Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
... fluorescent antibody and cell culture isolation techniques for detection of antigen". Journal of Fish Diseases. 7: 57-64. doi: ... It is considered to be a major threat to native fish populations, especially farmed fish including ornamental koi and common ... Spring viraemia of carp virus has been shown to infect a wide variety of fish species including silver carp, grass carp, ... Walker, P; Winton J (2010). "Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp". Veterinary Research. 41 (51): 51. doi:10.1051/vetres/ ...
... indirect fluorescent antibody testing, ELISA, PCR, and DNA probe technology techniques can be used to confirm diagnosis. The ... Mortality is very high in young fish. Some fish become covert carriers of the virus if they survive infection. Clinical signs ... Reservoirs of IHNV are clinically infected fish and covert carriers among cultured, feral. or wild fish. Viruses are shed via ... Diseased fish weaken eventually floating "belly-up" on the surface of the water. Necrosis is common in the kidney and spleen, ...
... be cultured on specific growth mediums such as brain-heart infusion agar and techniques such as indirect fluorescent antibody ... E. tarda has a worldwide distribution and can be found in pond water, mud, and the intestine of fish and other marine animals. ... On postmortem fish they are normally pale with widespread petechial haemorrhage and abscessation. On catfish, lesions will ... nov., a novel species pathogenic to fish. J. Appl. Microbiol. 114(3)644-54. Ewing, W. H.; Mcwhorter, A. C.; Escobar, M. R.; ...
Antibodies against tumor specific biomarkers including EpCAM, Her2, PSA are used. The most common technique is magnetic ... Like CellSearch, maintrac uses an EpCAM antibody. It is, however, not used for enrichment but rather as a fluorescent marker to ... Epic can also use FISH and other staining techniques to look for abnormalities such as duplications, deletions, and ... All nucleated cells, including normal white blood cells and CTCs, are exposed to fluorescent-tagged antibodies specific for ...
These examples use FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization). With this technique we can understand the physiological processes ... Immunohistochemistry is a technique that uses antibodies with fluorescent staining tags that target a specific antigen present ... He created an immunoflorescent technique for labelling the antibodies. This technique continues to be widely used in ... Albert Coons used for the first time a revolutionary technique that uses the principle of antibodies binding specifically to ...
... (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only ... or imaged simultaneously with a fluorescent antibody assay. The technology has potential applications in cancer diagnosis, ... This technique is sometimes called "break-apart FISH". Single-molecule RNA FISH, also known as Stellaris® RNA FISH, is a method ... FISH is a very general technique. The differences between the various FISH techniques are usually due to variations in the ...
When the probe is labeled with fluorescent dye, the technique is called FISH. Cytopathology - the examination of loose cells ... Immunohistochemistry - the use of antibodies to detect the presence, abundance, and localization of specific proteins. This ... In situ hybridization - Specific DNA and RNA molecules can be identified on sections using this technique. ... Histopathology - the microscopic examination of stained tissue sections using histological techniques. The standard stains are ...
In a separate study, antibody-antigen binding was studied without the need for a fluorescent label to be added to the antibody ... Other microscopy techniques are commonly used in tandem with NanoSIMS that allow for multiple types of information to be ... This type of analysis was first used in 2001 in conjunction with FISH to examine syntrophic relationships between anaerobic ... Immunogold labeling uses antibodies to target specific proteins, and subsequently labels the antibodies with gold nano ...
A dye such as green fluorescent protein, originally from a jellyfish, was typically attached to an antibody specific to a fruit ... Using such a technique, in 1994 Walter Gehring found that the pax-6 gene, vital for forming the eyes of fruit flies, exactly ... For example, the brain of a human embryo looked first like that of a fish, then in turn like that of a reptile, bird, and ... "Fluorescent Probes". ThermoFisher Scientific. 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2016. Land, M. F.; Fernald, R. D. (1992). "The ...
"Detection of SNPs of T2DM susceptibility genes by a ligase detection reaction-fluorescent nanosphere technique". Analytical ... "TCF7L2 Gene - GeneCards , TF7L2 Protein , TF7L2 Antibody". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 2017-11-30. "TCF7L2 - Transcription ... zebra fish, drosophila, and budding yeast. Therefore, all of those organisms can be used as model organisms in the study of ...
Probably the greatest practical limitation to this technique is the lack of available automation. In forensic science, ... antibody-based marker. DNA sequences or RNA transcripts that have moderate to high sequence similarity to the probe are then ... FISH). rRNA probes have enabled scientists to visualize microorganisms, yet to be cultured in laboratory settings, by retrieval ... fluorescent molecules; commonly used markers are 32P (a radioactive isotope of phosphorus incorporated into the phosphodiester ...
Published PCT Application WO2000049150 "Chimeric Gene Constructs for Generation of Fluorescent Transgenic Ornamental Fish." ... The same techniques that are used to produce drugs can also have industrial applications such as producing enzymes for laundry ... Mouse hybridomas, cells fused together to create monoclonal antibodies, have been adapted through genetic engineering to create ... The technique of gene targeting uses homologous recombination to make desired changes to a specific endogenous gene. This tends ...
These proteins can be stained with fluorescent dye labeled antibodies and detected using flow cytometry. The limit of detection ... Techniques for measuring minimal residual disease in leukaemia[edit]. DNA-based tests[edit]. These are based on detecting a ... Additional examination of the bone marrow by tests including flow cytometry and FISH are necessary to diagnose the specific ... Some new techniques use Next-Generation Sequencing to detect MRD. RNA-based tests[edit]. These are based on detecting a ...
The fish will then glow and can be used as environmental sensors. The GloFish is a brand of genetically modified fluorescent ... A number of techniques are available for inserting the isolated gene into the host genome. With animals DNA is generally ... Proteins expressed by silkworms include; human serum albumin, human collagen α-chain, mouse monoclonal antibody and N-glycanase ... The first genetically modified animal to be commercialised was the GloFish, a Zebra fish with a fluorescent gene added that ...
Camelid and fish derived sdAbs are able to bind to hidden antigens that are not accessible to whole antibodies, for example to ... Screening techniques like phage display and ribosome display help to identify the clones binding the antigen. Alternatively, ... The fusion of a fluorescent protein to a nanobody generates a so-called chromobody. Chromobodies can be used to recognize and ... is an antibody fragment consisting of a single monomeric variable antibody domain. Like a whole antibody, it is able to bind ...
Fluorescent proteins are genetically encoded and can be fused to your protein of interest. Another genetic tagging technique is ... Both organic dyes and quantum dyes do not have the ability to recognize the protein of interest without the aid of antibodies, ... Sletten EM, Bertozzi CR (2009). "Bioorthogonal chemistry: fishing for selectivity in a sea of functionality". Angew. Chem. Int ... Fluorescent techniques have been used assess a number of protein dynamics including protein tracking, conformational changes, ...
There are several methods of creating a fluorescent sample; the main techniques are labelling with fluorescent stains or, in ... Immunofluorescence is a technique which uses the highly specific binding of an antibody to its antigen in order to label ... FISH)) Yeast cell membrane visualized by some membrane proteins fused with RFP and GFP fluorescent markers. Imposition of light ... As a result, there is a diverse range of techniques for fluorescent staining of biological samples. Many fluorescent stains ...
... -labelled probes can be imaged using FISH, or targeted by antibodies using immunohistochemistry. The latter is a ... Käss, W. Tracing Technique in Geohydrology. Rotterdam: Balkema. The Story Behind Dyeing the River Green. Greenchicagoriver.com ... It is widely used as a fluorescent tracer for many applications. Fluorescein is a fluorophore commonly used in microscopy, in a ... The fluorescein that has been taken up into the plant can be visualized under a fluorescent microscope. Fluorescein dye ...
In addition to the ability to label and identify individual cells via fluorescent antibodies, cellular products such as ... The technique was expanded by Len Herzenberg, who was responsible for coining the term FACS.[27] Herzenberg won the Kyoto Prize ... Use of flow cytometry to measure copy number variation of a specific DNA sequence (Flow-FISH) ... Mass cytometry overcomes the fluorescent labeling limit by utilizing lanthanide isotopes attached to antibodies. This method ...
Fluorophores, fluorescent molecules, may be directly attached or attached to an antibody in order to detect a specific target. ... The technique uses a one micrometer diameter open tip glass micropipette to suction the membrane of a cell. The pipette is ... Purkinje cells but is quite prevalent in interneurons of the medium ganglionic layer of the cerebellum-like lobe of some fish. ... Staining and labeling techniques are often used in microscopy to help identify specific structures in a cell. Staining usually ...
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), is an example of a genetic labeling technique that utilizes probes that are specific ... antibody, or amino acid. Generally, fluorescent tagging, or labeling, uses a reactive derivative of a fluorescent molecule ... YFP or yellow fluorescent protein, BFP or blue fluorescent protein, and CFP or cyan fluorescent protein are examples of GFP ... In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a fluorescent label or fluorescent probe, is a ...
