A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).
A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is mainly expressed in LUNG; KIDNEY; PANCREAS; and SPLEEN. It also plays an important role in SKELETAL MUSCLE development and can contribute to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.
A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.
A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
A fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in regulation of HAIR FOLLICLE phenotype. Spontaneous mutation of the gene for this protein results in a strain of MICE with abnormally long hair, referred to as angora mice.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fibroblast growth factor that is expressed primarily during development.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A fibroblast growth factor that was initially identified based on its sequence similarity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 4. It is found in MYOBLASTS and plays an important role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The most divergent of the known fibroblast growth factor receptors. It does not contain an intracellular TYROSINE KINASE domain and has been shown to interact with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 5 is found primarily in skeletal tissue.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.
Congenital craniostenosis with syndactyly.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
A severe form of neonatal dwarfism with very short limbs. All cases have died at birth or later in the neonatal period.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Autosomal dominant CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS with shallow ORBITS; EXOPHTHALMOS; and maxillary hypoplasia.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to both PDGF-A chains and PDGF-B chains. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.

Vascular remodeling in response to altered blood flow is mediated by fibroblast growth factor-2. (1/4267)

Vascular structures adapt to changes in blood flow by adjusting their diameter accordingly. The factors mediating this process are only beginning to be identified. We have recently established a mouse model of arterial remodeling in which flow in the common carotid artery is interrupted by ligation of the vessel near the carotid bifurcation, resulting in a dramatic reduction in vessel diameter as a consequence of inward remodeling and intimal lesion formation. In the present study, we used this model to determine the role of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in the remodeling response by maintaining neutralizing serum levels of a mouse monoclonal antibody against FGF-2 for 4 weeks. Morphometric analysis revealed that intimal lesion formation was not affected by the antibody. However, lumen narrowing was significantly inhibited, resulting in a greater than 3-fold increase in lumen area in anti-FGF-2-treated animals compared with controls. Treatment with anti-FGF-2 antibody significantly inhibited the reduction in vessel diameter (inward remodeling) and shortening of the internal elastic lamina in the ligated vessel. In addition, anti-FGF-2 treatment also caused outward remodeling of the contralateral carotid artery. These findings identify FGF-2 as an important factor in vascular remodeling, and its effects are likely to be mediated by increasing vascular tone. The results are consistent with the recent observation of reduced vascular tone in the FGF-2-deficient mouse.  (+info)

Contribution of natural killer cells to inhibition of angiogenesis by interleukin-12. (2/4267)

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) inhibits angiogenesis in vivo by inducing interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and other downstream mediators. Here, we report that neutralization of natural killer (NK) cell function with antibodies to either asialo GM1 or NK 1.1 reversed IL-12 inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced angiogenesis in athymic mice. By immunohistochemistry, those sites where bFGF-induced neovascularization was inhibited by IL-12 displayed accumulation of NK cells and the presence of IP-10-positive cells. Based on expression of the cytolytic mediators perforin and granzyme B, the NK cells were locally activated. Experimental Burkitt lymphomas treated locally with IL-12 displayed tumor tissue necrosis, vascular damage, and NK-cell infiltration surrounding small vessels. After activation in vitro with IL-12, NK cells from nude mice became strongly cytotoxic for primary cultures of syngeneic aortic endothelial cells. Cytotoxicity was neutralized by antibodies to IFN-gamma. These results document that NK cells are required mediators of angiogenesis inhibition by IL-12, and provide evidence that NK-cell cytotoxicity of endothelial cells is a potential mechanism by which IL-12 can suppress neovascularization.  (+info)

Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody C225 inhibits angiogenesis in human transitional cell carcinoma growing orthotopically in nude mice. (3/4267)

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates the growth and progression of human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. We have shown that therapy targeting EGFR inhibited the growth of human TCC established orthotopically in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether EGFR-directed therapy affects angiogenesis associated with the growth and metastasis of human TCC. We determined the cytostatic effect and the effect on production of angiogenic factors after in vitro treatment of the human TCC cell line 253J B-V with MAb C225, a chimerized monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. The 253J B-V cells were implanted orthotopically into athymic nude mice, and established tumors (4 weeks) were treated with i.p. MAb C225. Expression of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ mRNA hybridization analyses and correlated with microvessel density evaluated after immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD31. In vitro treatment with MAb C225 inhibited mRNA and protein production of VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF by 253J B-V cells in a dose-dependent manner. MAb C225 therapy of nude mice with established TCCs growing orthotopically resulted in inhibition of growth and metastasis compared with controls (P <0.0005). VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF expression was significantly lower in treated tumors than in controls. The down-regulation of these angiogenic factors preceded the involution of blood vessels. These studies indicate that therapy with anti-EGFR MAb C225 has a significant antitumor effect mediated, in part, by inhibition of angiogenesis.  (+info)

Heparin and heparan sulphate protect basic fibroblast growth factor from non-enzymic glycosylation. (4/4267)

Non-enzymic glycosylation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) has recently been demonstrated to decrease the mitogenic activity of intracellular bFGF. Loss of this bioactivity has been implicated in impaired wound healing and microangiopathies of diabetes mellitus. In addition to intracellular localization, bFGF is also widely distributed in the extracellular matrix, primarily bound to heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Nonetheless, it is not clear if non-enzymic glycosylation similarly inactivates matrix-bound bFGF. To investigate this, we measured the effect of non-enzymic glycosylation on bFGF bound to heparin, heparan sulphate and related compounds. Incubation of bFGF with the glycosylating agents glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P; 25 mM) or fructose (250 mM) resulted in loss of 90% and 40% of the mitogenic activity of bFGF respectively. Treatment with G3P and fructose also decreased the binding of bFGF to a heparin column. If heparin was added to bFGF prior to non-enzymic glycosylation, the mitogenic activity and heparin affinity of bFGF were nearly completely preserved. A similar protective effect was demonstrated by heparan sulphate, low-molecular-mass heparin and the polysaccharide dextran sulphate, but not by chondroitin sulphate. Whereas non-enzymic glycosylation of bFGF with G3P impaired its ability to stimulate c-myc mRNA expression in fibroblasts, no such impairment was noticeable when bFGF was glycosylated in the presence of heparin. Taken together, these results suggest that HSPG-bound bFGF is resistant to non-enzymic glycosylation-induced loss of activity. Therefore, alteration of this pool probably does not contribute to impaired wound healing seen in diabetes mellitus.  (+info)

Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 are distinct in oligomerization in the presence of heparin-like glycosaminoglycans. (5/4267)

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 and FGF-2 are prototypic members of the FGF family, which to date comprises at least 18 members. Surprisingly, even though FGF-1 and FGF-2 share more than 80% sequence similarity and an identical structural fold, these two growth factors are biologically very different. FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in their ability to bind isoforms of the FGF receptor family as well as the heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (HLGAG) component of proteoglycans on the cell surface to initiate signaling in different cell types. Herein, we provide evidence for one mechanism by which these two proteins could differ biologically. Previously, it has been noted that FGF-1 and FGF-2 can oligomerize in the presence of HLGAGs. Therefore, we investigated whether FGF-1 and FGF-2 oligomerize by the same mechanism or by a different one. Through a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and chemical crosslinking, we show here that, under identical conditions, FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in the degree and kind of oligomerization. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of FGF-1 and FGF-2 uncomplexed and HLGAG complexed crystal structures enables us to readily explain why FGF-2 forms sequential oligomers whereas FGF-1 forms only dimers. FGF-2, which possesses an interface capable of protein association, forms a translationally related oligomer, whereas FGF-1, which does not have this interface, forms only a symmetrically related dimer. Taken together, these data show that FGF-1 and FGF-2, despite their sequence homology, differ in their mechanism of oligomerization.  (+info)

Growth factor-mediated Fyn signaling regulates alpha-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor expression in rodent neocortical neurons. (6/4267)

Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) transduce signals to regulate neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. However, the nature of their activators and molecular mechanisms underlying these neural processes are unknown. Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and platelet-derived growth factor enhance expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor 1 and 2/3 proteins in rodent neocortical neurons via the Src-family PTK(s). The increase in AMPA receptor levels was blocked in cultured neocortical neurons by addition of a Src-family-selective PTK inhibitor. Accordingly, neocortical cultures from Fyn-knockout mice failed to respond to BDNF whereas those from wild-type mice responded. Moreover, the neocortex of young Fyn mutants exhibited a significant in vivo reduction in these AMPA receptor proteins but not in their mRNA levels. In vitro kinase assay revealed that BDNF can indeed activate the Fyn kinase: It enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of Fyn as well as that of enolase supplemented exogenously. All of these results suggest that the Src-family kinase Fyn, activated by the growth factors, plays a crucial role in modulating AMPA receptor expression during brain development.  (+info)

Expression of vitreous cytokines in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a prospective study. (7/4267)

PURPOSE: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a major cause of failure of retinal detachment surgery. It is believed to be a wound-healing process in the retina. Many of the cellular functions are influenced by cytokines and growth factors such as interleukins (ILs). The present study was conducted to investigate the presence of transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), IL-1beta, IL-6, and protein in the vitreous of patients with retinal detachment and to determine the value of these mediators in predicting the future development of PVR. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 140 consecutive patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in whom vitrectomy was considered necessary. Vitreous samples were analyzed for the presence of TGF-beta2, bFGF, IL-1beta, IL-6, and protein. Patients were then followed up for 3 months for the development of postoperative PVR. RESULTS: The mean levels of TGF-beta2, bFGF, IL-1beta, and protein in the vitreous were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in patients with preoperative PVR compared with those without. The mean levels of TGF-beta2, bFGF, IL-6, and protein in the vitreous were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in patients who had postoperative PVR compared with those who did not. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed IL-6 and protein to be significant (P < 0.05), independent, predictive risk factors for the development of PVR. CONCLUSIONS: The various cytokines may play a role in the pathobiology of PVR. High vitreous levels of IL-6 and protein were identified as significant risk factors for PVR. A model was developed to predict the probability of development of postoperative PVR in these patients, and it may be used to indicate intravitreal pharmacologic treatment for those at risk.  (+info)

CNTF, not other trophic factors, promotes axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. (8/4267)

