The sequence in which children are born into the family.
The degree of antigenic similarity between tissues of the mother and those of the FETUS. Maternal-fetal histocompatibility can determine the acceptance and health of the fetus.
An irrational reaction compounded of grief, loss of self-esteem, enmity against the rival and self criticism.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Female parents, human or animal.
Age of the biological father.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The number of males per 100 females.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Size and composition of the family.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Interactions and relationships between sisters and/or brothers. The concept also applies to animal studies.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).
Inhibits the cytotoxic action of quartz and is reported to have delayed the development of experimental silicosis in rats.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes consisting of several genera. ENTEROBIUS, which occurs in humans, and Oxyuris, which occurs in horses, are two of the most common. Other genera are: Skrjabinema, Passalurus, Dermatoxys, and Probstmayria.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
Selection of a type of occupation or profession.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
The educational process of instructing.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.
The area of those states which seceded in 1861 from the union of the United States of America. They include South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.
A plant genus of the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name of "snowberry" is also used for GAULTHERIA.
Balinese names are quite distinct, as they have a naming system which denotes birth order. Wayan means first born. Made means ... Many Indonesians use Sanskrit-derived names to indicate their position among siblings (birth order). The first-born child might ... Individuals with a distinct family name may also be given this surname if it is recorded differently on the birth certificate. ... In the case of the former Indonesian foreign minister, Marty Natalegawa, "Marty" is his first name, indicating his birth in ...
"The Inversion of the Birth Order and the Title of the Firstborn." Vetus Testamentum, volume 60 (number 4) (2010): pages 655-58. ... presumably in order of birth) "the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan." The Baraita also taught that among all ... Jeremiah 31:8 (31:9 in NJPS) (Ephraim as firstborn).. Ancient[edit]. *Homer. The Iliad Book 9. Greece, 8th-6th century BCE. ( ... On the Birth of Abel and the Sacrifices Offered by Him and by His Brother Cain 2:5; On the Migration of Abraham 5:22, 29:159- ...
... this may be more evident in first-borns possibly due to the birth order. Peers: At a young age, children can already utilize ...
"The Inversion of the Birth Order and the Title of the Firstborn." Vetus Testamentum, volume 60 (number 4) (2010): pages 655-58 ... Rendsburg argued that even though firstborn royal succession was the norm in the ancient Near East, the authors of Genesis ... Amnon was the firstborn, but was killed by his brother Absalom (David's third son) in 2 Samuel 13:29. After Absalom rebelled, ... Joseph could no longer control his emotions and ordered everyone but his brothers to leave the room. He wept aloud, and the ...
"The Inversion of the Birth Order and the Title of the Firstborn." Vetus Testamentum, volume 60, number 4 (2010): pages 655-58. ... presumably in order of birth) "the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan." The Baraita also taught that among all ... The Gemara responded that this was done in order to show honor to the princes and to avoid having to choose the prince of one ... But Jacob laid his right hand on Ephraim, the younger, and his left hand on Manasseh, the firstborn, and prayed that God bless ...
"The Inversion of the Birth Order and the Title of the Firstborn." Vetus Testamentum, volume 60 (number 4) (2010): pages 655-58 ... And within that, at the center, is the narrative of births, in which the birth of Joseph (at Genesis 30:24) marks the turning ... When Rebekah gave birth, the first twin emerged red and hairy, so they named him Esau, and his brother emerged holding Esau's ... "Child Sacrifice: Returning God's Gift: Barren women give birth to exceptional children." Bible Review, volume 9 (number 3) ( ...
"The Inversion of the Birth Order and the Title of the Firstborn". Vetus Testamentum, volume 60, number 4 (2010): pages 655-658 ... Rendsburg argued that even though firstborn royal succession was the norm in the ancient Near East, the authors of Genesis ... and ordered that they bring him near. Joseph then asked Benjamin whether he had a brother. Benjamin replied that he had a ... in order to fulfill the fate of a righteous man, Joseph, in Genesis 41:12. Rabbi Bana'ah argued that the import - and potential ...
Birth order and face-to-face contact with a sibling: Firstborns have more contact than laterborns. Personality and individual ... Yet, this effect is moderated by birth order: Older siblings report more or less the same level of conflict and rivalry ... Alfred Adler saw siblings as "striving for significance" within the family and felt that birth order was an important aspect of ... In fact, psychologists and researchers today endorse the influence of birth order, as well as age and gender constellations, on ...
The people of Bali use the birth order name to refer to one another. The first born are named Wayan, Putu, Gede or for a girl, ... A birth order name is chosen from a few typical names according to the position of the child in the birth order of siblings. ... Both boys and girls receive birth order name from a small typical group of names for each birth order position. These names may ... This "farmer caste" also used birth order names, perhaps to indicate inheritance. Beyond the birth order name, there are no ...
The fraternal birth order effect would not likely apply to first born gay sons; instead, scientists say they may owe their ... Blanchard R (1997). "Birth order and sibling sex ratio in homosexual versus heterosexual males and females". Annual Review of ... Blanchard, R.; Cantor, J.M.; Bogaert, A.F.; Breedlove, S.M.; Ellis, L. (2006). "Interaction of fraternal birth order and ... Known as the fraternal birth order (FBO) effect, scientists attribute this to a prenatal biological mechanism - specifically a ...
Dassler brothers feud Birthright Birth order Family Firstborn Sibling abuse Emotional intelligence Leder, Jane Mersky (January ... Alfred Adler saw siblings as "striving for significance" within the family and felt that birth order was an important aspect of ... In fact, psychologists and researchers today endorse the influence of birth order, as well as age and gender constellations, on ... The sibling bond is often complicated and is influenced by factors such as parental treatment, birth order, personality, and ...
... in which the causal variable was a subtle variation on birth order called "birth-order pair". In 1874, Sir Francis Galton wrote ... As a psychoanalyst, Adler didn't conduct scientific research). Adler agreed with Galton, that a firstborn would benefit from ... Adler, much more so that Galton, was much ore focused on sibling psychological processes, than on using birth order as a ... Galton's psychological explanation is a more important precedent for deidentification than birth order, because the most recent ...
The fraternal birth order effect, however, does not apply to instances where a firstborn is homosexual. In 2004, Italian ... Blanchard R (1997). "Birth order and sibling sex ratio in homosexual versus heterosexual males and females". Annual Review of ... The more sons a mother has will increase the levels of these antibodies, thus creating the observed fraternal birth order ... Bailey JM (January 2018). "The Fraternal Birth Order Effect Is Robust and Important". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 47 (1): 17- ...
", "middle child", and "youngest" or simply distinguish between "firstborn" and "later-born" children. Birth order is commonly ... Birth order has no genetic basis. The social interaction that occurs as a result of birth order however is the most notable. ... "Does Birth Order Affect Intelligence?". Human Intelligence. Alan, E.S. (2012). "Issues in Birth Order Research Methodology: ... The theorizing and study of birth order can be traced back to Francis Galton's (1822-1911) theory of birth order and eminence ...
A number of studies have indicated that as birth order increases IQ decreases with first borns having especially superior ... Pfouts, Jane H (1980). "Birth Order, Age Spacing, IQ Differences and Family Relations". Journal of Marriage and Family. 42 (3 ... A meta analysis of low birth weight babies found that there is a significant relationship between low birth weight and impaired ... There is also evidence that birth complications and other factors around the time of birth (perinatal) can have serious ...
... is the concept of things being due to a person upon or by fact of their birth, or due to the order of their birth. ... That is, the firstborn inherits the birthright and has expectations of primogeniture", which historically referred to the right ... The concept of a birthright is ancient, and is often defined in part with concepts of both patriarchy and birth order. For ... he term birthright signals not only that membership is acquired at birth or on grounds of birth, but also that membership is ...
Sequential birth-order numerical names were a Roman custom; a male firstborn might be named Primus, a third-born tertia Tertia ...
These names are repeated and are given in the birth order of the ancestors. This is seen in fact as the newborn child being ... The first-born son will be given his grandfather's name who in turn received it from his grandfather. The subsequent boys can ... The behavior of a Hupda in this environment is, almost always, one of total submission to any and all order. In this ... be given the names of any younger brothers the grandfather had, in no particular order. The name, apart from legitimizing an ...
... suggested that birth order had powerful effects on the Big Five personality traits. He argued that firstborns ... Sulloway, F.J. (2001). Birth Order, Sibling Competition, and Human Behavior. In Paul S. Davies and Harmon R. Holcomb, (Eds.), ... 107-112) Rohrer, Julia M.; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C. (2015-11-17). "Examining the effects of birth order on ... Subsequent large independent multi-cohort studies have revealed approximately zero-effect of birth order on personality. His ...
From birth she is jealous of Lorian, believing that he robbed her of the honor of being first-born. Referred to as 'The Goddess ... Members of the Guard and Order usually have two birth powers, sometimes three. They are taught to use these powers by their ... The Order of Chaos (known also as The Order) is the collective group of villains in the series. It was created by, and is ... In Marianne Curley's Guardians of Time Trilogy series of fictional books, members of the Guard and Order usually have two birth ...
In later seasons, the writers appear to have retconned the order of birth. In the episode Common Ground, 2017, Frank states ... that Joe was his firstborn and that he misses him every day. He also stated that the boys were 19 months apart and Erin was ... In "New Rules", Linda is shot at the hospital by a teenage gangbanger who had been ordered to kill a witness, but she ... Potter is nearly arrested by Commissioner Reagan for witness tampering, but Frank lets him off with a warning in order for him ...