Those that produce the desired antibody are then selected and cultured to produce the monoclonal antibody. Hybridoma cells can ... The technique has also been validated for lung cancer, for colorectal carcinoma, for lung cancer and for renal cell carcinoma. ... McAllister KA, Yasseen AA, McKerr G, Downes CS, McKelvey-Martin VJ (2014). "FISH comets show that the salvage enzyme TK1 ... This reagent together with a fluorescent azide cause fluorescence of infected cells but not of uninfected cells. Therefore, ...
The fish will then glow and can be used as environmental sensors. The GloFish is a brand of genetically modified fluorescent ... A number of techniques are available for inserting the isolated gene into the host genome. Bacteria can be induced to take up ... In 1988 the first human antibodies were produced in plants. In 1987, a strain of Pseudomonas syringae became the first ... The first genetically modified animal to be commercialized was the GloFish, a Zebra fish with a fluorescent gene added that ...
Before the combing improvement, FISH was too low-res to be of use in this case. With this technique, the resolution of FISH is ... such as immunofluorescence antibodies). Multicolour tagging is also possible. This has several potential uses, typically as a ... an array of uniformly stretched DNA that is then highly suitable for nucleic acid hybridization studies such as fluorescent in ... As no assumptions are made about the sequence of the origins, this technique is particularly useful for mapping origins in ...
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is viewed as being the "gold standard" technique in identifying patients who would ... Monoclonal antibodies that bind to this region have been shown to reverse the phenotype of HER2/neu expressing tumor cells. ... The main expense involved with CISH is in the purchase of FDA-approved kits, and as it is not a fluorescent technique it does ... Comparative studies of CISH and FISH have shown that these two techniques show excellent correlation. The lack of a separate ...
Baerlocher, G. M.; Vulto, I.; De Jong, G.; Lansdorp, P. M. (2006). "Flow cytometry and FISH to measure the average length of ... Finally, diagnosis using flow cytometry data can be aided by supervised learning techniques, and discovery of new cell types of ... The stream is interrogated by one or more lasers, and the resulting fluorescent and scattered light is detected by ... or they may be artificial fluorophores covalently bonded to detection molecules such as antibodies for detecting proteins, or ...
Quantitative IgE antibody assays in allergic diseases»։ Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 105 (6): 1077-1084։ June ... Fish intake during pregnancy or infancy and allergic outcomes in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis»։ Pediatric ... fluorescent enzyme immunoassay FEIA)[84]: Այլ թեսթավորումներ[խմբագրել , խմբագրել կոդը]. Հսկիչ թեսթեր. երբ ենթադրյալ ալերգենը ... Revue Scientifique et Technique. 19 (1): 240-58. doi:10.20506/rst.19.1.1218. PMID 11189719. ...
... by employing fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or post-sequencing confirmation.[10] The bias of MDA against high %GC ... Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique, enabling amplifying femtograms of DNA from bacterium to ... were introduced to simultaneously measure single-cell mRNA and protein expression through oligonucleotide-labeled antibodies ... a major improvement to this technique, called WGA-X, was introduced by taking advantage of a thermostable mutant of the phi29 ...
How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody from Cells Alive!. *Antibody applications Fluorescent antibody image library, University of ... Rosetta Antibody is a novel antibody FV region structure prediction server, which incorporates sophisticated techniques to ... secreted antibodies can also be dimeric with two Ig units as with IgA, tetrameric with four Ig units like teleost fish IgM, or ... Antibody mimetic[edit]. Antibody mimetics are organic compounds that, like antibodies, can specifically bind antigens. They are ...
This technique is typically coupled with reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and reflection high-energy loss ... The thin layer of tissue remains bound to the metal replica so it can be immunogold labeled with antibodies to the structures ... The still-floating replica is thoroughly washed free from residual chemicals, carefully fished up on fine grids, dried then ... may be viewed by projecting the magnified electron image onto a fluorescent viewing screen coated with a phosphor or ...
Epidermal fluorescent cells in fish also respond to hormonal stimuli by the α-MSH and MCH hormones much the same as ... Immunology: An antibody is first prepared by having a fluorescent chemical group attached, and the sites (e.g., on a ... Other techniquesEdit. *FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer, also known as fluorescence resonance energy transfer) is used ... Fluorescent colors are generally recognizable at longer ranges than their non-fluorescent counterparts, with fluorescent orange ...
In some primitive fishes, such as lampreys, this region is the largest part of the brain.[43] The superior colliculus is part ... The same techniques have occasionally been used to study brain activity in human patients suffering from intractable epilepsy, ... Shown is a pyramidal neuron from the hippocampus, stained for green fluorescent protein. ... though at the same time blocking antibodies and some drugs, thereby presenting special challenges in treatment of diseases of ...
Published PCT Application WO2000049150 "Chimeric Gene Constructs for Generation of Fluorescent Transgenic Ornamental Fish." ... The technique of gene targeting uses homologous recombination to make desired changes to a specific endogenous gene. This tends ... Roque AC, Lowe CR, Taipa MA (2004). "Antibodies and genetically engineered related molecules: production and purification". ... "Are GMO Fish Safe for the Environment? , Accumulating Glitches , Learn Science at Scitable". www.nature.com. Retrieved 7 May ...
The first genetically modified animal to be commercialised was the GloFish, a Zebra fish with a fluorescent gene added that ... A common technique used to find out where the gene is expressed is to attach it to GUS or a similar reporter gene that allows ... In 1988 the first human antibodies were produced in plants.[27] In 1987, the ice-minus strain of Pseudomonas syringae became ... Fish. Genetically modified fish are used for scientific research and as pets, and are being considered for use as food and as ...
... antibodies labeled with radioactive isotopes for quantifying the levels of IgE antibody in the blood. Other newer methods use ... Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy is associated with a lower risk. Probiotic supplements during pregnancy or infancy ... Revue Scientifique et Technique. 19 (1): 240-58. doi:10.20506/rst.19.1.1218. PMID 11189719. Carvalho EM, Bastos LS, Araújo MI ( ... and fluorescent enzyme immunoassay (FEIA). Challenge testing: Challenge testing is when small amounts of a suspected allergen ...
Fluorescent DNA ISH (FISH) can, for example, be used in medical diagnostics to assess chromosomal integrity. RNA ISH (RNA in ... antibody-phosphatase binding to RNA-probe (some hours) staining of antibody (e.g., with alkaline phosphatase) The protocol ... The key techniques currently in use include in situ hybridization to mRNA with oligonucleotide and RNA probes (both radio- ... In situ hybridization is a powerful technique for identifying specific mRNA species within individual cells in tissue sections ...
Fish are a major source of protein for humans. In fact, 16.7% of the worlds animal protein intake came from fish in 2010. With ... Selenium is still used in a few types of DC power surge protectors and one type of fluorescent quantum dot. Although trace ... Some analytical techniques are capable of distinguishing organic from inorganic forms of the element. Both organic and ... A reduction of 21% on TPO antibodies is reported with the dietary intake of 0.2 mg of selenium. Increased dietary selenium ...
The concordance rate between FISH and CISH was 94.8%, showing CISH to be a comparable technique to FISH. Most other sources ... FISH probes are generally labelled with a variety of different fluorescent tags and can only be detected under a fluorescence ... It has been shown that monoclonal antibodies are better than polyclonal antibodies for detection in both IHC and CISH as they ... CISH is similar to FISH in that they are both in situ hybridization techniques used to detect the presence or absence of ...
The first genetically modified animal to be commercialised was the GloFish, a Zebra fish with a fluorescent gene added that ... Through tissue culture techniques a single tobacco cell was selected that contained the gene and a new plant grown from it. The ... Jha A (14 August 2012). "Julian Ma: I'm growing antibodies in tobacco plants to help prevent HIV". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 ... The CRISPR technique has also been used by Penn State researcher Yinong Yang to modify white button mushrooms (Agaricus ...
The latter feature is most easily observed when aggregates of a surface molecule are cross-linked with a fluorescent antibody ... A mathematical diagnostic technique through analysis of single cell motion". Bull Math Biol. 73 (3): 658-82. doi:10.1007/s11538 ... A paradigmatic example of crawling motion is the case of fish epidermal keratocytes, which have been extensively used in ... A low-cost laboratory experiment for cell and developmental biology courses using keratocytes from fish scales". Biochemistry ...
The first genetically modified animal to be commercialised was the GloFish, a Zebra fish with a fluorescent gene added that ... Through tissue culture techniques a single tobacco cell was selected that contained the gene and a new plant grown from it. The ... In 1988 the first human antibodies were produced in plants. In 2000 Vitamin A-enriched golden rice, was the first food with ... It was the result of a series of advancements in techniques that allowed the direct modification of the genome. Important ...
Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique. The IFAT test is also an OIE approved screening method for BKD. The method detects ... labelled with a fluorescent dye is allowed to bind to those antibodies that have bound to the bacteria. A fluorescent antibody ... eggs or gametes of fish on and off a fish farm site and the movement of feedstuffs for fish off a fish farm site without the ... In some cases, if there is suspicion of BKD, an Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT) test may be carried out on the ...
... we have investigated the morphology of dopaminergic cells in 23 species of fishes representing various systematic classes and ... Fishes / anatomy & histology* * Fluorescent Antibody Technique * Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis * Neurons / chemistry* ... The occurrence of dopaminergic interplexiform cells correlates with the presence of cones in the retinae of fish Vis Neurosci. ... We argue that, in fish, the presence of cones and cone-specific horizontal cells may be responsible for inducing dopaminergic ...
The advent of fish cell and tissue culture in the mid-1950s provided the technical impetus for expanding fish virology beyond ... Indirect fluorescent antibody techniques for demonstration of trout viruses and corresponding antibody, Acta Vet. Scand. 15n. p ... p. Antigenic variation in 76 virus isolates examined in neutralization tests and by means of the fluorescent antibody tech ... p. Demonstration of virus antigen by the fluorescent antibody technique in tissues of rainbow trout affected by viral ...
An indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and immunohistochemistry have been developed as alternative procedures to ... P. salmonis is the first of the RLO of fish to be fully characterized. Since its recognition, the impact of RLO in fish has ... There is even a suggestion that this complex may be involved in fish to fish transmission. Currently, no alternative host has ... with appropriate sanitary disposal of blood from harvested fish, reducing fish stocking density and providing periods of site ...
The diagnosis of bacterial fish diseases has progressed from traditional culture-dependent methods involving the recovery of ... The fluorescent antibody technique permitted the observation of bacterial cells directly in tissues (Kawahara and Kusuda 1987 ... Kawahara E, Kusuda R (1987) Direct fluorescent antibody technique for diagnosis of bacterial disease in eel. Nippon Suisan ... The application of monoclonal antibodies to diagnosis of Aeromonas salmonicida infections in fishes. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol ...
... fluorescent antibody and cell culture isolation techniques for detection of antigen". Journal of Fish Diseases. 7: 57-64. doi: ... It is considered to be a major threat to native fish populations, especially farmed fish including ornamental koi and common ... Spring viraemia of carp virus has been shown to infect a wide variety of fish species including silver carp, grass carp, ... Walker, P; Winton J (2010). "Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp". Veterinary Research. 41 (51): 51. doi:10.1051/vetres/ ...
... organism by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. Journal of Fish Diseases 3, 67-69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Elliott, D.G. and McKubben, C.L. (1997) Comparison of two fluorescent antibody techniques (FATs) for detection and ... Cvitanich, J.D. (1994) Improvements in the direct fluorescent antibody technique for the detection, identification, and ... Bullock, G.L., Stuckey, H.M. and Wolf, K. (1975) Bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fishes. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish ...
Epinephelus coioides; Vibrio; amino acids; cell adhesion; chemokine CCL4; complementary DNA; fluorescent antibody technique; ... However, analysis of fish cellular immunity has been limited because of the lack of CD8 antibodies in grouper. In this present ... Fish & shellfish immunology 2011 v.30 no.6 pp. 1283-1293. ISSN:. 1050-4648. Subject:. Epinephelus coioides; antibodies; ... You searched for: Journal Fish & shellfish immunology Remove constraint Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology Subject ...
RNA interference; amino acids; aquaculture; breeding; color; complementary DNA; cytoplasm; fish; fluorescent antibody technique ... An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish-meal replacement on growth performance, protein synthesis ... 7. Dietary replacement of fish-meal impaired protein synthesis and immune response of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, ... Ca2-transporting ATPase; Danio rerio; amino acids; calcium; cold; endothermy; fish; genes; heat production; messenger RNA; mice ...
... by an indirect dot blot assay and by an indirect fluorescent-antibody technique using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. R. ... Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish, from pen-cultured ... antigen was demonstrated in 31 samples by the indirect dot blot assay and the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique. ... captured by fishing around coho salmon net pens were examined for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigen ...
... indirect fluorescent antibody testing, ELISA, PCR, and DNA probe technology techniques can be used to confirm diagnosis. The ... Mortality is very high in young fish. Some fish become covert carriers of the virus if they survive infection. Clinical signs ... Reservoirs of IHNV are clinically infected fish and covert carriers among cultured, feral. or wild fish. Viruses are shed via ... Diseased fish weaken eventually floating "belly-up" on the surface of the water. Necrosis is common in the kidney and spleen, ...
Fishes * Mammals * Fluorescent Antibody Technique * Neurons Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2021 ...
... presents a significant challenge as it requires specialised and expensive techniques such as immunostaining and fluorescent in ... situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis. Neither of these tests is perfect.. Trastuzumab is currently available in Australia for the ... Molecular techniques now make it possible to transform murine antibodies into human antibodies. A chimeric antibody is ... 1). A further step on from a chimeric antibody is a humanised antibody (95% human and 5% murine). In this process the ...
The present invention provides a composition comprising fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals associated to a compound, ... be visualized by fluorescence using techniques such as immunofluorescence which utilizes antibodies labeled with a fluorescent ... Another application of fluorescent markers to detect biological compounds is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Swiger ... The antibody can be a polyclonal or a monoclonal antibody. Antibodies tagged with nanocrystals as fluorescent markers of one ...
Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique * 1994 Widespread occurrence of the Tc1 transposon family: Tc1-like transposons from ... teleost fish. Radice, A. D., Bugaj, B., Fitch, D. H. A. & Emmons, S. W., Nov 1994, In: MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 244, 6 ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique Medicine & Life Sciences * Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Medicine & Life Sciences ... Tutucci, E., & Singer, R. H. (2020). Simultaneous detection of mRNA and protein in S. cerevisiae by single-molecule FISH and ... Tutucci, Evelina ; Singer, Robert H. / Simultaneous detection of mRNA and protein in S. cerevisiae by single-molecule FISH and ... Tutucci, E & Singer, RH 2020, Simultaneous detection of mRNA and protein in S. cerevisiae by single-molecule FISH and ...
Fibres containing a locus of interest can then be identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with DNA probes. These ... with no need for antibody staining and/or FISH detection. Furthermore, replication bubbles can be detected by quantitative YOYO ... stretched on coverslips and treated with fluorescent antibodies to reveal tracts of newly synthesized DNA. ... DNA was replicated in Xenopus egg extracts in the presence of a fluorescent dUTP. Purified DNA was barcoded by nicking with Nt. ...
... direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and ... Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most ... Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most ... direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and ...
These molecular techniques include:. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular genetic test. It is used to ... They use monoclonal antibodies marked with a fluorescent label or specific enzyme label that binds only to specific antigens ( ... These techniques use a very specific antigen-antibody reaction to identify proteins in tissues or cells. ... Flow cytometry is a technique used to sort and classify cells by their cell surface markers. The cells are labelled with ...
Detection of Flavobacterium sp., a pathogen of bacterial gill disease, using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. Fish ... Fish Disease Leaflet 84. Bacterial Gill Disease of Freshwater Fishes. G. L. Bullock. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National ... A fluorescent antibody test has been developed for F. branchiophila (Huh and Wakabayashi 1987). Host and Geographic Range. ... Revision of Fish Disease Leaflet 19 (1970) and Fish Disease Leaflet 62 (1981), same title, by S. F. Snieszko.) ...
Fluorescent antibody techniques using fluorescent-tagged species-specific monoclonal antibodies.. *Fluorescent in situ ... hybridization (FISH) using species-specific probes.. Note that in contrast to N.asteroides, Actinomyces is not acid-fast. ... May 7, 2015 Acharya Tankeshwar Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial Disease, Microbiology for Beginners, Staining techniques in ...
Fish Diseases/transmission. *Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary. *Kidney/virology. *Orthomyxoviridae ... The main host for the ISA virus is probably a fish occurring in the coastal area, most likely a salmonid fish. Since sea trout ... With the help of this technique it was possible to pick out positive individuals throughout the experimental period of 135 d. ... These 2 latter methods require use of the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) or RT-PCR for verification of presence of ISA ...
Kawahara E, Kusuda R, 1987: Direct fluorescent antibody technique for diagnosis of bacterial disease in eel[J]. Nippon Suisan ... 4) The fluorescent antibody technique permitted the observation of bacterial cells directly in tissues (Kawahara and Kusuda ... Kawahara E, Kusuda R (1987) Direct fluorescent antibody technique for diagnosis of bacterial disease in eel. Nippon Suisan ... The application of monoclonal antibodies to diagnosis of Aeromonas salmonicida infections in fishes[J]. Bull Eur Assoc Fish ...