PURPOSE: To investigate the in vivo effects of trophic factors on the axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. METHODS: The left optic nerve was transected intracranially or intraorbitally, and a peripheral nerve graft was apposed or sutured to the axotomized optic nerve to enhance regeneration. Trophic factors were applied intravitreally every 5 days. Animals were allowed to survive for 3 or 4 weeks. Regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were labeled by applying the dye Fluoro-Gold to the distal end of the peripheral nerve graft 3 days before the animals were killed. RESULTS: Intravitreal application of ciliary neurotrophic factor substantially enhanced the regeneration of damaged axons into a sciatic nerve graft in both experimental conditions (intracranial and intraorbital optic nerve transections) but did not increase the survival of distally axotomized RGCs. Basic fibroblast growth factor and neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4/5 failed to enhance axonal regeneration of distally axotomized RGCs. CONCLUSIONS: Neurons of the adult central nervous system can regenerate in response to trophic supply after injury, and ciliary neurotrophic factor is at least one of the trophic factors that can promote axonal regeneration of axotomized RGCs.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on angiogenesis in the infarcted porcine heart. AU - Watanabe, E.. AU - Smith, D. M.. AU - Sun, J.. AU - Smart, F. W.. AU - Delcarpio, J. B.. AU - Roberts, T. B.. AU - Van Meter, C. H.. AU - Claycomb, W. C.. PY - 1998/2/1. Y1 - 1998/2/1. N2 - Administration of growth factors is emerging as a new therapeutic approach for the enhancement of collateral vessel formation in the ischemic heart. We have investigated the effects of intramyocardial delivery of FGF-2 in the presence and absence of heparin on angiogenesis in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Yorkshire pigs were subjected to myocardial infarction by the placement of an embolization coil in the left anterior descending artery (n = 5). Four to five weeks after creation of an infarct, FGF-2 (10 μg) alone or in complex with heparin, heparan sulfate, or heparin agarose beads was injected either into the normal myocardium or along the infarct border area. Histologic evaluation of ...
Natural Spray for skin repair after laser E-light treatment, derma treatment, microneedle dermaroller treatment and minor skin wound injuries. Prevents post-operative bruising, swelling, and infection. WHATS INSIDE 1x Freeze-dried powder1x 2ml; 1 solution: 6m1x 0.1ml quantitative nozzle STORAGE: Keep product in a seal
The effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), one of the commonest angiogenic factors in various cancer types, on lymphocyte adhesion and transmigration across the endothelial cell monolayer was investigated using human umbilical vein-derived endothelial cells (HUVEC) and type I collagen gel. Forty-eight h exposure of HUVEC with 2 ng/ml b-FGF significantly decreased the basal adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells. The decrease ratio is further enhanced by the addition of shear stress in this assay system. When HUVEC was stimulated for the last 24 h with optimal conditions of recombinant interleukin 1β, the percentages of transmigration as well as adhesion were also decreased significantly by the presence of b-FGF. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 was down-regulated by b-FGF exposure in both resting and activated conditions by recombinant interleukin 1β, supposedly the main reason for this phenomenon. The migrating cells ...
The aim here was to explore a new graft material that excludes the need to harvest autogenous bone from patients. Forty-two critical-size (10 x 15 mm) defects were created in rabbit mandibles bilaterally. Five groups of six defects each were grafted with autogenous endochondral (EC) bone, autogenous intramembranous (IM) bone, fresh-frozen allogeneic IM bone only, fresh-frozen allogeneic IM bone and demineralized bone matrix powder prepared from intramembranous bone (DBM IM) only, and fresh-frozen allogeneic IM bone and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mixed with DBM IM powder. The remaining defects were used as controls. Three weeks after surgery, the defects were retrieved for histological analysis. The amount of new bone formation was quantified by image analysis. No bone formed across the defect in the controls; 224% more new bone formed in defects grafted with composite allogeneic IM bone/DBM IM than in those grafted with allogeneic IM bone alone (p < 0.001); 550% more new bone was ...
Migration of endothelial cells is involved in normal and pathological angiogenesis and in re-endothelialization after vascular injury or rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Several types of endothelial cells are known to synthesize basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF); in some of these, migration is increased by exogenous bFGF and inhibited by anti-bFGF antibodies. Using immunocytochemical techniques and RNase protection analysis, we studied endothelial cells from bovine coronary arteries and veins as well as from adrenal microvessels. We found that bFGF mRNA and peptide were present in confluent endothelial cells and were upregulated during migration stimulated by removal of some cells from the monolayer. During migration, extracellular matrix stores of bFGF were depleted, and bFGF immunoreactivity began to accumulate in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells between 2 and 6 hours. After migration had begun, but before the initiation of DNA synthesis, bFGF immunoreactivity increased in the nuclei ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - O6-Methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase promoter demethylation is involved in basic fibroblast growth factor-induced resistance against temozolomide in human melanoma cells. AU - Fontijn, Dennis. AU - Adema, Auke D.. AU - Bhakat, Kishor K.. AU - Pinedo, Herbert M.. AU - Peters, Godefridus J.. AU - Boven, Epie. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a multifunctional protein and one of the most important growth factors in cutaneous melanoma development and progression. We hypothesized that high bFGF expression might be responsible for chemoresistance in advanced melanoma. M14 human melanoma cells expressing low levels of bFGF were successfully transfected with vectors encoding either the 18 kDa or all isoform proteins of bFGF. M14 cells and bFGF-overexpressing clones had a similar growth rate in vitro. Overexpression of 18 kDa or all isoform proteins of bFGF resulted in, respectively, 2.9- and 6.9-fold resistance against temozolomide. ...
K04357 EGF; epidermal growth factor K08774 TGFA; transforming growth factor, alpha K18496 FGF1; fibroblast growth factor 1 K18497 FGF2; fibroblast growth factor 2 K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K02582 NGFB; nerve growth factor, beta K04355 BDNF; brain-derived neurotrophic factor K04356 NTF3; neurotrophin 3 K12457 NTF4; neurotrophin 4 ...
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a trophic factor synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS), where it is believed to play a role in neuronal maintenance and repair. Little is known about the regulation of this growth factor in the CNS. To determine whether the expression of the bFGF gene in the brain of adult animals changes in response to alterations of neuronal activity, we examined bFGF mRNA levels in several brain regions of rats experiencing focally-evoked convulsive seizures. Seizures were induced by microinjecting bicuculline unilaterally into an epileptogenic site within the deep prepiriform cortex, area tempestas (AT). By 5 h after initiation of brief limbic motor seizures from AT, there was a four fold increase in the levels of bFGF mRNA in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus and olfactory bulb, but not in the caudate-putamen. The maximal expression of bFGF mRNA was reached by 10 h after seizure onset. In the same animals, the mRNA encoding nerve growth factor (NGF) was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultrastructural immunolocalization of basic fibroblast growth factor in mast cell secretory granules. T2 - Morphological evidence for bFGF release through degranulation. AU - Qu, Zhenhong. AU - Kayton, Robert J.. AU - Ahmadi, Proochista. AU - Liebler, Janice M.. AU - Powers, Michael R.. AU - Planck, Stephen R.. AU - Rosenbaum, James T.. PY - 1998/10. Y1 - 1998/10. N2 - We previously reported that mast cells (MCs) serve as a source of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent angiogenic and mitogenic polypeptide, suggesting that bFGF may mediate MC-related neovascularization and fibroproliferation. Unlike many other growth factors, bFGF lacks a classic peptide sequence for its secretion, and the mechanism(s) for its release remains controversial. Because MCs release a wide spectrum of bioactive products via degranulation, we hypothesized that MC degranulation may be a mechanism of bFGF release and used ultrastructural immunohistochemistry to test the hypothesis. We reasoned ...
1FGA: Refinement of the structure of human basic fibroblast growth factor at 1.6 A resolution and analysis of presumed heparin binding sites by selenate substitution.
We used trafermin (recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor) to treat a skin ulcer (diameter, 1 cm; depth, 2 mm) that… Expand ...
Basic fibroblast growth factor, also known as bFGF, FGF2 or FGF-β, is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. In normal tissue, basic fibroblast growth factor is present in basement membranes and in the subendothelial extracellular matrix of blood vessels. It stays membrane-bound as long as there is no signal peptide. It has been hypothesized that, during both wound healing of normal tissues and tumor development, the action of heparan sulfate-degrading enzymes activates bFGF, thus mediating the formation of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. In addition, it is synthesized and secreted by human adipocytes and the concentration of bFGF correlates with the BMI in blood samples. In this study, bFGF was also shown to act on preosteoblasts - in the form of an increased proliferation - after binding to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase. bFGF has been shown in preliminary animal studies to protect the heart from injury associated ...
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) are involved in the induction of embryonic mesoderm, angiogenesis, neuronal differentiation, and proliferation and survival of many cell types. In cardiac myocytes their roles are not well understood. Effects of fibroblast growth factors on reexpression of fetal actin genes have been reported. In freshly isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes, bFGF mRNA was not detectable by in situ hybridization, although the cells contained significant amounts of bFGF and aFGF as quantified by radioimmunoassays, mitogen assays with immunoneutralization, and Western blotting. After culturing, bFGF mRNA was detected (aFGF mRNA was not studied), and the cells contained 2.5-fold more bFGF and 60% more aFGF than freshly isolated cells. The FGFs were not found in conditioned medium. They were localized, especially in cultured cells, to the nucleus. Cultured myocytes bound fourfold more 125I-FGF than freshly isolated cells and expressed the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of chondrogenesis. T2 - Requirement for synergistic interaction of basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta. AU - Frenz, Dorothy A.. AU - Liu, Wei. AU - Williams, James D.. AU - Hatcher, Victor Bernard. AU - Galinovic-Schwartz, Vera. AU - Flanders, Kathleen C.. AU - Van De Water, Thomas R.. PY - 1994/2. Y1 - 1994/2. N2 - Interactions between the epithelial anlage of the developing mouse inner ear and its associated periotic mesenchyme control the differentiation of the cartilaginous otic capsule. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is a naturally occurring signal peptide that is present in these tissues at times of active differentiation and morphogenesis. Previous studies have shown that TGF-β1 alone is not a sufficient stimulus to initiate chondrogenesis in cultured periotic mesenchyme. In this study, we provide evidence that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) can elicit a specific but limited chondrogenic response in cultured ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Basic fibroblast growth factor and ultraviolet B transform melanocytes in human skin. AU - Berking, Carola. AU - Takemoto, Richelle. AU - Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu. AU - Elenitsas, Rosalie. AU - Herlyn, Meenhard. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Ultraviolet (UV) light is an epidemiological risk factor for melanoma, but its specific contribution to melanoma induction is not known. The first critical step of melanoma development, ie, the uncontrolled proliferation of melanocytes, may be induced by a combination of UV damage and an imbalance of growth factor production by cells in the immediate area of the melanocyte. Among several candidates, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is the major autocrine growth factor in melanoma and associated with tumor progression. Overexpression of bFGF via adenoviral gene transfer in human skin xenografted to severe combined immunodeficiency mice led to black-pigmented macules within 3 weeks of treatment. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Generation of spinal motor neurons from human fetal brain-derived neural stem cells. T2 - Role of basic fibroblast growth factor. AU - Jordan, Paivi M.. AU - Ojeda, Luis D.. AU - Thonhoff, Jason R.. AU - Gao, Junling. AU - Boehning, Darren. AU - Yu, Yongjia. AU - Wu, Ping. PY - 2009/2/1. Y1 - 2009/2/1. N2 - Neural stem cells (NSCs) have some specified properties but are generally uncommitted and so can change their fate after exposure to environmental cues. It is unclear to what extent this NSC plasticity can be modulated by extrinsic cues and what are the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal fate determination. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a well-known mitogen for proliferating NSCs. However, its role in guiding stem cells for neuronal subtype specification is undefined. Here we report that in-vitro-expanded human fetal forebrain-derived NSCs can generate cholinergic neurons with spinal motor neuron properties when treated with bFGF within a specific time window. ...
