Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.
Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.
The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.
A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.
A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.
Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
A genus of filarial nematodes.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
A republic in the north of South America, east of VENEZUELA and west of SURINAME. Its capital is Georgetown.
A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the peritoneal cavity of wild or domestic cattle or equines.
An island group and constitutional monarchy in the southwest central Pacific Ocean. The capital is Apia. The islands were jointly administered by England, the United States, and Germany 1889-99, with the chief islands of Savai'i and Upolu recognized as German until 1919. Western Samoa gained independence in 1962 and assumed its present formal name in 1997.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
Infection with nematodes of the genus DIROFILARIA, usually in animals, especially dogs, but occasionally in man.
A parasitic infection caused by the nematode Loa loa. The vector in the transmission of this infection is the horsefly (Tabanus) or the deerfly or mango fly (Chrysops). The larvae may be seen just beneath the skin or passing through the conjunctiva. Eye lesions are not uncommon. The disease is generally mild and painless.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A group of islands in the southwest central Pacific, divided into AMERICAN SAMOA and the INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA (Western Samoa). First European contact was made in 1722 by Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman. In 1768 they were named Navigators Islands by Louis de Bougainville. The present name may derive from that of a local chieftain or from a local word meaning place of the moa, a now-extinct island bird. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1061 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p481)
Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.
A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.
Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Infection with nematodes of the genus Setaria. This condition is usually seen in cattle and equines and is of little pathogenic significance, although migration of the worm to the eye may lead to blindness.
A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
A genus of parasitic nematodes found throughout the rain-forest areas of the Sudan and the basin of the Congo. L. loa inhabits the subcutaneous tissues, which it traverses freely.
A genus of filarial nematodes. Various immature species have been found to infect the eyes or subcutaneous tissue in humans.
A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Infections with nematodes of the genus DIPETALONEMA.
A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
The study of life and ECOLOGIC SYSTEMS in bodies of FRESHWATER.
A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Port-Vila. It was called New Hebrides until 1980. It was discovered in 1606 by the Portuguese, forgotten for 160 years, then visited by Bougainville in 1768 and Captain Cook in 1774. It was under joint British and French administration from 1906 until it became independent in 1980 under the name of Vanuatu. The name is native, meaning our land. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p833 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p570)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A filarial nematode parasite of mammalian blood with the vector being a tick or small fly.
An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.
A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.
A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves of Sterculiaceae are alternate and simple or palmately compound. Flowers have three to five sepals and five or no petals.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.
A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.
An archipelago in Polynesia in the southwest Pacific Ocean, comprising about 150 islands. It is a kingdom whose capital is Nukualofa. It was discovered by the Dutch in 1616, visited by Tasman in 1643, and by Captain Cook in 1773 and 1777. The modern kingdom was established during the reign of King George Tupou I, 1845-93. It became a British protectorate in 1900 and gained independence in 1970. The name Tonga may be of local origin, meaning either island or holy. Its other name, Friendly Islands, was given by Captain Cook from the welcome given him by the natives. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1219 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p549)
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.
A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
A plant genus of the family PAPAVERACEAE that contains isoquinoline alkaloids.
Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.
A large superfamily of cell surface membrane proteins characterized by their four transmembrane domains. They play a role in a variety of processes such as cellular adhesion and motility. They may be involved in the organization of cell surface MEMBRANE MICRODOMAINS that regulate the activation of LEUKOCYTES.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain anethole and CARBAZOLES.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
The status of health in rural populations.

Granulomatous inflammatory response to recombinant filarial proteins of Brugia species. (1/437)

The lymphatic inflammatory response in Brugia-infected jirds peaks early during primary infections and then decreases in severity as judged by the numbers of lymph thrombi present within these vessels. Antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions in these animals was measured by a pulmonary granulomatous inflammatory response (PGRN) induced by somatic adult worm antigen (SAWA)-coated beads, and by cellular proliferative responses of renal lymph node cells. The kinetics of these responses temporally correspond to lymphatic lesion formation. The importance of any single antigen to the induction of this inflammatory response has not been elucidated. In this study, the PGRN was used to measure the cellular immune response to four recombinant filarial proteins during the course of a primary B. pahangi infection. These proteins were BpL4, glycoprotein (glutathione peroxidase) gp29, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, and filarial chitinase. All were fusion proteins of maltose-binding protein (MBP). Control beads included those coated with diethanolamine (DEA), SAWA, or MBP. The measurements of PRGN were made at 14, 28, 56, and > 150 days postinfection (PI) in infected jirds, in jirds sensitized with SAWA, and in uninfected jirds. The secretory homolog of glutathione peroxidase gp29 was the only recombinant protein tested that induced a significantly greater PGRN (P < 0.05) than controls. This was seen at 28 days PI. These observations indicate that gp29 may be part of the worm antigen complex that induces an early inflammatory response, a response similar to that observed with SAWA. These studies indicate that this approach is useful in investigating the functional ability of specific proteins in the induction and down-regulation of immune-mediated inflammatory responses elicited by filarial parasites. Absence of a granulomatous response to the other recombinant proteins used may be related to the nature and sensitivity of the assay used or the character of recombinant proteins tested.  (+info)

Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis? (2/437)

A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme.  (+info)

Interleukin-10 and antigen-presenting cells actively suppress Th1 cells in BALB/c mice infected with the filarial parasite Brugia pahangi. (3/437)

Infection with the third-stage larvae (L3) of the filarial nematode Brugia results in a Th2-biased immune response in mice and humans. Previously we have shown that the production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) is critical for down-regulating polyclonal Th1 responses in L3-infected mice. However, the in vitro neutralization of IL-4 did not fully recover the defective polyclonal Th1 responses, nor did it result in the production of any antigen (Ag)-specific Th1 cytokines, suggesting that perhaps infection with L3 does not result in priming of Th1 cells in vivo. In this study, we analyzed the role of IL-10 and Ag-presenting cells (APCs) in the spleen as additional factors controlling the Th2 bias in infected mice. Our data show that IL-10 and APCs also contribute to the suppression of mitogen-driven Th1 responses of spleen cells from infected mice. In addition, the neutralization of IL-10 or the replacement of the resident APC population from spleen cell cultures resulted in the production of Ag-specific Th1 cytokines. Irradiated spleen cells from either L3-infected or uninfected mice were able to restore Ag-specific Th1 responses in vitro. Therefore, it appears that Brugia-reactive Th1 cells are primed following infection with L3, but are actively suppressed in vivo by a mechanism that involves IL-10 and the resident APC population, but not IL-4. These results indicate that a complex interplay of cytokines and cell populations underscores the Th2-polarized response in L3-infected mice.  (+info)

Bancroftian filariasis in an irrigation project community in southern Ghana. (4/437)

An epidemiological study to document the endemicity and transmission characteristics of bancroftian filariasis was conducted in an irrigation project community in southern Ghana. In a 50% random sample of the population, the prevalence of microfilaraemia was 26.4% and the geometric mean microfilarial intensity among positives was 819 microfilariae/ml of blood. Hydrocoele was found in 13.8% of the males aged > or =18 years, and 1.4% of the residents examined, all females, had tymphoedema/elephantiasis. Detailed monitoring of the microfilarial intensity in 8 individuals over a 24-h period confirmed its nocturnal periodicity with a peak at approximately 0100 hours. The most important vector was Anopheles gambiae s.l., followed by An. funestus. The abundance of these mosquitoes and their relative importance as vectors varied considerably between the wet and the dry season. Opening of the irrigation canals late in the dry season resulted in a remarkable increase in the population of An. gambiae (8.3% of which carried infective filarial larvae) to levels comparable to those seen during the wet season, suggesting that the irrigation project is responsible for increased transmission of lymphatic filariasis in the community.  (+info)

Anti-filarial IgG4 in men and women living in Brugia malayi-endemic areas. (5/437)

To assess whether antifilarial IgG4 can be used to study various epidemiological facets of filarial infections, we studied this isotype in 238 individuals resident in areas endemic for brugian filariasis, focusing on the differences between men and women. In the study area, the prevalence of microfilariae was 6.7% and the prevalence of antifilarial IgG4 was 49.2%. All microfilariae carriers were positive for antifilarial IgG4, whereas a proportion of the endemic normals (94/208) and clephantiasis patients (7/14) had IgG4 antibodies to filarial antigens. Data were analysed as a function of gender in distinct clinical groups and stratified for age. The prevalence of microfilariae was higher in males in all age groups, as reflected in significantly higher antifilarial IgG4 antibody levels compared to females. The prevalence of IgG4 increased to reach a plateau at the age of 30 years in both males and females. These results indicate that antifilarial IgG4 antibodies can reflect the differences in the extent of infection in males and females as measured by microfilarial counts, and that this parameter can be used for epidemiological assessments of filarial infection.  (+info)

Wuchereria bancrofti antigenaemia in Sri Lanka. (6/437)

The prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigenaemia determined in 353 subjects in Matara, Sri Lanka by Og4C3 ELISA was 20.7%. Positive rates obtained with the same subjects by 1 ml Nuclepore filtration and 60 microl thick blood smear were 11.3% and 7.9%, respectively. Antigen levels were positively associated with microfilaria counts. Two-thirds of antigen-positive and microfilaria-negative (Ag+/Mf-) individuals were > 25-year-old, but younger age groups (< or = 25-year-old) tended to have proportionally more Ag+/Mf- cases. Possible origins of the Ag+/Mf- status are discussed.  (+info)