... in freshwater by fluorescent antibody technique. Fish. Sci. 63: 253- 257.. ... Aiso, K.,, U. Simidu, and, K. Hasuo. 1968. Microflora in the digestive tract of inshore fish in Japan. J. Gen. Microbiol. 52: ... Magariños, B.,, J. L. Romalde,, J. L. Barja, and, A. E. Toranzo. 1994. Evidence of a dormant but infective state of the fish ... Yoshimizu, M., and, T. Kimura. 1976. Study on the intestinal microflora of salmonids. Fish Pathol. 10: 243- 259.. ...
The fluorescent dyes derived from algae are chemically bound to antibodies in a technique known as immunofluorescence. The ... Drain Fishing #3 + Herring Spawn. Scroll down for: "Fishing With Kirk.". *Drain Fishing #2. Scroll down to bottom for yet ... A fish which, despite its small size and comical appearance can deliver a very painful bite to your finger-trust me I learned ... Those fluorescent dyes derived from algae look great under black light (UV). A decade ago, a few companies were trying to ...
Suitable techniques include indirect fluorescent antibody stain, Ag-capture ELISA, and PCR (OIE 2012c). Alternatively, viral ... Fish. In fish, multifocal, random cutaneous hemorrhages are seen (Fig. 2a; Waltzek et al. 2014), and fish may have red swollen ... Given the success in fish, ELISA testing for an antibody response is being applied to reptiles. Ariel (1997) utilized methods ... 2.3.4 Detecting Antibodies: Serology. An ELISA for detection of antibodies was developed using a combination of anti-ranavirus ...
Fishes. *Fluorescent Antibody Technique. *Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. *Follow-Up Studies. *Forecasting. *G1 Phase ...
Behavioral evolution contributes to hindbrain diversification among Lake Malawi cichlid fish. Sci Rep. 2019 12 27; 9(1):19994. ... "Fluorescent Antibody Technique" by people in this website by year, and whether "Fluorescent Antibody Technique" was a major or ... Fluorescent Antibody Technique*Fluorescent Antibody Technique. *Antibody Technique, Fluorescent. *Antibody Techniques, ... by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of ...
Counts of microorganisms may be made by direct microscopic techniques or through indirect methods such as culturing. Figure ... If antibodies to the surface of a specific organism can be produced, the fluorescent antibody technique can be used. In this ... The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique (Section 10.4.4) is one popular example. ... method the antibody is conjugated with (chemically attached to) a fluorescent dye. When this preparation is added to the sample ...
  • Single-molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization (smFISH) enables the detection and quantification of endogenous mRNAs within intact fixed cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Fibres containing a locus of interest can then be identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with DNA probes. (ehu.es)
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using species-specific probes. (microbeonline.com)
  • Fluorescein-labeled probes can be imaged using a technique known as FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization), or targeted by antibodies using immunohistochemistry. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The objective of this review is to summarize these tests, including the well-established and commonly used ones such as immunohistochemistry, with specific emphasis on emerging techniques such as comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization and imaging mass spectrometry. (actasdermo.org)
  • 1, 2] High-throughput genomic analyses such as DNA arrays rely on the availability of fluorescent probes that have exceptional hybridization characteristics, minimal cross-reactivity, and low background fluorescence. (docme.ru)
  • Herein we describe the synthesis of a stilbene-tethered deoxyadenosine triphosphate analogue, its enzymatic incorporation into DNA to yield an antibody-activated blue fluorescent DNA polymer, and hybridization studies of the modified DNA polymer with chromosomal DNA. (docme.ru)
  • ViewHIV pairs a very sensitive type of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a monoclonal antibody that binds to the viral capsid. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Several decades later, primary antibody-dependent fluorescence detection of nucleic acid hybrids was achieved, however, this technique was soon replaced by the appearance of fluorescent nucleic acid probes.In situ hybridization, first performed in the late 1960s, was not fluorescent at all, but used a probe labeled with a radioactive isotope. (abnewswire.com)
  • About a decade later, improved labeling of synthetic single-stranded DNA probes allows the chemical preparation of hybridization probes carrying enough fluorescent molecules to allow direct detection. (abnewswire.com)
  • Nucleated cells (NC) produced in LTC were evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) translocation. (eur.nl)
  • After the tissue is expanded, the researchers label specific RNA molecules using a process known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which was originally developed in the early 1980s and is widely used. (news-medical.net)
  • Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are critical methods for determining gene expression patterns in planarians. (nih.gov)
  • In situ hybridization - Specific DNA and RNA molecules can be identified on sections using this technique. (bionity.com)
  • We have developed a novel technique for combined immunofluorescence/in situ hybridization on fixed budding yeast cells that maintains the three-dimensional structure of the nucleus as monitored by focal sections of cells labeled with fluorescent probes and by staining with a nuclear pore antibody. (rupress.org)
  • The preconditions and early steps of meiotic chromosome pairing were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific DNA probes to mouse and human testis tissue sections. (rupress.org)
  • Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled to cytoplasmic staining of specific Ig (cIg-FISH) on bone marrow plasma cells has become well established in the initial evaluation of multiple myeloma, a related disorder. (haematologica.org)
  • The first report of the application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled to cytoplasmic staining of specific IgH (cIg-FISH) to the evaluation of amyloidosis was reported by Fonseca et al . (haematologica.org)
  • hybridization (FISH), which is definitely applied for bacterial detection in combination with microscopy and hybridization of DNA probes and target gene from flower samples [21]. (health-e-nc.org)
  • In addition to morphology and immunohistochemistry (IHC), differential diagnosis of these tumors is based on molecular analysis of the EWSR1 gene rearrangement using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. (hindawi.com)
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful technique used to identify the presence of specific chromosomes or parts of chromosomes through the attachment (hybridization) of fluorescent DNA probes to available chromosomal DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Fluorescent intensity of the resulting medium is inversely proportional to the hybridization efficiency of the probes with respect to the target sequence. (justia.com)
  • teaches the use of gels in detecting hybridization, and does not suggest the use of fluorescent markers. (justia.com)
  • Prior to seeding the presence of fetal cells in caruncular samples and vice-versa could be demonstrated by the detection of the Y-chromosome via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provided the fetus was male. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Austin B, Bishop I, Gray C, Watt B, Dawes J (1986) Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the rapid diagnosis of clinical cases of enteric redmouth and furunculosis in fish farms. (ouc.edu.cn)
  • This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing of colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor. (bmj.com)
  • The VHH antibody immobilized rapid diagnostic kit showed better sensitivity and specificity than the monoclonal antibody immobilized rapid diagnostic kit, which might be due to the long CDR3 regions of the VHH antibodies and their ability to bind to the pocket and cleft of the targeted antigen. (jove.com)
  • 5. An anti-shrimp allergen antibody according to claim 4, which is one of an antiserum, an IgG fraction, a polyclonal antibody, and a monoclonal antibody. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VHSV genotype IVa was produced, with the aim of providing a simple method of discriminating this genotype from the other VHSV genotypes (I, II, III and IVb). (int-res.com)
  • Ito T, Olesen NJ, Skall HF, Sano M, Kurita J, Nakajima K, Iida T (2010) Development of a monoclonal antibody against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa. (int-res.com)
  • El objetivo de la presente revisión es resumir dichas pruebas, entre las que se incluyen algunas de uso habitual como la inmunohistoquímica, enfatizando de manera específica en las técnicas emergentes como la hibridación genómica comparativa, la hibridación in situ con fluorescencia y la espectrometría de masas. (actasdermo.org)
  • The first application of fluorescence in-situ detection was in the early 1980s, detection of nick translations characterized by secondary detection of biotinylated probes and fluorescent streptavidin conjugates was used to detect DNA and mRNA targets. (abnewswire.com)
  • The development of in situ techniques provides us with valuable information about the location and expression patterns of genes in individual cells. (abnewswire.com)
  • Chromosome 1p/19q codeletion was observed in 19 of 41 patients (46%) via Fluorescent In Situ Hybridisation (FISH) technique. (cdc.gov)
  • In situ is Latin for "in the original place," which, in the case of FISH, means inside a human cell or tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Semiconducting nanocrystals or quantum dots (Qdots) can be conjugated to antibody probes and in this study we use this technology to detect proteins in situ in highly autofluorescent unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria. (mdpi.com)
  • The fish rhabdovirus IHNV has a bullet-shaped virion containing an unsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 11,000 nucleotides that encode six proteins in this order: a nucleoprotein (N), a phosphoprotein (P), a matrix protein (M), a glycoprotein (G), a nonvirion protein (NV), and a polymerase (L). To date, the complete genome sequence has been available for only three IHNV isolates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescein may also be attached to biologically active molecules (such as antibodies ), allowing biologists to target the fluorophore to specific proteins or structures within cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Immunophenotyping uses a very specific antigen-antibody reaction to identify proteins in tissues or cells. (cancer.ca)
  • It uses monoclonal antibodies marked with a fluorescent label or specific enzyme label that binds only to specific antigens (proteins). (cancer.ca)