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been implicated in the brains trophic response to injury. This thesis examined the effects of endogenous bFGF on brain plasticity and recovery of behavioral function following cortical injury in adult rats. The first experiment investigated the post-lesion time course of the astrocytic expression of bFGF. Subsequent experiments examined the effects of injury-induced bFGF on neuroonal morphology, cortical morphology, and post-lesion behavioral deficits. Following motor cortex injury, endogenous bFGF prevented neuritic degeneration in layer V pyramidal neurons in Zilles area Fr2 and promoted recovery of function in the Whishaw Reaching Task. Housing rats in an enriched environment prior to cortical injury enhanced the expression of bFGF but did not increase cortical thickness nor reduce post-lesion behavioral deficits (relative to laboratroy-housed rats). Collectively, these experiments indicate that injury-induced bFGF plays a role in potentiating ...
Recently identified BLast Colony Forming Cells (BL-CFCs) from in vitro differentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells represent the common progenitor of hematopoietic and endothelial cells, the hemangioblast. Access to this initial cell population committed to the hematopoietic lineage provides a unique opportunity to characterize hematopoietic commitment events. Here, we show that BL-CFC expresses the receptor tyrosine kinase, Flk1, and thus we took advantage of the BL-CFC assay, as well as fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis for Flk1(+) cells to determine quantitatively if mesoderm-inducing factors promote hematopoietic lineage development. Moreover, we have analyzed ES lines carrying targeted mutations for fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (fgfr1), a receptor for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), as well as scl, a transcription factor, for their potential to generate BL-CFCs and Flk1(+) cells, to further define events leading to hemangioblast development. Our data suggest that ...
The tissue sections were deparaffinized and rehydrated, and endogenous peroxidase activity was quenched with 0.6% H2O2 in methanol. A mouse monoclonal antibody (148.6.1.1, a kind gift from Dr C. Hart, ZymoGenetics, Seattle, Wash) was used for detection of bFGF. This antibody was raised against human recombinant bFGF, and its specificity was determined by Western blot analysis and with an affinity support column containing immobilized human recombinant bFGF.17 A previously described method served for detection of bFGF in MCs.11 Briefly, the sections were treated with hyaluronidase for antigen retrieval. To exclude nonspecific binding, the sections were incubated in a blocking solution containing 3% normal horse serum, 0.5% BSA, and 0.3% Triton X-100 in PBS. They were then incubated overnight with the anti-bFGF antibody (0.05 μg/mL) diluted in PBS containing 2% normal horse serum. The avidin-biotin complex method (ABC-AP Kit, Vector Laboratories) was used to detect the primary antibody with ...
High-affinity binding of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the tyrosine kinase receptor requires cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan or exogenous addition of heparin. The crystal structure of bFGF shows Arg40 and 45 on the surface opposite to the heparin-binding region, suggesting that these charged residues may be involved in the receptor binding. Therefore, these amino acids were mutated to aspartic acid separately or simultaneously, and also a simultaneous mutation to glutamic acid was introduced. These mutants displayed a mitogenic activity decreased greater than tenfold compared to the wild-type protein. Addition of heparin had no effect on the activity, while these mutants showed heparin-binding characteristics resembling those of the native sequence protein. The mutants exhibited decreased stability compared to the native sequence protein. Gradual changes in conformation were observed by circular dichroic and infrared spectroscopy. Heparin chromatography also showed the ...
The presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was investigated in neuronal cells derived from 12 and 18 week-old human fetal brain cultures. To this purpose, the ability of bFGF to stimulate plasminogen activator (PA) production in fetal bovine aortic endothelial GM 7373 cells was used as an assay for this molecule in neuronal cell extracts. The identity of the PA-stimulating activity of neuronal cell extract with bFGF was confirmed by its high affinity for heparin and by its cross-reactivity with polyclonal antibodies to human placental bFGF. These antibodies recognized a Mr 18,000 cell-associated protein both in Western blot and in immuno-precipitation experiments. All the neurons showed bFGF immunoreactivity, as demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining, while nonneuronal cells were unstained. The data demonstrate for the first time that cultured human fetal brain neurons contain and synthesize bFGF.
CELLUGENA FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS Fibroblast Growth factors are naturally occurring specialized proteins capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation. Growth factors play a pivotal role in cellular process regulation, by acting as signaling molecules between cells to pr
Although basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a classical mitogen and survival factor in fibroblasts and endothelial cells, it inhibits proliferation in breast cancer cells. We investigated the survival effects of bFGF in MCF-7 breast cancer cells to determine if this effect was also paradoxic. Our data confirmed that bFGF increased clonogenic survival of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts alone and prior to treatment with etoposide or 5-fluorouracil, two chemotherapeutic agents with different mechanisms of action, but decreased clonogenic survival of MCF-7 cells and increased their susceptibility to these chemotherapeutic agents in a dose and time dependent manner. Similarly, bFGF preincubation increased programmed cell death or apoptosis in these cells and was additive with the apoptotic effects of etoposide and 5-FU as determined by morphologic criteria and by DNA fragmentation assayed by 3-OH dUTP-FITC end labeling. These effects correlated with bFGF-induced decreases in Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels and a
The earliest characterized events during induction of tubulogenesis in renal anlage include the condensation or compaction of metanephrogenic mesenchyme with the concurrent upregulation of WT1, the gene encoding the Wilms tumor transcriptional activator/suppressor. We report that basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) can mimic the early effects of an inductor tissue by promoting the condensation of mesenchyme and inhibiting the tissue degeneration associated with the absence of an inductor tissue. By in situ hybridization, FGF2 was also found to mediate the transcriptional activation of WT1 and of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor gene, c-met. Although FGF2 can induce these early events of renal tubulogenesis, it cannot promote the epithelial conversion associated with tubule formation in metanephrogenic mesenchyme. For this, an undefined factor(s) from pituitary extract in combination with FGF2 can cause tubule formation in uninduced mesenchyme. These findings support the concept that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutants of basic fibroblast growth factor identity different cellular response programs. AU - Leenders, W.P.J.. AU - van Hinsbergh, V.W.M.. AU - van Genesen, S.T.. AU - Schoenmakers, J.G.G.. AU - Zoelen, E.J.J.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. U2 - 10.3109/08977199709021521. DO - 10.3109/08977199709021521. M3 - Article. VL - 14. SP - 213. EP - 228. JO - Growth Factors. JF - Growth Factors. SN - 0897-7194. ER - ...
PD166866 (N-[2-Amino-6-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-yl]-N-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-urea) -Inhibitor of basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Basic fibroblast growth factor supports expansion of mouse compact bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and regeneration of bone from MSC in vivo. AU - Yamachika, Eiki. AU - Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu. AU - Matsubara, Masakazu. AU - Hirata, Yasuhisa. AU - Kita, Kenichiro. AU - Takabatake, Kiyofumi. AU - Mizukawa, Nobuyoshi. AU - Kaneda, Yoshihiro. AU - Nagatsuka, Hitoshi. AU - Iida, Seiji. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - Some progress has been made in development of methods to regenerate bone from cultured cells, however no method is put to practical use. Here, we developed methods to isolate, purify, and expand mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from mouse compact bone that may be used to regenerate boneinvivo. These cells were maintainedinlong-term culture and were capable of differentiating along multiple lineages, including chondrocyte, osteocyte, and adipocyte trajectories. We used standard cell isolation and culture methods to establish cell cultures from mouse compact bone and ...
Treatment of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) with organic disulfides, preferably glutathione disulfide, or with inorganic compounds of similar function results in a bFGF composition of enhanced stability and resistance to multimerization. The resulting stabilized form mimics the chromatographic behavior of bFGF as isolated from bovine pituitary.
We examined the localization of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the developing embryonic and newborn rat nervous system using 2 anti-bFGF antibodies. Embryonic (E13, E14, E15, E16, E17, and E18) and newborn tissues were examined. Between E16 and E17 strong bFGF immunoreactivity (IR) was det...
The cardiovascular effects of proteolysis of high molecular weight basic fibroblast growth factor by inflammatory serine proteases
Systemic basic fibroblast growth factor induces favorable histological changes in the corpus cavernosum of hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
We set out to determine whether advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is associated with elevated serum and ascitic concentrations of the angiogenic factors angiogenin (ANG), basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and whether the expression of angiogenic factors was associated with tumor vascularity. Serum and ascitic samples were collected from previously untreated patients with FIGO stage III and IV EOC and stored at -70 degreesC. Levels of the three factors were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Histological sections from paraffin blocks of ovarian cancers were stained immunochemically for factor VIII, CD34, and VEGF. Thirty-nine patients were studied, although not all had paired serum and ascitic samples. For each angiogenic factor, the following findings were noted: (a) there was a wide range in serum and ascitic fluid concentrations; (b) the mean serum concentration was higher (P , 0.05) than the mean concentration in normal serum; ...
TY - THES. T1 - Melanoma, the role of basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in the aggressive behaviour and chemotherapy response. AU - Fontijn, D.. N1 - Naam instelling promotie: S.l.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. M3 - Research VU University Amsterdam, graduation VU University Amsterdam. SN - 9789086593200. PB - s.n.. CY - S.l.. ER - ...
Metabolic effects of basic fibroblast growth factor in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: A 1H NMR-based metabolomics investigation. Related
Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 366 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
Li Liu, Xin-Zi Yu, Tie-Shi Li, Lian-Xia Song, Pei-La Chen, Ta-Lin Suo, Ying-Hua Li, Shi-Dong Wang, Yue Chen, Yong-Ming Ren, Shu-Ping Zhang, Zhi-Jie Chang, Xin-Yuan Fu*. A Novel Protein Tyrosine Kinase NOK that Shares Homology with Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors Induces Tumorigenesis and Metastasis in Nude Mice. Cancer Research. 64, 3491-3499, 2004. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DNA sequence and nucleosome placement on the murine fibroblast growth factor-4 gene. AU - Wilder, Phillip J.. AU - Mountjoy, Charles. AU - MacLeod, Michael C.. AU - Rizzino, Angie. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - A large portion of the 5′ flanking region of the fibroblast growth factor-4 (PGF-4) gene has been sequenced, but only 38 bp of sequence information past the end of the last exon of this gene has been described. In this study, a total of 2769 bp of nucleotide sequence downstream of the last exon of FGF-4 (GenBank #U43515) was determined by a combination of deletional subcloning and primer walking. In addition, we have used the theoretical algorithm of Calladine and Drew to predict the rotational positioning of nucleosomes throughout the entire FGF-4 gene.. AB - A large portion of the 5′ flanking region of the fibroblast growth factor-4 (PGF-4) gene has been sequenced, but only 38 bp of sequence information past the end of the last exon of this gene has been described. In ...
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.1312 Xiaoping Wu, Huixian Huang, Cong Wang, Shaoqiang Lin, Yadong Huang, Yi Wang, Guang Liang, Qiuxia Yan, Jian Xiao, Jianzhang Wu, Yongguang Yang, Xiaokun Li
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Antagonist Activity and Angiostatic Capacity of Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 Polysaccharide Derivatives. AU - Leali, Daria. AU - Belleri, Mirella. AU - Urbinati, Chiara. AU - Coltrini, Daniela. AU - Oreste, Pasqua. AU - Zoppetti, Giorgio. AU - Ribatti, Domenico. AU - Rusnati, Marco. AU - Presta, Marco. PY - 2001/10/12. Y1 - 2001/10/12. N2 - The angiogenic basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) interacts with tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in endothelial cells. Here, we report the FGF2 antagonist and antiangiogenic activity of novel sulfated derivatives of the Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide. K5 polysaccharide was chemically sulfated in N- and/or O-position after N-deacetylation. O-Sulfated and N,O-sulfated K5 derivatives with a low degree and a high degree of sulfation compete with heparin for binding to 125I-FGF2 with different potency. Accordingly, they abrogate the formation of the HSPG-FGF2-FGFR ternary ...
