Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mice, Inbred DBAChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Mice, Inbred C3HQuantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Mice, Inbred AKRMice, Inbred AGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Mice, Inbred CBABiological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Rats, Inbred BNChromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
  • Nine additional BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains have been developed from the F2 cross of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mouse strains. (jax.org)
  • The C57BL/6 (B6) and 129 mouse strains, known as naturally resistant to mousepox, also become infected but are able to control spread to and replication in the liver by rapidly mounting effective innate and adaptive immune responses that, together, control the virus ( Esteban and Buller, 2005 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent work has demonstrated differences in femoral bone mineral density between two common inbred strains of mice, C3H/HeJ (C3H) and C57BL/6J (B6), across a wide age range. (galileo-training.com)
  • In addition to using the currently available RI strains, we have recently developed 45 additional BXD RI strains using two advanced intercross lines between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice as progenitors. (uthsc.edu)
  • Our current knowledge of TEs in laboratory mouse strains is limited primarily to those present in the C57BL/6J reference genome, with most mouse TEs being drawn from three distinct classes, namely short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and the endogenous retrovirus (ERV) superfamily. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, in mouse BXD family maps, if the DBA/2J allele produces higher values than the C57BL/6J allele then the additive effect line is colored in green. (genenetwork.org)
  • Characterization of a B16-F10 melanoma model locally implanted into the ear pinnae of C57BL/6 mice. (reliatech.de)
  • Characteristics The C57BL is easily the most widely used of all inbred strain. (spotidoc.com)
  • The mean maximally preferred concentrations of ethanol were 17,9% for C57BL/6 and 6,8% for ICR mice. (spotidoc.com)
  • The consumption of ethanol represents a preferred source of calories for the C57BL/6 mouse (McMillen et al, 1998). (spotidoc.com)
  • In C57BL/6 mice selfgrooming and allo-grooming is observed (Militzer and Wecker, 1986) Drugs Susceptible to skin ulceration by DMBA (Thomas et al, 1973). (spotidoc.com)
  • Ye R, Carneiro AM, Airey D, Sanders-Bush E, Williams RW, Lu L, Wang J, Zhang B, Blakely RD ( 2014 ) Evaluation of heritable determinants of blood and brain serotonin homeostasis using recombinant inbred mice. (genenetwork.org)
  • Thus, irrespective of the trait of interest, the genetic background of commonly used transgenic strains needs to be considered carefully during experimentation. (g3journal.org)
  • For example, in livestock breeding , breeders may use inbreeding when trying to establish a new and desirable trait in the stock and for producing distinct families within a breed, but will need to watch for undesirable characteristics in offspring, which can then be eliminated through further selective breeding or culling . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding also helps to ascertain the type of gene action affecting a trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the figure shows, each time that the mouse with the desired trait (in this case the lack of a gene (i.e. a knockout), indicated by the presence of a positive selectable marker) is crossed with a mouse of a constant genetic background, the average percentage of the genetic material of the offspring that is derived from that constant background increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through gene association mapping of a large heterogeneous population of Diversity Outbred (DO) mice, we identified a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 17 driving the antagonistic contribution of these two zygomatic arch bones to total zygomatic arch length. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The researches confirmed that more than 75 percent of cheetah sperm are abnormal -- a trait generally attributed to too much inbreeding. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The avoidance of expression of such deleterious recessive alleles caused by inbreeding, via inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, is the main selective reason for outcrossing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding can result in purging of deleterious alleles from a population through purifying selection . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding is also used to reveal deleterious recessive alleles, which can then be eliminated through assortative breeding or through culling. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used a hybrid approach for genome annotation, combining evidence from the mouse reference Gencode annotation and strain-specific RNA -seq and PacBio cDNA, to identify novel strain-specific gene structures and alleles. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In a standard F2 intercross between two inbred parental lines there are two alleles at every polymorphic locus that are often referred to as the little "a" allele and big "A" allele. (genenetwork.org)