  • Boyden and colleagues first described the underlying technique, known as expansion microscopy (ExM), last year, when they used it to image proteins inside large samples of brain tissue. (news-medical.net)
  • In the Nature Biotechnology study, the researchers used it to anchor proteins, and they also showed that the technique works on tissue that has been previously labeled with either fluorescent antibodies or proteins such as green fluorescent protein (GFP). (news-medical.net)
  • Immunohistochemistry - the use of antibodies to detect the presence, abundance, and localization of specific proteins. (bionity.com)
  • Within the resolution of these immunodetection techniques, we show that proteins encoded by the SIR3, SIR4, and RAP1 genes colocalize in a statistically significant manner with Y' telomere-associated DNA sequences. (rupress.org)
  • FISH with centromere- and telomere-specific DNA probes in combination with immunostaining (IS) of synaptonemal complex (SC) proteins to testis sections of prepuberal mice at days 4-12 post partum was performed to study sequentially the meiotic pairing process. (rupress.org)
  • SC-IS and simultaneous telomere FISH revealed that axial element proteins appear as large aggregates in mouse meiocytes when telomeres are attached to the nuclear envelope. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we describe an effective protocol for use in a multiplexed high-throughput antibody microarray with glycan binding protein detection that allows for the glycosylation profiling of specific proteins. (jove.com)
  • Through the use of an antibody panel and probing with multiple biotinylated lectins, this method allows for an effective glycosylation profile of the different proteins found in a given human or animal sample to be developed. (jove.com)
  • IHC is a lab test uses antibodies to test for certain antigens (markers) in a sample of tissue - in this case it can detect TRK fusion proteins. (bayer.com)
  • The specimen was immunofluorescently labeled with antibodies to three different proteins. (microscopyu.com)
  • Direct fluorescent testing uses antibodies tagged with fluorescein, which attach to specific syphilis proteins, while nucleic acid amplification uses techniques, such as the polymerase chain reaction, to detect the presence of specific syphilis genes. (suncoastprimates.com)
  • We then decided to generate transgenic fish, using Gal4-UAS system, that express Kaede, KikGR or Dronpa, photoconvertible or photo-reactivatable fluorescent proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Visualizing neurons one-by-one in vivo : optical dissection and reconstruction of neural networks with reversible fluorescent proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We have applied quantum dot (Qdot) antibody conjugates as a biomolecular probe for cellular proteins important in biogeochemical cycling in the sea. (mdpi.com)
  • Traditional DNA and RNA imaging methodologies have utilized fluorescent fusion proteins, nonspecific stains for nucleic acids, immunostaining of BrdU-labeled DNA, or FISH ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • This method utilizes tens of singly labeled fluorescent DNA probes hybridized against the mRNA of interest, which can be detected by using standard wide-field fluorescence microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • The free fluorescein (which, as its name suggests, is fluorescent) that is released is trapped in the cell, thereby making it readily visible with a fluorescence microscope. (barnardhealth.us)
  • upon irradiation with UV light the antibody-stilbene complexes emit a bright blue fluorescence with high quantum yield. (docme.ru)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) are immunochemical techniques employing specific antibodies along with highly sensitive detection systems that produce a colored reaction product visible under the light microscope (IHC) or fluorescence microscope (IF). (phenopath.com)
  • The mixture of cells and bound antibodies is then introduced into the flow cytometer, and the cell-associated fluorescence in response to illumination with one or more lasers is recorded. (phenopath.com)
  • Immunofluorescence Immunofluorescence (IF) is definitely a fluorescence microscopy-based optical technique utilized for the analyses of microbiological samples. (health-e-nc.org)
  • Comparable to Seafood and various other fluorescence-based techniques, a substantial issue with IF is normally photobleaching which leads to false negative outcomes. (health-e-nc.org)
  • Once the fluorescent binding molecules are applied, the slide can be viewed on a special microscope designed for fluorescence. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Fluorescence has been used to visualize certain molecules (and hence structures) by light microscopy for many years, and is also used in other analytical techniques, such as flow cytometry. (justia.com)
  • To allow direct counting in samples such as activated sludge (flocculated), biofilms, and soils, a variety of stains and probes have been developed, including many that are fluorescent. (barnardhealth.us)
  • 3] However, further investigations of new fluorescent nucleic acid probes are required to sustain the current level of success in this field. (docme.ru)
  • FISH for visualizing nucleic acids was developed as an alternative method using radiolabeled probes.Early isotope detection methods used non-specific labeling strategies such as random incorporation of radioactively modified bases into growing cells followed by autoradiography. (abnewswire.com)
  • Accuracy and reliability of FISH is definitely highly dependent on the specificity of the nucleotide probes. (health-e-nc.org)
  • Probes can be labeled directly with an attached fluorescent molecule, or indirectly, where a specific fluorescent-labeled antibody or labeled binding protein is used to detect a tag attached to the probe sequence. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The invention relates to methods of sequencing or assaying nucleotides in solution, without the need for solid support or adjacent double stranded nucleotide construct, using a fluorescent intensity quenching effect exhibited by antisense probes, such as peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. (justia.com)
  • These kits measure cell proliferation by detecting the incorporation of the alkyne-modified nucleoside EdU (5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine) into DNA using copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click chemistry to attach fluorescent probes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Baseclick kits utilize fluorescent probes to detect the incorporated EdU. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Researchers can choose from four fluorescent probes: 6-FAM (ex: 496 nm, em: 516 nm), 5-TAMRA (ex: 546 nm, em: 579 nm), 5/6-Sulforhodamine 101 (ex: 584 nm, em: 603 nm) and Eterneon-Red 645 (ex: 643 nm, em: 662 nm). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These probes can be multiplexed with other fluorescent probes including using antibodies for immunostaining, expanding experimental options. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These fragments are on the order of 100 thousand base-pairs, and are the basis for most FISH probes. (academic.ru)
  • The size, overlap, colour, and mixture of the probes make possible all FISH techniques.Probe size is important because longer probes hybridize more specifically than shorter probes. (academic.ru)
  • Sampling for routine surveillance involves the collection of kidney tissue (batched in pools of 5 fish) for assay by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). (thefishsite.com)
  • In addition, on suspicion of BKD, a further 150 fish may be sampled and screened by ELISA. (thefishsite.com)
  • PCR and agar culture tests will be conducted where an ELISA test result is positive from a 150-fish test. (thefishsite.com)
  • Staphylococcal agglutination, virus neutralisation (VN), indirect fluorescent antibody testing, ELISA, PCR, and DNA probe technology techniques can be used to confirm diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. (usgs.gov)
  • Current detection techniques such as ISO method 6579, fluorescent-antibody (FA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are time-consuming, cumbersome, and limited sensitivity. (meatpoultry.com)
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is definitely another molecular method for recognition of diseases CH5424802 based on antibodies and color switch in the assay [27]. (health-e-nc.org)
  • The overall performance of ELISA can be improved greatly with the application of specific monoclonal and recombinant antibodies which are commercially available [28,29]. (health-e-nc.org)
  • Specific monoclonal antibodies have been used in ELISA to accomplish lower limits of detection in the order of 105C106 CFU/mL [12]. (health-e-nc.org)
  • One of these, MAb VHS-10, reacted only with genotype IVa in indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and ELISA. (int-res.com)
  • In some cases, if there is suspicion of BKD, an Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT) test may be carried out on the fixed tissue. (thefishsite.com)
  • Description Fluorescent microspheres, beads and particles applications including blood flow determination, tracing, fluorimetry, in vivo imaging and calibration of imaging and flow cytometry instruments. (gentaur.com)
  • Flow cytometry is a technique for evaluating antigen expression in suspensions of dispersed living cells. (phenopath.com)
  • While flow cytometry has historically been used to characterize hematolymphoid cell populations, this technique can be applied to any monodispersed cell suspension. (phenopath.com)
  • Flow immunophenotyping - the determination of the immunophenotype of cells using flow cytometry techniques. (bionity.com)
  • Antibodies are large molecules (150 Kilo Daltons). (nps.org.au)
  • The entire length, replication tracts, and NE sites of combed DNA molecules can be simultaneously visualized in three distinct colours by standard epifluorescence microscopy, with no need for antibody staining and/or FISH detection. (ehu.es)
  • Various combinations of antibodies conjugated to fluorescent molecules, or fluorochromes, are incubated with the cell suspension according to standard protocols. (phenopath.com)
  • After section >NBF fixation, rinse with PBS, sections were mounted with aqueous >mounting media compatible for fluorescent molecules. (histosearch.com)
  • Flounder (Limanda herzensteini), greenling (Hexagrammos otakii), Japanese sculpin (Cottus japonicus), and flathead (Platycephalus indicus) captured by fishing around coho salmon net pens were examined for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigen by an indirect dot blot assay and by an indirect fluorescent-antibody technique using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. (cefas.co.uk)
  • Moreover, 86 scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis) were hung from the edge of the net pen for 50 days, and R. salmoninarum antigen was demonstrated in 31 samples by the indirect dot blot assay and the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique. (cefas.co.uk)
  • Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). (ucdenver.edu)
  • This staining technique is used to detect the presence or absence of an antigen usually a protein. (actasdermo.org)
  • For FISH on regenerating planarians, we employed a heat-induced antigen retrieval step that provides a better balance between permeabilization of mature tissues and preservation of regenerating tissues. (nih.gov)
  • When the antibodies bind to the antigen in the tissue sample, the enzyme or dye can be activated, and the antigen could then be seen under a microscope. (bayer.com)
  • If a 150-fish test is deemed necessary, this may be scheduled to take place at a time when the water temperature is optimum for detection of R. salmoninarum usually in the spring or autumn. (thefishsite.com)
  • Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish, from pen-cultured coho salmon. (cefas.co.uk)
  • Bartkova S, Kokotovic B, Skall HF, Lorenzen N, Dalsgaard I (2017) Detection and quantification of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissue by real-time PCR. (ouc.edu.cn)
  • Chang CI, Hung PH, Wu CC, Cheng TC, Tsai JM, Lin KJ, Lin CY (2012) Simultaneous detection of multiple fish pathogens using a naked-eye readable DNA microarray. (ouc.edu.cn)
  • Developed after three years of research by an international team, with members from U.S.D.A.'s Agricultural Research Service, the University of Georgia and the Food Research Institute in Korea, the biosensor attaches fluorescent organic dye particles to the cells, literally lighting them up for detection. (meatpoultry.com)
  • Although the basic principles of FISH remain stable, high sensitivity detection, simultaneous determination of multiple species, and automated data collection and analysis have significantly improved this technology. (abnewswire.com)
  • Have you considered simultaneous detection with two primary antibodies? (sapphirebioscience.com)
  • were the first to report the detection of del13/del13q in amyloidosis by FISH. (haematologica.org)
  • The new protocol described in this study makes use of a chemically blocked antibody microarray with glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection and significantly reduces the time, cost, and lab equipment requirements needed to study protein glycosylation. (jove.com)
  • has recently invented a chemically blocked antibody microarray with a glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection method for high-throughput and multiplexed profile glycosylation of native glycoproteins in a complex sample 18 . (jove.com)
  • In aquatic ecosystems fungi and fungal-like pathogen detection in fish hosts is more complicated due to the lack of direct observation of their hosts contrary to frogs or coral, for example ( Gozlan, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, besides the advantages, FISH also has some pitfalls that compromise the techniques potency for flower disease detection [24,25,26]. (health-e-nc.org)
  • 9. A method of detecting contamination of a shrimp allergen according to any one of claim 6, wherein the method of detecting the presence or absence of one of the shrimp collagen and the polypeptide fragment thereof in the extract is an immunological detection means using an anti-shrimp allergen antibody, the anti-shrimp allergen antibody recognizing one of the shrimp collagen and the polypeptide fragment thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • If the fluorescent signal is weak, amplification of the signal may be necessary in order to exceed the detection threshold of the microscope . (academic.ru)
  • Austin, B., Bucke, D., Feist, S. and Rayment, J. (1985) A false positive reaction in the indirect fluorescent antibody test for Renibacterium salmoninarum with a 'coryneform' organism. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) is a chronic systemic bacterial condition of fish of the family Salmonidae caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum. (thefishsite.com)
  • Austin, B. and Rayment, J. (1985) Epizootiology of Renibacterium salmoninarum , the causal agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. (springer.com)
  • Aside from their benefit to studies of the dynamics of protein-ligand interactions, these antibodies can be envisioned in a number of practical applications. (docme.ru)
  • However, that method posed some challenges because it requires generating a complicated chemical tag consisting of an antibody that targets a specific protein, linked to both a fluorescent dye and a chemical anchor that attaches the whole complex to a highly absorbent polymer known as polyacrylate. (news-medical.net)
  • The possibility of using variable domain heavy-chain antibodies (VHH antibodies) as diagnostic tools for dengue virus (DENV) type 2 NS1 protein was investigated and compared with the use of conventional monoclonal antibodies. (jove.com)
  • After successful expression of DENV type 2 NS1 protein, the genes of VHH antibodies against NS1 protein were biopanned from a non-immune llama library by phage display. (jove.com)
  • In this affinity based microarray method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies capture and isolate glycoproteins from the complex mixture directly on the microarray slide, and the glycans on each individual captured protein are measured by GBPs. (jove.com)
  • The nematodes used in the study were transgenic, with a fluorescent protein sequence inserted into their DNA to enable in vivo observation of protein expression. (news-medical.net)
  • Journal Article] Cell tracking using a photoconvertible fluorescent protein. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Using the indirect method, the probe itself only contains an attachment point for the fluorescent antibody or binding protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Its DNA codes for sequence of 238 amino acids that forms a protein called Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). (asu.edu)
  • Samples are taken in conjunction with samples for the List II diseases of fish, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia and infectious haematopoietic necrosis. (thefishsite.com)
  • Symposium on the Major Communicable Fish Diseases in Europe and Their Control (W. A. Dill, ed.), pp. 80-98, EIFAC (European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee) Tech. Paper 17, Suppl. (springer.com)
  • Growing awareness of the emergence of these intracellular organisms has led to the discovery of rickettsial diseases among diverse species of fish from different geographic locations and aquatic environments. (thefishsite.com)
  • The diagnosis of bacterial fish diseases has progressed from traditional culture-dependent methods involving the recovery of pathogens on agar-containing media and identification by examination of phenotypic traits. (springer.com)
  • Journal of Fish Diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Fish Diseases 8 , 209-220. (springer.com)
  • Journal of Fish Diseases 8 , 505-509. (springer.com)
  • Journal of Fish Diseases 15 , 203-206. (springer.com)
  • Journal of Fish Diseases 13 , 345-353. (springer.com)
  • The disease is listed as a nonexotic disease of the EU and is therefore watched closely by the European Community Reference Laboratory for Fish Diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these changes adversely affect the health of fish, the prevention and treatment of gill diseases are important in fish culture. (koifishponds.com)
  • Candidatus ", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are currently five rhabdoviruses that cause important fish diseases. (scirp.org)
  • Fishes are susceptible to diseases caused by a large number of infectious agents including viruses, bacteria, true fungi, fungal-like microrganisms, other protists, and metazoans. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present invention relates to the use of VEGF antagonists and a novel anti-α5β1 antibody for treating cancer and inhibiting angiogenesis and/or vascular permeability, including inhibiting abnormal angiogenesis in diseases. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health has recognized the potential of Lapotko's inspired technique by funding further research that holds tremendous potential for the theranostics of cancer and other diseases at the cellular level. (photonics.com)
  • Antibody targets include cell and tissue-specific markers, tumor prognostic and predictive markers, surrogate markers of chromosomal translocations, and other esoteric antigens. (phenopath.com)
  • At PhenoPath Laboratories, we perform up to 10-color analysis on a state-of-the-art flow cytometer, utilizing a collection of over 100 fluorescently labeled antibodies to specific antigens. (phenopath.com)
  • In this method, the CH5424802 prospective epitopes (antigens) from your viruses, bacteria and fungi are made to specifically bind with antibodies conjugated to an enzyme. (health-e-nc.org)
  • These 2 latter methods require use of the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) or RT-PCR for verification of presence of ISA virus. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, some of the fish viruses have been well characterized and classified into established viral taxonomic groupings while others have been only partly characterized or demonstrated solely by electron microscopy and their classification is tentative. (springer.com)
  • Non-fluorescent technologies such as enzyme-based color reporters and gold-based probe systems used in electron microscopy are all independent. (abnewswire.com)
  • The original expansion microscopy technique is based on embedding tissue samples in a polymer that swells when water is added. (news-medical.net)
  • Fluorescent antibodies were also used, as well as advanced microscopy and molecular biology techniques. (news-medical.net)
  • Using two-photon microscopy with these transgenic fish, we demonstrated that it was possible to label a single cell. (nii.ac.jp)
  • All classical laser-scanning microscopy techniques are suitable for imaging CLARITY-treated tissue, as every excitation and emission wavelength can penetrate deep into the tissue. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. (usgs.gov)
  • Use of appropriate diagnostic techniques is key to identifying ranavirus infections and determining the effects of infection on host species. (springer.com)
  • We point out the limitations of certain diagnostic techniques, and identify needed areas of improvement. (springer.com)
  • The diagnostic tests used by these laboratories were the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) or a biological test in 3-day-old (suckling) mice 10 . (scielo.org.za)
  • PhenoPath offers an extensive array of diagnostic assays, including over 250 IHC antibodies, over 100 flow antibodies and a broad menu of FISH, PCR, Cytogenetics and IF assays. (phenopath.com)
  • PhenoPath Laboratories maintains a large and ever-expanding library of 250+ antibodies, each of which has been validated and optimized for use in diagnostic tissue-based studies. (phenopath.com)
  • The two types of antibodies were used to prepare rapid diagnostic kits based on immunochromatographic assay. (jove.com)