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Shop Fibroblast growth factor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Fibroblast growth factor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Recombinant Fibroblast Growth Factor 13 (FGF13) Protein. Species: Human. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6304346.
Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (A) and overall survival (B) curves according to bFGF expression for 39 patients with NHL. bFGF expression was positive
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene targeted ablation of high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2. AU - Azhar, Mohamad. AU - Yin, Moying. AU - Zhou, Ming. AU - Li, Hongqi. AU - Mustafa, Marwan. AU - Nusayr, Eyad. AU - Keenan, Jack B.. AU - Chen, Hwudaurw. AU - Pawlosky, Sharon. AU - Gard, Connie. AU - Grisham, Christina. AU - Sanford, L. Philip. AU - Doetschman, Tom. PY - 2009/2/1. Y1 - 2009/2/1. N2 - Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is produced as high molecular weight isoforms (HMW) and a low molecular weight isoform (LMW) by means of alternative usage of translation start sites in a single Fgf2 mRNA. Although the physiological function of FGF2 and FGF2 LMW has been investigated in myocardial capillarogenesis during normal cardiac growth, the role of FGF2 HMW has not been determined. Here, we report the generation of FGF2 HMW-deficient mice in which FGF2 HMW isoforms are ablated by the Tag-and-Exchange gene targeting technique. These mice are normal and fertile with normal fecundity, and have a ...
Fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF-6) is a heparin-binding growth factor that is expressed in epithelial and mesenchymal lineages. FGF-6 binds and signals through the FGF receptors FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR4. FGF-6 functions as a mitogen for vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. FGF-6 is also an important factor driving muscle differentiation and regeneration. This product is produced using Animal Free raw components and processes, in a non-mammalian system. Ships ambient. Store frozen at -20 to -10C. ...
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There is an increased incidence of heart failure in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). The co-existence of kidney disease in DM exacerbates the cardiovascular prognosis. Researchers have attempted to combine the critical features of heart failure, using transverse aortic constriction, with DM in mice but variable findings have been reported. Furthermore, kidney outcomes have not been assessed in this setting thus its utility as a model of heart failure in DM and kidney disease is unknown. We generated a mouse model of obesity, hyperglycemia and mild kidney pathology by feeding male C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet (HFD ...
MAA551Hu22, Monoclonal Antibody to Fibroblast Growth Factor 2, Basic (FGF2), 碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(FGF2)单克隆抗体, B-FGF; BFGF; FGFB; HBGH-2; Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor; Heparin-binding growth factor 2 | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
Isolation and in vitro expansion of progenitor cells from breast tumor specimens. Tumor specimens were obtained from consenting patients according to the Internal Review and the Ethics Boards of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan, Italy. Sixteen breast lesions, from the histologic diagnostic assessment and sampled by pathologists, were received in the Laboratory within 30 minutes of surgery and immediately mechanically disaggregated. Occasionally, enzymatic digestion was also required and tissue fragments were incubated at 37°C for 2 hours in a 1:1 solution of collagenase/hyaluronidase (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany and Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, MO, respectively). After filtration through a 30 μm pore filter, single cells were plated at 1,000 cells/mL in serum-free DMEM-F12 (Cambrex BioScience, Venviers, Belgium), supplemented with 10 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), 20 ng/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF), 5 μg/mL insulin, and 0.4% bovine serum albumin (all ...
also reported a similar profile of gene expression: the expression of CD90 as 18.4% in CDCs, compared with an expression of 99.0% in BM-MSCs (22). Thy-1 knock-out mice are viable and grossly normal (31), and the definite roles of CD90− clones in CVR are not clear, but some researchers reported data regarding this topic. They demonstrated the superiority of CD90− CDCs over CD90+ CDCs (9, 11, 12). In the chronic MI rat model, injection of CD90− CMSCs augmented cardiac function outperforming CD90+ cells, and histological analysis of CD90− cells revealed an increase in vascularization within the infarct lesion (12). Other studies reported similar salutary effects, since CD90− cells secret less inflammatory cytokines and may differentiate into cardiomyocytes (9). Interestingly, CD90− cells expressed significantly more hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) than did CD90+ cells, and both CD90− and CD90+ CMSCs secrete VEGF or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) comparably (12).. By ...
... and in fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2. CATH Architecture "Beta Trefoil" Murzin AG, Lesk AM, Chothia C (Jan 1992). "β-trefoil ... patterns of structure and sequence in the kunitz inhibitors interleukins-1β and 1α and fibroblast growth factors". Journal of ... 223 (2): 531-43. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(92)90668-A. PMID 1738162. Gosavi S, Whitford PC, Jennings PA, Onuchic JN (Jul 2008). " ...
... recruit intracellular signaling pathways by binding to diverse targets on fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor ... recruit intracellular signaling pathways by binding to diverse targets on fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FRS2 gene. FRS2 is an 80 kDa ... "Entrez Gene: FRS2 Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2". Pawson T, Scott JD (December 1997). "Signaling through ...
Also Fibroblast growth factor-2 appear higher at CSF. Varicella-zoster virus particles have been found in CSF of patients ... By transcription factor The autoimmune disease-associated transcription factors EOMES and TBX21 are dysregulated in multiple ... Expression of some specific proteins in circulating CD4+ T cells is a risk factor for conversion from CIS to clinically defined ... Levels of IL-2, IL-10, and GM-CSF are lower in MS females than normal. IL6 is higher instead. These findings do not apply to ...
Soulet F, Al Saati T, Roga S, Amalric F, Bouche G (2002). "Fibroblast growth factor-2 interacts with free ribosomal protein S19 ... Ribosomal protein S19 has been shown to interact with basic fibroblast growth factor. RPS19 is also secreted extracellularly ... "Fibroblast growth factor-2 interacts with free ribosomal protein S19". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 289 (2): 591-6. doi: ... "Ribosomal Protein S19 Interacts with Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Attenuates Its Pro-inflammatory Function"' J. ...
Rash BG, Tomasi S, Lim HD, Suh CY, Vaccarino FM (June 2013). "Cortical gyrification induced by fibroblast growth factor 2 in ... Local environmental cues such as Notch and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, developmental period, and differing ... Kirsch F, Krüger C, Schneider A (March 2008). "The receptor for granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is expressed in ... "Zika Virus Infects Human Cortical Neural Progenitors and Attenuates Their Growth". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 587-90. doi:10.1016/ ...
In addition, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)- and sonic hedgehog (SHH)-signaling pathways have recently been reported to be ... Rash, BG; Tomasi, S; Lim, HD; Suh, CY; Vaccarino, FM (26 June 2013). "Cortical gyrification induced by fibroblast growth factor ... Cranial growth is thus thought to be driven by brain growth; mechanical and genetic factors intrinsic to the brain are now ... subject to the influences of many genetic cues such as fibroblast growth factors (FGF)s and Notch. RGCs generate intermediate ...
Ueba T, Kaspar B, Zhao X, Gage FH (1999). "Repression of human fibroblast growth factor 2 by a novel transcription factor". J. ... "The Methyl-CpG Binding Protein MBD1 Interacts with the p150 Subunit of Chromatin Assembly Factor 1". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (9): ... "The Methyl-CpG Binding Protein MBD1 Interacts with the p150 Subunit of Chromatin Assembly Factor 1". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (9): ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano ...
Conversely, the fibroblast growth factor pathway promotes Notch signaling to keep stem cells of the cerebral cortex in the ... "Cortical Gyrification Induced by Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 in the Mouse Brain". The Journal of Neuroscience. 33 (26): 10802- ... Fibroblast growth factor10 is thought to be important in this activity, but the details are unclear. The role of Notch ... is homologous to a set of mammalian proteins that includes epidermal growth factor". Cell. 43 (3 Pt 2): 583-90. doi:10.1016/ ...
2001). "The endogenous fibroblast growth factor-2 antisense gene product regulates pituitary cell growth and hormone production ... Sheng Z, Lewis JA, Chirico WJ (2004). "Nuclear and nucleolar localization of 18-kDa fibroblast growth factor-2 is controlled by ... Gagnon ML, Moy GK, Klagsbrun M (Apr 1999). "Characterization of the promoter for the human antisense fibroblast growth factor-2 ... Duplan SM, Théorêt Y, Kenigsberg RL (2002). "Antitumor activity of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) for medulloblastoma may ...
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation, ... "FGFR2 - Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - FGFR2 gene & protein". UniProt. "MFAP3L - ... Immunofluorescent staining of human cell line U-2 OS shows localization to the Golgi apparatus. C19orf18 protein has been ...
"Fibroblast growth factor-2 induces Lef/Tcf-dependent transcription in human endothelial cells". The Journal of Biological ... Increasing cyclin D1 levels during the G1 phase is induced by mitogenic growth factors primarily through Ras-mediated pathways ... Musgrove EA (March 2006). "Cyclins: roles in mitogenic signaling and oncogenic transformation". Growth Factors. 24 (1): 13-9. ... Adnane J, Shao Z, Robbins PD (January 1999). "Cyclin D1 associates with the TBP-associated factor TAF(II)250 to regulate Sp1- ...
... targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor and platelet derived growth factor ... RTK targets of nintedanib include platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α and β; fibroblast growth factor receptor ( ... vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3; and FLT3. Its use in IPF is predicated on its inhibition of ... The P-glycoprotein inhibitor ketoconazole is known to increase blood plasma levels of nintedanib by a factor of 1.8; other ...
"Biochemical analysis of the arginine methylation of high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (5): ... "Structural and functional conservation of human and yeast HCP1 genes which can suppress the growth defect of the Saccharomyces ... interacts with and is regulated by interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (26): 19866-76. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... interacts with and is regulated by interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (26): 19866-76. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
"Human ryudocan from endothelium-like cells binds basic fibroblast growth factor, midkine, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor ... Syndecan-4 is also a regulator of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) signaling. Syndecan-4 binds to FGF and mediates ... "Heparan sulfate proteoglycans function as receptors for fibroblast growth factor-2 activation of extracellular signal-regulated ... "Syndecan-4 proteoliposomes enhance fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-induced proliferation, migration, and neovascularization ...
"Dermatan sulfate released after injury is a potent promoter of fibroblast growth factor-2 function". The Journal of Biological ... Mutation of CHST14 results in a deficiency of dermatan sulfate, which disrupts glycosaminoglycan constituents in fibroblasts ... 58 (2): 88-99. doi:10.1111/ped.12878. PMID 26646600. Bian S, Akyüz N, Bernreuther C, Loers G, Laczynska E, Jakovcevski I, ... 12 (2): 117-26. doi:10.1093/dnares/12.2.117. PMID 16303743. Mikami T, Mizumoto S, Kago N, Kitagawa H, Sugahara K (September ...
She discovered that similar mutations in the same gene, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 or FGFR2, cause both Jackson-Weiss ... "Jackson-Weiss and Crouzon syndromes are allelic with mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2". Nature Genetics. 8 (3 ... a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome". Nature Genetics. 15 (1): 36-41. doi:10.1038/ng0197 ...
2005). "Fibroblast growth factor homologous factor 2B: association with Nav1.6 and selective colocalization at nodes of Ranvier ... 1999). "Fibroblast growth factor homologous factor 2 (FHF2): gene structure, expression and mapping to the Börjeson-Forssman- ... Schoorlemmer J, Goldfarb M (2003). "Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors and the islet brain-2 scaffold protein regulate ... Munoz-Sanjuan I, Smallwood PM, Nathans J (2000). "Isoform diversity among fibroblast growth factor homologous factors is ...
281 (2): 927-33. doi:10.1074/jbc.M507360200. PMID 16301319. Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Suyama M, Kikuno R, Hirosawa M, Miyajima N, ... Leucine-rich repeat protein SHOC-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHOC2 gene. Mutations that result in ... "Entrez Gene: SHOC2 soc-2 suppressor of clear homolog (C. elegans)". Cordeddu V, Di Schiavi E, Pennacchio LA, Ma'ayan A, Sarkozy ... Selfors LM, Schutzman JL, Borland CZ, Stern MJ (Jul 1998). "soc-2 encodes a leucine-rich repeat protein implicated in ...
"Prolotherapy agent P2G is associated with upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 genetic expression in vitro". Journal of ... 66 (2): 140-52. doi:10.1016/j.crad.2010.09.006. PMID 21216330. Johannes, Laura (October 19, 2010). "A Pinch of Sugar for Pain ... ISBN 978-1-4377-0721-2. Brody, Jane E. (7 August 2007). "Injections to Kick-Start Tissue Repair". New York Times. Retrieved 24 ...