Regional differences dictate the order of their births. In northern India, Skanda is generally said to be the elder, while in ... the south, Ganesha is considered the firstborn. In northern India, Skanda was an important martial deity from about 500 BCE to ... For a summary of Puranic variants of birth stories. Martin-Dubost 1965, pp. 41-82. Chapter 2, "Stories of Birth According to ... Yuvraj Krishan says that the Puranic myths about the birth of Ganesha and how he acquired an elephant's head are in the later ...
... rejection of matters relating to priestly privilege and special status based upon one's parentage or sibling birth order. ... firstborn). Numbers 3:11-13 (firstborn); 26:9-11 (Korach, Dathan, Abiram). Deuteronomy 15:19-23 (firstborn). 1 Samuel 12:3 (not ... Thus the Bible may be preserving the memory of the firstborn bearing a sacred status, and the replacement of the firstborn by ... The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these sources: Exodus 13:1-2 (firstborn); 13:12-13 (firstborn); 22:28-29 ( ...
... refers to the order a child is born in their family; first-born and second-born are examples. Birth order is often ... Birth order and intelligence Birth order and personality CNN article Child birth order and development The Independent article ... There was, however, some tendency for people to perceive birth order effects when they were aware of the birth order of an ... They found no substantial effects of birth order and concluded that birth order research was a "waste of time." More recent ...
... who argue that birth order effects are weak and inconsistent. In one of the largest studies conducted on the effect of birth ... A second analysis by the authors revealed that only-children, children with only one sibling, and first-borns in general score ... order on the Big Five, data from a national sample of 9,664 subjects found no association between birth order and scores on the ... Sulloway, F. J. (1996), Born to rebel: Birth order, family dynamics and creative lives, New York: Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-679- ...
Regional differences dictate the order of their births. In North India, Skanda is generally said to be the elder brother while ... in the South, Ganesha is considered the first born. Prior to the emergence of Ganesha, Skanda had a long and glorious history ... History about the birth of Ganesha are found in the later Puranas, composed from about 600 CE onwards. References to Ganesha in ... He sent his Shiva-dutas out with orders to bring back the head of the first creature that is lying with its head facing North. ...
One is birth order and age spacing. Martin and Ross found that first-born children were more likely to be sibling abuse ... Sulloway (1996). Born to rebel: birth order, family dynamics, and creative lives. New York: Pantheon Books.. ...
As the sources give the time simply as the night between the 17 and 18 June, we can not know the exact date of Edward's birth.[ ... Soon after assuming the throne, Edward set about restoring order and re-establishing royal authority after the disastrous reign ... and decided to name his firstborn son after the saint.[4][b] Among his childhood friends was his cousin Henry of Almain, son of ... Parsons, John Carmi (1984). "The Year of Eleanor of Castile's Birth and her Children by Edward I". Medieval Studies. XLVI: 245- ...
The Fast of the Firstborn, on the day before Passover, which applies only to first-born sons; this obligation is usually ... Fasting is done in order to seek a closer intimacy with God, as well as an act of petition. Some take up a regular fast of one ... A woman till forty days after giving birth to child or miscarriage. But she must count the day she missed in Ramadan or they ... Upon reading the story, the bishop ordered a three-day fast to ask God for forgiveness. At the end of the three days, the ...
Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley after "Frankenstein": Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth. Madison ... Percy Shelley was the first-born son of a wealthy country squire with strong political connections and a descendant of Sir ... and Florescu reasons that Mary suppressed mention of her visit in order to maintain her public claim of originality.[39] A ... 1986: Gothic, directed by Ken Russell, is the story of the night that Mary Shelley gave birth to Frankenstein. Starring Gabriel ...
... was the first-born son to Avidia Plautia and Lucius Aelius Caesar, the first adopted son and heir of Emperor ... Pontius Laelianus ordered that their saddles be stripped of their padding. Gambling and drinking were sternly policed.[105] ... Cassius was a young senator of low birth from the north Syrian town of Cyrrhus. His father, Heliodorus, had not been a senator ... Because the river breaks across a cliff before reaching the city, Lucius ordered that a new canal be dug. After the project was ...
McWhorter, John H. (2000). The Missing Spanish Creoles: Recovering the Birth of Plantation Contact Languages. University of ... He has been characterized as having first given societal order to the people of Anambra.[30] The historian Elizabeth Allo ... men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons' birthplace. ... such as the birth of twins), animal (such as killing or eating of pythons),[38] object, temporal, behavioral, speech and place ...
The most important was his firstborn, Nicholas. He was never accepted as heir apparent to the Bohemian crown by the sitting ... He was a strong proponent of trade, law and order. Furthermore, he instituted open immigration policies through which skilled ... founded in 1255 by the Teutonic Order, was named in his honour and later became the capital of the Duchy of Prussia. ... the estates called upon him to restore order. ... 1230s births. *1278 deaths. *Monarchs killed in action. *Roman ...
"Does Birth Order Affect Intelligence?". Human Intelligence.. *^ a b c Alan, E.S. (2012). "Issues in Birth Order Research ... Regressive behavior at birthEdit. The arrival of a new baby is especially stressful for firstborns and for siblings between 3 ... Birth order has no genetic basis.[18]. The social interaction that occurs as a result of birth order however is the most ... The theorizing and study of birth order can be traced back to Francis Galton's (1822-1911) theory of birth order and eminence ...
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. This order predicted the world would end during this year.. [157]. ... The 1st-century bishop of Edessa predicted this date to be the birth date of the Antichrist and the end of the universe.. [127] ... The founder of the Church of the Firstborn predicted the Second Coming of Christ would occur on this day.. [98]. ... Bostrom writes "In order to cause the extinction of human life, the impacting body would probably have to be greater than 1 km ...
Although the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke give different accounts of the birth of Jesus, both place the birth in ... 4 The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. 5 The Lord at thy right ... as one that is in bitterness for his first-born." Zechariah 12:10 ... Raymond E. Brown, The Birth of the Messiah, Anchor Bible (1999 ... Hebrews 1:5 employs verse 7 in order to argue that Jesus is superior to the angels, i.e., Jesus is superior as a mediator ...
Firstborn animal · 12. Firstfruits. 13. Burnt offering (Judaism) · 14. Parts of the thank offering and Nazirite's offering ... Legitimacy of birth was essential; hence the care in the keeping of the genealogical records[10] and the distrust of one whose ... As Jesus was not a descendant of Aaron, he would not normally have been eligible to serve as high priest; the "order of ... Coins for redemption of the first born son · 21. Redemption of a donkey. · 22. Dedication of property to a priest. · 23. Field ...
Zeke is Grisha Yeager's firstborn son with Dina Fritz, and Eren's older half-brother.[ch. 35] Indoctrinated since birth to ... When Dot Pyxis gives orders to establish an evacuation route, Aurille counters by ordering that Wall Sina be closed off to ... But this ability is evidently imperfect, as some Titans can somewhat still ignore Zeke's Beast Titan's orders.. Jaw Titan (顎の巨人 ... Before Krista is killed, Rod Reiss orders that she be spared and tells her to assume the name Krista Lentz and to live with the ...
After the birth of the Grand Duchess Olga, her first-born child, Nicholas was reported to have said, "We are grateful she was a ... Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St. Catherine, April 1894. *Dame of the Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-called, 14 ... Birth of eldest child[edit]. On 15 November 1895, Alexandra gave birth to her eldest child and daughter, Grand Duchess Olga at ... After two days of rioting, the tsar ordered the Army to restore order and on 11 March they fired on the crowd. That very same ...
For example, if Paula Segovia marries Felipe Cossia, she might keep her birth name or become Paula Segovia de Cossia or Paula ... Generally speaking, Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese names do not alter their order in English (Mao Zedong, Kim Jong-il, Ho Chi ... If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the ... In the latter case the partner whose name wasn't chosen can keep his birth name hyphenated to the new name (e.g. Schmidt and ...
... one from the Order of St. Francis and the other from the Order of St. Dominic. They should bring the most extensive powers Your ... As the first-born legitimate son, Don Martín Cortés y Zúñiga was now Cortés's heir and succeeded him as holder of the title and ... don Luis Cortés y Ramírez de Arellano, born in Texcoco in 1530 and died shortly after his birth. ... He ignored the orders and, in an act of open mutiny, went anyway in February 1519. He stopped in Trinidad, Cuba, to hire more ...
Circe as angry with Lyta for not following her orders to stay hidden but Wonder Woman verbally chastised Circe to see the ... Eros would make his stand with Diana, her allies and the remaining Olympian gods when the villainous First Born began his ... After the five Amazons gave birth against their will, they were magically forced into an eternal sleep. The infants were raised ...
He also ordered, just a few days before his death, Michelangelo's painting of The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel.[22] ... On April 26, 1478 - exactly one month before his birth - his father, Giuliano de Medici (brother of Lorenzo the Magnificent) ... Following the fortunes of Lorenzo the Magnificent's firstborn son, Piero the Unfortunate, in 1494, the Medici were expelled ... Clement VII is remembered for issuing orders protecting Jews from the Inquisition, approving the Capuchin Franciscan Order, and ...
... had no Karma to work out when first born as men, as their more favoured brethren in intelligence had" (The Secret Doctrine, Vol ... through birth, growth, adulthood and then decline and death. ... Occultism · Order of the Star in the East. *. Theosophy portal ...