  • Certain combinations of alleles that can be obtained by crossing two inbred strains are advantageous in the heterozygote . (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate differential miRNA expression between inherently high‐ (C57L/J) and low‐ (C3H/HeJ) active inbred mice in soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and nucleus accumbens tissues. (physiology.org)
  • We tested for a possible genetic basis for this association between 9-12-week body weight change (WTC) and the distance, duration, and speed voluntarily run by 307 mice in an F 2 population produced from an intercross of two inbred strains (C57L/J and C3H/HeJ) that differed dramatically in their physical activity levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 17 ] recently conducted an interval mapping analysis with an F 2 population of mice generated from an original cross of two inbred strains (C57L/J and C3H/HeJ) that differed in their physical activity levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The same cross gave rise to strains C57L and C57BR. (spotidoc.com)
  • Here we describe the complete 5,065,741-bp genome sequence of a UPEC strain recovered from a patient with an acute bladder infection and compare it with six other finished E. coli genome sequences. (pnas.org)
  • The database of genetic and biochemical information for the human gut-derived K12 laboratory strain (MG1655) is massive and has been organized into extensively annotated transcriptional, signaling, and metabolic networks (e.g., ref. 2 ) that serve as a foundation for interpreting genome sequences from other strains. (pnas.org)
  • Finished genome sequences are now available for the K12 strain ( 3 ), a human uropathogen (CFT073) ( 4 ), two enterohemorrhagic strains (EDL933 and SAKAI) ( 5 , 6 ), and two diarrhea-associated Shigella 2a strains (2457T and 301) (considered to be E. coli strains) ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Mouse Genomes Project has completed the first draft assembled genome sequences and strain specific gene annotation for twelve classical laboratory and four wild-derived inbred mouse strains (WSB/EiJ, CAST /EiJ, PWK /PhJ, and SPRET /EiJ). (cam.ac.uk)
  • Taking the existing PAO1-UW genome sequence (named after the University of Washington, which led the sequencing project) as a blueprint, the genome sequences of reference strains MPAO1 and PAO1-DSM (stored at the German Collection for Microorganisms and Cell Cultures [DSMZ]) were resolved by physical mapping and deep short read sequencing-by-synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Computational mouse genetics: To reduce the cost and the time frame for genetic research, we developed a more efficient method for performing genetic analysis in mice. (stanford.edu)
  • This PAO1 strain from Bruce Holloway's laboratory has become the reference strain for Pseudomonas genetics and functional analyses of the physiology and metabolism of this gammaproteobacterium. (asm.org)
  • In Systems Genetics , Methods in Molecular Biology 1488:75-120 [An updated primer in using GeneNetwork for molecular analysis of mouse and human cohorts. (genenetwork.org)
  • Surprisingly, the extent of TGF-β1-induced lung fibrosis was highly strain dependent. (stanford.edu)
  • Cell types in the brains of mice and humans are almost indistinguishable in structure and function, but their numbers vary over more than three orders of magnitude. (nervenet.org)
  • Their natural predators include snakes and cats, and they carry a diversity of pathogens and parasites (though the only mouse pathogen that provides a significant risk to humans is the lymphocytic choriomeningitis(LCMV) virus. (utah.edu)
  • The constant region of each heavy chain makes up about three-fourths of the molecule, and the gene segments encoding the constant regions are ar- ranged in the sequence mu, delta, gamma, epsilon, and alpha in both humans and mice. (damasgate.com)
  • Toxocara canis is a parasitic nematode that infects canines worldwide, and as a consequence of the widespread environmental dissemination of its ova in host faeces, other abnormal hosts including mice and humans are exposed to infection. (biologists.org)
  • A phenomenon of potential public health significance in humans and of ecological significance in mice is that T. canis larvae exhibit neurotrophic behaviour, which results in a greater concentration of parasites in the brain, as infection progresses. (biologists.org)