The production of these factors is regulated by fibroblast growth factor 2, TGF-β1, and PDGF. In addition to cytokine-mediated ... Connective tissue growth factor is involved in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases and is predominantly found in PaSCs ... Protein kinases such as MAPKs are primary mediators of activating signals initiated by the growth factors, angiotensin II and ... Hypoxia also stimulates nuclear expression of HIF-1α followed by the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ...
"Prolotherapy agent P2G is associated with upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 genetic expression in vitro". Journal of ...
In addition, basic fibroblast growth factor FGF-2 is also involved in promoting angioblasts from the mesoderm. After ... vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D function as ligands for the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 ... Piecewicz SM, Pandey A, Roy B, Xiang SH, Zetter BR, Sengupta S (2012). "Insulin-like growth factors promote vasculogenesis in ... It is well established that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling is important for cell responses such as mitogenesis, ...
Fibroblast growth factor receptor oncogene partner 2 (FGFR1OP2) was identified in a study on myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS ... The protein encoded by the FGFR1 gene belongs to the fibroblast growth factor receptor family. FGFRs usually contain an ... FGFR1OP2, when fused with the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), is shown to cause myeloproliferative syndrome. ... Ornitz, DM; Xu (1996). "Receptor specificity of the fibroblast growth factor family". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (25 ...
Song, Jihwan; Slack, Jonathan M.W. (1994). "Spatial and temporal expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) mRNA and ... During the growth of the oocyte, a variety of maternally transcribed messenger RNAs, or mRNAs, are supplied by maternal cells. ... The oocyte, a large and complex cell, must be supplied with numerous molecules that will direct the growth of the embryo and ... Zhao, H.; Cao, Y.; Grunz, H. (2003). "Xenopus X-box binding protein 1, a leucine zipper transcription factor, is involved in ...
The cytokine family of glial scar inducers include interferon-γ (IFNγ) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). IFNγ has been ... 1996). "Increased basic fibroblast growth factor expression following contusive spinal cord injury." Experimental Neurology 141 ... As noted in the above section, transforming growth factor-β2 (TGFβ2) is an important glial scar stimulant that directly affects ... Two neuronally-important subclasses of transforming growth factor family of molecules are TGFβ-1 and TGFβ-2 that directly ...
The FGFR2 gene produces a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, which occurs in chromosome number 10. Among its ... which prevents further growth of the skull and affects the shape of the head and face. This genetic disorder can also sometimes ... Fryns, Buggenhout, Jean, Griet (July 2005). "Jackson-Weiss syndrome" (PDF). p. 2. Retrieved 2009-03-31. Jackson CE, Weiss L, ...
"Entrez Gene: FGF21 fibroblast growth factor 21". BonDurant LD, Potthoff MJ (May 2018). "Fibroblast Growth Factor 21: A ... Fibroblast growth factor 21 is a protein that in mammals is encoded by the FGF21 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Yan H, Xia M, Chang X, Xu Q, Bian H, Zeng M, Rao S, Yao X, Tu Y, Jia W, Gao X (2011). "Circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 ... fibroblast+growth+factor+21 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "FGF21". Information ...
"Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 signaling inhibits fibroblast growth factor-2-induced ... They also discovered several lymphangiogenic factors that potentially contribute to cancer metastasis. Cao proposed a new ... is an angiogenesis inhibitor that suppresses the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice". The Journal of Experimental Medicine ... "Kringle 5 of plasminogen is a novel inhibitor of endothelial cell growth". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (36): 22924 ...
... recruit intracellular signaling pathways by binding to diverse targets on fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FRS3 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: FRS3 fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 3". Lim YP, Low BC, Lim J, et al. (1999). "Association of ... Xu H, Lee KW, Goldfarb M (Aug 1998). "Novel recognition motif on fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates direct association ...
The current research indicates fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) FGFR2 and FGFR3 as the leading factors in causing the ... This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), located on chromosome 10. The ... These two transmembrane proteins are two of four fibroblast growth factor receptors involved in osteoblast differentiation ... Thus, normal bone growth cannot occur. Fusion of different sutures leads to abnormal patterns of growth of the skull. A ...
Fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptors regulate fetal bone growth and are expressed in cranial sutures ... The condition is associated with syndromes caused by mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor genes (FGFR), including ... These last two are both important factors influencing bone development.[27]. Environmental factorsEdit. Environmental factors ... likely through effects on fibroblast growth factor receptor genes.[28][29][30][31][32] ...
Koon HW, Zhao D, Na X, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C (Oct 2004). "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate ... fibroblasts, stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16 ... and epidermal growth factor. Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways mediated by cytokines ... "Neurotrophic and anhidrotic keratopathy treated with substance P and insulinlike growth factor 1". Archives of Ophthalmology. ...
Decreased ribosomal S6 kinase activity in cultured fibroblast or transformed lymphoblast cells from a male indicates Coffin- ... disorder that is X-linked dominant and which causes severe mental problems sometimes associated with abnormalities of growth, ... Guanine nucleotide exchange factor. *Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. *Aarskog-Scott syndrome. *Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis ... 2 years of age. Progressive. Sensorineural deafness. Hearing Loss. Most common. Least common. No cure; can utilize cochlear ...
The growth of cervical loop cells into the deeper tissues forms Hertwig's Epithelial Root Sheath, which determines the root ... It is widely accepted that there is a factor within the tissues of the first branchial arch that is necessary for the ... Fibroblasts develop the periodontal ligaments which connect teeth to the alveolar bone through cementum.[4] ... and fibroblasts. Cementoblasts form the cementum of a tooth. Osteoblasts give rise to the alveolar bone around the roots of ...
Indeed, Rho-dependent response is stimulated by the action of growth factors on Rac protein.[8] ... Alan Hall showed the specificity of Rho in the stimulation of focal adhesions and stress fibres formation in fibroblasts in the ... The inhibition of endogenous Rac function by mutants N17rac and V12rac1 prevented growth factor-induced membrane ruffling. In ... "The small GTP-binding protein rac regulates growth factor-induced membrane ruffling". Cell. 70 (3): 401-410. doi:10.1016/0092- ...
A definitive diagnosis of Hunter syndrome is made by measuring I2S activity in serum, white blood cells, or fibroblasts from ... The age at onset of symptoms and the presence/absence of behavioral disturbances are predictive factors of ultimate disease ... growth and development, communication within the body, and protection from infection. Another critical function is the ... There are 2 Hunter syndrome patients in New Zealand, 6 Hunter syndrome patients in Ireland, at least 1 case in Iran, 1 case in ...
Gene expression profiling revealed the prevalence of specific fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and FGF receptors in NSCLC cell ... One approach used by tumors to upregulate growth and survival is through autocrine production of growth and survival factors. ... "Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and FGF Receptor-Mediated Autocrine Signaling in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells". Molecular ... For example, despite widespread expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and EGF family ligands in non-small- ...
Stanley N. Cohen; Annie C. Y. Chang (1 May 1973). "Recircularization and Autonomous Replication of a Sheared R-Factor DNA ... Hershey, AD; Chase, M (1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal ... "Three-Dimensional Maps of All Chromosomes in Human Male Fibroblast Nuclei and Prometaphase Rosettes". PLoS Biology 3 (5): e157 ... 2 (12): 919-29. doi:10.1038/35103511. PMID 11733745. *↑ Crick, Francis (1962). The genetic code. WH Freeman and Company. PMID ...
Rapamycin potentiates transforming growth factor beta-induced growth arrest in nontransformed, oncogene-transformed, and human ... human fibroblasts. „Cell Death Differ". 5, s. 1062-1075, 1998. ... Negative regulation of cell growth and differentiation by ... Yu P, Huang B, Shen M, Lau C, Chan E, Michel J, Xiong Y, Payan DG, Luo Y. p15(PAF), a novel PCNA associated factor with ... Interaction of CR6 (GADD45gamma ) with proliferating cell nuclear antigen impedes negative growth control. „J. Biol. Chem.". ...
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 14 (2): 155-74. PMID 12651226. doi:10.1016/S1359-6101(03)00002-9. ... fibroblast, pluća, mijelo-monocitne ćelije, i stromalne ćelije koštane srži.[4][16][17] ... "Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the T(H)17 lineage". Nature 441 (7090): 231-4. PMID 16648837. doi: ... IL-1 • IL-2 • IL-3 • IL-4 • IL-5 • IL-6 • IL-7 • IL-8 • IL-9 • IL-10 • IL-11 • IL-12 (B) • IL-13 • IL-14 • IL-15 • IL-16 • IL- ...
... growth factors, neurotrophic factors, anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidants, anti-apoptotic drugs, and drugs to improve ... can be used to convert skin fibroblasts into motor neurons.[11] It is now possible to generate iPSCs from people with ALS, ... Retrieved 2 January 2015.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Hardiman O, Al-Chalabi A, Chio A, Corr EM ... Retrieved 2 January 2015.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Hobson EV, McDermott CJ (September 2016). " ...
Calabretta B، Battini R، Kaczmarek L، de Riel JK، Baserga R (1986). "Molecular cloning of the cDNA for a growth factor- ... positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation. • ion transmembrane transport. • توصيل الإشارة. المصادر:Amigo / QuickGO. ... "Structural and functional analysis of a growth-regulated gene, the human calcyclin". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (17): 8325-32. PMID ... 320 ( Pt 2) (Pt 2): 585-7. PMC 1217969. . PMID 8973570. *Kordowska J، Stafford WF، Wang CL (1998). "Ca2+ and Zn2+ bind to ...
It has also been shown that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activates a signaling pathway that positively regulates the PDGF ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one among numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division. In ... "Vascular endothelial growth factor B, a novel growth factor for endothelial cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (6): 2567- ... Other growth factors in this family include vascular endothelial growth factors B and C (VEGF-B, VEGF-C)[16][17] which are ...
transcription factor complex. • bicellular tight junction. • nucleoplasm. • nucleolus. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • ... positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation. • response to hyperoxia. • positive regulation of translation. • regulation of ... 1995). "Growth suppression by p18, a p16INK4/MTS1- and p14INK4B/MTS2-related CDK6 inhibitor, correlates with wild-type pRb ... Guan KL, Jenkins CW, Li Y, Nichols MA, Wu X, O'Keefe CL, Matera AG, Xiong Y (1994). "Growth suppression by p18, a p16INK4/MTS1 ...
Clark IA (June-August 2007). "How TNF was recognized as a key mechanism of disease". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 18 (3-4): 335- ... fibroblasts, and neurons.[5] Large amounts of TNF are released in response to lipopolysaccharide, other bacterial products, and ... TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...
M344 is a benzamide that shows promising results in fibroblast cell culture and increases level of splicing factors known to ... a brain-derived neurotrophic factor that function in nerve growth and maintenance within the brain.[86][20]. *Vorinostat (SAHA) ... a neurotrophic factor important for long-term memory.[66] Expression of CREB, an activity-dependent transcription factor ... IL-6 and transforming growth factor-alpha levels are elevated in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid in juvenile parkinsonism and ...
Fibroblast. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. FGF receptor ligands:. *FGF1/FGF2/FGF5 ... A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults."[5] ... A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults. ... It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in ...
... resulting in accumulation of the ligase substrates and downregulation of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) and FGF10. This ... or the growth of new blood vessels has been reported to correspond with MM progression where vascular endothelial growth factor ... Thalidomide was discovered to inhibit tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in 1991. TNF-α is a cytokine produced by macrophages ... disrupts the positive feedback loop between the two growth factors, possibly causing both multiple birth defects and anti- ...
"Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 22 (2): 99-108. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2011.04.001. PMC 3994286. PMID 21531164.. ... Although IL-15 mRNA can be found in many cells and tissues including mast cells, cancer cells or fibroblasts, this cytokine is ... IL-15 was discovered in 1994 by two different laboratories, and characterized as T cell growth factor.[5] Together with ... Growth Factor Reviews. 22 (1): 19-33. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2010.09.003. PMID 21074481.. ...