  • This report shows that FISH has better sensitivity and specificity than IHC in the Moroccan population, and supports its combination with CD99 immunostaining as diagnostic biomarkers for this rare malignant entity. (hindawi.com)
  • A laboratory technique used to look at genes or chromosomes in cells and tissues. (bayer.com)
  • Examining the labeled cellular DNA under special lighting reveals the presence or absence of a fluorescent signal that indicates specific genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Fernandez-Alvarez C, Gonzalez SF, Santos Y (2016) Development of a SYBR green I real-time PCR assay for specific identification of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. (ouc.edu.cn)
  • To avoid radioactivity, the anti-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay was developed in which the modified nucleoside BrdU is incorporated into DNA and subsequently detected using an antibody. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The acridine orange direct count (AODC) uses another fluorescent dye that passes into the cytoplasm and then binds to nucleic acids, giving an orange or green color. (barnardhealth.us)
  • In addition, staining with organelle-specific fluorescent dyes and with antibodies as well as FISH techniques need fixation of the cytoplasm which is either possible by chemical substances or by freezing. (univie.ac.at)
  • As early as the 1940s, antibodies were conjugated to fluorescent dyes without losing their epitope binding specificity. (abnewswire.com)
  • Because our fluorescent dyes are incorporated in the bead and not just on the surface, they are relatively immune to photo bleaching and other environmental factors. (gentaur.com)
  • ABSTRACT DNA combing is a standard technique to map DNA replication at the single molecule level. (ehu.es)
  • 6,7 Introduced in the early 1940s, the current IHC protocols utilize specific antibodies tagged with a visible label or chromogenic agent against the target molecule. (actasdermo.org)
  • These structural data had shown an antibody-binding-pocket depth of 7.5 ,[6] and a completely buried stilbene molecule. (docme.ru)
  • Recognition is attained by conjugating a fluorescent dye to the precise antibody to visualize the distribution of focus on molecule through the entire test [30]. (health-e-nc.org)
  • Fluorescently-tagged antibodies or streptavidin are bound to the dye molecule. (academic.ru)
  • A treatment that uses antibodies to carry a radioactive substance to lymphoma cells to kill them. (lls.org)
  • They are the largest neurons in the brain in amphibians and fish. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We ourselves have contributed to the research on the Mauthner neurons, having found the first specific antibody that labels the entire cell body and neurites, the first mutant that causes its abnormal development, and the first electrophysiology of its adult. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We have demonstrated, by double staining with anti-Mauthner cell antibody, that several transgenic fish express GFP in the Mauthner neurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, the expression of GFP in these fish was not specific to Mauthner neurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We expect to see further development in the genetic analysis of the Mauthner neurons using this technique. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Using light-microscopic immunocytochemistry against tyrosine hydroxylase, we have investigated the morphology of dopaminergic cells in 23 species of fishes representing various systematic classes and subclasses and which live in very different habitats. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, in both bony and cartilaginous fishes, dopaminergic cells are differentiated as interplexiform and amacrine cells. (nih.gov)
  • The differentiation of dopaminergic cells into amacrine or interplexiform cells in fishes correlates with the absence or presence of cones. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude therefore that the differentiation of retinal dopaminergic cells in fish does not depend on the evolutionary or systematic classification of a given species. (nih.gov)
  • We argue that, in fish, the presence of cones and cone-specific horizontal cells may be responsible for inducing dopaminergic cells to differentiate as interplexiform cells. (nih.gov)
  • P. salmonis replicates within membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles in selected fish cell lines and in the cells of tissues throughout infected fish. (thefishsite.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Medical School have identified a new life cycle stage in HIV infection, thanks to a novel technique they developed to take images of intact infected cells. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Due to our focus on dynamic processes in living cells, we are also well equipped with video and film techniques for documentation and analysis through the microscope. (univie.ac.at)
  • The fluorescent or enzyme label allows doctors to see the leukemia cells (also called blasts). (cancer.ca)
  • Cytopathology - the examination of loose cells spread and stained on glass slides using cytology techniques. (bionity.com)
  • Information is also available for antibody labelling , apoptosis , circulating tumour cells , epigenetics and more. (sapphirebioscience.com)
  • Pieces of DNA that contain a fluorescent dye are made in the laboratory and added to cells or tissues on a glass slide. (bayer.com)
  • To facilitate the research on the Mauthner cells further, it was important to establish the technique to label a single neuron in the zebrafish brain. (nii.ac.jp)
  • FISH can be used on tissue preparations, blood or bone marrow smears, directly on cells, or on nuclear isolates. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Phycoerythrin bleaches in cyanobacterial cells under prolonged UV or blue light excitation, which means that the semiconducting nanocrystal probe, the Qdot, can yield a strong fluorescent signal without interference from cellular pigments. (mdpi.com)
  • After its metabolic incorporation into DNA by living cells, the ethynyl groups of EdU could be visualized with high sensitivity following CuAAC staining with fluorescent azides ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • This study, from Rice University physicist Dmitri Lapotko, details the effect of plasmonic nanobubble theranostics on zebra fish implanted with live human prostate cancer cells, demonstrating the guided ablation of cancer cells in a living organism without damaging the host. (photonics.com)
  • A time-lapse movie shows xenografted prostate cancer cells migrating in a live zebra-fish embryo's tailfin. (photonics.com)
  • at right is a fluorescent image of the same cells. (photonics.com)
  • In the zebra fish study, Lapotko and his collaborators at Rice directed antibody-tagged gold nanoparticles into the implanted cancer cells. (photonics.com)
  • Thus, the Mauthner cell could be useful as an important model to develop a novel research strategy not only for fish but also for mammals. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Histopathology - the microscopic examination of stained tissue sections using histological techniques. (bionity.com)
  • Immunology: the use of specific immune markers and antibodies to aid in the diagnosis of disease. (wikibooks.org)
  • commonly used markers are 32P (a radioactive isotope of phosphorus incorporated into the phosphodiester bond in the probe DNA) or Digoxigenin, which is a non-radioactive, antibody-based marker. (primidi.com)
  • To keep track of the distribution of different IHNV genotypes, a database called Fishpathogens.eu has been created to store data on different fish pathogens (including IHNV) and their sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Austin B, Austin DA (2016) Bacterial fish pathogens, disease of farmed and wild fish, 6th edn. (ouc.edu.cn)
  • To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum , being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii) . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Edwardsiella tarda is one of the serious fish pathogens, infecting both cultured and wild fish species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Current ecological understanding of fungal-like pathogens of fish: what lies beneath? (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we review the current knowledge gaps of fungal and fungal-like parasites and pathogens in fish and put them into an ecological perspective with direct implications for the monitoring of fungal fish pathogens in the wild, their phylogeography as well as their associated ecological impact on fish populations. (frontiersin.org)
  • With increasing fish movement around the world for farming, releases into the wild for sport fishing and human-driven habitat changes, it is expected, along with improved environmental monitoring of fungal and fungal-like infections, that the full extent of the impact of these pathogens on wild fish populations will soon emerge as a major threat to freshwater biodiversity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The paradox is that despite huge pan-continental population extinction, it remains difficult to characterize the true ecological impact of fungal and fungal-like pathogens on freshwater fish populations. (frontiersin.org)
  • The antibodies are usually linked to an enzyme or a fluorescent dye. (bayer.com)
  • 53: The method of claim 52, wherein the label is selected from the group consisting of a radioisotope, fluorescent dye and enzyme. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • All registered fish farm sites containing species susceptible to BKD are inspected on an annual basis. (thefishsite.com)
  • The disease was originally predominant in Coho salmon (O ncorhynchus kisutch ) but is now recognized to cause serious losses in all farmed salmonid fish species including Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ), rainbow (steelhead) trout ( O. mykiss ), Chinook salmon ( O. tshawytscha ), pink salmon ( O. gorbuscha ) and masu salmon ( O. masou ). (thefishsite.com)
  • Spring viraemia of carp virus has been shown to infect a wide variety of fish species including silver carp, grass carp, crucian carp, and bighead carp. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been shown experimentally to infect other fish species including northern pike, guppies, zebrafish, and pumpkinseed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescent antibody techniques using fluorescent-tagged species-specific monoclonal antibodies. (microbeonline.com)
  • Camelids include camels, llamas, alpacas, and other lesser known species, though llamas and alpacas are the most commonly used camelids for antibody development since they are easier to handle. (sapphirebioscience.com)
  • This is likely due to the nature of their habitats as many species of fish suffer from living beneath turbid water away from easy recording. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although many protocols include an antibleaching agent to prevent fading of the fluorescent species, such additives may not be required with many of the more modern confocal instruments. (microscopyu.com)