  • Widespread environmental contamination of the environment, with eggs shed in host faeces, facilitates infection of so-called abnormal or paratenic hosts including mice and humans ( Holland and Smith, 2006 ). (biologists.org)
  • The implications of this paratenesis have far-reaching consequences for the host-parasite relationship and extend from the behaviour of wild mice to the cerebral effects in infected humans. (biologists.org)
  • Loss of BMP antagonism during mammalian development provides a plausible explanation for both the limb and eye phenotype in humans and mice. (prolekarniky.cz)
  • MiRNAs have been shown to be responsive to exercise training, in both humans and mice, mostly in skeletal muscle (termed "myomirs") and to a limited extent, blood plasma. (physiology.org)
  • Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in genotype due to long inbreeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, mixed cultures between a T6SS-producing strain and a different species showed killing of the T6SS non-producing in a T6SS-dependent manner. (prolekare.cz)
  • By showing this long-suspected mechanism holds true within a single species of vertebrate animal, namely, mice, the University of Utah study suggests that increased genetic diversity should be promoted in livestock and in captive-bred endangered species so as to limit their risk of getting deadly infections. (healthcanal.com)
  • Others interpret the new data differently, and they warn that inbreeding problems still threaten to cause the cheetah to become as infertile and unhealthy as the Florida panther, another endangered species. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Longer telomeres in the cells of somatic tissues of an individual, compared to other individuals of the same species, have been regarded as a marker of youth and biological fitness. (springer.com)
  • Island species are often very inbred, as their isolation from the larger group on a mainland allows for natural selection to work upon their population. (bionity.com)
  • The reduced genetic diversity that results from inbreeding may mean a species may not be able to adapt to changes in environmental conditions. (bionity.com)
  • Using inbred mouse strains with different infection dynamics and S. Typhimurium intestinal burdens, we demonstrate that Bacteroides species mediate colonization resistance against S. Typhimurium by producing the short-chain fatty acid propionate. (stanford.edu)
  • Inoculation of voles with scrapie-related and BSE-related strains from several species suggests that the prion strain, and not the donor species, is the major determinant of prion transmissibility RTA 402 cost between different species. (phytid.org)
  • The NON/Lt strain carries QTLs conferring latent type 2 diabetes susceptibility, whereas NZO/HlLt mice carry numerous QTLs contributing to male diabesity in a threshold fashion ( 1 ). (highwire.org)
  • Much of the work to date on resistance to viral disease during aging has compared immunological fitness of the young and aged by looking at their immune responses to vaccination, by challenging vaccinated mice with viruses, or by comparing susceptibility to suboptimal viral doses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There were no diet-mediated effects on DSS susceptibility in germ-free mice. (jove.com)
  • To identify genetic factors affecting susceptibility to IPF, we analyzed a murine genetic model of IPF in which a profibrotic cytokine (TGF-β1) was expressed in the lungs of 10 different inbred mouse strains. (stanford.edu)
  • Haplotype-based computational genetic analysis and gene expression profiling of lung tissue obtained from fibrosis-susceptible and -resistant strains identified laminin α1 (Lama1) as a genetic modifier for susceptibility to IPF. (stanford.edu)
  • Atypical forms of BSE, which remain mostly asymptomatic in aging cattle, were recently identified at slaughterhouses throughout Europe and North America, raising a question about human susceptibility to these new prion strains. (plos.org)
  • These data are unique in experimentally confirming the requisite conditions of the antagonistic coevolution model of MHC evolution and providing quantification of fitness effects for pathogen and host. (pnas.org)
  • i ) adaptations that benefit pathogen fitness in one host MHC genotype must be costly to pathogen fitness when infecting hosts carrying an unfamiliar MHC genotype (i.e., antagonistic pleiotropy), and ( ii ) these patterns of adaptation must produce correlated patterns of virulence (i.e., disease severity). (pnas.org)