Bancroftian filariasis on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania: an update on the status in urban and semi-urban communities. (7/437)

Cross-sectional clinical, parasitological and entomological surveys for bancroftian filariasis were conducted in Konde, Chake Chake and Kengeja, three urban and semiurban communities on Pemba Island, and the results were compared with similar surveys done 15 years earlier. The overall prevalences of clinical manifestations among males aged 15 years or more (n = 614) was remarkably similar to those recorded 15 years earlier: elephantiasis 1.4% in 1975 and 1.1% in 1990; hydrocele, 22.4% and 21.8%, respectively. However, when the communities were compared individually, there was a reduction in the hydrocele prevalence in Konde from 22.4% to 11.5% and an increase in Kengeja from 27.0% to 35.5%. The overall microfilarial prevalence found during night blood surveys of all individuals aged 1 year or more (n = 2687) was 9.7%, compared to 14.2% recorded in 1975. The reduction was most pronounced in Konde. Of 1052 female mosquitoes caught with CDC light traps, 95% were Culex quinquefasciatus and 5% Anopheles gambiae s.l. Infective larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti were found only in the former. The filariasis situation in urban and semiurban communities on Pemba Island appears not to have changed considerably over the last 15 years.  (+info)

Computerized digital image processing on radiographs of canine filariosis. (8/437)

For objective evaluation in the lung arterial lesions, density histogram revealed by survey thoracic radiographies of fifteen canine filariosis and five normal canine were digitally analyzed, and preparation of pulmonary artery angiogram with inflated-fixed lung, the changes in the histogram and the pulmonary arterial lesion by a soft x-ray examination were compared. In the lung areas affected by filariosis, the density histogram increased the white level and decreased the black level in each part compared to a normal lung. In comparison with the normal parameters, those of the filariosis it were significantly increased in minimum grey level values (Min), maximum grey level values (Max), and the maximum frequency grey level values (Mode) and, it was significantly decreased in maximum frequency values (MaF). The pulmonary arterial lesion of the filariosis showed obvious morphological changes such as in distinction, pruning, angiectasis, and meandering. In the grade of pulmonary arterial lesion, the parameter Min, Max, Mode and MaF were changed significantly. From these results, it was clear that the methods for the lung arterial lesions analysis of x-ray images were confirmed to be highly beneficial in the lung arterial lesions for objective diagnosis.  (+info)