  • Disease control measures included the prohibition of movements of live fish from affected sites, and contact testing of suppliers and recipients. (thefishsite.com)
  • The advent of fish cell and tissue culture in the mid-1950s provided the technical impetus for expanding fish virology beyond the confines of disease transmission studies. (springer.com)
  • SRS was first reported, from Chile, in 1989, but (Pisci)rickettsia-like organisms (RLO) are now frequently associated with disease syndromes in both salmonid and non-salmonid fish from both fresh and saltwater worldwide. (thefishsite.com)
  • The course of the clinical disease is typically chronic to subacute in nature with mortalities typically developing 10 - 12 weeks after the transfer of fish to seawater and lasting approximately 10 weeks before they diminish. (thefishsite.com)
  • Certainly, fish disease diagnosis has undergone a transformation. (springer.com)
  • Austin, B. and Rodgers, C.J. (1980) Diversity among strains causing bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. (springer.com)
  • It causes the disease known as infectious hematopoietic necrosis in salmonid fish such as trout and salmon. (wikipedia.org)
  • IHNV is the causal agent of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) disease of fish and is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Revision of Fish Disease Leaflet 19 (1970) and Fish Disease Leaflet 62 (1981), same title, by S. F. Snieszko. (koifishponds.com)
  • Gill lesions in warmwater pond fish are produced by Cytophaga (formerly Flexibacter ) columnaris , the causative agent of columnaris disease. (koifishponds.com)
  • Whether infection occurs in fish, reptiles, or amphibians, clinical disease is typically acute and can affect a high proportion of the population. (springer.com)
  • Ranaviruses were detected and diagnosed as a disease agent in amphibians in the 1960s, and in reptiles and fish in the 1980s (Duffus et al. (springer.com)
  • When the probe is labeled with fluorescent dye, the technique is called FISH . (bionity.com)
  • The fluorescent DNA sequence used to attach to the cellular DNA is called the probe and is created in the experimental laboratory. (encyclopedia.com)
  • FISH uses a DNA probe that can be labeled with a fluorescent compound, and emit colored light when it is exposed to specific light wavelengths under a microscope. (encyclopedia.com)
  • With this method, the probe by itself is not fluorescent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • DNA sequences or RNA transcripts that have moderate to high sequence similarity to the probe are then detected by visualizing the hybridized probe via autoradiography or other imaging techniques. (primidi.com)
  • Due to the low photostability of organic fluorophores, bleaching of natural pigments to yield fluorescent probe signals has been very difficult. (mdpi.com)
  • can be used to find out where the fluorescent probe bound to the chromosome. (academic.ru)
  • The probe is tagged directly with fluorophore s, with targets for antibodies or with biotin . (academic.ru)
  • Fluorescent signal strength depends on many factors such as probe labeling efficiency, the type of probe, and the type of dye. (academic.ru)
  • The differences between the various FISH techniques are usually due to the construction and content of the fluorescently-labeled DNA probe. (academic.ru)
  • This technique allows scientists to visualize the movement and fate of the viral capsid, DNA and RNA inside the cell. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Anadromous fish such as salmon and steelhead trout use biosensors to detect traces of their home streams and rivers in the ocean, at levels as little as one part per trillion, so they can return to their birth waters to spawn. (meatpoultry.com)
  • The technique can be employed to detect pathogen infections in plant tissues also. (health-e-nc.org)
  • FISH can detect specific DNA or RNA sequences that are present in a human cell, by taking advantage of DNA's double stranded nature. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This has contributed to the increased popularity of a blue fluorescent dye, 4',6-diamido-2-phenylindole (DAPI), which binds more specifically with DNA. (barnardhealth.us)
  • 4-6] We have termed such complexes blue-fluorescent antibodies. (docme.ru)
  • Epitope mapping was performed via a phage display peptide library using purified VHH and monoclonal antibodies as targets. (jove.com)
  • Enzymatic Incorporation of an Antibody-Activated Blue Fluorophore into DNA. (docme.ru)
  • These include the enzymatic incorporation of fluorophore-conjugated deoxynucleotide triphosphates into nucleic acids by such techniques as random priming, nick translation, and PCR. (docme.ru)
  • The main host for the ISA virus is probably a fish occurring in the coastal area, most likely a salmonid fish. (nih.gov)
  • we have reported a series of first-generation stilbene-tethered C-nucleosides that have the capacity to combine with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically bind trans-stilbene. (docme.ru)
  • Ten hybridoma clones secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against VHSV were established. (int-res.com)
  • However, when proper stressors are present, gill tissues are colonized by filamentous yellowpigmented bacteria that damage gill tissue and cause death of the fish. (koifishponds.com)
  • The researchers showed that this technique works for many types of tissues, including brain, pancreas, lung, and spleen. (news-medical.net)
  • Addition of blocking reagents greatly improves signal specificity for peroxidase-conjugated anti-hapten antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Purified DNA was barcoded by nicking with Nt.BspQI, a site-specific nicking endonuclease (NE), followed by limited nick-translation in the presence of another fluorescent dUTP. (ehu.es)
  • In this method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are printed directly onto the microarray slides and the N-glycans on the antibodies are blocked. (jove.com)
  • The blocked, immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are able to capture and isolate glycoproteins from a complex sample that is applied directly onto the microarray slides. (jove.com)
  • Due to the presence of pathogen-specific ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences in vegetation, recognizing this specific information by FISH can help identify the pathogen attacks in plants. (health-e-nc.org)
  • 5. beta.1 antibody is a multi-specific antibody. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This technique can be used to search for specific gene sequences in human tissue that would cause clinical complications. (encyclopedia.com)
  • mRNA translation targeted to a specific cellular compartment is thought to have at least three regulable steps: the transport of selective mRNA, the translational silencing of this mRNA while en route and the ability to activate translation in response to a signal ( Bramham and Wells, 2007 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • FISH is often used for finding specific features in DNA. (academic.ru)
  • While the subject matter will be discussed in the context of broadly stated research objectives, the emphasis will be on the techniques rather than on specific applications and strategies. (faes.org)
  • Eissa IAM, Abou-Elgheit SN, Dessuki AA, Hassanin AAI, Mostafa LT (2019) Advanced diagnosis of vibriosis among some marine fishes in Lake Temsah, Egypt. (ouc.edu.cn)
  • Goerlich R, Schlüsener HJ, Lehmann J, Greuel E (1984) The application of monoclonal antibodies to diagnosis of Aeromonas salmonicida infections in fishes. (ouc.edu.cn)
  • The present review aims to provide an overview of the identification, pathology, diagnosis and virulence factors of E. tarda in fish, and describe recent strategies for developing vaccines against edwardsiellosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fluorescein (chemical formula C 20 H 12 O 5 ) is a highly fluorescent substance, absorbing light mainly in the blue range and emitting light mainly in the green range. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • An approach emphasizing both principles and methodology provides the scientist with the essential fundamentals needed for gene cloning and for an appreciation of the strategies of recombinant DNA technology as well as other molecular techniques. (faes.org)
  • Metabolic incorporation of F- ara -EdU into DNA was readily detectable using copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne "click" reactions with fluorescent azides. (pnas.org)
  • The role of TLR signaling pathways in anti-parasitic immune responses is poorly understood in fish. (usda.gov)
  • As these efforts by the immune system become more and more intense, activity shifts from cellular immunity to antibody production. (townsendletter.com)
  • are commonly found in fish worldwide (e.g. (thefishsite.com)
  • Infected fish commonly hemorrhage in several areas - the mouth and behind the head, the pectoral fins, muscles near the anus, and (in fry) the yolk sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some sort of spacer, such as fishing line or a piece of coverslip, is commonly placed between the slide and the coverslip to avoid deforming the specimen. (microscopyu.com)
  • BrdU immunostaining is currently the most commonly used method, but it requires harsh chemical denaturation of cellular DNA and is limited by the poor tissue penetration of the BrdU antibody. (pnas.org)
  • However, analysis of fish cellular immunity has been limited because of the lack of CD8 antibodies in grouper. (usda.gov)
  • 5. beta.1 antibody comprises a Fc sequence that lacks antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) effector function. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Because of this technique, place examples are set to microscope slides in slim tissue sections. (health-e-nc.org)
  • The general procedure for FISH involves fixing samples of chromosomes or human tissue onto a piece of glass known as a slide (it slides into place on the viewing platform of a microscope when the sample is ready to examine). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most common application of this technique is the Pap smear. (wikibooks.org)
  • This was the first "rickettsia-like" bacterium to be recognized as a pathogen of fish. (thefishsite.com)
  • Horizontal transmission has been reported in marine-farmed salmon 2 weeks after the introduction of pathogen-free fish into infected sites. (thefishsite.com)
  • Uhlenhuth developed a technique to identify the existence of antibodies, and Landsteiner and his students showed that humans had distinctly different blood types called A, B, AB, and O. (asu.edu)
  • Researchers can predict how molecular pathology ultimately exceeds the limitations of morphopathology, which will allow the more judicious use of minimally invasive biopsy techniques that sacrifice retrieved tissue morphology in favor of comfort of the patient. (abnewswire.com)