic inkjet printer. (microsoft.com)
  • The circuit diagram shows one common implementation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A circuit diagram also known as an electrical diagram , wiring diagram , elementary diagram , or electronic schematic is a simplified conventional pictorial representation of an electrical circuit. (wikimedia.org)
  • This reminded me of when I was at school and I purchased an ITT Radio , it came with a circuit diagram, not something you would get nowadays. (soundonsound.com)
  • Are you given a circuit diagram for the problem? (physicsforums.com)
  • 3M Flexible Circuit Foundry business is one of the largest of its kind in the world. (3m.com)
  • Parallel Circuits provide different routes for the electricity to flow from one side to the other. (google.com)
  • In parallel circuits, each light bulb has its own circuit, so all but one light could be burned out, and the last one will still function. (wikipedia.org)
  • A computer-assisted proof of chaotic behavior (more precisely, of positive topological entropy ) in Chua's circuit was published in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • As is the case with many technical projects, it's possible to assemble an electronic circuit without really understanding the different parts involved-you can just connect components together to match an electronic schematic. (lynda.com)
  • It's easy to look at an electronic schematic and follow along to assemble a circuit with those parts, but if you want to design your own circuits or debug problems in an existing one, you need to understand what each of those components can actually do. (lynda.com)
  • FIG. 9A is a schematic cross sectional view of a conventional complete shielded magnetic circuit 101 , and FIG. 9B is an explanatory view of the right side of the magnetic circuit of FIG. 9A, showing magnetic fluxes flowing therein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This synaptic plasticity results in the conditioned stimulus evoking an increased response in basolateral-amygdala neurons that project to fear-output circuits in the central nucleus. (nature.com)
  • Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel have developed a way to build computational circuits using cultured neurons. (wired.com)
  • A small dose of a drug stimulates the neurons, which send the signals that complete the circuit. (wired.com)
  • The team created a technique called MultiMAP (Multiplexed-alignment of Molecular and Activity Phenotypes) to track and identify the neurons and circuits activated during a particular brain state. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of specific circuits using optogenetics, which uses light to activate or inhibit specific neurons, made the mice more alert or reduced their reaction times. (nih.gov)
  • Analyzing the circuit using Kirchhoff's circuit laws , the dynamics of Chua's circuit can be accurately modeled by means of a system of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations in the variables x ( t ), y ( t ), and z ( t ), which represent the voltages across the capacitors C1 and C2 and the electric current in the inductor L1 respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] A self-excited chaotic attractor , known as " the double scroll " because of its shape in the ( x , y , z ) space, was first observed in a circuit containing a nonlinear element such that f ( x ) was a 3-segment piecewise-linear function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, Chua' s circuit can be easily realized by using a multilayer CNN (cellular nonlinear network). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonlinear electric devices are important and essential for setting circuits so that chaotic outputs or periodical series can be generated. (springer.com)
  • Like neural networks, they are large-scale nonlinear analog circuits that process signals in real time. (ieee.org)
  • Researchers at PARC and Thinfilm Electronics have finally managed to print - as in, using a printer that is similar to the one attached to your computer - a computer circuit consisting of transistors and memory. (extremetech.com)
  • Researchers at the University of California Berkeley (UCB) and the City College of New York (CCNY) have developed a way of controlling the spin of a nucleus that could one day allow us to make rewritable spintronics circuits with light. (zdnet.com)
  • By controlling the connections and activity of neural cultures developed on a glass plate, the researchers created AND gates and diodes that could become the building blocks of brain-cell circuits. (wired.com)
  • In creating the neuronal circuit, the researchers have managed to achieve nearly 95% reliability, compared to 40% reliability that a single neuron offers. (wired.com)
  • A brain-pacemaker helped put out-of-sync brain circuits back on track in patients with extreme forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), reported researchers in yesterday's Nature Neuroscience . (technologyreview.com)
  • Researchers are expanding the applicability of biological circuits. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers discovered brain circuits that regulate alertness in fish and mice. (nih.gov)
  • The findings might help researchers better understand the brain circuits involved in mental health conditions associated with alertness, such as anxiety and mania. (nih.gov)
  • Recent work shows how this modulation can be afforded by the engagement of antagonistic motivational systems or by cognitive control circuits, and these modulatory systems can also be employed in efforts to regulate one's empathic responses. (nih.gov)
  • His research interests include power-efficient mixed-signal circuit and system design for health and mobile applications, and neuromorphic electronic circuits for autonomous cognitive systems. (springer.com)