  • These fitness trade-offs, which arise as a consequence of pathogen adaptation to specific MHC genotypes, provides a selective advantage to hosts carrying unfamiliar (i.e., rare) MHC genotypes through increased resistance to infectious disease. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, these regions are significantly enriched for repeat elements (LTRs and LIN Es) which are known to facilitate accelerated recombination and sequence diversity, key to population fitness and pathogen resistance. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Propionate directly inhibits pathogen growth invitro by disrupting intracellular pH homeostasis, and chemically increasing intestinal propionate levels protects mice from S.Typhimurium. (stanford.edu)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is the most commonly used strain for research on this ubiquitous and metabolically versatile opportunistic pathogen. (asm.org)
  • A rich body of theory on the evolution of virulence (disease severity) attempts to predict the conditions that cause parasites to harm their hosts, and a central assumption to many of these models is that the relative virulence of pathogen strains is stable across a range of host types. (nih.gov)
  • Here we describe in vitro and in vivo studies comparing the genetic and phenotypic properties of a lineage I/emergent strain and a lineage II/nonemergent strain of WNV. (asm.org)
  • Here we show that all ten MommeD s link to unique sites in the genome, that homozygosity for the mutations is associated with severe developmental abnormalities and that heterozygosity results in phenotypic abnormalities and reduced reproductive fitness in some cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We therefore inoculated cynomolgus macaque monkeys ( Macacca fascicularis ) intracerebrally with BASE, cBSE and vCJD prion strains. (plos.org)
  • Mouse APP695 with a humanized Aβ region and the Swedish (KM570/571NL) and Indiana (V617F) mutations downstream of a tetracycline-responsive promoter and mouse prion protein exons 1-2. (alzforum.org)
  • The prion hypothesis equates strains to different self-propagating conformational variants of PrPSc , which parallel the diversity of physicochemical properties of PrPSc observed in human and animal prion diseases [3C (phytid.org)
  • Prion diversity is revealed by transmission to laboratory animals, but this process can become tied to the varieties hurdle impact significantly, which hampers a complete characterization of human being prion strains in the mouse model [11, (phytid.org)
  • Pet versions that are ideal for research with sCJD or gCJD consequently represent a significant progress in understanding the degree to which different clinico-pathological forms represent different strains, RTA 402 cost and whether atypical forms are due to book prion strains. (phytid.org)
  • Three independent events of statistically significant deviation from the expected 50:50 Mendelian inheritance ratios were observed in an interspecific backcross between the Mus musculus A/J and the Mus spretus SPRET/EiJ inbred strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we report three independent occurrences of TRD caused by post-meiotic lethality in a single interspecific backcross population between A/J ( M. musculus ) and SPRET/EiJ ( M. spretus) mouse inbred strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We suggest that the inbred mice model presents an opportunity for researchers to investigate the genetic, and gene-environmental influence on the development of digit ratios. (jove.com)
  • Knockout mouse lines are produced on a uniform genetic background using either gene targeted embryonic stem cells (Skarnes et al. (springer.com)
  • Inbreeding can significantly influence gene expression which can prevent inbreeding depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lentivirus is inserted in the sense orientation relative to the disrupted mouse gene. (jax.org)
  • Oliver Smithies, who came to UNC in 1987, would later win the Nobel Prize for his work in gene targeting using mouse models . (unc.edu)
  • In order to study this issue we have collected extensive neuroanatomical and gene expression data in the brains of BXD strains. (uthsc.edu)
  • This allows us to determine, for instance, whether steady state expression of a gene is related to an observed phenotype, for instance an aspect of brain architecture or a behavioral difference between strains. (uthsc.edu)
  • In this study, researchers generated mice that lack one copy of the pancreatic insulin gene, and compared them to mice carrying both copies ( 2 ). (blogspot.com)
  • Then, they exposed both groups to a fattening diet, and found that mice lacking one copy of the insulin gene secreted less insulin than the comparison group (i.e., they did not develop the same degree of hyperinsulinemia). (blogspot.com)
  • Joint mouse-human phenome-wide association to test gene function and disease risk. (genenetwork.org)
  • The effects of a gene, which are beneficial early in life (i.e., increasing fitness) but deleterious later in life (no change in fitness after the reproductive age). (tripod.com)