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor), and PDGFR β. Unlike most RTK inhibitors, crenolanib is a type I mutant-specific ... In stromal fibroblasts, PDGFRα activation leads to local tissue invasion, production and secretion of VEGF, and elevated ... a Highly Specific Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in Patients with Advanced Cancers". Journal ... The majority of these mutations result in constitutive activation of downstream signaling pathways and aberrant cell growth. ...
Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor. *Nerve growth factor. *Platelet-derived growth factor ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 2 (3): 155-64. doi:10.1038/35058515. PMID 11256076.. *. Kozlosky CJ, Maraskovsky E, McGrew JT, et al. (1995). "Ligands for the ... 10 (2): 299-306. PMID 7838529.. *. Gale NW, Holland SJ, Valenzuela DM, et al. (1996). "Eph receptors and ligands comprise two ...
Responses and Resistance to Transforming Growth Factor-β₁-Driven Myofibroblast Differentiation in Oral Mucosal Fibroblasts". ... Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is ... Nakamura T (1992). "Structure and function of hepatocyte growth factor". Progress in Growth Factor Research. 3 (1): 67-85. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: HGF hepatocyte growth factor (hepapoietin A; scatter factor)".. *^ Yang ZJ, Zhang YR, Chen B, Zhang SL, Jia EZ, ...
Typically, age and lifestyle help determine the type of graft used for ACL reconstruction.[12] The biggest factors in knee ... Scaffolds that are used for ACL growth include collagen, silk, gelatin, polylactic acid, and glycosaminoglycans.[17] Mechanical ... Ligament tissue mainly consists of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. Ligament cells differ in size, respond to different ... Cohen SB, Yucha DT, Ciccotti MC, Goldstein DT, Ciccotti MA, Ciccotti MG (September 2009). "Factors affecting patient selection ...
"Growth control of lung cancer by interruption of 5-lipoxygenase-mediated growth factor signaling". The Journal of Clinical ... Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ALOX5.[6][7] Up-regulation of ALOX5 may occur ... potent chemotactic factor, LTB4, and possibly also weaker chemotactic factor, 5S-HETE, which serve to attract and otherwise ... "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase and growth factor receptor binding ...
"Rapamycin potentiates transforming growth factor beta-induced growth arrest in nontransformed, oncogene-transformed, and human ... positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation. • replicative senescence. • response to hyperoxia. • response to ... negative regulation of cell growth. • cell cycle arrest. • response to organonitrogen compound. • animal organ regeneration. • ... Tokumoto M, Tsuruya K, Fukuda K, Kanai H, Kuroki S, Hirakata H, Iida M (2003). "Parathyroid cell growth in patients with ...
... epidermal growth factor (EGF), IGF-1, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which in turn have specific roles in breast growth ... tumor necrosis factor β (TNF-β), transforming growth factor α (TGF-α),[67] transforming growth factor β (TGF-β),[68] heregulin, ... "Mitogenic properties of insulin-like growth factors I and II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and epidermal growth ... insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin.[1] These regulators induce the expression of growth factors, such as ...
AAV encoding neurotrophic factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members and GDNF either protected ... such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibitors of angiogenesis, such as pigment epithelium-derived factor ( ... Neurotrophic factors have the ability to modulate neuronal growth during development to maintain existing cells and to allow ... Since the regulation of vascularization in the mature retina involves a balance between endogenous positive growth factors, ...
... fibroblast growth factors,[29] epidermal growth factor,[30] granulocyte-macrophage-stimulating growth factor,[31] platelet- ... 1997). "Identification and partial purification of a basic fibroblast growth factor-like growth factor derived from bovine ... derived growth factor,[31] vascular endothelial growth factor,[32] and colony-stimulating factor-1.[33] ... Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1),[24] and II,[25] transforming ...
Production of cytokines such as fibroblast growth factor by the abnormal hematopoietic cell clone (particularly by ... The V617F mutation appears to make hematopoietic cells more sensitive to growth factors that need JAK2 for signal transduction ... However, the proliferation of fibroblasts and deposition of collagen is a secondary phenomenon, and the fibroblasts themselves ... The abnormal megakaryocytes stimulate other cells, the fibroblasts, to produce collagen in the bone marrow,[9] by secreting ...
A dermatofibroma, or benign fibrous histiocytomas, is a benign skin growth.[3] ... Comparison with factor XIIIa and CD34". British Journal of Dermatology. 157 (2): 319-24. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2007.08033.x. ... They are composed of disordered collagen laid down by fibroblasts. Dermatofibromas are classed as benign skin lesions, meaning ... Dermal dendrocytoma,[1] Dermatofibroma,[2] Fibrous dermatofibroma,[2] Fibrous histiocytoma,[2] Fibroma simplex,[1] Nodular ...
FGFR2 is a receptor for fibroblast growth factor. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) also known as CD332 (cluster of differentiation 332) is a protein that in humans is ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 has been shown to interact with FGF1. The spliced isoforms, however differ in binding: ... Like the other members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, these receptors signal by binding to their ligand and ...
1998 Feb;4(2):201-7. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Fibroblast growth factor 2 control of vascular tone.. Zhou M1, Sutliff RL, Paul RJ, Lorenz JN, Hoying JB, Haudenschild CC, Yin ... Here we show that a well-known growth factor, FGF2, long thought to be involved in many developmental and homeostatic processes ... including growth of the tissue layers of vessel walls, functions in vascular tone control. Fgf2 knockout mice are ...
... we performed quantitative immunohistochemistry for MC tryptase and for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in lung tissue ... we performed quantitative immunohistochemistry for MC tryptase and for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in lung tissue ... To investigate the role of mast cells (MC) and their fibrogenic growth factors in silicosis, ... Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and ...
Fibroblast growth factor 2. P09038. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. Pharmacological ... Fibroblast growth factor 2. Details. Name. Fibroblast growth factor 2. Kind. protein. Organism. Human. Polypeptides. Name. ...
Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the ... The second and third Ig-like domains directly interact with fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. ... Affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. ... FGF18 and FGF22 (in vitro). Ligand specificity is determined by tissue-specific expression of isoforms, and differences in the ...
Fibroblast growth receptors (FGFRs) consist of four signaling family members. Mice with deletions of fgfr1 or fgfr2 are ... Role of fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 and 2 in the ureteric bud Dev Biol. 2004 Dec 15;276(2):403-15. doi: 10.1016/j. ... Fibroblast growth receptors (FGFRs) consist of four signaling family members. Mice with deletions of fgfr1 or fgfr2 are ... Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / genetics * Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / metabolism* * Recombinant Fusion ...
Fibroblast growth factor 2Add BLAST. ›170. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ... Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that ... "Direct evidence for methylation of arginine residues in high molecular weight forms of basic fibroblast growth factor.". ... "Direct evidence for methylation of arginine residues in high molecular weight forms of basic fibroblast growth factor.". ...
Experimental Generation of Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) from Human Mammary Fibroblasts, Hypoxic Preconditioning of ... RNA-based Reprogramming of Human Primary Fibroblasts into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Zika Virus Infection of Cultured ... Video articles in JoVE about fibroblast growth factor 2 include ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth ... basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor ( ...
... fibroblast growth factor 2 include High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and ... Isolation of Salivary Epithelial Cells from Human Salivary Glands for In Vitro Growth as Salispheres or Monolayers, In Vivo ... The Use of Primary Human Fibroblasts for Monitoring Mitochondrial Phenotypes in the Field of Parkinsons Disease, Localizing ... In Vivo Two-Color 2-Photon Imaging of Genetically-Tagged Reporter Cells in the Skin, Analyzing Oxygen Consumption Rate in ...
Fibroblast growth factor 2 increases Otx2 expression in precursor cells from mammalian telencephalon. L Robel, M Ding, AJ James ... Fibroblast growth factor 2 increases Otx2 expression in precursor cells from mammalian telencephalon ... Fibroblast growth factor 2 increases Otx2 expression in precursor cells from mammalian telencephalon ... Fibroblast growth factor 2 increases Otx2 expression in precursor cells from mammalian telencephalon ...
Fibroblast growth factor receptor homolog 2Add BLAST. 1033. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... fibroblast growth factor-activated receptor activity Source: FlyBase ,p>Inferred from Genetic Interaction,/p> ,p>Used to ... fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway Source: FlyBaseInferred from direct assayi*15082772 ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily.PROSITE-ProRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ...
Fibroblast growth factor 2 and platelet-derived growth factor, but not platelet lysate, induce proliferation-dependent, ... class II MHC molecules was measured in human MSCs and differentiated cells expanded in the presence of fibroblast growth factor ... platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), human platelet lysate, or interferon-γ (IFNγ). The roles of cell proliferation and ... antigen by mitogenic growth factors in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expanded in vitro for translational applications. ...
Keywords: RANTES/CCL5, fibroblast growth factor, FGF-2, bead-based Luminex analysis, osteolytic degenerated jaw bone, NICO, ... Results: Regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 were ... RANTES and fibroblast growth factor 2 in jawbone cavitations: triggers for systemic disease? Johann Lechner,1 Volker von Baehr2 ... Conclusion: This study suggests that JC might serve as a fundamental cause of IDs, through RANTES/FGF-2 production. Thus, JC ...
2004 Mar-Aug;26(2-4):181-96. Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Fibroblast growth factor 2 is required for maintaining the neural stem cell pool in the mouse brain subventricular zone.. Zheng ... Every 2-3 cell cycles of the SVZa progenitor cell population, 30,000 newly generated neurons capable of long-term survival are ...
Plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; ... Hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 is regulated by PPARalpha and is a key mediator of hepatic lipid metabolism in ketotic ... Fibroblast growth factor-21 as a therapeutic agent for metabolic diseases. BioDrugs 2008; 22: 37- 44. ... OBJECTIVE Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is highly expressed in the liver and regulates hepatic glucose production and lipid ...
Increased calvaria cell differentiation and bone matrix formation induced by fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutations in ... Apert syndrome, associated with fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2 mutations, is characterized by premature fusion of ... Preosteoblastic calvaria cells isolated from Apert infants and fetuses showed normal cell growth in basal conditions or in ... The results show that Apert FGFR-2 mutations lead to an increase in the number of precursor cells that enter the osteogenic ...
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a potent wide-spectrum mitogen whose overexpression is associated with immortalization ... Regulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Expression and Cell Cycle Progression by an Endogenous Antisense RNA by Mark Baguma- ... "Regulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Expression and Cell Cycle Progression by an Endogenous Antisense RNA." Genes 3, no. 3 ... Regulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Expression and Cell Cycle Progression by an Endogenous Antisense RNA. Genes. 2012; 3(3 ...
Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Activates a Latent Neurogenic Program in Neural Stem Cells from Diverse Regions of the Adult CNS. ... Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Activates a Latent Neurogenic Program in Neural Stem Cells from Diverse Regions of the Adult CNS ... Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Activates a Latent Neurogenic Program in Neural Stem Cells from Diverse Regions of the Adult CNS ... Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Activates a Latent Neurogenic Program in Neural Stem Cells from Diverse Regions of the Adult CNS ...
Antibody-mediated activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 reverses the diabetic phenotype in mice, likely by ... Antibody-mediated activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 reverses the diabetic phenotype in mice, likely by ... 2Biomedical Imaging, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.. *. 3Antibody Engineering, Genentech Inc., South San ... Amelioration of Type 2 Diabetes by Antibody-Mediated Activation of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 ...