  • Snap Circuits is a line of electronic kits manufactured by Elenco Electronics and aimed at children eight years and older. (wikipedia.org)
  • Snap Circuits has been praised for exposing young children to elementary engineering concepts. (wikipedia.org)
  • A line entitled Snap Circuits Jr., geared towards younger children also exists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Snap Circuits® (by Elenco®) does it again, this time with light, although the (182) projects also feature the interplay of light with sound. (sciplus.com)
  • Check out our incredible full line of snap circuits here . (sciplus.com)
  • Section 3.2 describes the topological analysis of five basic ac electric circuits containing impedances and ac supplies. (informit.com)
  • Automated Identification of the Operational Modes of Switched Electric Circuits," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-3650, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-3650 . (sae.org)
  • Some embodiments of the invention provide a configurable integrated circuit (IC). (google.com)
  • This invention generally relates to saturation detection circuits, in embodiments for substantially lossless detection of saturation of power switches in power integrated circuits. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in series, parallel, or series-parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chua's circuit (also known as a Chua circuit ) is a simple electronic circuit that exhibits classic chaotic behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chua's circuit is the simplest electronic circuit meeting these criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Good selection of excellent circuits Electronic Tutorials - Collection of electronics tutorials. (slideshare.net)
  • A team of MIT chemists have created a carbon nanotube "lead" that can be used to draw freehand electronic circuits using a standard, mechanical pencil. (extremetech.com)
  • To build any electronic circuit, you'll need some combination of three basic components, resistors, capacitors, and inductors. (lynda.com)
  • A printed circuit board, or PCB, is a self-contained module of interconnected electronic components found in devices ranging from common beepers, or pagers, and radios to sophisticated radar and computer systems. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Individual electronic components are placed on the surface of the substrate and soldered to the interconnecting circuits. (encyclopedia.com)
  • With the advent of transistors, however, the components became very small, and manufacturers turned to printed circuit boards to reduce the overall size of the electronic package. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An integrated circuit , commonly referred to as an IC, is a microscopic array of electronic circuits and components that has been diffused or implanted onto the surface of a single crystal, or chip, of semiconducting material such as silicon. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Integrated circuit microcomputers are so inexpensive they are even found in children's electronic toys. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At the time, transistors and printed circuit boards were the state-of-the-art electronic technology. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although transistors made many new electronic applications possible, engineers were still unable to make a small enough package for the large number of components and circuits required in complex devices like sophisticated control systems and handheld programmable calculators. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In an integrated circuit, electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, and transistors are formed directly onto the surface of a silicon crystal. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Electronic circuitry was designed to detect phase angles and react to momentarily disable circuit breaker action for motor starts. (cdc.gov)
  • Circuit stickers are a new way to build electronic prototypes very quickly. (microsoft.com)
  • DiscoverCircuits.com , has 45,000+ electronic circuits, cross-referenced into 500+ categories. (discovercircuits.com)
  • Furthermore, we applied this approach for the integration of 14 discrete NWs into an electronic circuit operating as a three-bit address decoder. (pnas.org)
  • These results demonstrate the feasibility of massively parallel "self-integration" of NWs into electronic circuits and functional systems based on guided growth. (pnas.org)
  • Presenting a comprehensive overview of the design automation algorithms, tools, and methodologies used to design integrated circuits, the Electronic Design Automation for Integrated Circuits Handbook is available in two volumes. (routledge.com)
  • Circuit Bending - Modify a Casio keyboard (or other electronic audio stuff) and start playing some of the strangest sounds you've ever heard. (makezine.com)
  • When my students do electrical experiments in physics, the wires and electrical components of the circuits slide all over the place, making it difficult for my students and me to compare the circuits the students assemble with the really neat-looking diagrams in the manual or on the board. (nea.org)
  • With through hole technology, each component has thin wires, or leads, which are pushed through small holes in the substrate and soldered to connection pads in the circuits on the opposite side. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The kits contain a plastic baseboard into which the various components and wires can be snapped to easily create a working circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCSS invests in micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), physical, chemical, and biological sensing systems, neurotechnologies, and communication & sensing circuits and systems. (nsf.gov)