The speciose insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and their closest relatives, Trichoptera (caddis flies), share a ... Learning gender roles starts from birth and includes seemingly simple things like what color outfits a baby is clothed in or ... Contemporary socialisation theory proposes the notion that when a child is first born it has a biological sex but no social ... She starts her argument with an example of the birth of an intersexual individual and maintains "our conceptions of the nature ...
BirthEdit. Jupiter is depicted as the twin of Juno in a statue at Praeneste that showed them nursed by Fortuna Primigenia.[35] ... This is why the temple of Dius Fidius has an opening in the roof, in order to allow the view of the diuum i. e. the caelum sky ... An inscription that is also from Praeneste, however, says that Fortuna Primigenia was Jupiter's first-born child.[36] ... The role of Jupiter in the conflict of the orders is a reflection of the religiosity of the Romans. On one side, the patricians ...
Accepting the Order of the White Eagle from Polish President Lech Kaczyński, on behalf of Ronald Reagan, July 15, 2007 ... These included Ford Television Theatre (her first appearance with Ronald Reagan came during a 1953 episode titled "First Born ... When Nancy Davis signed with MGM, she gave her birth date as July 6, 1923, shaving two years off her age, a common practice in ... Approximately a year into her husband's first term, Nancy explored the idea of ordering new state china service for the White ...
Spain: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa. *. Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Sports Merit[39] ... From her birth, as the daughter of the heir to the Crown of Spain she was given the title of Infanta of Spain with treatment of ... Infanta Pilar was the firstborn daughter of Juan de Borbón y Battenberg and María de las Mercedes de Borbón y Orleans, Counts ... in Spanish) Royal Decree 1297/2002 Infanta Pilar of Spain member of the Royal Order of the Sports Merit.) Boe.es ...
Årgang 0 (Generation 0) by TV2 (2000) - The show follows the children, born in the year 2000, from birth. ... Law and Order) ... Firstborn (1984). *Critical Condition (1987). *Gorillas in the ... British birth cohort studies continuing, multi-disciplinary longitudinal surveys monitoring the development of babies born in ... was that class structure is so strong in the UK that a person's life path would be set at birth. The producer of the original ...
"Lyons, Enid Muriel, Dame of the Order of Australia". It's an Honour. Government of Australia. Retrieved 22 January 2008.. ... She was told by doctors that she would never be able to have children,[13] but in fact went on to give birth to twelve - the ... first born when she was 19 and the last born when she was 36. Her subsequent pregnancies went relatively smoothly, with the ... Lyons was made a Dame of the Order of Australia (AD) on Australia Day 1980,[10] the second woman to receive this honour after ...
From before her birth, her grandmother Clara decreed that she was blessed by the stars. Because of this, Clara said she didn't ... Blanca is Clara and Esteban's first-born daughter. She spends her childhood between the Truebas' house in the capital and Tres ... Rosa waits patiently while Esteban slowly accumulates wealth working in the mines in order to feel worthy of Rosa. Esteban ... Clara gives birth to a daughter named Blanca and later, to twin boys Jaime and Nicolás. The family, which resides in the ...
He orders the Enterprise to surrender, but General Korrd calls him off and forces him to rescue Kirk from the surface of Sha Ka ... Since her birth, she was intended to be Valtese Chancellor Alrik's Kriosian peace bride in an effort to reunite the two planets ... The Trill envoy became such a trusted family friend that Kang's firstborn, a boy, was made his godson and named "Dax" in his ... When the Obsidian Order and the Tal Shiar began their attack on the Founders' homeworld, Lovok gave Odo and Elim Garak access ...
He, therefore, ordered all the prisoners executed. He then moved south, defeating Saladin's forces at the Battle of Arsuf 30 ... Before leaving Cyprus on crusade, Richard married Berengaria, the first-born daughter of King Sancho VI of Navarre. Richard ... died before Richard's birth.[10] Richard is often depicted as having been the favourite son of his mother.[12] His father was ... On 1 May 1191 Richard's fleet arrived in the port of Lemesos on Cyprus.[76] He ordered Isaac to release the prisoners and ...
Birth of the Reform Movement[edit]. The beginning of the Reform Movement in Judaism was emphasized by David Philipson, who was ... A Matrikel, which could cost up to 1,000 gulden, was usually restricted to firstborn sons.[33] As a result, most Jewish men ... The SS ordered the Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht) to be carried out that night, November 9-10, 1938. The storefronts of ... In order for mothers to assimilate into German culture, they took pleasure in reading newspapers and magazines that focused on ...
Henry VIII (ruled 1509-1547) ordered that marital births be recorded under the surname of the father.[7] In England and ... First-born males bore their father's surname, other children bore either both or only one of them at their will. ... Order of names[edit]. Further information: Personal name § Name order. In many cultures (particularly in European and European- ... a new law approved in 1999 allows an adult to change the order of his/her family names, and parents can also change the order ...
Firstborn, middle child, or last-born: Birth order has only very small effects on personality. ... "The real news of our study is that we found no substantial effects of birth order on any of the personality dimensions we ... Examining the effects of birth order on personality Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... and conscientiousness are not affected by birth-order position. Only regarding self-reported intellect small effects were found ...
Whether birth order matters has occupied scientists for centuries. Francis Galton found that first-borns were over-represented ... birthorder. Serial killers, Prime Ministers and divorcees. Birth order clearly matters, just not for personality. charamelody/ ... will fit into a birth order. The first-born usually has the undivided attention of their parents for some time but is also ... Anxious conservative or easygoing rebel? Busting the birth-order myths. Like those that cant live without their siblings, ...
"Birth Order - baby, Definition, Description, Common problems". www.healthofchildren.com. Joshua K. Hartshorne. "How Birth Order ... a large number of every type of leader was firstborn rather than last. Birth order, and the role of the firstborn, can become ... A firstborn (also known as an eldest child or sometimes firstling or phirst) is the first child born to in the birth order of a ... "Personality Traits Linked To Birth Order". CBS News. Schachter, Stanley (3 July 1963). "Birth Order, Eminence and Higher ...
... this book uncovers the unique traits of the firstborn and helps them learn how to take advantage of the good and minimize the ... I am a big believer in birth order and how it affects family dynamics. Read full review ... First-born children. First-born children - Family relationships. First-born children - Psychology. First-born children/ Family ... alcoholic Alcoholics Anonymous Alfred Adler anger angry baby behavior believe better Bill Cosby Billy Billy Joel birth order ...
Learn about sibling birth order, handling sibling rivalry, and preparing your child for another baby. Find out everything you ... Whether youre firstborn, middle child, last-born, or only child, birth order can have a big effect on your personality and ... How Birth Order Shapes Personality. Oldest, middle, youngest, or only child? Where you are can shape who you are. ... How Birth Order Affects Your Childs Personality and Behavior. ... How to Help Your Firstborn Adapt to Baby. Worried that the new ...
Just so, Bill Clinton, who appears to have had an older half-brother, although we counted him as first-born.. Birth order as a ... first-born ones--were more interested in intellectual, cognitive pursuits than later-born offspring were.. Birth order may ... first-born females performed significantly better than males who were not first-born; and (3) first-born in two-children ... A Study of the Relationship between Birth Order and Reading Achievement among Seventh and Eighth Graders ...
... suggesting that reduced parental investment in the education of children with later birth orders may be partly responsible, ... reduced parental investment in childrens education for offspring of later birth order contributed to the observed birth order ... First-born individuals in a sample of adults in the United Kingdom were more likely to be nearsighted than later-born ... One potential cause of the association between birth order and myopia is parental investment in education; on average, parents ...
... psychologists say your birth order can say a lot about what youll be like as an adult. ... Parents arent as strict with youngest children as they were with firstborns, psychologist and author of "The Birth Order Book ... Family dynamics differ from house to house, but as studies have shown over the years, birth orders play a huge role in the ... As adults, firstborn kids are typically leaders, achievers, and perfectionists.. These ambitious women were both firstborns.. ...
Birth order. First born. 60 (31.7). Second born. 63 (33.3). Later born. 66 (34.9). ...
Balinese names are quite distinct, as they have a naming system which denotes birth order. Wayan means first born. Made means ... Many Indonesians use Sanskrit-derived names to indicate their position among siblings (birth order). The first-born child might ... On the birth certificate, the childs name would be written as "Hasan child of Suparman and Wulandari". The birth certificate ... On the birth certificate, the childs name would be written as "Yovan Gunardio Darmawan child of Budi Darmawan and Natalena ...
Birth order. A childs position in the family tends to carry with it certain roles and personality traits that can be ... Firstborns tend to be reliable; conscientious; structured; cautious; controlling; achievers. Middle children tend to be people- ... A persons birth order, the rules in their family of origin (both spoken and unspoken), family roles, and home environment. ...
Tags: bill gates, birth order, business politics, car seat, change in business, communication skills, conclusion, daily mail, ... Are firstborns smarter than their second-born siblings? - Nov 25, 2010. *First-born kids more likely to suffer from allergies ... Salmon, a professor who reviewed dozens of studies into the effect of birth order for her book "The Secret Power of Middle ... Looking for the perfect man or woman? Just find out his or her birth order - Feb 01, 2011 ...