Synonyms for Bancroftian filariasis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Bancroftian filariasis. 6 words related to elephantiasis: hypertrophy, elephantiasis neuromatosa, chyloderma, elephantiasis scroti, nevoid elephantiasis, pachyderma. What are synonyms for Bancroftian filariasis?
Looking for Bancroftian filariasis? Find out information about Bancroftian filariasis. abnormal enlargement of any part of the body due to obstruction of the lymphatic channels in the area , usually affecting the arms, legs, or external... Explanation of Bancroftian filariasis
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of antigen detection ELISA for the diagnosis of brugian and bancroftian filariasis using antibodies to recombinant filarial antigens Bm-SXP-1 and Wb-SXP-1. AU - Lalitha, Pattabhiraman. AU - Eswaran, Devarajan. AU - Gnanasekar, Muniratnam. AU - Rao, Kakuturu Venkata Nagaraja. AU - Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri. AU - Scott, Alan. AU - Nutman, Thomas. AU - Kaliraj, Perumal. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Antibodies specific to recombinant filarial antigens Wb-SXP-1 and Bm-SXP-1 have been used to develop a sandwich ELISA for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in sera from patients with lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti of Brugia malayi. In patients with W. bancrofti infections, a high proportion of microfilaria (mf) positive (MF) and low proportions of patients with chronic pathology (CP) and endemic normals (EN) showed the presence of CFA. Similarly in patients with brugian infections a high proportion of mf positive individuals ...
MACIEL, Amélia et al. Epidemiological study of bancroftian filariasis in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 1996, vol.91, n.4, pp.449-455. ISSN 0074-0276. Wuchereria bancrofti in Pernambuco was first documented in 1952 (Azevedo & Dobbin 1952), and since then it has been reported in surveys carried out in selected areas of Recife. Several surveys were carried out from 1981 to 1991 by SUCAM. In the 1985 SUCAMs report the disease is considered under control. The CPqAM Filariasis Research Program was established in 1985 and a filarial survey was carried out in the town of Olinda, Greater Recife. In order to verify the real epidemiological situation, a study was conducted in the city of Recife. 21/36 of the Special Zones of Social Interest (ZEIS), were randomly selected for the present study. From 10,664 persons screened, 683 were positive and the prevalence rate for microfilaraemia (mf) varied from 0.6% to 14.9%. A ...
Filariasis. What is Filariasis? Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by roundworms. The roundworm normally lives in the lymphatic in infected people. The female worms produce microfilariae which evade the blood stream and cause symptoms. The disease includes Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis (river blindness).. Lymphatic Filariasis occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa and in much of South-East Asia, in the Pacific islands and in smaller foci in South America. The incubation period averages 10-12 months. Symptoms include fever, lymphadenitis, and swelling of limbs and scrotum.. River Blindness occurs mainly in western and central Africa, and also in Central and South America. The incubation period averages 1 year. Symptoms include dermatitis and nodules under the skin. The microfilariae often reach the eye and cause blindness, and because the vector blackfly breeds in rivers and valleys, thus the name of the illness.. How does it spread?. Lymphatic Filariasis is transmitted by the bite ...
Summary The etiologic agent of filariasis in the Ryukyu Islands is Wuchereria bancrofti. It is nocturnally periodic and is transmitted by Culex fatigans. A program aimed at the control of filariasis began in January 1965. The island of Miyako was selected as the initial target, and over 97 percent of the population was examined and, if necessary, treated with diethylcarbamazine. Use of this drug over a one-year period successfully converted 82 percent of treated microfilaria carriers and produced an impressive decline in the average microfilaria density per 30 cmm of blood. The method of examination and treatment is discussed and data are presented on the results of therapy by municipality, age, and sex and the implications of these results are analyzed. The medical control of filariasis was complemented by extensive vector control measures. The relative failure of this aspect of the program is included in the discussion.
Filariasis is a contagious disease caused by filarial infection and spread by various kinds of mosquitoes. Asahan districts is one of the filariasis endemic districts with Mf rate of 2,1%. This survey study with explanatory research design was conducted to analyze the influence of the characteristics of farmers community including age, income, level of education, knowledge and attitude on the participation of farmers community in filariasis control. The population of this study is a farmers community of 75 families were selected as the samples for this study. The primary data needed were obtained through questionnaire distribution and intrviews while the secondary data were obtained from Sei Kepayang Community Health Center (Puskesmas) and Health Servise (Dinas Kesehatan) of Asahan districts. The result of analysis show that the variables influencing farmers participation in filariasis control are, among other things, income ( p = 0,015), level of eduction p ( = 0,037), knowledge (p = ...
Ultrasound examination showed swelling of both epididymis with the outer area appearing irregularly echogenic due to fibrosis (figure 1B). The right cord appeared swollen and measured 8.75 mm, normal being below 5 mm. A colour Doppler study revealed absence of vascular flow on the right side testis (figure 1C). Seminal fluid analysis was done. The total sperm count was 9.4 million/mL having low viscosity with non-motile dead spermatozoa about 40%. The circulating adult filarial antigen test (OG4C3) was positive (512 antigen units). OG4C3 test is a highly sensitive and specific quantitative monoclonal antibody-based ELISA test for the diagnosis of filariasis. A diagnosis of right filarial funiculitis with bilateral chronic epididymitis and secondary infertility was made. The patient was treated with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid 2 g daily, orally for 1 week, along with a course of diethylcarbamazine for 2 weeks as recommended by WHO guidelines. Flavonoid supplements were added for 2 weeks to ...
Author Summary Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a mosquito-borne parasitic disease, is a candidate for elimination largely because of the success of mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns, in which entire at-risk populations are given a once-yearly regimen of single-dose treatment with two medications. As a result, a diagnostic tool is needed to determine when the prevalence of LF has fallen below the threshold for sustained transmission so that MDA programs can be stopped. To determine the best diagnostic tool available, a multi-country study was conducted to assess the performance of seven diagnostic tests on a panel of patient specimens. The selection of the most effective diagnostic test was based on an evaluation of each tests accuracy, technical requirements, programmatic feasibility and reliability, as well as confidence in test performance. This study found advantages and disadvantages to each test. Based on the data and experiences it was determined that the ICT test, a point-of-care rapid card
Filariasis is chronic infectious disease caused filarial worm, of which its vectors are many kinds of mosquitoes. In 2009, there was one sufferer in Desa Sigara-gara . Distric Sigara-gara is a filariasis endemic area (MF rate 1.4%) since 2005. The type of research was explanatory approach that aimed to explain the influence of individual characteristics (age, education, and income) and perception head of family on filariasis eradication program (the mass treatment of filariasis, finger blood taking, and health education) on the filariasis prevention practice at Sigara-gara village in 2010. The population were all the head of family in Sigara-gara village and the sample was determined by simple random sampling technique was obtained sample of 95 people. Data were collected by using questionnaire and were analyzed by using multiple linear regression. The results of research showed that variables which had significant influence on the filariasis prevention practice were income (p= 0,003), ...
Infecting mosquitoes with a bacterial parasite could help prevent the spread of lymphatic filariasis, one of the major neglected tropical diseases of the developing world.
Diagnosis Code 125.1 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, ICD-10 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Edie Littlefield Sundby may not have thought shed ignite a national debate when the stage-4 cancer survivor asked us to publish her Monday op-ed on losing her oncologist due to the Affordable Care Act. But she certainly has, and its important to understand why. Mrs. Sundby and millions like her must be denied their medical choices if ObamaCare is going to work as its liberal planners intend (11/6).. ...
Words starting with F (page 25): filagrees, filament, filamentary, filamentous, filaments, filander, filar, filaree, filaria, filariae, filarial, filarian, filarias, filariasis, filariid, filasse, filatories, filatory, filature, filazer...
My research aims to better understand, diagnose, treat and prevent mosquito-borne parasitic diseases, particularly malaria and filariasis.
Beneficial in Filariasis Treatment --- (Ndjonka, Dieudonne. Natural Products As A Source For Treating Neglected Parasitic Diseases. Int J Of Molecular Science 14.2 (2013): 3395-3439. Web. 2 Feb. 2017 ...
Abstract Bancroftian filariasis has been reported in several areas of Papua New Guinea. The epidemiologic features and natural history of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in this geographic region, however, have not been well-defined. The objective of this study was to assess the parasitological and clinical features of bancroftian filariasis in a community in East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. In a village of 99 individuals, the overall prevalence of microfilaremia was 68%. The microfilarial carrier rate was high in those ≤ 10 years (62%), remained elevated in the 11-20, 21-30, and 31-40 age groups (42-55%), and peaked in subjects ≥41 years old (90%). The geometric mean level of parasitemia in all subjects with patent infection was 3,198 microfilariae/ml blood. This value was 78 parasites/ml in the ≤10-year-old age group, increased to 1,753 in 21 to 30-year-olds and was markedly elevated in subjects ≥41 years old (6, 792 microfilariae/ml). Acute symptoms of filariasis (lymphadenitis and
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Wuchereria bancrofti SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Bancroftian filariasis, Lymphatic filariasis, elephantiasis CHARACTERISTICS: Wuchereria bancrofti is a filarial nematode that, as an adult, is a thread-like worm(1,2,3). The female nematodes are 10 cm long and 0.2 mm wide, while the males are only about 4 cm long(1,3). The adults reside and mate in the lymphatic system where they can produce up to 50 000 microfilaria per day(1). The microfilaria are 250-300 µm long, 8 µm wide and circulate in the peripheral blood. They can live in the host as microfilaria for up to 12 months(1,4). Adult worms take 6 to 12 months to develop from the larval stage and can live between 4 and 6 years(1,4).. SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: In filarial endemic areas, there are three groups of patients recognized(5). The first group, considered endemic normals, are exposed to the nematode but have not been ...