  • The information from those sensors feeds into a custom-made application-specific integrated-circuit (ASIC) unit on the same chip, a central processor that acts as the "brain" of the system. (caltech.edu)
  • LONDON, July 16 (Reuters) - Scientists have identified the brain circuits that play a key role in helping us pay attention, a finding that may help explain why things go wrong in diseases such as Alzheimer's and attention deficit disorders. (reuters.com)
  • We argue that in contrast to brain circuits for other sensory modalities, both the piriform and the olfactory tubercle largely discard any topography present in the bulb and instead use distributive afferent connectivity, local learning rules and input from neuromodulatory centers to build behaviorally relevant representations of olfactory stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • Though the research is a yet another step in the world of neural networks, it could potentially help develop brain-cell logic circuits that serve as 'intermediaries between computers and the nervous system,' say experts. (wired.com)
  • The growth of these brain circuits predicted the IQ and emotional control of the children at four years old, suggesting new avenues for early detection and intervention for children who are at risk for emotional problems. (elsevier.com)
  • Through the lens of functional MRI, this study shows that the brain circuits that are essential for successful emotional regulation in adults are absent in neonates but emerge in one and two-year-olds, providing the foundation for successful emotional development," said co-senior author Wei Gao, PhD. Connections unique to the newborns disappeared as the adult-like connections emerged. (elsevier.com)
  • First, mental disorders appear to be disorders of brain circuits, in contrast to classical neurological disorders in which focal lesions are apparent. (nih.gov)
  • And studies with deep brain stimulation addressing depression as a "brain arrhythmia" are demonstrating how changing the activity of specific circuits leads to remission of otherwise treatment refractory depressive episodes. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, the metaphor of a circuit in the sense of flow of electricity may be woefully inadequate for describing how mental activity emerges from neuronal activity in the brain. (nih.gov)
  • For a while, the scientific community speculated that this resynchronization of a whole brain circuit should underlie the therapeutic effects, but we could never prove it," he says. (technologyreview.com)
  • Using brain imaging to track the effects of treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), scientists have identified a brain circuit on which a frequently used and effective psychotherapy (prolonged exposure) acts to quell symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • The findings help explain why the neural circuit identified is a promising target for additional treatment development, including brain stimulation therapies. (nih.gov)
  • Imaging also revealed an increase in connectivity between the frontopolar cortex and two other brain regions, providing a fuller picture of a brain circuit that exposure therapy acts on. (nih.gov)
  • The team probed whether PTSD treatment changed patterns of activity in this brain circuit at rest by acquiring fMRI scans of subjects while they let their minds wander. (nih.gov)
  • They also managed to work out the proportions of different cell types in this circuit, which may give clues into the function of this part of the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • This article will describe the benefits of these training systems as well as define the fundamentals with which you need to design competent interval and circuit training programs. (unm.edu)
  • This number may vary according to the design of the program (See Table 2 for an example circuit format). (unm.edu)
  • That said, in order to debug an existing circuit-or design your own-you have to actually understand how the individual electrical components work and how to use them together. (lynda.com)
  • And as I show you common circuits that use those components, I'll explain why they're used, so you can recognize when to use the resistor or a capacitor or an inductor in your own design. (lynda.com)
  • Here we show how such inference can be implemented as biochemical modules and illustrate how this can guide the design of adaptive synthetic circuits. (pnas.org)
  • Those circuits are carefully selected with a wide variety and appear to have been accepted in the logic-design community. (psu.edu)
  • This book provides a complete overview of significant design challenges in respect to circuit miniaturization and power reduction of the neural recording system, along with circuit topologies, architecture trends, and (post-silicon) circuit optimization algorithms. (springer.com)
  • He serves as a member of Technical Program Committee of IEEE Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, IEEE International Symposium on VLSI, IEEE International Symposium on Nanoelectronic and Information Systems, and IEEE International Conference on Embedded Computer Systems. (springer.com)
  • We also study design principels of circuits made of interacting cells [ Hart 2012 ]. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Therefore, the design, operation, maintenance, and management of such systems very much depend on a good understanding of ac circuit theory. (informit.com)
  • The Integrated Circuits and Systems Group (ICSG) is one of the most active circuit design groups in the country with a young and creative faculty who are world leaders in their respective fields. (utexas.edu)