... vascular endothelial growth factor), EGF (epidermal growth factor), and PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), which are also ... Structural basis for fibroblast growth factor receptor activation. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2005, 162107-37.10.1016/j. ... Yun Y. R.; Won J. E.; Jeon E.; Lee S.; Kang W.; Jo H.; Jang J. H.; Shin U. S.; Kim H. W. Fibroblast growth factors: biology, ... fibroblast growth factor. RTK. receptor tyrosine kinase. PA. peptide amphiphile. HUVECs. human umbilical vein endothelial cells ...
... made of biosafe collagen hydrogel and collagensponge could possess the ability of retaining fibroblastic growth factor-2 (FGF2 ... Collagen hydrogel scaffold and fibroblast growth factor-2 accelerate periodontal healing of class II. October 24, 2016. A new ... Reference: Momose, T.; et al, (2016). Collagen Hydrogel Scaffold and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Accelerate Periodontal Healing ... made of biosafe collagen hydrogel and collagensponge could possess the ability of retaining fibroblastic growth factor-2 (FGF2 ...
Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Promotes Pancreatic Epithelial Cell Proliferation Via Functional Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Promotes Pancreatic Epithelial Cell Proliferation Via Functional Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Promotes Pancreatic Epithelial Cell Proliferation Via Functional Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Promotes Pancreatic Epithelial Cell Proliferation Via Functional Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors ...
... acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor, tumor growth factor β1, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, placenta ... Takahashi H. Studies on the expression of fibroblast growth factors and fibroblast growth factor receptors in human prostate ... Nuclear activities of basic fibroblast growth factor: potentiation of low-serum growth mediated by natural or chimeric nuclear ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Promotes Tumor Progression in an Autochthonous Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer. Nathaniel Polnaszek, ...
FGFR2 Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 ELISA Kit - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Description Aplha, transcription related growth factors and stimulating factors or repressing nuclear factors are complex ... GBS-D4137 , FGFR2 (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2), Human, ELISA Kit size: 1 Kit , 793.07 USD Catalog number GBS-D4137 ... Gene targetFGFR2 Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Alternative to gene target v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral ...
Fibroblast growth factor homologous factor 2 (FHF2): gene structure, expression and mapping to the Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann ... of available genomic DNA sequence from the region revealed the presence of the fibroblast growth factor homologous factor gene ... 2.Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania ...
fibroblast growth factor. FGF2b. basic FGF2. FGFR. FGF receptor. IGF-1. insulin-like growth factor 1. LMC. lymphocyte-derived ... FGF2b, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin (NT) 3, insulin-like growth factor 1 ( ... Fibroblast growth factors 2 and 4 stimulate migration of mouse embryonic limb myogenic cells. Dev. Dyn. 209: 206-216. ... Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Is a Determinant of CD4 T Cell-Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Communication through Membrane ...
Eswarakumar V, Lax I, Schlessinger J: Cellular signaling by fibroblast growth factor receptors. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 16 ... Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) is a recently discovered metabolic regulator. Here, we investigated the effects of FGF-21 ... Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family play important roles in defining and regulating the development and ... Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Improves Pancreatic β-Cell Function and Survival by Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated ...
Furthermore, we found that transforming growth factor-β, in contrast to fibroblast growth factor-2 and interleukin-6, promotes ... through an aberrant release of key growth factors and chemoattractants (ie, fibroblast growth factor-2 and interleukin-6), ... Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) increase pericyte coverage in vivo in a mouse retinal angiogenesis ... Autocrine fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling contributes to altered endothelial phenotype in pulmonary hypertension. Am J ...
Action Mechanism of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) in the Promotion of Periodontal Regeneration in Beagle Dogs.. [Toshie ... Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) enhances the formation of new alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament (PDL) in ... FGF-2 (0.3%) or the vehicle (hydroxypropyl cellulose) only were topically applied to the defect in FGF-2 and control groups, ... However, the mechanism through which FGF-2 acts in periodontal regeneration in vivo has not been fully clarified yet. To reveal ...
The Ser252Trp fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2) mutation induces PKC-independent downregulation of FGFR-2 associated ... Signaling by fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-activating mutations blocks ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 promotes osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal cells via ERK1/2 and protein kinase C ... The Ser252Trp fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2) mutation induces PKC-independent downregulation of FGFR-2 associated ...
  • Here we show that a well-known growth factor, FGF2, long thought to be involved in many developmental and homeostatic processes, including growth of the tissue layers of vessel walls, functions in vascular tone control. (nih.gov)
  • Probing poly(A)+ RNA (5 μg) message with a probe consisting of exon 2 and 3 of Fgf2 detects a 5.9-kb Fgf2 message in tissues from wild-type (+/+) mice but not in knockouts (−/−) even after extended exposure for 104 h (not shown). (nih.gov)
  • Interacts predominantly with FGF1 and FGF2 , but can also interact with FGF3 , FGF4 , FGF6 , FGF7 , FGF8 , FGF9 , FGF1 0, FGF1 7, FGF1 8 and FGF2 2 (in vitro). (rcsb.org)
  • Dissociated primary cultures from rat telencephalon at different developmental stages were used to study the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) on Otx2, Dlx1, and Emx1, three homeobox genes expressed in different regions of the developing mammalian forebrain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a potent wide-spectrum mitogen whose overexpression is associated with immortalization and unregulated cell proliferation in many tumors. (mdpi.com)
  • These FGF2-PA nanoribbons displayed the ability to increase the proliferation and migration of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro to the same extent as the native FGF-2 protein at certain concentrations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results indicated the specificity of FGF2-PA nanoribbons in activating the FGF-2 signaling pathway and its potential application as a supramolecular scaffold that can be used in vivo as an alternative to the encapsulation and delivery of the native FGF-2 protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A new regenerative scaffold made of biosafe collagen hydrogel and collagensponge could possess the ability of retaining fibroblastic growth factor-2 (FGF2) and stimulate the periodontal tissue regeneration, according to new research published in The Open Dentistry Journal . (brightsurf.com)
  • It was demonstrated in vitro that both FGF1 and FGF2 induce the expression of NGFI-A mRNA, a useful indicator of functional growth factor-signaling pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These observations are consistent with the idea that in advanced and/or poorly differentiated prostate cancers, FGF2 is expressed by the cancer cells and may potentially stimulate growth in an autocrine manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus FGF2 is expressed at high levels in human prostate cancer and can function as either as an autocrine or a paracrine growth factor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Basic fibroblast growth factor, also known as bFGF, FGF2 or FGF-μ, is a member of the fibroblast growth factorfamily. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We discuss use of heparin-acrylic microbeads soaked with the protein fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). (spie.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) induces endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis through two classes of receptors: receptor tyrosine kinases, such as FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1), and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecan 4 (S4). (antibodyassay.com)
  • To examine fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-induced signal transduction pathways in different populations of rat retinal cells in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • Despite widespread expression of FGFR-1, -2, -3 and -4 as well as FGF-related signaling molecules, FGF2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was distinct, both in terms of kinetics and induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation, among the culture models. (arvojournals.org)
  • Whereas U0126 treatment completely blocked FGF2-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and survival of cultured PR, persistent ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed in cultured IR and MGC. (arvojournals.org)
  • Furthermore U0126 entirely blocked NGF-induced ERK1/2 activation in cerebral glial cells, as well as FGF2-induced ERK1/2 activation in cerebral glial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • FGF2-induced ERK1/2 activation is entirely mediated by MEK within PR, which is responsible for FGF2-stimulated PR survival. (arvojournals.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a proangiogenic mitogen that is secreted by an unconventional mechanism, which does not depend on a functional ER-Golgi system. (biologists.org)
  • FGF2 is first recruited to the inner leaflet of plasma membranes, in a process that is mediated by the phosphoinositide PtdIns(4,5) P 2 . (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, we find that initial sorting into its export pathway requires FGF2 to be folded, because the interaction with PtdIns(4,5) P 2 is lost upon unfolding of FGF2. (biologists.org)
  • Since very little is known about the effect VPA on primary cultured hRPE cells, we examined the effect of VPA on hRPE cell viability, as well as synthesis of the angiogenic factor, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and its receptor (FGFR1) in hRPE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Valproic acid reduces the synthesis of the angiogenic factor FGF2, and its receptor FGFR1 in cultured hRPE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) and its subfamily member FGF2 were scored as lead candidates to exercise control over lineage switching processes (conversion) in favor of osteogenesis previously. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed ubiquitously in mesodermal and neuroectodermal cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • To achieve the goal of periodontal tissue regeneration, numerous studies have used fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) to stimulate the regeneration of both the soft tissue and bone. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), which is involved in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/CAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) pathway, has been shown to facilitate dendritic and synaptic plasticity. (aging-us.com)
  • The evaluation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate kinase (IP3K) ex. (esmo.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is known to promote self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). (mpg.de)
  • We show that FGF2 acts on MEFs to release supportive factors and reduce differentiation-inducing activity. (mpg.de)
  • Among these were the same factors previously identified in MEFs, thus suggesting that FGF2, at least in part, promotes self-renewal of hESCs by modulating the expression of TGFß ligands, which, in turn, act on hESCs in a concerted and autocrine manner. (mpg.de)
  • The human fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) Kit is a sandwich ELISA. (biosensis.com)
  • We investigated the bioactivity and therapeutic potential of an injectable, heparin-based coacervate co-delivering an angiogenic factor, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and an anti-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. (docphin.com)
  • Overall, our data suggest therapeutically synergistic effects of FGF-2/IL-10 coacervate, particularly coacervate with FGF2 and 500 ng IL-10, for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. (docphin.com)
  • Using a complementary DNA microarray containing 4451 cancer-related, sequence-verified features, we identified a subset of EOC characterized by the expression of numerous genes related to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and its remodeling, along with elements of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) signaling pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • A total of 10 genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and coexpression of FGF2 and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 in tumor cells was revealed by immunohistochemistry, confirming the reliability of gene expression by cDNA microarray. (elsevier.com)
  • The angiogenic basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) interacts with tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in endothelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of subcutaneous administration of recombinant FGF-2 on OA progression was assessed in Fgf2(-/-) mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Surgically induced OA in Fgf2(-/-) mice was suppressed to levels in WT mice by subcutaneous administration of recombinant FGF-2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2, Basic (FGF2). (biotecnika.org)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Fibroblast Growth Factor 2, Basic (FGF2) and analogues was observed. (biotecnika.org)
  • Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Fibroblast Growth Factor 2, Basic (FGF2) were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively. (biotecnika.org)