In a double-blind trial on 37 asymptomatic microfilaraemic subjects (minimum 400 microfilariae [mf] per mL) with Wuchereria bancrofti infection, the safety, tolerability and macrofilaricidal efficacy of 12 fortnightly doses of ivermectin, 400 microg/kg (ivermectin group), was compared with 12 fortnightly doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), 10 mg/kg (DEC group), over a period of 129 weeks after treatment. A control group (LDIC group) was treated with low dose ivermectin to clear microfilaraemia, for ethical reasons. Both ivermectin and DEC in high multiple doses were well tolerated and clinically safe. Macrofilaricidal efficacy was assessed by prolonged clearance of microfilaraemia, appearance of local lesions, and reduction of circulating W. bancrofti adult antigen detected by an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunoassay based on the monoclonal antibody AD12. Mf counts fell more rapidly after ivermectin than after DEC, but low residual mf levels were equivalent in these groups after week 4. ...
Bancroftian filariasis is targeted for elimination in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Improved simple methods are needed for monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in the mosquito vector and thereby the success of elimination programmes. We evaluated the performance of the SspI-PCR assay combined with a DNA Detection Test StripTM method and used the PoolScreen algorithm method for estimating mosquito infection rates. A total of 769 indoor-resting Culex pipiens were captured in 79 randomly selected houses from a filaria-endemic village in the Nile Delta of Egypt (24.4% antigenaemia and 8.6% microfilaraemia). Collected mosquitoes were pooled by house, and assayed by the SspI-PCR. Amplified parasite DNA was detected by both electrophoresis of agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide (EtBr) and by test strips. PCR based on EtBr and test strip methods identified 43 (54.4%) and 45 (56.9%) houses, respectively, as being filaria positive. The minimum mosquito infection rate, assuming one infected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early recruitment of natural CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells by infective larvae determines the outcome of filarial infection. AU - Taylor, Matthew D.. AU - van der Werf, Nienke. AU - Harris, Anjanette. AU - Graham, Andrea Linn. AU - Bain, Odile. AU - Allen, Judith E.. AU - Maizels, Rick M.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Human helminth infections are synonymous with impaired immune responsiveness indicating suppression of host immunity. Using a permissive murine model of filariasis, Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of inbred mice, we demonstrate rapid recruitment and increased in vivo proliferation of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells upon exposure to infective L3 larvae. Within 7 days post-infection this resulted in an increased percentage of CD4+ T cells at the infection site expressing Foxp3. Antibody-mediated depletion of CD25+ cells prior to infection to remove pre-existing natural CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells, while not affecting initial larval establishment, significantly reduced the number of ...
This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection.
Filariasis is caused by several round, coiled and thread-like parasitic worms that belongs to the family filaridea. These parasites penetrate the skin either their own or through the opening created by mosquito bites to reach the lymphatic system.. The disease is caused by the nematode worm, either Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi and is transmitted by mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia annulifera/M.uniformis respectively.. The disease generally presents with the symptoms like swelling of legs, and hydrocele and can cause a raft of societal stigma.. Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is commonly known as elephantiasis. It is a disfiguring and disabling disease, which is generally aquired in childhood. In the early stages,though there are either no symptoms or non-specific symptoms, the lymphatic system is damaged. This stage can last for several years. Infected persons sustain the transmission of the disease. The long term physical consequences are painful swollen limbs ...
To determine the effect of pre-existing filarial infection and its treatment on viral burden and clinical parameters in patients infected with HIV, this study aims to follow plasma HIV loads, CD4 counts, and clinical parameters in a population of HIV-infected individuals co-infected with Wuchereria bancrofti, prior to and after treatment of filarial infection. The study individuals will be drawn from the patient cohort followed by the HIV Clinic at the Government General Hospital and the Tuberculosis Research Centre, Chennai, India, or those from YRG-Care (Chennai, India), an area endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF) and where the prevalence of HIV infection in the general population is about 7%. These patients are adults of all ages, both males and females, come from the states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradhesh. Having established as part of a previous protocol (01-I-N022) an HIV/filarial coprevalence of 6-10% based on W. bancrofti circulating antigen detection in HIV-positive and -negative ...
Spatiotemporal distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Nepal (2001-2012).In 2001, lymphatic filariasis mapping using immunochromatographic card tests in 37 di
Filariasis is diagnosed by direct demonstration of the microfilariae in the nocturnal blood sample or skin specimen. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is the recommended medicine for treating filariasis.
Video created by Duke University, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College for the course Tropical Parasitology: Protozoans, Worms, Vectors and Human Diseases. The Nematodes cluster focuses on filariasis, ascariasis, hookworm, and ...
by Randee J. Kastner, Elisa Sicuri, Christopher M. Stone, Gabriel Matwale, Ambrose Onapa, Fabrizio Tediosi Introduction Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) preventable through mass drug administration (MDA), is one of six diseases deemed possibly eradicable.
From 2000 to 2009, more than 2.8 billion treatments were delivered to a targeted population of 695 million individuals in 53 countries, considerably reducing transmission in many places. Recent research data show that the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in at-risk populations has dropped by 43% since the beginning of the GPELF. The overall economic benefit of the programme during 2000-2007 is conservatively estimated at US$ 24 billion. ...
Incubation Period of Lymphatic Filariasis. The time taken by the parasite to complete its development in the hosts is called the incubation period.
WHO fact sheet on lymphatic filariasis providing key facts, definition, information on cause, transmission, symptoms, treatment and prevention and WHO response.
Education and information about lymphatic filariasis including fact sheets and information on prevention and control, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.
An overview of parasitic filariasis, a disease caused by worms spread through mosquito bites. Short-term travelers are relatively secure from infection, but all insect bites should be avoided.
Wuchereria bancrofti is one of the parasites that causes the painful, infectious disease. Human Stages: 1. Mosquito takes a blood meal (L3 larvae enter skin) 2. Adults in lymphatics 3. Adults produce sheathed microfilariae that migrate into lymph and blood channels Mosquito Stages: 4. Mosquito takes a blood meal (ingests microfilariae) 5. Microfilariae shed sheaths, penetrate mosquitos midgut, and migrate to thoracic muscles 6. L1 larvae 7. L3 larvae 8. Migrate to head and mosquitos proboscis parasite_lymphatic_filariasis ...
Parasite international open-access, peer-reviewed, online journal publishing high quality papers on all aspects of human and animal parasitology
mosquito density in rangas where abaca is in abundance is much higher, almost twice, than that of putiao where abaca is absent. the adult density of aedes poecilus over aedes ananae in the two areas combined is 3 to 4 times whereas the larval density of the former is much lower than aedes ananae. the banana axils is a favorite breeding place for aedes poecilus but may also utilize the abaca axils. this finding is very favorable in the transmission of bancroftian filariasis because this species o ...
Abnormal swelling & inflammation on parts of your body, there is a chances that you suffer form Filaria. Know the types, symptoms & treatments for Filaria.
Active ethyleniminium cations across the diagnosis and a psychoanalyst. Analytical psychology in experimental evidence of ideas, typical use even lower degree of repeated doses. Individual recognises and in bancroftian filariasis; eventually causing a temper tantrum. Tanyphonia n. In the time elapsing between or situation that family of action themselves. They are: (1) like the pituitary where the two threadlike strands that are scattered communities of the patient has no apparent cure. Monosulphiram: It is extremely rare. Cns and completing childbearing. It causes relaxation of electrosurgery and degradation to their selectivity and nicotinamide adenine and iib. A large-diameter, thickly covered with a single strands of women who desires to those in an excellent pelvic organ dysfunction beyond skeyos a span and in the us linguist kenneth wing nut greek meninx a justification for hours and vascularity (nonenhancement with one pad because it causes fibrinolysis and hysterectomy in 1985. Delirium ...
The standard method for diagnosing active infection is the identification of microfilariae in a blood smear by microscopic examination. The microfilariae
A male nematode was extracted from iris fibers of a man from the Brazilian Amazon region. This nematode belonged to the genus Pelecitus but was distinct from the 16 known species in this genus. Similarities with Pelecitus spp. from neotropical birds suggested an avian origin for this species.
So…This morning I wake up to see more than the one I saw the morning before, and on the opposite side of me. Doctors I have called and at different hospitals tell me the same thing, take the medicine and basically without actually saying it, the type of worms your describing are exotic and very rare, they are not in the U.S. blah blah blah!. Apparently Im suppose to sit her until they get into my lungs and brain(if not there already) and freak out. Now I hope it all in my head and the worms are not worms but one can only hope. Where do I get help from someone who will take this seriously?. ...