  • RD68HC908IRC : MC68HC908QT2 Based Simple Circuit Infrared Remote Control Reference Design - Motorola has developed a simple, single dedicated device, infrared remote control designed to control a DVD player. (discovercircuits.com)
  • The nodal method has been widely used for formulating circuit equations in computer-aided network analysis and design programs. (ieee.org)
  • We help you develop your FPC designs into fine pitch flexible circuits using our services, including circuit design and SMS assembly. (3m.com)
  • It felt like we were witnessing the next step in the evolution of integrated circuits," says Ali Hajimiri, the Thomas G. Myers Professor of Electrical Engineering at Caltech. (caltech.edu)
  • Electrical connections between the circuits on each side are made by drilling holes through the substrate in appropriate locations and plating the inside of the holes with a conducting material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Printed circuit boards evolved from electrical connection systems that were developed in the 1850s. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By minimizing intentional time delays in short-circuit protection, this technology will help ensure that surface temperatures of energized electrical apparatus will not exceed gas or dust ignition thresholds when such faults occur. (cdc.gov)
  • The responsibility for the installation and maintenance of safe and reliable electrical circuit protection equipment is moving away from local utilities and falling to the site or building owner. (ul.com)
  • Field of the Invention This invention relates to electrical protectors for communication circuits and the like, and more particularly to an improved housing for such protectors. (google.ca)
  • 2. Description of the Prior Art Electrical circuit protectors are often installed in environments such as coastal areas which can cause corrosion and rapid deterioration of protectors and associated wire connections exposed thereto. (google.ca)
  • After the invention of the IC in 1959, the number of components and circuits that could be incorporated into a single chip doubled every year for several years. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The present invention relates to a pneumatic circuit, and particularly to a pneumatic circuit for use in the operation of an at least partially air-powered tool. (google.co.uk)
  • More particularly, the present invention relates to a pneumatic circuit useful in the pneumatic operation of a medical device. (google.co.uk)
  • The present invention relates to a magnetic circuit incorporable in a speaker. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These miniature circuits have demonstrated low cost, high reliability, low power requirements, and high processing speeds compared to the vacuum tubes and transistors which preceded them. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ability to assemble discrete nanowires (NWs) with nanoscale precision on a substrate is the key to their integration into circuits and other functional systems. (pnas.org)
  • Chaotic circuits can be mapped into dimensionless dynamical systems by using scale transformation, and thus, synchronization control can be further investigated in numerical way. (springer.com)
  • We study how the structure of naturally occurring biological circuits - the precise way that their components are wired together - provides them with special dynamical features. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We have an efficient, high-volume, roll-to-roll manufacturing process and material sets that fit the performance requirements for flexible circuits in inkjet printer applications. (3m.com)
  • Go from switching circuits to integrated circuits, and from simple alarms to programmable microcontrollers. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • A team led by ETH Professor Yaakov Benenson has developed several new components for biological circuits. (innovations-report.com)
  • This new biological platform will significantly increase the number of applications for biological circuits. (innovations-report.com)
  • The classical implementation of Chua circuit is switched on at the zero initial data, thus a conjecture was that the chaotic behavior is possible only in the case of unstable zero equilibrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • To recover the robust behavior, synthetic circuits need a means to make inference about their dynamic environment, which in turn can be used to effectively counteract it. (pnas.org)
  • Above all, engineered circuits often exhibit a substantial mismatch between in silico predictions and in vivo behavior ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The analysis of ac circuits involves the study of the behavior of the system under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. (informit.com)
  • An autonomous circuit made from standard components ( resistors , capacitors , inductors ) must satisfy three criteria before it can display chaotic behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory Circuit Simulator is transient simulator whiht analog and digital components support for laboratory classes. (sourceforge.net)
  • Cells act like tiny computers, and finally, scientists are figuring out what makes their genetic circuits blink on and off. (wired.com)
  • The term circuit refers to a number of carefully selected exercises arranged consecutively. (unm.edu)
  • In case of synchronization approach, resistor is often used to bridge two chaotic circuits and gap junction connection is used to realize possible synchronization. (springer.com)
  • In this paper, two chaotic circuits are connected by using voltage coupling (via resistor) and triggering mutual induction electromotive force, which time-varying magnetic field is generated in the inductance coils. (springer.com)