This finding is consistent with the literature on birth order of scientists. In terms of parental education, approximately two- ... Nearly two in five respondents were first-borns and/or only children. ... In order to participate in math and science careers, students must first develop an interest in math and/or science, and ... In order to reach parity, it is going to take tremendous production for the next generation of both African-American and ...
First born tend to be drawn to government positions and science. Middle children lean toward public service and care-taking ... New Study from CareerBuilder Shows How Birth Order, Siblings and Astrology Impact Pay, Title and Profession. Chicago, Illinois ... title and salary based on birth order, astrological sign and sibling status. The survey was conducted between May 18 and June 8 ... Among workers with siblings, a first born child is the most likely to earn six figures and hold a C-level position while a last ...
Birth Order. [] Twins (or More) - $300. [] First Born - $300 [] Only Child - $250. [x] Second Born - $150 [] Middle Child - $ ...
... terms borrowed from Chinese are used for numerical order of birth. Each marriage produces a nuclear family, kamaganakan (anak ... Usually there are terms for firstborn and lastborn: panganay and bunso. In some communities and families, ... or oh in a descending order during conversation. ... and non-Tagalog families and the various religious orders. Thus ...
... "firstborn effect" and personality traits associated with birth order. Read More ... Are firstborns really natural leaders?. Are first born children really natural leaders? Researchers examine the " ...
7, 1996 Read last night an essay on the possible significance of birth order. All three of the Nobel Prize-winning disco ... ... Read last night an essay on the possible significance of birth order. All three of the Nobel Prize-winning discoverers of DNA ... Firstborns tend to be more assertive than laterborns, and also more conservative. Laterborns turn out to be more innovative, ... "Only" children--my daughter is one, and so are two close friends who are novelists--are generally classified among firstborns. ...
With reference to the birth order effect, MacDonald (1972) proposed that firstborns volunteer because they are more highly ... Other factors that have been linked to the volunteering behavior is a persons birth-order. It was shown by Schachter (1959) ... Preference sheets were used to record the subjects sex, birth order and choice of experiment. Analysis found support for the ... No evidence was found to support a relationship between birth order and volunteering. In an apparent reversal of the expected ...
"The Inversion of the Birth Order and the Title of the Firstborn." Vetus Testamentum, volume 60 (number 4) (2010): pages 655-58. ... presumably in order of birth) "the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan." The Baraita also taught that among all ... Jeremiah 31:8 (31:9 in NJPS) (Ephraim as firstborn).. Ancient[edit]. *Homer. The Iliad Book 9. Greece, 8th-6th century BCE. ( ... On the Birth of Abel and the Sacrifices Offered by Him and by His Brother Cain 2:5; On the Migration of Abraham 5:22, 29:159- ...
... visits and birth interval but deliveries at a health facility with caesarean section was associated with delayed initiation of ... Among children aged 0-23 months, 38% [95% CI 36, 39%] were breastfed within the first hour of birth, and 15% [95% CI: 14, 17%] ... Higher birth order was also associated with early initiation of breastfeeding. In the final model, birth order was replaced ... birth order of child (the position of the under-5 child in the family) and preceding birth interval (categorized as no previous ...
... from birth order studies to sibling rivalries and fighting. ... from birth order studies to sibling rivalries and fighting. ... KLUGER: Well, I think 21 of the first 23 astronauts were either firstborns or only children. And, you know, firstborns and only ... which is why it doesnt surprise me that by no means does every birth order - or birth order of traits consistent across ... FLATOW: Does it matter which order you are? KLUGER: It does, and birth order is one of those rare things that the average ...
birth order (first-born infants are at higher risk). * socioeconomic status (Children born into lower socioeconomic families ... The full extent of the problem is usually not completely understood immediately after birth, but may be revealed as the child ... are seen in seven out of 10,000 live births in the US. ... surgery prenatally to correct this condition before birth. The ...
Birth order. First-born babies are at higher risk.. * Socioeconomic status. Children born into lower socioeconomic families are ... Spina bifida is a condition present at birth (birth defect) when there are problems with the spine, spinal cord, and the ... Spina bifida is a type of birth defect called a neural tube defect. It can cause part of the spinal cord and areas around it to ... It often isnt fully known right after birth how serious the spina bifida is. It can become clearer as your child grows and ...
Generation: Order of birth in relation to the family at large. Your founder is generation 1, your founder s son/daughter would ... Q: Does the first born have to be the heir?. A: No, as long as they are part of the bloodline and born on the legacy house they ... You earn each point at the birth of the first child in each generation. Further births in that generation do not generate more ... regardless of order of birth. They must be the proper gender if playing with the matriarchy/patriarchy option. Q: Are ...
One thing that we rarely do is FRET over our birth order. It is interesting to see others relegate us to the forgotten category ... or the contentious firstborn.. 1. Middle of the pack? We like it!. ... Years of dealing with family dynamics, the highs and lows of birth order, we who are middle born tend to find ourselves later ... Our perspective is broad based and if that is because of our birth order, who cares? Were happy to share our good fortune. ...
  • Mainz/Leipzig) Who we become only marginally correlates with our birth position amongst siblings. (healthcanal.com)
  • Now a new study , published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and based on data from 20,000 individuals, concludes that birth order does matter when it comes to IQ - with the oldest having slightly higher IQ than their younger siblings. (theconversation.com)
  • Most children have siblings and, apart from twins who are usually born within minutes of each other (but still squabble about who is older), will fit into a birth order. (theconversation.com)
  • The way siblings of a firstborn act towards them and the expectations from the people around them are also factors of the way their character develops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some experts say that firstborn children want back the attention they may have lost with their siblings' arrivals, but what often gets overshadowed is how they seek out that attention. (businessinsider.com)
  • Are firstborns smarter than their second-born siblings? (thaindian.com)
  • In his new book The Sibling Effect: What the Bonds Among Brothers and Sisters Reveal About Us , author Jeffrey Kluger describes current scientific research into the effects of siblings on human behavior, from birth order studies to sibling rivalries and fighting. (npr.org)
  • He also made the case that people tend to have more in common with someone of their own birth rank than their own siblings. (gizmodo.com)
  • To examine the relation between birth weight and measured intelligence at age 7 years in children within the normal range of birth weight and in siblings. (bmj.com)
  • Imagine you are trying to figure out whether the personality traits of firstborns systematically differ from those of younger siblings. (psychologicalscience.org)
  • What exactly does "firstborn" mean when some people have half- or step-siblings? (psychologicalscience.org)
  • And what about the age gaps between siblings - does it make a difference if the firstborn is barely a year older than the younger sibling compared with siblings who are separated by a gap of 10 years? (psychologicalscience.org)
  • I happen to be a firstborn child, which is why I love to remind my younger sister that scientific studies suggest firstborn kids are smarter than their siblings. (lenpenzo.com)
  • To make sure that there wasn't something about having lots of kids that could affect eyesight, Guggenheim and his colleagues compared families with two children to the entire database, and found the relationship between myopia, firstborns and later siblings to be pretty much the same. (knpr.org)
  • Most large birth-order studies are across-family, comparing the IQs of all oldest siblings surveyed to those of all youngest siblings surveyed. (causeweb.org)
  • Researchers have long had evidence that firstborns tended to be more dutiful and cautious than their siblings, and some previous studies found significant I.Q. differences. (causeweb.org)
  • Among competing explanations, two have stood out: * one emphasizes interactions within the family for intellectual stimulation of the low [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birth_order birth-order] siblings * another cites prenatal or gestational factors. (causeweb.org)
  • Some studies claim that both the older and younger siblings tend to describe the firstborn as more disciplined, responsible, high-achieving. (causeweb.org)
  • This study found an ambiguous and gradual decline [in Birth order effect] from one to seven years [Age gap between siblings], but also a much bigger cliff from seven to eight years. (lesswrong.com)
  • Does having additional siblings qualitatively change how age gap modifies the Birth order effect? (lesswrong.com)
  • We furthermore used two different analytical strategies by comparing siblings with different birth-order positions ( i ) within the same family (within-family design) and ( ii ) between different families (between-family design). (pnas.org)
  • In 1874, Francis Galton-the youngest of nine siblings-analyzed a sample of English scientists to find that firstborns were overrepresented ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • A study of National Merit Scholarship finalists found that firstborn children were finalists far more often than their younger siblings. (creators.com)
  • Firstborns are disproportionately represented in high-paying professions, while younger siblings are less educated but "statistically likelier to live the exhilarating life of an artist or a comedian, an adventurer, entrepreneur, GI or firefighter. (wordpress.com)
  • Laterborns, for example, are less likely than firstborns to be vaccinated, and in developing countries laterborns tend to be shorter and to suffer higher rates of childhood mortality than do their older siblings. (faqs.org)
  • In these same non-Western societies, firstborns were typically found to receive more elaborate birth ceremonies than laterborns, to have power over their younger siblings, to acquire and control more parental property in adulthood, and to carry greater authority with nonfamily members. (faqs.org)
  • The emotional bond between siblings is often complicated and is influenced by factors such as parental treatment, birth order , personality , and personal experiences outside the family. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Swedish study found that birth order and the number of siblings you have may affect your risk of heart disease and mortality. (newsmax.com)
  • While an only child will by definition also always be the "firstborn", in larger families the firstborn often perceives himself or herself to be treated differently from later children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychologist Frank Sulloway, a visiting scholar at the University of California, Berkeley and the U.S.'s leading authority on birth order, says that "in many families the firstborn is going to get into Harvard and the second-born isn't. (wordpress.com)
  • Firstborns tend to be more assertive than laterborns, and also more conservative. (slate.com)
  • Firstborns tend to volunteer more when the method of recruitment is intimate or personal basis. (earthlink.net)
  • Years of dealing with family dynamics, the highs and lows of birth order, we who are middle born tend to find ourselves later with others of the same mindset. (lifehack.org)