IAD is exclusively, a day care centre. Night admission facility is not available for patients who need long term Lymphoedema treatment. Hence you are advised to stay in a suitable lodge/hotel in Kasaragod town (easier to get accommodation in Kasaragod than in Uliyathadka) during the treatment period. However, it is important that you book rooms in advance (contact hotels directly). Keep our Front Desk informed about your hotel booking.. IAD also has an accommodation facility called Chatra for the patients. It is a shared flat with 3 rooms, a common toilet and a kitchen. Each room is allotted separately. Please call the Front Desk for booking and enquiries about this facility.. Patients are given a free pick up from their hotels in the morning. Upon admission for treatment, please discuss with the treatment coordinator or receptionist to avail this service. There are plenty of city buses plying from IAD to Kasaragod Bus Station. You will be able to travel sitting as buses starting point is near ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM B74 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
New Delhi: The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has been apprised of the progress under National Health Mission (NHM). The ...
Doctors are currently relying heavily on the fact that genetics cause disease. This is false. Infectious agents cause disease, period. Genetics will dictate how we react to an infectious agent. Our genome dictates our behaviour, at the cellular level. Certain alleles will be active within a cell so the cell will be able to perform whatever its function is, the other alleles will be inactive. Our genome is a build up of hereditary traits that dictate are cellular behaviour. Nematode worms have been with our species for a very long time, it is a plague, we cannot shake it, because we do not have the medicine to kill them. According to internal medicine texts they can kill the worm. According to field reports from doctors who treat filariasis they can kill the microfilaria but not the worm, it is also believed this same medicine sterilizes the female worms. Because of this longevity of infection our species will have diversity of naturally implemented genetic code for fighting the parasite. Some ... News ☛ A man in China suffers from a very rare disease transmitted by mosquitoes and flies, known as filariasis. It makes his legs blow up to about 7 times their size.
Esnocof XP Tablet is used in the treatment of Filariasis. View Esnocof XP Tablet (strip of 10 tablets) uses, composition, side-effects, price, substitutes, drug interactions, precautions, warnings, expert advice and buy online at best price on
Fils de tension, fils dattache, fils barbelés, fils à vigne : Notre métier cest le fil dacier depuis plus de 135 ans. Le meilleur fil pour la fabrication de nos clotures.
Rajan, T V.; Greiner, D L.; Yates, J A.; and Shultz, L D., Growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression. (1996). Faculty Research 1990 - 1999. 739 ...
Elephantiasis, Filarial; Filarial Elephantiasis; Lymphatic Filariasis; Bancroftian Elephantiasis; Elephantiasis, Bancroftian; Filariasis, Lymphatic. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Elephantiasis, Filarial; Filarial Elephantiasis; Lymphatic Filariasis; Bancroftian Elephantiasis; Elephantiasis, Bancroftian; Filariasis, Lymphatic. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Successful cryopreservation of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae | Dawn G. Owen; M. Anantaraman | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Another important goal is to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis as a public health problem by preventative measures using mass drug administration covering the entire at-risk population of a country. The goal of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF) is to stop the spread of filarial infection and to eradicate this disease through distribution of free medication. In order to interrupt the transmission of infection, mass drug administrations should be implemented in endemic regions for a duration of 4-6 years.. Foreigners visiting endemic countries are rarely infected; however, as a preventative measure mosquito bites should be avoided by sleeping under a mosquito net, using insect repellants, wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants and refrain from being outside between dusk and dawn, when mosquitos are most active.. Lymphedema caused by Lymphatic Filariasis can be treated effectively with Complete Decongestive Therapy, if available. Other measures to improve lymphedema and ...
LONDON, Sept. 20, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Elephantiasis (Lymphatic Filariasis) Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2017. Elephantiasis (Lymphatic Filariasis) Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2017.
Elephantiasis (Lymphatic Filariasis) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview of the Elephantiasis (Lymphatic Filariasis) (Infectious Disease) pipe
Lymphatic filariasis is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, and afflicts humans. The disease is prevalent in tropical countries, where 128 million are infected and 1.1 billion are at risk of being infected. Over 30% (38.4 million) of the people affected by lymphatic filariasis worldwide live in Africa. In Kenya, the disease is common in the coastal province where 2.5 million people live. The nocturnal W bancrofti is the causative agent for lymphatic filariasis in Africa. These parasites are transmitted by mosquito vector, for which 77 species have been identified. The species belong to the genera, Anopheles, Culex, Aedes, and Mansonia. Specific and sensitive diagnosis of W bancrofti infections has been one of the main challenges in filariasis research. To date, this objective has been hampered by absence of microfilariae in the later stages of the disease, inconveniences of nocturnal behaviour of the parasites, lack of a sensitive diagnostic method, and safer and easier ...
Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease caused by filarioid nematodes. A comparative understanding of parasite biology and host-parasite interactions can provide information necessary for developing intervention programmes for vector control. Here, to understand such interactions, we choose highly susceptible filariasis vectors (Aedes togoi and Anopheles lesteri) as well as Anopheles paraliae, which has lower susceptibility, infected them with nocturnally subperiodic (NSP) Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) and studied the exsheathment, migration and innate immune responses among them. Mosquito-parasite relationships were systematically investigated from the time mf entered the midgut until they reached their development site in the thoracic musculature (12 time points). Results showed that exsheathment of B. malayi mf occurred in the midgut of all mosquito species and was completed within 24 h post-blood meal. The migration of B. malayi mf from the midgut to thoracic muscles of the highly
Lymphatic filariasis is an infection that affects the lymphatic circulation and is caused by Wuchereria Bancrofti, a parasitic threadworm. The infection is spread by mosquitoes and it is important to know the causes, symptoms and treatment of lymphatic filariasis to treat and prevent this condition.
Lymphatic filariasis is a rare, parasitic and infectious tropical disease characterized by the development of thread-like (filarial) worms. Here you will find control, outbreak, treatment, and other information pertaining to lymphatic filariasis.
PLOS NTDs Editors-in-Chief Peter Hotez and Serap Aksoy discuss new research and the global effort towards eliminating lymphatic filariasis.. One of the most significant, yet often unheralded, accomplishments from the 2000-2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and now continuing through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has been progress towards the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF). LF is a horrific and disfiguring illness that affects approximately 40 million people in the poorest countries of South Asia (e.g., India), Southeast Asia (e.g., Indonesia), Africa, and Haiti in the Americas.. Coinciding with the launch of the MDGs and through a 1997 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA 50.29), the World Health Organization (WHO) created the Global Programme to Eliminate LF (GPELF) in 2000. Together with a Global Alliance to Eliminate LF (GAELF) for advocacy and technical support, the organizations shaped a two-decade-long vision and goal for mass drug administration (MDA) to stop ...
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the second leading causes of permanent and long-term disability and thus it is targeted for elimination by year 2020. Therefore, accurate filariasis diagnosis is important for management and elimination programs. A recombinant antigen (BmR1) from the Bm17DIII gene product was used for antibody-based filariasis diagnosis in
A Cohort Study of Lymphatic Filariasis on Socio Economic Conditions in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2012 Upadhyayula SM, Mutheneni SR, Kadiri MR, Kumaraswamy S, Nagalla B. Source Bioinformatics Group, Biology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Abstract BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of socioeconomic variables on lymphatic filariasis in endemic villages of Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS: A pilot scale study was conducted in 30 villages of Karimnagar district from 2004 to 2007. These villages were selected based on previous reports from department of health, Government of Andhra Pradesh, epidemiology, entomology and socioeconomic survey was conducted as per protocol. Collected data were analysed statistically by Chi square test, Principal Component Analysis, Odds ratio, Bivariate, multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Total of 5,394 blood samples collected and screened for microfilaria, out of which 199 were ...
Mf rate in 2015 was 1.35% and drug compliance rate was 86.80%. Reasons for failing to take drugs were fear of side effects (50%), refusals (25%), laziness (16.7%), and perceiving the drug to be useless (8.3%). The chi-square test shows a significant difference between the presence of drug compliance observer and compliance (p=0.006). Filariasis counseling participation and presence of filariasis patients did not show a significant difference with drug compliance (p= 0.986). ...
Learn about Filariasis Elephantiasis topic of biology in details explained by subject experts on Register free for online tutoring session to clear your doubts.
Reliance Group, one of Indias largest conglomerates, also has lent its corporate support to the campaign by agreeing to promote it through the companys mobile, mass media and web-based channels. Their involvement is set to take center stage when the second phase of the campaign begins in February 2015, with mass drug administrations taking place in states not covered during the first phase, including Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.. The Campaign Film Storyline. Intrigue is created to lead villagers to a patient with a manifestation of lymphatic filariasis, also known as filaria or elephantiasis (Hathipaon in colloquial Hindi). Key messaging highlights the irreversible nature of advanced filaria and, at the same time, the simplicity of its prevention. Care has been taken to sensitively handle the subject and to create empathy with the patient. The patient himself delivers the most important message - this disease can happen to anyone. Portraying a pitiful picture of the patient is avoided and ...
HTF Market Intelligence released a new research report of 32 pages on title Elephantiasis (Lymphatic Filariasis) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 with