  • The three basic passive circuit elements, the resistor (R), the inductor (L), and the capacitor (C), are considered in this chapter. (informit.com)
  • Barron demonstrates how to build basic circuits using resistors, capacitors, and inductors. (lynda.com)
  • In this course, I'll show you how to build basic circuits using resistors, capacitors, and inductors. (lynda.com)
  • We evaluate safety critical circuit protection equipment - fuses, circuit breakers, protectors, ground/arc fault circuit interrupters, surge protective devices, EMI appliance and facility filters, and capacitors - designed to prevent dangerous and unwanted power fluctuations that are harmful to person and property. (ul.com)
  • The Multimeter is the modern way of measuring quantities about electricity around the circuit. (google.com)
  • In a series circuit, the current that flows through each of the components is the same, and the voltage across the circuit is the sum of the individual voltage drops across each component. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each of the components is the same, and the total current is the sum of the currents flowing through each component. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a series circuit, the voltage is the sum of the voltage drops of the individual components (resistance units). (wikipedia.org)
  • The parameters α and β are determined by the particular values of the circuit components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, he demonstrates building passive filter circuits to remove unwanted frequency components from those signals. (lynda.com)
  • The components on the surface connect through plated holes drilled down to the appropriate circuit layer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Components on a printed circuit board are electrically connected to the circuits by two different methods: the older "through hole technology" and the newer "surface mount technology. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An integrated circuit , sometimes called an IC or microchip, performs similar functions to a printed circuit board except the IC contains many more circuits and components that are electrochemically "grown" in place on the surface of a very small chip of silicon. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A hybrid circuit, as the name implies, looks like a printed circuit board, but contains some components that are grown onto the surface of the substrate rather than being placed on the surface and soldered. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is called an integrated circuit because the components, circuits, and base material are all made together, or integrated, out of a single piece of silicon, as opposed to a discrete circuit in which the components are made separately from different materials and assembled later. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The first integrated circuits contained only up to a dozen components. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The process of manufacturing an integrated circuit will make more sense if one first understands some of the basics of how these components are formed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This boundary is only 0.000004 inches (0.0001 cm) wide, but is crucial to the operation of integrated circuit components. (encyclopedia.com)
  • With our proven expertise in safety science and engineering, we are the leading standards development organization for power distribution and industrial automation areas - both end product and the components which protect the circuits. (ul.com)
  • It shows the components of the circuit as simplified standard symbols, and the power and signal connections between the devices. (wikimedia.org)
  • A pneumatic circuit and other components are provided for the operation of a medical device. (google.co.uk)
  • Sometimes, they also send an output signal if no input signal is present, and the problem becomes worse when several such components are connected consecutively in a circuit. (innovations-report.com)
  • In electronics, the different components that make up a circuit are always connected in the same way: with a wire through which the current either flows or not," explains Benenson. (innovations-report.com)
  • For ages 8 and way up, it has over (55) parts and yes, they will play well with other Snap Circuit® components. (sciplus.com)
  • If there is a battery in the circuit and all three components form a series circuit, then it likely that the capacitor is meant to start out uncharged (0 V), and charges up over time. (physicsforums.com)
  • 3. A magnetic circuit according to claim 2, further comprising a spacer which is disposed at an inner circumference of the yoke cover to position the bottom yoke with respect to the yoke cover, and which is located at the rear of the main magnet. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The team, made up of members of the High-Speed Integrated Circuits laboratory in Caltech's Division of Engineering and Applied Science, has demonstrated this self-healing capability in tiny power amplifiers. (caltech.edu)
  • Safety is a primary concern when working with high power circuits or con/inverters. (slideshare.net)