  • In the current study we set out to test whether the link between birth order and myopia might have arisen because first-born individuals tend to spend slightly longer in full-time education than later-born individuals," Jeremy Guggenheim , the lead author, wrote in an email. (knpr.org)
  • This situation probably accounts for another personality difference of firstborns relative to later-borns: Firstborns tend to score higher on such measures of intelligence as intelligence (IQ) tests. (enotes.com)
  • Firstborn males tend to score higher on creativity measures than do later-born males. (enotes.com)
  • They found that central personality traits such as extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are not affected by birth-order position. (healthcanal.com)
  • Researchers examine the "firstborn effect" and personality traits associated with birth order. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • On the basis of the high statistical power and the consistent results across samples and analytical designs, we must conclude that birth order does not have a lasting effect on broad personality traits outside of the intellectual domain. (pnas.org)
  • Half a century later, Alfred Adler, the second of six children, extended the psychology of birth order to personality traits ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • We study the effect of birth order on personality traits among men using population data on enlistment records and occupations for Sweden. (nber.org)
  • Laypeople as well a scientist share a number of beliefs: Firstborns are supposedly perfectionists, for example, while middle children develop a talent for diplomacy and last-borns are expected to be rebellious. (healthcanal.com)
  • Cohort studies, those that follow children born at a certain time from birth, usually only follow one child from each family. (theconversation.com)
  • When examining answers from organized studies, personality and attitude traits are repeated when comparing different children born into the same birth order. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment of a parent to a firstborn cause the child to become jealous or bitter towards the next child or children to come. (wikipedia.org)
  • When studying famous and historic geniuses in the artistic field, recurrence has demonstrated firstborns to be the children with a creative side as well as being the productive ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Firstborns are more likely to associate with firstborns, middle-borns with middle-borns, lastborns with lastborns, and only children with only children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birth order, and the role of the firstborn, can become complicated in non-nuclear families, with situations such as parents of one child or set of children separating from each other and entering relationships with other people, and then having children with their new partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • First-born individuals in a sample of adults in the United Kingdom were more likely to be nearsighted than later-born individuals in a family, and the association was larger before adjusting for educational exposure, suggesting that reduced parental investment in the education of children with later birth orders may be partly responsible, according to a study published online by JAMA Ophthalmology . (eurekalert.org)
  • Firstborn children are thought to be more ambitious and thirsty for lost attention. (businessinsider.com)
  • Salmon, a professor who reviewed dozens of studies into the effect of birth order for her book "The Secret Power of Middle Children", said: "As children, middles have to wait a lot. (thaindian.com)
  • Not that these speculations are reliably productive: Kepler and Newton were firstborns, and Darwin was the fifth of six children. (slate.com)
  • Only" children--my daughter is one, and so are two close friends who are novelists--are generally classified among firstborns. (slate.com)
  • Schachter theorized that it is probably due to different child rearing practices applied to firstborns and to children who were born later. (earthlink.net)
  • Among children aged 0-23 months, 38% [95% CI 36, 39%] were breastfed within the first hour of birth, and 15% [95% CI: 14, 17%] were bottle-fed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Firstborn and only children are often responsible, reliable, high achievers. (aoa.org)
  • Researchers from the Illinois College of Optometry (ICO) found that such children have better eye movement skills when compared to children who fall later in birth order. (aoa.org)
  • Firstborn and only children are definitely an area of interest," says Christine Allison, O.D., who co-authored the study with Darrell Schlange, O.D., both professors at ICO. (aoa.org)
  • This specific research came out of a real-world observation that firstborn and only children often do better in school, especially during the earlier years. (aoa.org)
  • As far as we know, there has been no other eye-related research on firstborn and only children. (aoa.org)
  • The study suggests that firstborn children are often encouraged to perform certain activities-like coloring, drawing, putting together puzzles, solving mazes and working in activity books-before entering kindergarten, which may lead to better eye movement skills at a young age. (aoa.org)
  • For evidence, Dr. Allison points to a 2008 study by economics professor Joseph Price, Ph.D., which found that firstborn children spend about 3,000 more hours of quality time with their parents or caregivers during childhood than children farther down in birth order. (aoa.org)
  • Children are treated differently based upon their respective birth orders. (hubpages.com)
  • By virtue of their birth order, oldest children have to be the adult one in the family.He/she is the least childlike of all birth orders.He/she has to grow up quickly. (hubpages.com)
  • Still other oldest children sublimate their dethronement upon the arrival of the new sibling and vow to be "the best child" in order to gain their parents' admiration, respect, and love as well as the new sibling. (hubpages.com)
  • Children who come further down in the birth order have, on average, lower IQs than those born earlier in the birth order (e.g. (brainmass.com)
  • 3484 children of 1683 mothers in a birth cohort study during the years 1959 through 1966. (bmj.com)
  • The sample was restricted to children born at ≥37 weeks gestation and with birth weights of 1500-3999 g. (bmj.com)
  • The effect in boys remained after differences in birth order, maternal smoking, and head circumference were adjusted for and in an analysis restricted to children with birth weight ≥ 2500 g. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Within the low birth weight range, children who are smaller at birth have larger deficits than those closer to normal birth weight. (bmj.com)
  • Although the reported effects of variation within normal birth weight on IQ are modest and of no clinical importance for individual children, they could be important at a population level because of the large proportion of children born of normal weight. (bmj.com)
  • With mistimed and unwanted births accounting for 39% of births to ever-married women aged 15-44 in 1988 1 and 67% of those to their never-married counterparts, 2 it is important to understand whether planning status is associated with developmental deficits in children. (guttmacher.org)
  • Proponents of this train of thought usually note that the overwhelming majority of Nobel Laureates happen to be firstborn children, as were 21 of the first 23 American astronauts sent into space. (lenpenzo.com)
  • And the majority of US presidents have been firstborn children too. (lenpenzo.com)
  • In fact, although the press release stated otherwise, their survey shows that there is very little statistical difference between firstborn, middle-born, last-born, and only children when it comes to financial behavior with respect to saving money, investment strategy, and overall financial responsibility. (lenpenzo.com)
  • With data from the birth registry of the Katsina Local Government Authority, the sex ratio was calculated for 1113313 Hausa children born alive between 1961 and 1980. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Firstborn children are 10 percent more likely to be nearsighted than latter-borns, according to a study published Thursday in JAMA Ophthalmology . (knpr.org)
  • That's how they came up with the idea that "reduced parental investment in education of children with later birth order may be partly responsible. (knpr.org)
  • Can Birth Order Put Children at Risk for Overweight? (psychologytoday.com)
  • Children who experienced the birth of a sibling when they were 36 to 54 months old had the lowest prevalence at 4.8%," the study states. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Looking at weight and birth order of 4,026 children ages nine and ten, the findings were similar: The odds that an only child would be overweight were higher when measured against middle children. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The analysis thus adds to a thin empirical literature focusing on birth order effects among young children. (repec.org)
  • We find that being firstborn confers a significant advantage in families with two, three and four children. (repec.org)
  • Most research has focused on comparing the firstborn child with later-born children. (enotes.com)
  • Firstborns often grow up to be more anxious than later-born children. (enotes.com)
  • This finding could be explained by the ways in which parents treat their firstborn child as well as how parents treat their female children. (enotes.com)
  • For example, firstborns are more likely to go to college than children in any other position in the family. (wordpress.com)
  • The NICHD Study of Early Child Care enrolled just over 1,300 children at birth at 10 research sites throughout the United States. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, irrespective of method, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that earlier born children have higher IQs. (nber.org)
  • Also, there is no evidence that birth order effects occur because later-born children are more affected by family breakdown. (nber.org)
  • Sensitivity analyses restricted to severe malformations, children of maternal painters with ≥2 years of pre-pregnancy exposure, and firstborn children, and analyses with maternal healthcare assistants and kitchen workers as reference supported the main results. (sjweh.fi)
  • The results showed, as expected, that first-born children scored higher on intelligence tests than later-born children, and that as a child s birth order increased, intelligence scores went down. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hence, children have the The purpose of this paper is to examine the trends in opportunity of receiving this vaccine soon after birth. (who.int)
  • The mechanisms proposed to explain the relationship between birth intervals and long-term cognitive development and socioeconomic outcomes concern physiological mechanisms (such as maternal depletion) as well as the taxing impact of raising multiple, closely spaced children on the emotional, social, and financial resources of parents. (springer.com)
  • It has repeatedly been shown that the costs of children, both direct and indirect, are one of the most important determinants of fertility, exerting a significantly negative effect on birth rates in both developed and developing countries. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, there is substantial evidence that the marginal costs of children are not constant but decrease with birth order in developed countries. (deepdyve.com)
  • Firstborn children cost significantly more in terms of additional mother's time than children of higher birth orders. (deepdyve.com)
  • The effect of birth spacing on the marginal time costs of children is also found to be significant. (deepdyve.com)
  • Neural tube defects, including spina bifida (open spine) and anencephaly (open skull), are seen in seven out of 10,000 live births in the US. (rochester.edu)
  • Neural tube defects affect 7 out of 10,000 live births in the U.S. (uhhospitals.org)