  • BOSTON - Researchers from the Eaton-Peabody Laboratories of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear and Harvard Medical School have created a new mouse model in which by expressing a gene in the inner ear hair cells - the sensory cells that detect sound and sense balance - protects the mice from age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the two most common forms of deafness. (healthcanal.com)
  • As a result, the hearing in aged mice or in mice exposed to intense noise was significantly better than their siblings without the gene. (healthcanal.com)
  • To our knowledge, our model is the first in which expression of a single gene in postnatal hair cells results in hair cell survival and hearing preservation in mice that otherwise suffer from age-related and noise-induced hearing loss," Dr. Chen said. (healthcanal.com)
  • Inbred lines can be used to assess the impact of environmental factors on defined genetic backgrounds to tease out the effect of the genotype from that of the environment. (g3journal.org)
  • In contrast, a largely nonoverlapping body of theory on coevolution assumes that the fitness effects of parasites on hosts is not stable across host genotype, but instead depends on host genotype by parasite genotype interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Compared to TX02, MAD78 replicated at low levels in cultured human cells, was highly sensitive to the antiviral actions of IFN in vitro, and demonstrated a completely avirulent phenotype in wild-type mice. (asm.org)
  • Second, we compare QTL analysis with whole genome mutagenesis in mice and point out some of the strengths and weakness of both of these phenotype-driven methods. (nervenet.org)
  • both viral fitness and virulence is substantially higher in familiar versus unfamiliar MHC genotypes. (pnas.org)
  • In each case, the spleen from the fifth mouse was used to infect 10 other mice, which were studied 10 to 12 days later for their viral loads (fitness, or how much the virus replicated) and spleen weights (virulence, or how severely the mice were harmed by the disease). (healthcanal.com)
  • Consistent with this finding, the virulence of MAD78 was unmasked upon infection of mice lacking IFNAR. (asm.org)
  • However, recent studies suggest that one of the two main forms of atypical BSE, initially discovered in Italy and referred to as the bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE), might be at the origin of the cBSE epidemic: inoculation of the BASE strain into transgenic and inbred mice showed an apparent natural evolution towards the typical BSE strain , . (plos.org)
  • Because it is easily cultured, many strain banks of natural isolates from diverse habitats, including infected patients, are available. (pnas.org)
  • Full genome sequence analysis revealed that MAD78 clustered, albeit distantly, with other lineage II strains, while TX02 clustered with emergent North American isolates, more specifically with other Texas strains. (asm.org)
  • Although thiazolidinediones suppress hyperglycemia in diabetic (NON × NZO)F1 males, these mice exhibit unusual sensitivity to drug-induced exacerbation of an underlying hepatosteatosis only rarely experienced in human patients. (highwire.org)
  • Hemizygous mice of line OVE2320F-1 (OVE#2320F-1) exhibit dark grey coat color. (jax.org)
  • These mice exhibit normal morphology, but are infertile and develop cancer spontaneously . (prolekare.cz)
  • About 15 years ago, researchers at the National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C., showed that inbred zoo animals, like inbred livestock, produce fewer healthy young than their noninbred counterparts. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Consistent with this hypothesis, we report that aggressive behaviour of female house mice is correlated with the amount of major urinary protein (MUP) excreted in their urine, a polymorphic set of proteins that are used in scent mark signalling. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Certain plants including the genetic model organism Arabidopsis thaliana naturally self pollinate, which makes it quite easy to create inbred strains in the laboratory (other plants, including important genetic models such as Maize require transfer of pollen from one flower to another). (wikipedia.org)
  • Legesse BW, Myburg AA, Pixley KV, Botha AM. Genetic diversity of African maize inbred lines revealed by SSR markers. (harvard.edu)
  • We have previously shown that there is no sex difference in the digit ratios of inbred mice, but found behavioral evidence to suggest that higher 2Dratio4D is associated with more masculinized behaviors. (jove.com)
  • House mice are useful animals for solving problems in evolutionary biology and behavioral ecology for several reasons. (utah.edu)