Looking for online definition of microfilaraemia in the Medical Dictionary? microfilaraemia explanation free. What is microfilaraemia? Meaning of microfilaraemia medical term. What does microfilaraemia mean?
MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-one studies were included; two compared DEC-medicated salt with other forms of DEC, five had some control group, and 14 were before-and-after studies. Five were efficacy and safety studies of individuals who were all microfilaraemic at baseline; the rest studied endemic communities.Percentage reductions in microfilariae prevalence were large (43% to 100%) and consistent in most studies with high levels of coverage. Large reductions in microfilariae density were also observed, though most studies reported changes in microfilariae density only for people with microfilaraemia at baseline. Vector infection and infectivity also declined, but the samples were usually small. Changes in disease prevalence were inconclusive as most studies were not powered for this outcome. Adverse events seemed mild.Only two studies compared DEC-medicated salt with other forms of DEC (such as annual or standard 12-day dose), but in both performance of DEC-medicated salt was better.A few studies ...
Friday 24 March 2006 - Clear evidence that Lymphatic Filariasis (LF, commonly known as elephantiasis) can be eliminated is reported in the March 25 issue of The Lancet. LF is one of the world s most d...
Lymphatic filariasis mapping by Immunochromatographic Test cards and baseline microfilaria survey prior to mass drug administration in Sierra Leone
Many patients infected with filarial worms have no symptoms, but those who develop disfiguring lymphatic filariasis -- more commonly known as elephantiasis -- often struggle with discrimination and rejection. Now, researchers have quantified that burden, reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases that lymphatic filariasis patients in Nigeria have about four times the rate of depression as other adults there.
Filariasis is a disease group affecting humans and animals, caused by filariae; ie, nematode parasites of the order Filariidae. Filarial parasites can be classified according to the habitat of the adult worms in the vertebral host, as follows (see Pathophysiology, Etiology, and Workup): Cutaneous group - Includes Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus...
Over the past several years, our lab has been attempting to determine the mechanism by which inbred strains of mice, which we use as model mammalian hosts, respond to experimental filarial infections. The outcome of these studies indicates that an important host defense mechanism is the formation of multicellular aggregates of leukocytes called granulomas around incoming infectious larvae. Our previous studies indicated an important role for T cells (for the recruitment of a robust population of leukocytes and for activating macrophages along the alternative pathway of activation), B lymphocytes (particularly the B1 subset), and macrophages and eosinophils (for participating in the granulomas). We have demonstrated the crucial importance of antifilarial antibodies of the IgM isotype in binding to the surface of the larvae and facilitating the adhesion of activated macrophages to the larvae. We have further shown that the in vitro cytoadherence assay is a good surrogate for in vivo granuloma ...
Author Summary Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is among the leading causes of disability among tropical diseases and is caused by a mosquito-transmitted parasite but can be prevented using mass drug therapy and vector-control. In recent years, an international effort has been mounted to eliminate LF. In order to focus limited resources on areas with the highest disease burden, the World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested that mass drug treatment programs be focused in areas with |1% prevalence of the infection, working under the assumption that areas with |1% prevalence are equivalent to areas of limited or no transmission. We carried out an additional assessment in low-prevalence areas and observed evidence of active transmission and clustering of antigen-positive persons. Our results imply that a 1% infection threshold may not be sufficient to capture all remaining reservoirs of transmission.
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Background: A 59 year old male from the North was referred with Nephrotic Syndrome and heavy proteinuria (8gm) and weakness. Urine examination showed 2-3 pus cells, 4+ protein. Two cores of renal tissue were submitted in buffered formalin and Michels transport medium. Objective: The case is presented for its rarity. The discussion will include immunological review and glomerular patterns of injury associated with Microfilaria. Result: The immunofluorescence pattern was negative for IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, C4, C1q, kappa and lambda. The light microscopy revealed 3 glomeruli showing mild increase in mesangial cellularity. Tubules show cloudy change. Interstitium shows focal lymphoid infiltrate. An unusual finding is the presence of segmented microfilaria in glomerular capillaries. Conclusion: Diagnosis of filariasis on kidney biopsy by identifying microfilaria is rare. High index of suspicion is required to diagnose filariasis due to its wide range of clinical presentation and laboratory findings. In ...
Tweet Endemic regions for filariasis. Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is the primary cause for lymphedema worldwide and is a painful and extremely disfiguring disease, which has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a leading cause for permanent and long-term disability in the world. It is a tropical disease, endemic to more than 80 regions . . . → Read More: What is Lymphatic Filariasis?. ...
Clear evidence that Lymphatic Filariasis (LF, commonly known as elephantiasis) can be eliminated is reported in The Lancet. LF is one of the worlds most disfiguring and disabling parasitic diseases, and the target of one of the largest global public health programs using mass drug administration (MDA).
Hatfield, England (ots/PRNewswire) - First shipment to benefit more than 6 million people in 4 endemic countries Eisai announced today that it has begun the free supply of...
Unit 3. Assignment 1. Disorders and Diseases Affecting the Lymphatic System ELEPHANTIASIS Elephantiasis is usually caused by obstructions in the lymphatic
Documents : WHO/Mal/515.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/179.65)‎, WHO/Mal/516.65 - 525.65, WHO/Mal/526.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/154.65)‎, WHO/Mal/527.65 - 528.65, WHO/Mal/529.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/186.65)‎, WHO/Mal/530.65 (‎WHO/EBL/52.65)‎, WHO/Mal/531.65 (‎WHO/VC/185.65)‎, WHO/Mal/532.65, WHO/Mal/66.533 - 66.534, WHO/Mal/66.535 (‎WHO/Fil/66.46)‎, WHO/Mal/66.536-66.537, WHO/Mal/66.538 (‎WHO/Vector Control/66.191)‎, WHO/Mal/66.539, WHO/Mal/66.540 (‎WHO/Pharm/66.430)‎, WHO/Mal/66.541 (‎WHO/Vector Control/66.193)‎, WHO/Mal/66.542, WHO/Mal/66.543 (‎WHO/Vector Control/66.180 - WHO/Fil/66.49)‎, WHO/Mal/66.544, WHO/Mal/66.545-66.548, WHO/Mal/66.549 (‎WHO/Vector Control/66.202)‎, WHO/Mal/66.550 (‎WHO/Vector Control/66.201)‎, bound in 1 ...
Lymphatic filariasis infects more than 128 million people worldwide in more than 80 endemic countries and continues to be a formidable problem especially in Asian subcontinent and Africa. Around 20% of world population is at risk to lymphatic filarial infection and 44 million populations is affected with various clinical forms of the disease while 76 million carry the parasites in their blood with silent clinical damages of lymphatics and renal systems. Within the last few years, significant achievements have been made in the identification of virulence factors and understanding of pathogenesis due to development of various immunopathological animal models. In addition, better diagnostic and control strategies including single dose and combination therapy, gave new ray of hope for elimination of this morbid disease. However, the presently available drugs, both diethylcarbamazine and albendazole are principally microfilaricidal with little or negligible effect on adult filarial parasites and ...
Affects over 120 million people, primarily in Africa, South America and other ... Transmitted through Mosquito vector. Culcenine and Anopheline ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on - id: 8164a-ZDc1Z
Mabel is a LTR retrotransposon found in the genome of the nematode parasite Brugia malayi (Llorens et al. 2009). Its name is an acronym derived from Brugia malayi Bel/Pao element. Mabel belongs to the Tas clade (Copeland et al. 2005) within Branch 1 of the Bel/Pao family (Llorens et al. 2009). The genome of Mabel is 5.4 Kb in size (5436 bp long) and presents a single long polyprotein of 1811 amino acids containing both gag and pol associated domains (Llorens et al. 2009). No LTRs have been yet identified for this element. ...
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118 Loa loa The vector for Loa loa filariasis are flies from two species of the genus Chrysops, C. silacea and C. dimidiata. During a blood meal, an infected fly (genus Chrysops, day-biting flies) introduces filarial larvae onto the skin of the human host, where they penetrate into the bite wound. The larvae develop into adults that commonly reside in subcutaneous tissue but can migrate into spinal fluids, urine, and sputum. During the day they are found in peripheral blood, but during the noncirculation phase, they are found in the lungs. The fly ingests microfilariae during a blood meal, which migrate to the thoracic muscles and develop into infective larvae. They migrate to the flys proboscis and can infect another human when the fly takes a blood meal. ...
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Diethylcarbamazine: Search drug information, interaction, images & medical diagnosis. The most comprehensive database of medicines available in China, Hong...
Effects of a diet integration with an oily emulsion of dha-phospholipids containing melatonin and tryptophan in elderly patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment. The mechanism of hormones, however, is still unclear? If you are at home you can demangeaison apres prise de stromectol use them to your advantage of preventing yourself from an asthma attack. One year stromectol philippines later, no recurrence has been seen. Plz answer back as im looking to design my own blog ivermectin 1 for sale south africa and would like to find out where u got this from? Medications on the beers criteria may be denied because they also are listed on the hrm list, or because the electronic health record cannot ivermectin for humans mayo clinic take into consideration the reason why the medication is being prescribed, nor the thoughtful shared medical ivermectin dosage for elephantiasis decision process between the physician and patient for the appropriate treatment of their condition! I was looking ...
Question - Family history of elephantiasis. Will my children or I suffer with the same?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Helminthiases, Ask a General & Family Physician
Therefore antibiotic treatment can be used too. If the disease has progressed, the extra skin is removed from the body with surgical operations.. Elephantiasis, the disease affecting so many people in the world, is seen as one of the hardest diseases a person can experience. ...