  • During the 1970s, the crude incidence of Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn (RhHDN) in the United States dropped 65 per cent---from 40.5/10,000 total births in 1970 to 14.3/10,000 total births in 1979. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The rate of ONTD occurrence in Arkansas is 7.8 out of 10,000 births and 30 out of 10,000 births in Washington. (indiahospitaltour.com)
  • In specified cases, the firstborn child that was studied on was observed again as an adult and continued to demonstrate the identical traits as seen when they were a child. (wikipedia.org)
  • books.google.com - Written specifically for adults who were the first born in their families or their parents, this book uncovers the unique traits of the firstborn and helps them learn how to take advantage of the good and minimize the bad. (google.com)
  • It's not easy to isolate traits that are dependent on birth order. (gizmodo.com)
  • According to the book The Birth Order Connection: Finding and Keeping the Love of your Life , the order in which you are born determines a host of traits, positive and negative. (wordpress.com)
  • They reduced the lists of these descriptors (arbitrarily) by 5-10 fold and then used factor analysis to group the remaining traits (using data mostly based upon people's estimations, in self-report questionnaire and peer ratings) in order to find the underlying factors of personality. (rug.nl)
  • But scientists have failed to find any real evidence for a link between birth order and personality. (theconversation.com)
  • Whether birth order matters has occupied scientists for centuries. (theconversation.com)
  • KLUGER: It does, and birth order is one of those rare things that the average person came upon even before scientists really began realizing it. (npr.org)
  • Psychologists, social scientists, and sociologists assert that being the oldest child in a family can either be the most majestic or the most put upon of all birth orders. (hubpages.com)
  • For example, there are more famous firstborn scientists (for their proportion in the population) than would be expected by chance. (enotes.com)
  • A firstborn (also known as an eldest child or sometimes firstling or phirst) is the first child born to in the birth order of a couple through childbirth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, the role of the firstborn child has been socially significant, particularly for a firstborn son in patriarchal societies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In law, many systems have incorporated the concept of primogeniture, wherein the firstborn child inherits their parent's property. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Adler, firstborns are "dethroned" when a second child comes along, and this may have a lasting influence on them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies showed an effect on both personality and IQ of a child when comparing the order of birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In such instances, the first child born in the new relationship may be considered the firstborn for that couple, even though it may not be the first child born to either partner in the couple. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether you're firstborn, middle child, last-born, or only child, birth order can have a big effect on your personality and behavior. (parents.com)
  • Whether you're a firstborn, a middle child, or the baby of your family, you have enviable qualities that could impact the rest of your life. (businessinsider.com)
  • The birth certificate of an extramarital child would bear only the mother's name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parents seem to be more solicitous and attentive to a firstborn child than to one who is born later. (earthlink.net)
  • The latest findings, published in Pediatrics , titled "Effect of Sibling Birth on BMI Trajectory in the First 6 Years of Life" found a suggested link between the Body Mass Index (BMI) of a first-born child and its sibling status. (psychologytoday.com)
  • A child's order of birth into a family may influence how the parents treat the child. (enotes.com)
  • The birth of their first child is a major event in their lives, and it can be somewhat threatening. (enotes.com)
  • It should be made clear that this does not mean that every firstborn child is more anxious than every later-born child. (enotes.com)
  • When the firstborn child is growing up and until the birth of a sibling, the child has the parents all to himself or herself. (enotes.com)
  • The firstborn female child has two disadvantages. (enotes.com)
  • One study of the role of birth order in thirty-nine non-Western societies found that the birth of the first child generally has special significance, stabilizing the marriage and raising the status of the parents. (faqs.org)
  • And more women are depressed when their child turns four than at any time before that, according to the study, which challenges the notion that mothers' birth-related mental struggles usually happen at or after the baby's arrival. (multibriefs.com)
  • The International Cesarean Awareness Network is a non-profit organization whose mission is to improve maternal-child health by reducing preventable cesareans through education, supporting cesarean recovery, and advocating for vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). (ican-online.org)
  • That variable was the mother s age at the birth of her first child. (innovations-report.com)
  • The younger a mother was at the birth of her first child, the lower we would expect intelligence scores to be within a family," Wichman said. (innovations-report.com)
  • This paper also shown that birth order of the child, residence (rural/ examines the trends in vaccination coverage and further urban) and mother's education are major determinants of analyses the impact of sex of the child, birth order of the immunization status of the child. (who.int)
  • This advice is based on the findings of previous studies suggesting that both the mother and subsequent child are more likely to suffer negative consequences in the short- and long-term if the birth interval is less than 24 months. (springer.com)
  • By examining the determinants of additional time spent in childcare before and after the birth of a child, it is found that the marginal time costs are not the same across households of various sizes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although firstborns are different genders, there are qualities that surpass the difference due to the child's environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family dynamics differ from house to house, but as studies have shown over the years, birth orders play a huge role in the development of a child's personality. (businessinsider.com)
  • Because of the oldest child's ordinal birth order position within the family constellation, he/she is often designated as the responsible one. (hubpages.com)
  • Neither birth order nor the child's temperament was associated with the father's caregiving reponsibilities. (nih.gov)
  • One in three first-time mothers suffers symptoms of depression linked to their baby's birth while pregnant and/or during the first four years of the child's life, according to research. (multibriefs.com)
  • This suggests that, though there may be measurable effects on birth outcomes, acute psychological stressors during pregnancy have limited adverse consequences for the child's success in education and the labor market. (nhh.no)
  • In his book, he also notes that firstborns are achievement-minded and good in leadership roles, but could falter under radical change and ambiguous job titles. (businessinsider.com)
  • We examine birth order effects on academic achievement for ten-year-old students using data for the entire population of fifth graders in Norway 2007/2008. (repec.org)
  • Academic Achievement of Firstborn and Secondborn College Adults: Effects of Birth Order, Birth Spacing, and Childhood Socioeconomic Status. (rit.edu)
  • Neural tube defects, including spina bifida (open spine) and anencephaly (open skull), are seen in one to two out of 1,000 live births. (indiahospitaltour.com)
  • Ireland has the highest number of documented cases, where spina bifida occurs in approximately 4.2 out of 1,000 live births. (indiahospitaltour.com)
  • A person's birth order, the rules in their family of origin (both spoken and unspoken), family roles, and home environment. (psychcentral.com)
  • Other factors that have been linked to the volunteering behavior is a person's birth-order. (earthlink.net)
  • Birth order matters: the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment ," Journal of Population Economics , Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 22(2), pages 367-397, April. (repec.org)
  • Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment ," CEPR Discussion Papers 506, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University. (repec.org)
  • Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment ," CEPR Discussion Papers 5453, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers. (repec.org)
  • Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment ," IZA Discussion Papers 1713, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • Birth Order, Educational Attainment, and Earnings: An Investigation Using the PSID ," Journal of Human Resources , University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(4). (repec.org)
  • Birth Order, Educational Attainment and Earnings: An Investigation Using the PSID ," IZA Discussion Papers 1789, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • We examine the relationship between birth-to-birth intervals and a variety of mid- and long-term cognitive and socioeconomic outcomes, including high school GPA, cognitive ability, educational attainment, earnings, unemployment status, and receiving government welfare support. (springer.com)
  • It was shown by Schachter (1959) that firstborn college students generally possess a higher need for affiliation than those who are later born, especially in anxiety arousing situations. (earthlink.net)
  • [15] But Jacob laid his right hand on Ephraim, the younger, and his left hand on Manasseh, the firstborn, and prayed that God bless the lads, let Jacob's name be named in them, and let them grow into a multitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • James Boone's 1986 genealogical study of the leading families of medieval Portugal found that eldest sons were 1.6 times more likely than younger sons to leave descendants over a period of two centuries, whereas younger sons were 9 times more likely than firstborns to father offspring out of wedlock. (faqs.org)
  • The researchers determined the odds for myopia and by birth order, adjusting for age and sex, and education. (eurekalert.org)
  • Taking a closer look at the literature on birth order and personality, it seems that some researchers have (metaphorically speaking) tossed a few more coins than they have disclosed in their papers. (psychologicalscience.org)
  • When the researchers adjusted the data to account for people's level of education, the correlation between birth order and myopia shrank. (knpr.org)
  • The researchers had earlier looked at whether firstborns were more likely to be myopic because they're often a little smaller at birth. (knpr.org)
  • When the researchers controlled for mother s age at first birth, the effect of birth order on intelligence was nearly eliminated. (innovations-report.com)
  • While the researchers used mother s age at first birth to help control for differences between families, Wichman said other factors could have also been used instead. (innovations-report.com)
  • In fact, in an unpublished analysis, the researchers did use family size itself as a control variable, and found that it also nearly eliminated the link between birth order and intelligence. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prepare your firstborn for your family's new addition. (parents.com)
  • Elayne sends along her four very different birth stories, all previously published on her family's blog. (ican-online.org)
  • During the French Revolution, the 893 deputies to the National Convention turned on one another in a seemingly fratricidal manner, with firstborn and laterborn deputies allying themselves with different political parties and voting in disparate manners. (faqs.org)
  • If the long history of primogeniture favors the firstborn, then folklore and fairy tale choose the youngest, often the youngest of three. (slate.com)