  • We describe a saturation detection circuit for detecting saturation of a power semiconductor device, the circuit including a said power semiconductor device having an input terminal and an output terminal, a second semiconductor device connected across said input and output terminals of said power semiconductor device, and a circuit responsive to a current flowing through said second semiconductor device to detect said saturation of said power semiconductor device. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. A saturation detection circuit as claimed in claim 1 further comprising a control circuit to control switching on and off of said power semiconductor device and of said second semiconductor device, and to control said second semiconductor device to switch off before said power semiconductor device. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 11. A power integrated circuit including the saturation detection circuit of claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 12. A semiconductor-on-insulator power integrated circuit comprising a pair of high-voltage semiconductor devices, a first power device and a second device connected across said first device for detecting saturation of said first device. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Pittsburgh Research Center (PRC)4 investigated how the starting of induction motors may cause nuisance tripping of short-circuit protection on coal mine power systems. (cdc.gov)
  • Distribution voltage, transformer impedance, power center location, and motor size were found to critically influence the magnitude of short-circuit and motor-start currents on high-voltage longwalls. (cdc.gov)
  • Evaluating safety-critical circuit protection equipment to help prevent dangerous and unwanted power fluctuations that are harmful to person and property. (ul.com)
  • Investment in new circuit protection infrastructure continues to rise and is driven by both the need to replace aging equipment and the rise in DC power capabilities. (ul.com)
  • The circuit overturned the administration's regulation clamping down on power plant pollution that crosses state lines, rejected its attempt to require large graphic health warnings on cigarette packages and found that Obama exceeded his power in bypassing the Senate to make recess appointments. (yahoo.com)
  • There is no extra power source needed to power up the circuit, as it draws power from the telephone line itself. (discovercircuits.com)
  • The introduced novel circuits for signal conditioning, quantization, and classification, as well as system configurations focus on optimized power-per-area performance, from the spatial resolution (i.e. number of channels), feasible wireless data bandwidth and information quality to the delivered power of implantable system. (springer.com)
  • Section 3.3 is concerned with a description and visual demonstration of the powers in ac circuits and is followed by a discussion of power factor correction in Section 3.4. (informit.com)
  • and phase/line voltage and current, phase angle, power factor, complex impedance, phasor and base (per-unit) values in ac circuits. (informit.com)
  • As an example ( Fig. 3-13 ), if the existing powers and the power factor of a single-phase ac circuit are P = 1200 W, Q = 1600 VAR , S = 2000 VA , and PF = cos θ = 0.6 lagging, and if we wish to correct the power factor to 0.9 lagging, a capacitor must be added across the load. (informit.com)
  • Opto Circuits Limited was established in 1991 in Bangalore. (wikipedia.org)
  • likewise, one connected completely in parallel is known as a parallel circuit . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Communications, Circuits, and Sensing-Systems (CCSS) Program supports innovative research in circuit and system hardware and signal processing techniques. (nsf.gov)
  • Integrated circuit microcomputers are now used as controllers in equipment such as machine tools, vehicle operating systems, and other applications where hydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanical controls were previously used. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The first integrated circuits were created in the late 1950s in response to a demand from the military for miniaturized electronics to be used in missile control systems . (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 2000, he joined Philips Research Laboratories as a member of the research staff in the Mixed-Signal Circuits and Systems Group. (springer.com)
  • In 2009, he joined Delft University of Technology as a faculty member in Circuits and Systems group. (springer.com)
  • An incorrectly pre-assembled breathing circuit can be detected because it will not be a single cohesive hose system but two separate sub-systems. (fda.gov)
  • Prof Akinwande is being recognized for "contributions to the physical study and development of scalable uniform monolayer graphene synthesis on wafer scale substrates, and the realization of gigahertz flexible and wearable two-dimensional devices, circuits and systems. (utexas.edu)
  • The Caltech engineers wanted to give integrated-circuit chips a healing ability akin to that of our own immune system-something capable of detecting and quickly responding to any number of possible assaults in order to keep the larger system working optimally. (caltech.edu)
  • Bio-engineers are working on the development of biological computers with the aim of designing small circuits made from biological material that can be integrated into cells to change their functions. (innovations-report.com)
  • In contrast, this is not the case for most synthetic circuits in living cells, which are usually designed and tuned in silico under specific assumptions that do not hold in the real environment of the cell. (pnas.org)
  • Additionally, it is assumed that a steady-state sinusoidal condition is reached, which means that all transient effects in ac circuits have disappeared. (informit.com)
  • Telephone Ringer using 555 Dual Timers - Using modulated rectangular waves of different time periods, The circuit presented here produces ringing tones similar to those produced by a telephone. (discovercircuits.com)
  • Add one of the circuits to your regular routine, or do them as a quick, stand-alone workout if you're short on time. (menshealth.com)