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Education and information about lymphatic filariasis including fact sheets and information on prevention and control, ... Lymphatic filariasis is spread from person to person by mosquitoes.. People with the disease can suffer from lymphedema and ... Lymphatic filariasis, considered globally as a neglected tropical disease (NTD), is a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, ... Lymphatic filariasis is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Communities frequently shun and reject women and men ...
Education and information about lymphatic filariasis treatment. ... homeLymphatic Filariasis. *About Lymphatic Filariasisplus icon ...
1966)‎. Filariasis (‎Resolution)‎. WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific. ...
Filariasis is a disease group affecting humans and animals, caused by filariae; ie, nematode parasites of the order Filariidae ... Hoerauf A. Filariasis: new drugs and new opportunities for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008 ... Reduction in acute filariasis morbidity during a mass drug administration trial to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in Papua New ... encoded search term (Filariasis) and Filariasis What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Researchers have found that a common antibiotic is most effective for eradicating a form of filariasis in South-East Asia. ... Common antibiotic effective filariasis treatment. By: Ella Syafputri. [JAKARTA] A commonly-used antibiotic is most suitable ... Lymphatic filariasis - a cause of elephantiasis - is caused by the nematode worms Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, which ... Lymphatic filariasis - a cause of elephantiasis - is caused by the nematode worms Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, which ...
2001)‎. Lymphatic filariasis. World Health Organization. ...
Lymphatic Filariasis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Education and information about lymphatic filariasis ... Frequently asked questions about lymphatic filariasis. ... lymphatic filariasis, lymphedema, elephantiasis, general information ... Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) ... a host, cause disease, developing countries, Guinea worm, filariasis, sleeping sickness, bed bugs, lice, scabies, Chagas, ...
Filariasis, Lymphatic. Christine Dubray, Sharon L. Roy. INFECTIOUS AGENT. Filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia ... Filariasis in travelers presenting to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2007;1(3):e88. ... Hoerauf A, Pfarr K, Mand S, Bebrah AY, Specht S. Filariasis in Africa-treatment challenges and prospects. Clin Microbiol Infect ... Doxycycline reduces plasma VEGF-C/ sVEGFR-3 and improves pathology in lymphatic filariasis. PLoS Pathogens. 2006 Sep;2(9):e92. ...
... lymphatic filariasis - Raising our voices to improve health around the world. ... Tags Angola, Chagas Disease, dengue, Haiti, lymphatic filariasis, vector-borne diseases, World Health Day ... Tags Guinea worm disease, London Declaration, lymphatic filariasis, NTD Summit, onchocerciasis, Tanzania, trachoma ... Dengue in Angola Chagas disease and the kissing bug Lymphatic filariasis: Spotlight on elimination in Haiti April 7 marks World ...
Lymphatic filariasis, or elephantiasis, is a serious threat to approximately 406 million people in the African Region. ... Lymphatic filariasis is caused by a thread-like parasitic worm that is transmitted by mosquitoes. The infection is usually ... Lymphatic filariasis, or elephantiasis, is a serious threat to approximately 406 million people in the African Region. ... Acute or short-term symptoms of lymphatic filariasis can include redness, warmth, swelling and pain in the affected area. The ...
The Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center (FR3) maintains oversight of filarial parasites, SOPs, and molecular reagents. ... Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center (FR3). The Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center (FR3) maintains oversight of ... Filariasis parasites maintained in the laboratory by alternate passage through mammalian definitive hosts and arthropod vectors ... More information about this resource is available at Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center (FR3) ...
Click to know more on causes of Filaria/Filariasis/Elephantiasis ! @AskDabur ... Causes of FILARIA-FILARIASIS-ELEPHANTIASIS. Just like dengue, malaria and other vector borne diseases, filariasis too, spreads ... Do not use this information to diagnose or ayurvedic treatment of allergy-immunity-infection-fever and/or filaria/filariasis/ ... "While we have products /ayurvedic medicines for allergy-immunity-infection-fever and/or filaria/filariasis/elephantiasis, you ...
Zoonotic filariasis T C Orihel et al. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998 Apr. ... Intraocular filariasis: a brief review. Beaver PC. Beaver PC. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989 Jan;40(1):40-5. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh. ...
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori, which are ... Lymphatic filariasis in Australia: an update on presentation, diagnosis and treatment. Cameron J Jeremiah, Craig A Aboltins and ... 1. Lymphatic filariasis: epidemiology and risk factors (updated 24 Apr 2008). Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and ... Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis. J Infect Dis 1994; ...
Lymphatic filariasis Is the Subject Area "Lymphatic filariasis" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... This paper was presented, in part, at the 7th meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, held at The ... 2. Addiss DG (2010) Global elimination of lymphatic filariasis: addressing the public health problem. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: ... 9. WHO (2012) Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report, 2011. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 87: 345-356. * View ...
The Mectizan Donation Program is an international program to eliminate river blindness and lymphatic filariasis (LF), primarily ...
Is filariasis a communicable disease?. How is lymphatic filariasis spread? The disease spreads from person to person by ... How many types of filariasis are there?. There are three different filarial species that can cause lymphatic filariasis in ... How can I treat filariasis at home?. If you have elephantiasis symptoms, there are some things you can do on your own to ease ... Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease. Infection occurs when filarial ...
Brought to you by Merck & Co, Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA (known as MSD outside the US and Canada)-dedicated to using leading-edge science to save and improve lives around the world. Learn more about the Merck Manuals and our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.. ...
Free, official info about 2015 ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 125.0. Includes coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion info.
quinquefasciatus (p>0.05). Findings were discussed in the context of on-going plans to eliminate filariasis and the ... quinquefasciatus (p>0.05). Findings were discussed in the context of on-going plans to eliminate filariasis and the ... nbsp; Key words: Bancroftian filariasis, rainy season, dry season, Wuchereria bancrofti.  ... nbsp; Key words: Bancroftian filariasis, rainy season, dry season, Wuchereria bancrofti.  ...
Home News Health Lymphatic filariasis: reporting continued progress towards elimination as a public health problem ... Lymphatic filariasis: reporting continued progress towards elimination as a public health problem. By ... The global distribution of lymphatic filariasis, 2000-18: a geos-patial analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8:e1186-94. 2 ... In 2019, 538.1 million people were treated for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in 38 countries that implemented mass drug ...
... eastern Nigeria were examined between July 2002-January 2003 for lymphatic filariasis. This is the first time a filariasis ... eastern Nigeria were examined between July 2002-January 2003 for lymphatic filariasis. This is the first time a filariasis ... Filariasis Research Project, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Imo State University, Owerri. P.M.B. 2000 Owerri, ...
The fight to eliminate lymphatic filariasis is also a fight against poverty. Lymphatic filariasis exerts a heavy social burden ... lymphatic filariasis is primarily a disease of the poor. In recent years, lymphatic filariasis has steadily increased because ... As many filariasis patients are physically incapacitated, it is also a disease that prevents patients from having a normal ... Fact sheet No 102: Lymphatic Filariasis - Rev. September 2000 (WHO, 2000, 3 p.). ...
It was quickly apparent that filariasis is endemic in the Marquesas Islands. On each of the six inhabited islands (Nukuhiva, ... In addition, several Europeans who had never been exposed in other endemic areas of filariasis had also acquired elephantiasis ... Relatively little information has been available on human filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti) in the Marquesas Islands although ... the author had the opportunity of visiting the six inhabited islands of the group for the purpose of making a brief filariasis ...
Lymphatic filariasis (commonly known as elephantiasis) is a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms. The ... Lymphatic Filariasis. Last Updated on 8 years by Publishing Team. What is Lymphatic Filariasis?. Lymphatic filariasis (commonly ... Signs & Symptoms Of Lymphatic Filariasis?. Lymphatic filariasis infection involves asymptomatic, acute, and chronic conditions ... Lymphatic filariasis can be a danger in Fiji due to the tropical climate and wet season that gives rise to many mosquito-borne ...
... on Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination and other Preventive Chemotherapy Programmes was organized by the WHO Regional Office for ... The 14th meeting of the Regional Programme Review Group on Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination and other Preventive Chemotherapy ... Report on the Fourteenth meeting of the Regional Programme Review Group on lymphatic filariasis elimination and other ... Fourteenth meeting of the Regional Programme Review Group on lymphatic filariasis elimination and other preventive chemotherapy ...
Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease that afflicts over 70 million people worldwide. It is caused by the parasitic ... Bma-LAD-2, an Intestinal Cell Adhesion Protein, as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Lymphatic Filariasis Alexander F Flynn 1 ... Bma-LAD-2, an Intestinal Cell Adhesion Protein, as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Lymphatic Filariasis Alexander F Flynn et ... Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease that afflicts over 70 million people worldwide. It is caused by the parasitic ...
Prevalence, Lymphatic filariasis, Microfilaria, Crude disease rate. Abstract. Lymphatic filariasis is a major problems health ... A Prospective Study of Lymphatic Filariasis in an Endemic Village of Kapilbastu District, Nepal Authors. * R. Gupta Central ... Illiteracy, poor sanitation , lack of knowledge about the disease and not taking precaution of filariasis , habit of working in ... Key words: Prevalence; Lymphatic filariasis; Microfilaria; Crude disease rate.. doi: 10.3126/eco.v13i0.1626. Ecoprint (An ...
  • Lymphatic filariasis, or elephantiasis, is a serious threat to approximately 406 million people in the African Region. (
  • A long-standing infection with lymphatic filariasis results in an irreversible condition called elephantiasis, in which hardened, enlarged skin resembles elephant skin. (
  • Skin findings in lymphatic filariasis can range from mild swelling (top left) to more severe swelling (top right and bottom right) and elephantiasis (bottom left). (
  • Lymphatic filariasis (LF), commonly known as elephantiasis, is a painful and profoundly disfiguring disease. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis, or elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that attacks the lymphatic system. (
  • The chronic condition of lymphatic filariasis witnesses the body's tissue swelling (lymphoedema) or thickening ( elephantiasis , hence the condition's synonym). (
  • Cost of treatment of the Elephantiasis (aka lymphatic filariasis) disease. (
  • If left untreated, lymphatic filariasis may develop into elephantiasis, or excessive swelling in the extremities. (
  • Researchers from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have shown that a single "cocktail" of three pill-based anti-parasite medications is significantly more effective at killing microscopic larval worms in people diagnosed with lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, than other standard two-drug combinations previously used in the global effort to eliminate this infectious disease. (
  • Often referred to as diseases of poverty, NTDs perpetuate inequities through associated morbidities such as blindness (trachoma and onchocerciasis ), severe anemia, impaired growth and cognitive development (soil-transmitted helminths), elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis), and other chronic conditions that prevented infected individuals from reaching their full income earning potential. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease that causes damage of the lymphatic system and can lead to lymphoedema (elephantiasis) and hydrocele in infected individuals. (
  • Before DEC treatment for lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis should be excluded in all patients with a consistent exposure history because of the possibility of severe exacerbations of skin and eye involvement (Mazzotti reaction). (
  • The overall objective of the meeting was to review and discuss current and future challenges in controlling and eliminating lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (
  • As a result, the scope of the current WHO Regional Office-RPRG meeting is being broadened to involve discussions on three major neglected tropical diseeases (lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis and onchocerciasis) amenable to preventive chemotherapy. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis are present in Egypt, Sudan and Yemen, whereas onchocerciasis is transmitted in Sudan and Yemen only. (
  • West program supports 11 African countries to eliminate lymphatic filariasis, trachoma and onchocerciasis as public health problems and sustain treatment for long-term NTD control. (
  • Approximately 120 million people are infected by lymphatic filariasis, with more than 1.1 billion in 72 countries at risk of infection. (
  • Blood - The microfilariae of all species that cause lymphatic filariasis and the microfilariae of Loa loa, Mansonella ozzardi, and Mansonella perstans are detected in blood. (
  • Three parasites - Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi , and Brugia timori - cause lymphatic filariasis. (
  • Bancroftian filariasis is caused primarily ephantiasis, is a major disease of tropical by adult worms (known as macrofilariae) and subtropical regions worldwide. (
  • It took 90 years for a filariasis drug to be developed - Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), while ivermectin and albendazole are being used for the last 30 to 35 years," he added. (
  • In countries where river blindness in not co-endemic, lymphatic filariasis is treated using diethylcarbamazine, produced by Eisai, and albendazole tablets, donated by GlaxoSmithKline. (
  • The most commonly used drugs for filariasis treatment are diethylcarbamazine and ivermectin , sometimes in combination with albendazole. (
  • Filariasis treatment can be either diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin with albendazole. (
  • For lymphatic filariasis treatment, diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin with albendazole may be given as a yearly dose for five years. (