  • In case you're wondering, the "perfect pair" is firstborn partnered with youngest. (wordpress.com)
  • Birth order, that is whether you are the oldest or youngest sibling, is independently associated with a number of health and performance metrics. (lemire.me)
  • Under this system, firstborns or eldest males inherit the bulk of the parental land and property-a practice that limits the subdivision of estates and thereby helps to preserve the patrilineal family and its patronymic. (faqs.org)
  • Sulloway showed that firstborns were more conformist, while laterborns were more creative and more likely to reject the status quo. (gizmodo.com)
  • The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns ( N = 8,340). (thefacultylounge.org)
  • The Swedish study mentioned earlier 16 could not adequately examine this issue because it did not include a comparison group of wanted births. (guttmacher.org)
  • Seasonal variation in the rates of stillbirth, and of deaths under the age of one year, were studied for England and Wales in order to examine (a) changes in the seasonal variation over the years and (b) the correlation between seasonal rates and seasonal temperatures. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our study therefore extends the previous literature on this topic by using high-quality data to examine several new outcomes in relation to birth intervals, and contributes in its application of a new research design that we argue more accurately assesses the net effect of birth interval length on long-term outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Black women consistently identify a higher proportion of their births as unwanted or mistimed than other women. (guttmacher.org)
  • Among medical students, a high proportion are firstborn. (creators.com)
  • Thus, our analysis suggests that birth order effects are not biologically determined. (nber.org)
  • This is not the first study in recent years to assert a possible link between family size, birth order and childhood obesity. (psychologytoday.com)
  • This study was carried out to disentangle the independent relations of birth order and sibship size with the presence of asthma, allergy and eczema. (peanutallergy.com)
  • Birth order, and not sibship size, appeared to be a strong risk factor for allergy (excluding eczema). (peanutallergy.com)
  • Known as the diplomats of birth order, we have the ability to approach others in a conciliatory manner and bring together successful outcomes without the angst of being the "needy baby" or the contentious firstborn. (lifehack.org)
  • A substantial body of research has shown that certain characteristics of women that predict their children's outcomes also predict the planning status of their births. (guttmacher.org)
  • Morally neutral factors such as crop failures, birth order, geographic setting, and demographic or cultural differences are among the reasons why economic and social outcomes fail to fit the preconceived notions of "experts. (creators.com)
  • While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. (nber.org)
  • While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education, IQ scores, and earnings, the evidence for effects on health is more limited. (ssrn.com)
  • This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway and focuses on the effect of birth order on a range of health and health-related behaviors, outcomes not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. (ssrn.com)
  • Using a variety of empirical strategies to address the issue of nonrandom exposure to death during a pregnancy, we find small negative effects on birth outcomes. (nhh.no)
  • Using contemporary Swedish population register data and a within-family sibling comparison design, we find that neither the birth interval preceding the index person nor the birth interval following the index person are associated with any substantively meaningful changes in mid- or long-term outcomes. (springer.com)
  • We conclude that in a contemporary high-income welfare state, there appears to be no relationship between unusually short or long birth intervals and adverse long-term outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, demographers have shown that short birth intervals and high sibling density are associated with a large number of negative outcomes in both childhood and adulthood (Conde-Agudelo et al. (springer.com)
  • To evaluate the importance of birth intervals on long-term outcomes, we use Swedish population register data and within-family sibling comparisons that adjust for all time-invariant factors that remain constant within the family. (springer.com)
  • Not only are short birth-to-pregnancy (BTP) intervals associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, but so are long BTP intervals of 59 months or more (WHO 2005a ). (springer.com)
  • The real news of our study is that we found no substantial effects of birth order on any of the personality dimensions we examined. (healthcanal.com)
  • One study indicates that people surround themselves with others associated with their own birth order. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was related to the U.S presidents when it was discovered that more than half were firstborn, the rest were middle and four were lastborn. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new study from CareerBuilder looks at how workers compare in terms of chosen profession, title and salary based on birth order, astrological sign and sibling status. (careerbuilder.com)
  • Birth order is an incredibly difficult area to study, and as such, is considered highly controversial. (gizmodo.com)
  • 7 A study of the Dutch famine showed that maternal starvation during pregnancy lowered birth weight but not IQ. (bmj.com)
  • A Swedish study documented prenatal and postpartum emotional problems in women having an unwanted birth. (guttmacher.org)
  • Birth order effects were found in one study only if 'firstborns' was defined as 'firstborns of that sex. (psychologicalscience.org)
  • This large-scale, within-family study attempts to settle more than a half-century of scientific debate about the relationship between I.Q. and birth order. (causeweb.org)
  • In order for the study to achieve its objectives, the Agents first had to classify the 36 murderers into the organized or disorganized group, the breakdown being 24 organized murderers and 12 disorganized murderers. (webalice.it)
  • Readers with an interest in both baseball and sibling behavior may find interesting a recent article entitled Birth Order and Risk Taking in Athletics: A Meta-Analysis and Study of Major League Baseball, published in the current issue of Personality and Social Psychology Review and co-authored by Frank Sulloway and Richard Zweigenhaft . (thefacultylounge.org)
  • Risk-taking middle-borns: A study on birth-order and risk preferences ," Working Papers in Economics 438, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics. (repec.org)
  • A recent study provides some of the best evidence to date that birth order really doesn t have an effect on intelligence. (innovations-report.com)
  • In this study, we revisit the issue of adverse consequences of birth intervals using statistical models based on within-family variation in order to minimize residual confounding. (springer.com)
  • This study is based on population data from Sweden, where birth intervals have been influenced by government policy interventions to an unusually large extent. (springer.com)
  • Instead of throwing fits or crying, firstborns will try to acclimate with the adults and strive for the kind of perfection parents love to see. (businessinsider.com)
  • Within same sex sibling pairs, differences in birth weight were directly associated with differences in IQ in boys (812 pairs, predicted IQ difference per 100 g change in birth weight =0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.71) but not girls (871 pairs, 0.10, −0.09 to 0.30). (bmj.com)
  • Although differences in creativity have been found between firstborns and later-borns, it is important to also consider gender differences. (enotes.com)
  • Through differences in parental investment, birth order sometimes affects the general health and well-being of offspring. (faqs.org)
  • Birth order also appears to influence intelligence and personality, doing so through differences in parental investment, as well as through sibling interactions. (faqs.org)
  • We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. (umontreal.ca)
  • After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were not statistically significant anymore. (umontreal.ca)
  • Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first and second born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI. (umontreal.ca)
  • Only regarding self-reported intellect small effects were found: Firstborns were more likely to report a rich vocabulary and less difficulty understanding abstract ideas. (healthcanal.com)
  • He also found that females (74%) had a higher volunteer rate than males (59%), but that there was no significant difference between the number of firstborns and later borns who volunteered under any of the three conditions. (earthlink.net)
  • They looked at the results of 200 birth-order studies to see if any consistency could be found in lifestyle characteristics. (gizmodo.com)
  • Record et al found an association between birth weight and verbal reasoning scores in a birth cohort overall, but not within sibships, suggesting that the association was confounded by family environment. (bmj.com)
  • In a 1999 paper, Harris pointed out this "divide-and-conquer" method of birth order research: "Significant birth order effects were found for males but not for females, or vice versa. (psychologicalscience.org)
  • In another, birth order effects were found only for high-anxiety subjects. (psychologicalscience.org)
  • Other studies, in Israel and the United Kingdom, also have found that firstborns are more likely to be nearsighted. (knpr.org)
  • By combining large datasets from three national panels, we confirmed the effect that firstborns score higher on objectively measured intelligence and additionally found a similar effect on self-reported intellect. (pnas.org)
  • the order of children's births has also been found to influence how the parents treat them. (enotes.com)
  • Another difference in personality is found with the kinds of risks firstborns or later-borns will take. (enotes.com)
  • Also, no associations were found when including diagnoses within the first 10 years of life, when stratifying by maternal age, birth year, and sex, or for paternal construction painters. (sjweh.fi)
  • No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. (umontreal.ca)
  • Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. (umontreal.ca)
  • found sion, including a mother's history of proportional sample was calculated that using a cut-off score of 12, the sensi- major depressive disorder and a past for each governorate, health centre tivity and the specificity of the scale were history of postnatal depression [8,10], and clinic using the list of birth no- 73% and 93% respectively. (who.int)
  • The two hypotheses were that: subjects would imitate the behavior of a confederate, and that firstborns would choose a group experiment over an isolation experiment. (earthlink.net)
  • Does Birth Order Influence Financial Behavior? (lenpenzo.com)
  • Trying to correlate one's financial behavior to their birth order is preposterous on its face. (lenpenzo.com)
  • And that's why birth order has no more effect on our financial behavior than the name our parents gave us when we first entered the world does. (lenpenzo.com)
  • Firstborns will take risks if they believe that they can handle the situation safely but will be less likely to engage in behavior that exposes them to potential injury. (enotes.com)
  • Birth Order and Risky Adolescent Behavior ," Economic Inquiry , Western Economic Association International, vol. 44(2), pages 215-233, April. (repec.org)
  • It then focuses on the results of a recent survey completed by the authors, which revealed instructors' perceptions of skills needed by learners in order to be successful in academic programs. (cal.org)
  • These results are in line with the notion that, presumably due to a differential treatment by their parents during early childhood, firstborns prefer self-referenced standards to evaluate their competence. (gizmodo.com)