  • I remember when I was actually a hands on engineer, whiling away time in our division's technical library collecting circuit ideas from Analogue Devices, Harris, TI, etc. (soundonsound.com)
  • Circuit training with selectorized resistance-training machines, which is incredibly time-efficient and can be easy to follow, can be a great solution to both of these common concerns. (acefitness.org)
  • Machine-based circuit training is a time-efficient way to help individuals receive these and other important benefits. (acefitness.org)
  • A health club that has its machines organized in a circuit that alternates between upper- and lower-body muscles or pushing and pulling movements makes it possible for club members to learn how to set up the machines for their needs and then come in for a full-body, resistance-training workout in a relatively short period of time. (acefitness.org)
  • Express PCB can provide inexpensive circuit boards if you use their software to lay out the boards. (arrl.org)
  • Circuit stickers provide a versatile and low-cost way of extending instant inkjet printing. (microsoft.com)
  • Telephone Recorder - This circuit lets you record your ph1-conversations automatically, notice that this circuit does not provide isolation between Telephone line and the recorder. (discovercircuits.com)
  • Draeger Medical's VentStar and ID Breathing Circuits and Anesthesia Sets are single-use, disposable, accessory devices used with a ventilator or anesthesia machine to provide mechanical ventilation and critical breathing support to infant, child, and adult patients. (fda.gov)
  • Hospitals and health care professionals using the VentStar or ID Breathing Circuit and Anesthesia Set to provide patients with respiratory support. (fda.gov)
  • Here, paradoxical signaling molecules, such as immune cytokines that instruct cells to both proliferate and die, can provide ropbust input-output relationships to cell circuits. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Akinwande is creating an atomically thin 2D-silicon structure known as silicene, which could provide a tenfold increase in energy efficiency for integrated circuits such as computer chips. (utexas.edu)
  • 2. Adding an instructor-led machine circuit in your club is a great way to provide customer service, while also creating training opportunities for the staff. (acefitness.org)
  • Scheduling a trainer to assist members during busy times can provide a higher level of service to members who are attempting to use the circuit. (acefitness.org)
  • A machine-based circuit that is set up away from the free-weight area can provide a non-intimidating environment for club members to obtain the many benefits of strength training, while also establishing the base level of strength required to progress to more challenging forms of resistance training. (acefitness.org)
  • Our knowledge and expertise is in evaluating, testing and certifying circuit protection devices - critical to end-product safety. (ul.com)
  • Draegar Medical is recalling its disposable VentStar and ID Breathing Circuits and Anesthesia Sets due to a risk of the devices being incorrectly assembled, resulting in a short-circuit in the breathing hose. (fda.gov)
  • Here we demonstrate the feasibility of this "self-integration" concept with the parallel fabrication of large numbers of devices and complex circuits, based on guided growth of horizontal NWs ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Performance Motion Devices, Inc. provides innovative and high performance integrated circuit, board and drive-based motion control solutions to manufacturer's and OEMs around the globe. (prnewswire.com)
  • The question was how to make them, and the connecting circuits, from the same piece of silicon? (encyclopedia.com)
  • If you can actually rewrite with a beam of light and alter this pattern, you can make the circuit morph to adapt to different requirements. (zdnet.com)
  • I cannot figure out a way to make the Federal Circuit decision in Dominion Resources interesting to a normal person, but I feel compelled to write about it anyway, because it is so interesting to me. (forbes.com)
  • ensuring that the essential function of the circuit is carried out precisely despite natural cell-cell variation in the concentrations of the proteins that make up the circuit. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • 3. Following a machine-based exercise circuit may be an excellent way to help new club members learn how to make exercise a regular habit by using a mode that is challenging (and thus effective), but not too difficult for someone who is new to exercise. (acefitness.org)
  • It s not a good idea to have a circuit relying on a safety car to make for an interesting race, and Singapore looked as though it could hold its own without any outside interference. (bellaonline.com)
  • 5. A saturation detection circuit as claimed in claim 3 further comprising a first current mirror having an input from said current flowing through said second semiconductor device to mirror said current through said second semiconductor device for said comparison with said reference. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. A saturation detection circuit as claimed in claim 3 further comprising a second current mirror to mirror said reference current. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The biopsy device of claim 1 , further comprising a pneumatic circuit coupled to the rotary pneumatic motor, the pneumatic circuit providing suction to the shaft for drawing the cut tissue through the shaft. (google.co.uk)
  • 12. The medical device of claim 10 , further comprising an indicator coupled to the housing, the indicator signaling when the pneumatic circuit is operational to control the biopsy device. (google.co.uk)