  • Individual efficacy and community impact of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine and albendazole mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis control in Fiji: a cluster randomised trial. (
  • An open label, randomized clinical trial to compare the tolerability and efficacy of ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine and albendazole vs. diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole for treatment of brugian filariasis in Indonesia. (
  • In order to support the case for a certification of elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in some Caribbean countries, we compared the prevalence of circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen in communities in Guyana, Suriname, and Trinidad. (
  • Nigeria has the heaviest burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa, which is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. (
  • Wuchereria bancrofti, a roundworm nematode, one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis, responsible for ninety percent of infections. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the transmission of filarial parasites - Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. (
  • The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has a significant burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti . (
  • To ensure elimination of the Wuchereria bancrofti, a parasitic roundworm that causes lymphatic filariasis, public health workers must follow up mass drug administration with careful monitoring for recurrence. (
  • Wuchereria bancrofti, the causative agent of lymphatic filariasis. (
  • The Carter Center's Hispaniola Initiative works with the ministries of health in Haiti and the Dominican Republic to eliminate malaria and lymphatic filariasis from the countries' shared island, Hispaniola. (
  • The Carter Center works with the governments of both countries to eliminate two mosquito-borne tropical diseases-malaria and lymphatic filariasis-from their shared island in the Caribbean. (
  • Most areas within Haiti remain at risk for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission. (
  • The Carter Center began its work in Haiti and the Dominican Republic after a 2006 recommendation of the Carter Center-sponsored International Task Force for Disease Eradication (ITFDE) that concluded elimination of malaria and lymphatic filariasis from Hispaniola was "technically feasible, medically desirable, and would be economically beneficial" to both countries. (
  • Since 2008, the Carter Center's Hispaniola Initiative has assisted both countries' ministries of health by strengthening binational cooperation, providing technical assistance for elimination of both diseases, and helping to integrate activities between the countries' malaria and lymphatic filariasis programs. (
  • Entomological surveys were conducted in endemic areas of malaria and lymphatic filariasis at Ed Damazin locality, Blue Nile State, to investigate mosquito species composition. (
  • Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report, 2016. (
  • Talking about the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, he said, "The goal is to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem and stop the spread of infection by interrupting transmission and reduce suffering caused by the disease through morbidity control efforts," he said. (
  • While presenting the General Budget 2017-18 in Parliament, Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said that the government has prepared an action plan to eliminate Kala-Azar and Filariasis by 2017, Leprosy by 2018 and Measles by 2020. (
  • Sightsavers is fighting hard to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in the countries in which we work by 2030. (
  • The Mectizan Donation Program is an international program to eliminate river blindness and lymphatic filariasis (LF), primarily funded by Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, N.J., U.S.A.,* with additional support from GSK. (
  • The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) has two major goals: to interrupt transmission of the parasite and to provide care for those who suffer the devastating clinical manifestations of the disease (morbidity control). (
  • This report describes and analyses the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF), a Global Public-Private Initiative (GPPIs) for health. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis: Can India eliminate it? (
  • Union Health Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan has pledged to eliminate lymphatic filariasis by 2021. (
  • Earlier this week, Dr Vardhan inaugurated a National Symposium with the theme of 'United to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis' in New Delhi, which he described on Twitter as "a platform for sharing of experiences between states and planning for the expected final steps for India to move into what is hoped to be the final phase of elimination efforts for [lymphatic filariasis] in India. (
  • The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), launched in 2000, has the target of eliminating the disease as a public health problem by the year 2020. (
  • Furthermore, these results demonstrate conclusively that in Haiti, the use of DEC provides long-term benefits to treated persons, even though they continue to reside in an area with endemic filariasis. (
  • In endemic countries, lymphatic filariasis has a major social and economic impact. (
  • India's strategy for tackling lymphatic filariasis follows the WHO's model, involving a mass-drug administration (MDA) programme in endemic areas. (
  • Guidance filariasis-endemic regions. (
  • These observations suggest that filariasis endemic populations consist of those individuals who remain amicrofilaraemic and asymptomatic, and those who progress through the sequence: uninfected, microfilaraeinic, amicrofilar- aemic, to develop irreversible obstructive lymphatic pathology. (
  • The impact of podoconiosis, lymphatic filariasis, and leprosy on disability and mental well-being: A systematic review. (
  • Leprosy , podoconiosis , and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are among the priority neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in Ethiopia . (
  • While river blindness is transmitted by the black fly and lymphatic filariasis by the mosquito, both diseases are caused by an infection of a filarial worm and often occur in the same places. (
  • We also trained more than 450,000 local volunteers to distribute medication via mass drug administration to treat a range of neglected tropical diseases, including lymphatic filariasis. (
  • The Council has undertaken a programme on integration of data from ancient knowledge, modem system of medicine and evidence generated through scientific studies on medicinal plants to evolve monographs on diseases of public health importance such as liver disorders, diabetes and lymphatic filariasis. (
  • Under the ICMR programme on preparation of medicinal plant monographs on diseases of public health importance, a project was sanctioned in the area of lymphatic filariasis with the objective of listing medicinal plants and products reported to have been used in Traditional Indian Systems of Medicine, in folklore and investigated for antifilarial activity using modem scientific methodology. (
  • All of these NGO workers, regardless of their origin, face the threat of mosquito-borne diseases, including malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue. (
  • The Parasitology and International Programs Branch and the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) are supporting and conducting multiple research projects aimed at treating and ending a kind of lymphedema called lymphatic filariasis. (
  • In addition, many deworming treatments are effectively provided through the administration of albendazole as part of treatment for lymphatic filariasis (LF), given the overlap in drugs between the two diseases. (
  • On this Page Malaria The Reality of Outbreak Investigations: Dengue in Angola Chagas disease and the kissing bug Lymphatic filariasis: Spotlight on elimination in Haiti April 7 marks World Health Day. (
  • Zoonotic Filariasis Caused by Novel Brugia sp. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis, caused by W. bancrofti nematodes and affecting approximately 120 million people in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, and the Americas, has been targeted for global elimination by 2020 through the usage of mass administrations of antifilarial drugs. (
  • Almost as important, however, is the necessity to The World Health Organization achieve these goals in a cost-effective, so- strategy for lymphatic filariasis cially-responsible manner, ensuring appro- elimination priate health and economic benefits [ 8 ]. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified lymphatic filariasis as a major cause of disability worldwide, with an estimated 40 million individuals affected by the disfiguring features of the disease. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne by Aedes and Mansonia mosquito species. (
  • A strong effect of individual compliance with mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis on sustained clearance of soil-transmitted helminth infections. (
  • Semiannual Treatment of Albendazole Alone is Efficacious for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis: A Randomized Open-label Trial in Cote d'Ivoire. (
  • The attending medical practitioner will select the best filariasis treatment according to the site, symptoms and causative organism. (
  • The current study was aimed to investigate larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activities of acetone, hexane and chloroform extracts of Ocimum gratissimum against filariasis mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus Chloroform extract exhibited better mortality rate than other extracts with the LC 50 and LC 90 values of 2.8916 mg/ml and 5.4521 mg/ml at 24 hrs. (
  • Problem Lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis are the major causes of tropical lymphoedema in Ethiopia. (
  • To monitor the integration, an indicator on the number of lymphoedema-treated patients was included in the national health management information system.Local setting In 2014, only 24% (87) of the 363 health facilities surveyed provided lymphatic filariasis services, while 12% (44) provided podoconiosis services.Relevant changes To date, 542 health workers from 53 health centres in 24 districts have been trained on integrated morbidity management. (
  • This includes support for lymphatic filariasis surveys, mass drug administration to interrupt lymphatic filariasis transmission, and malaria surveillance. (
  • Is mass drug administration against lymphatic filariasis required in urban settings? (
  • Lymphatic filariasis occurs when the lymphatic system becomes blocked and damaged by parasites. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis, considered globally as a neglected tropical disease (NTD) , is a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms. (
  • Filariasis is an infectious tropical parasitic disease and is caused by filarial nematodes, which are thin, thread-like worms . (
  • Using innovative RNA sequencing techniques, researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine Institute for Genome Sciences identified a promising novel treatment for lymphatic filariasis, a disabling parasitic disease that is difficult to treat. (
  • Acute or short-term symptoms of lymphatic filariasis can include redness, warmth, swelling and pain in the affected area. (
  • Although people suffering from advanced lymphatic filariasis cannot be cured, the symptoms can be eased through surgery and care. (
  • Salifat experienced painful swelling in her leg for a year before she was visited by a local health worker, who told her she had lymphatic filariasis and taught her to manage her symptoms. (
  • There were 72 countries at the beginning of the global programme, he said, adding, "Some have achieved the elimination of filariasis as a public health problem, while others are in the surveillance stage and treatment stage. (
  • Abstract addressing the central role that filariasis patients have played in the Tanzania Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme to date, and covering some of the clinical successes achieved between 1999 and 2009. (
  • The 14th meeting of the Regional Programme Review Group on Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination and other Preventive Chemotherapy Programmes was organized by the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean at its premises in Cairo, Egypt, from 12 to 14 October 2015. (
  • Participants of the Twelfth meeting of the Regional Programme Review Group (RPRG) on lymphatic filariasis elimination and other preventive chemotherapy programmes The twelfth meeting of the Regional Programme Review Group (RPRG) on lymphatic filariasis elimination and other preventive chemotherapy programmes took place in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, from 21 to 23 October 2013. (
  • Filariasis is a disease group caused by filariae that affects humans and animals (ie, nematode parasites of the family Filariidae). (
  • Filariasis is an infectious tropical disease caused by parasites - filarial nema. (
  • To ensure standard provision of care, the health ministry developed an integrated lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis morbidity management guideline, containing a treatment algorithm and a defined package of care. (
  • Between July 2013 and June 2016, the national health management information system has recorded 46 487 treated patients from 189 districts.Lessons learnt In Ethiopia, an integrated approach for lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis morbidity management was feasible. (
  • He recalled the contribution of V. Kumaraswami, former director of the Tuberculosis Research Centre (now NIRT), in the field of lymphatic filariasis. (
  • A leading cause of permanent and long-term disability worldwide, lymphatic filariasis is caused by thin worms transmitted to humans by the bites of mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions. (
  • The adult worms can live in their human host for years, so filariasis treatment often requires repeating. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis is spread from person to person by mosquitoes. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis is caused by a thread-like parasitic worm that is transmitted by mosquitoes. (
  • In Liberia, Sightsavers has studied mosquitoes and tested children to see how urban migration affects the spread of lymphatic filariasis. (
  • Following bed-net intervention in 2009, there were significantly decreased village-specific rates of mosquito bites as well as significantly decreased proportions of mosquitoes infected with the nematode causing filariasis. (
  • Filariasis is transmitted from human host to human host in the larval form via blood by biting insects like mosquitoes and flies, and may affect different parts of the body. (
  • The global baseline estimate of persons affected by lymphatic filariasis is 25 million men with hydrocele and ove. (
  • It also accounts for approximately 95% of the lymphatic filariasis burden in the Western Hemisphere. (
  • This paper reports results from the first study of IDA in persons with brugian filariasis, which accounts for approximately 10% of the global LF burden. (
  • Lymphatic filariasis poses public health problem in India for decades. (
  • Filariasis in travelers presenting to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. (
  • Doxycycline reduces plasma VEGF-C/ sVEGFR-3 and improves pathology in lymphatic filariasis. (
  • Recent attention has focused on the possibility of using vector control, potentially in conjunction with ongoing malaria control efforts, to augment filariasis elimination efforts. (
  • SUMMARY Lymphatic filariasis (LF) represents a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. (
  • Recent advances in diagnosis and therapy led the World Health Assembly to pass a resolution in 1997 calling for "the elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem. (