  • By looking at both birth order and gender, creativity results become clear. (enotes.com)
  • When testing women, however, the results are the opposite: Later-born women score higher on creativity than firstborn women. (enotes.com)
  • After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. (umontreal.ca)
  • These results provide the strongest evidence to date that birth order is related to measurable behaviors. (repec.org)
  • There have been only a few other studies that have been done within families, and the results of those also suggested no link between birth order and intelligence. (innovations-report.com)
  • Demographers analyzing fertility have always examined the timing and spacing of subsequent births, given that it is one of the central determinants of fertility. (springer.com)
  • I am a big believer in birth order and how it affects family dynamics. (google.com)
  • Here's what you need to know about how your birth rank affects your life. (gizmodo.com)
  • Interestingly, birth rank also affects how dominant and extroverted we are. (gizmodo.com)
  • Birth Order Progressively Affects Childhood Height. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In our analyses, we confirmed the expected birth-order effect on intelligence. (pnas.org)
  • No significant relationships were identified between depression symptoms and any of demographic variables or pregnancy/birth characteristics studied. (who.int)
  • 2006 ). Although this decrease is in line with Swedish policy goals, a birth-to-birth interval of 24 or 30 months is clearly shorter than the WHO recommendation of a birth-to-pregnancy interval of 24 months (WHO 2005a ). (springer.com)
  • We also observed a significant decline of a 10th of a SD in self-reported intellect with increasing birth-order position, and this effect persisted after controlling for objectively measured intelligence. (pnas.org)
  • Even then, family names or patronymics are just considered part of the full personal name and have no official relevance (for instance, alphabetic ordering of names is always done by the first letter of the full personal name). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mean IQ increased monotonically with birth weight in both sexes across the range of birth weight in a linear regression analysis of one randomly selected sibling per family (n= 1683) with adjustment for maternal age, race, education, socioeconomic status, and birth order. (bmj.com)
  • However, in most cases we can control our financial fate - regardless of where we fall in the family pecking order. (lenpenzo.com)
  • In the 2018 Slate Star Codex survey Scott asked some questions about what order in the family respondents were born. (lesswrong.com)
  • Organized offenders have a high birth order, often being the first born son in a family. (webalice.it)
  • This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and within-family methods. (nber.org)
  • Despite these large average effects, birth order only explains about 3% of the within-family variance of IQ. (nber.org)
  • In short, although inheritance practices associated with birth order have exhibited considerable historical and geographic variability, the specific form chosen by each family and society has usually made local economic sense. (faqs.org)
  • We explored these two pathways of genetic transmission of risk of pre-eclampsia using linked birth data between family members as recorded in the medical birth registry of Norway. (bmj.com)
  • It has little if anything to do with their birth order within the family, he said. (innovations-report.com)
  • So are firstborn kids, on average, really smarter? (lenpenzo.com)
  • After adjusting for either of 2 measures of educational exposure-- highest educational qualification or age at completion of full-time education--the association between birth order and myopia was lessened (by approximately 25%) and no dose-response relationship was evident. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our findings that statistical adjustment for indices of educational exposure partially attenuated the magnitude of the association between birth order and myopia, and completely removed the evidence for a dose-response relationship, therefore support the idea that reduced parental investment in children's education for offspring of later birth order contributed to the observed birth order vs myopia association and produced the observed dose-response relationship," the authors write. (eurekalert.org)
  • This database allowed us to identify even very small effects of birth order on personality with sufficiently high statistical power and to investigate whether effects emerge across different samples. (pnas.org)
  • Early initiation of breastfeeding was associated with higher maternal education, frequent antenatal care (ANC) visits and birth interval but deliveries at a health facility with caesarean section was associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This means that the skills that learners need in order to transition successfully to higher levels of education or employment should be integrated into every level of instruction, including ESL classes that are focused primarily on language instruction. (cal.org)
  • At the end of war, improving conditions temper male vulnerability, leaving higher sex ratios at birth. (nationalaffairs.com)
  • http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/22/science/22sibling.html?ref=science Research Finds Firstborns Gain the Higher I.Q.,] Bendict Carey, NY Times, 22 June 2007. (causeweb.org)
  • Research Finds Firstborns Gain the Higher I.Q., Bendict Carey, NY Times, 22 June 2007. (causeweb.org)
  • Consistent with the review, we observed statistically significant effects of birth order, zygosity and gestational age (GA) for 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of both twins. (cambridge.org)
  • The main predictors of Apgar scores are birth order, zygosity, GA, birth weight, mode of delivery and fetal presentation. (cambridge.org)
  • Evolutionist Frank Sulloway believed that birth order reflects disparities in age, size and power. (theconversation.com)
  • Sulloway postulated an opposing effect of birth order on dominance as a facet of extraversion (15). (pnas.org)
  • They discovered that some personality characteristics were indeed being consistently matched according to birth rank. (gizmodo.com)
  • The sample included MZ and DZ twins ( N = 5181 pairs) recruited by the Netherlands Twin Register shortly after birth, with data on prenatal characteristics and Apgar scores at first and/or fifth minutes. (cambridge.org)
  • These characteristics, which other birth-order resources and books also tout, are listed below. (wordpress.com)
  • When we investigate possible mechanisms, we find that the negative effects of birth order are driven by post-natal environmental factors. (nber.org)
  • Interestingly, we find complicated effects of birth order. (ssrn.com)
  • We find that these effects are largely unaffected by conditioning on education and earnings, suggesting that these are not the only important pathways to health differentials by birth order. (ssrn.com)
  • First, we provide evidence that unless mother's age at childbirth is included among the control variables, only small and imprecise birth order effects are revealed in families with low socioeconomic status. (repec.org)
  • Second, we provide some evidence that the birth order effects differ across families with highly educated and less educated mothers, which lend support to the resource dilution model over the confluence model. (repec.org)
  • However, previous studies in this area have failed to provide convincing evidence that birth order is related to test scores, education, or earnings. (repec.org)
  • Evolutionary biology is sitting on such large mountains of strong evidence collected over the past 150 years that it appears impossible that over the next 150 years we will be able to collect an equivalent amount of data challenging it in order to question the validity of evolutionary theory. (scienceblogs.com)
  • These findings suggest a role for early maternal investment in determining birth order effects on health. (ssrn.com)
  • Our estimates show that middle borns and last borns are much more likely to use substances and be sexually active than their firstborn counterparts. (repec.org)
  • Looking at other studies, there appears to be a connection between birth order and career interests. (gizmodo.com)
  • Recent studies, as well as some earlier reports, have suggested that the direct relation of birth weight to measured intelligence continues well into the normal range of birth weight. (bmj.com)
  • Birth order and weight problems linked in new studies. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. (thefacultylounge.org)
  • The increase in childhood IQ with birth weight continues well into the normal birth weight range. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, we aimed to assess whether birth order was associated with changes in growth and metabolism in childhood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • At 1 year age gap there are over 7x more firstborns than lastborns. (lesswrong.com)
  • By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. (pnas.org)
  • On the other hand, firstborns are overrepresented among astronauts and aquanauts. (enotes.com)
  • Thus, the issue may be perceived harm: Firstborns may believe that they can avoid harm as astronauts or aquanauts, while it is extremely difficult to avoid injury in sports. (enotes.com)
  • Since then, empirical research on the relationship between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances in psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns ( 3 ), an effect that has been shown repeatedly ( 4 ⇓ - 6 ) and its underlying causes investigated in depth ( 7 , 8 ) to date. (pnas.org)
  • What is the relationship between birth order and personality? (enotes.com)
  • If so, you might want to forego astrological compatibility in your next relationship and plan your couplings using The Birth Order Book on Love by William Cane. (wordpress.com)
  • A relation between seasonal temperature and the birth rate of schizophrenic patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The relation between schizophrenia birth rates and environmental temperature was studied in patients born in England and Wales during 1921-1955 and first admitted there in 1970-1977. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns. (pnas.org)
  • Firstborn kids don't have a monopoly on high credit scores, nor are they immune from financial difficulties. (lenpenzo.com)
  • From his point of view, firstborns were privileged, but also burdened by feelings of excessive responsibility and a fear of dethronement and were thus prone to score high on neuroticism. (pnas.org)
  • They would seem to be potentially dangerous occupations, but firstborns probably believe that they can avoid harm via good training and high-quality skills. (enotes.com)
  • Fortunately, scientific research has yet to prove a perceptible difference in IQ due to birth order. (lifehack.org)
  • Related research has focused on the consequences of teenage births. (guttmacher.org)
  • Given the large number of researcher degrees of freedom in birth order research, we used a data-analytic approach called Specification Curve Analysis, first described by Simonsohn, Simmons, and Nelson in 2015. (psychologicalscience.org)
  • Modern scientific research indicates that sexual orientation is largely determined by the time of birth, partly by genetics, but more specifically by hormonal activity in the womb arising from various sources " (Wilson & Rahman, 2005, p. 10 - authors' italics). (archive.org)
  • and the SOEP data from the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW), www.diw.de/en/soep . (pnas.org)
  • These ambitious women were both firstborns. (businessinsider.com)
  • 7 Up to 2003, 238 617 women born in Norway in 1967 or later (and therefore registered in the medical birth registry) had given birth to 438 597 singleton infants. (bmj.com)
  • Among women who weren't breast fed, breast cancer risk was lower in women whose mothers were older when they gave birth. (breastcancer.org)
  • There was no link between birth order and breast cancer risk in women who weren't breast fed. (breastcancer.org)