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Fibroblast Growth Factor 2, Basic (FGF2) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (biotecnika.org)
  • FGF2, also known as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and FGF-β, is a growth factor and signaling protein encoded by the FGF2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) also known as CD332 (cluster of differentiation 332) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGFR2 gene residing on chromosome 10. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGFR2 is a receptor for fibroblast growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, there are no additional abnormalities in the fgfr1/2(UB-/-) kidneys versus the fgfr2(UB-/-) kidneys. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions: The allosteric FGFR2 inhibitor RPT835 significantly impacts on growth of FGFR2-expressing TNBC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Crystal structure analysis of a complex consisting of FGF-2 and mutant FGFR2 showed that both mutations increase the binding affinity between FGF-2 and FGFR2, resulting in sustained activation of the signaling pathway and symptoms associated with the disorder ( 27, 28 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • FGFR2 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family which play a role in mitogenesis and differentiation. (creativebiomart.net)
  • FGFR2 is a high-affinity receptor for acidic, basic and/or keratinocyte growth factor, and mutations in FGFR2 are associated with Crouzon syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Craniosynostosis, Apert syndrome, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, and syndromic craniosynostosis. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Reverse transcription-PCR experiments and immunoblotting revealed that sensitive cell lines dominantly expressed COOH terminus-truncated fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) splicing variants that were constitutively phosphorylated and spontaneously dimerized. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The K-sam gene was first identified as an amplified gene in human gastric cancer cell line KATO-III ( 6 , 7 ), and its product was later found to be identical to the bacteria-expressed kinase, or keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR), and FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2). (aacrjournals.org)
  • FGFR2 is a membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase that serves as a high affinity receptor for several members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. (biologists.org)
  • Using conditional gene ablation with the Cre-LoxP system in mice, we demonstrate a tissue-specific requirement for FGFR2 in urogenital epithelial cells - the precursors of prostatic epithelial cells - for prostatic branching morphogenesis and prostatic growth. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, Fgfr2 cn prostates provide a useful animal model for scrutinizing molecular mechanisms by which androgens regulate prostate growth, homeostasis and function, and may yield clues as to how advanced-tumor prostate cells escape strict androgen regulations. (biologists.org)
  • wherein the targeting ligand represents a moiety that binds fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), the degron represents a moiety that binds an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and the linker represents a moiety that covalently connects the degron and the targeting ligand, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof. (wipo.int)
  • We injected rat kidneys with FGF-2 recombinant protein (r-FGF) or FGF-2 receptor antisense oligonucleotide (FGFR2-ASO) after bilateral ischemia, and evaluated the presence of iNOS, EPO and HO-1, in representation of hypoxia-induced proteins, as well as COX-2, renin, kallikrein, and B2KR, in representation of the vasoactive systems of the kidney. (conicyt.cl)
  • In contrast, COX-2 protein levels were higher in kidneys treated with r-FGF and lower in those that received FGFR2-ASO, as compared to saline treated kidneys. (conicyt.cl)
  • To investigate the presence, localization and the possible correlation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor -2 (FGFR2) with inflammatory resorption of cementum , periodontal ligament and alveolar bone during development of apical periodontitis in mice . (bvsalud.org)
  • At 21 and 42 days, FGFR2 was also expressed on osteoblasts , fibroblasts and inside enlarged lacunae of cementocytes along with acute and chronic inflammatory cells ( macrophages , plasma cells and neutrophils ). (bvsalud.org)
  • In mice , FGFR2 was not expressed in tissues surrounding healthy teeth but was expressed in apical periodontitis , specifically in the membrane and cytoplasm of osteoblasts , fibroblasts , lacunae of cementocytes, and acute and chronic inflammatory cells ( macrophages , plasma cells and neutrophils ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Like the other members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, these receptors signal by binding to their ligand and dimerisation (pairing of receptors), which causes the tyrosine kinase domains to initiate a cascade of intracellular signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblast growth receptors (FGFRs) consist of four signaling family members. (nih.gov)
  • In many tissues in which soluble factors are implicated in development, these factors act on their target cells through tyrosine kinase receptors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Because we had some preliminary evidence that fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) were expressed in the early pancreas, we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) during embryonic pancreatic development. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • NFKB 105 subunit for example is a polypetide gene enhancer of genes in B cells.The receptors are ligand binding factors of type 1, 2 or 3 and protein-molecules that receive chemical-signals from outside a cell. (gentaur.com)
  • For example, mice lacking insulin receptors, insulin receptor substrate-2, or Akt (protein kinase B) display marked defects in glucose sensing, insulin secretion, and β-cell mass ( 4 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The biological activity of FGF-2 is mediated through interaction with specific high-affinity cell surface FGF receptors (FGFRs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Once released, FGF-2 can bind with high affinity to receptors or with lower affinity to heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface or in the surrounding matrix. (ahajournals.org)
  • In pancreatic cancer, high levels of several FGFs ( 1, 2 , 5 , 7 ) and most of the FGFRs have been observed, suggesting the presence of autocrine activation of receptors and of downstream signaling pathways ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their signaling receptors have been found to be associated with multiple biological activities, including proliferation, differentiation, motility, and transforming activities ( 3 - 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • AZD2171 is a potent, ATP-competitive small molecule that inhibits all vascular endothelial growth factor receptors [VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 (also known as KDR), and VEGFR-3]. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This broad spectrum of activity is usually produced from the ability of S4 to regulate the signaling of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs) and integrins and to transmission independently as a growth factor receptor. (antibodyassay.com)
  • As with other syndecans, S4 bears heparan sulfate chains on its extracellular domain name that can hole numerous heparan-binding growth factors and other families of transmembrane growth factor receptors, such as integrins (2, 3). (antibodyassay.com)
  • Objectives: Human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in addition to lung, skin, ovarian, and other cancers overexpress fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors on both individual tumor cells and endothelial cells within the tumor microenvironment. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of fibronectin matrix formation by the inclusion of Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptides, which compete with fibronectin for binding to the cell surface alpha 5 beta 1 integrin receptors, abolished the proliferation effects of FGF-2. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Abstract -This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 Another alternative is to chemically attach heparin, a glycosaminoglycan capable of binding multiple GFs, into the polymer scaffold, as a way to deliver growth factors without relying on recombinant GF variants. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recombinant Human FGF-b (FGF-2) produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 147 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 16,539 Daltons. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-beta is fully biologically active when compared to standards. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Recombinant neurobin processed 17-kDa FGF-2 (fibroblast growth factor-2) at several P(1) lysine and arginine positions to distinct fragments, in a heparin-inhibitable manner, but did not cleave FGF-7, laminin or fibronectin. (uzh.ch)
  • Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-19 Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-19. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Lyophilized FGF-19 Human Recombinant although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18°C. Upon reconstitution Fibroblast Growth Factor-19 should be stored at 4°C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18°C. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor -19 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 206 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 23 kDa. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • bFGF Rat Recombinant (FGF-2) produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 145 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 16.3 kDa.The bFGF2 is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (neobiolab.com)
  • FGF-2 Human Recombinant produced in HEK cells is a non-glycosylated monomer, having a total molecular weight of 17kDa.The FGF-b is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (neobiolab.com)
  • Heparitinase digestion demonstrated that recombinant PlnDI was substituted with heparan sulfate and that these heparan sulfate chains were critically important not only for efficient integration of PlnDI into scaffolds, but also for FGF-2 binding and retention. (mysciencework.com)
  • Periodontal Regenerative Therapy with Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral in Patient with Chronic Periodontitis: An 18-month Follow-up Report. (bvsalud.org)
  • Periodontal regenerative therapy using recombinant human fibroblast growth factor (rhFGF)-2 was performed on #14, 25, 26, 32, and 37. (bvsalud.org)
  • Affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. (rcsb.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) represent a group of peptides that regulate diverse biological functions, including cell differentiation, cell growth, and angiogenesis ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We have developed a strong inhibitor (S252W mutant soluble ectodomain of FGF recptor-2 IIIc, msFGFR2) that binds FGFs and blocks the activation of FGFRs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • From this reservoir, FGFs may act directly on target cells by binding to specific receptor tyrosine kinases and this binding induces receptor dimerization and activation, ultimately resulting in the activation of various signal transduction cascades ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Some FGFs are potent angiogenic factors, and most of them play important roles in embryonic development and wound healing ( 4, 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • FGFs secreted by tumors act, on the one hand, in an autocrine manner promoting tumor growth, and, on the other hand, in a paracrine manner on endothelial cells, thereby promoting tumor angiogenesis ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are master regulators of organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are members of a large family of structurally related. (biomol.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and throughout evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. (jove.com)
  • Database searches and analysis of available genomic DNA sequence from the region revealed the presence of the fibroblast growth factor homologous factor gene, FHF2 , within the duplication breakpoint interval. (springer.com)
  • Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in APERT SYNDROME. (curehunter.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the effects of neurological improvement after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats by a novel therapeutic strategy with FGF-2 gene-transferred MSCs by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vector. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- Our data suggest that the FGF-2 gene-modified MSCs with the HSV-1 vector can contribute to remarkable functional recovery after stroke compared with MSCs transplantation alone. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1992 ) Mox-1 and Mox-2 define a novel homeobox gene subfamily and are differentially expressed during early mesodermal patterning in mouse embryos. (biologists.org)
  • In 1995, A.O.M. Wilkie published a paper showing evidence that acrocephalosyndactyly is caused by a defect on the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene, on chromosome 10. (intelligentdental.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 5q35.1-qter that encodes fibroblast growth factor receptor-4, which has an extracellular region composed of 3 immunoglobulin-like domains, a single hydrophobic membrane-spanning segment and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor-2 gene transfer can stimulate hepatocyte growth factor expression irrespective of hypoxia-mediated downregulation in ischemic limbs. (pubfacts.com)
  • Mice deficient in basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) showed reduced induction of HGF protein in ischemic muscles, and overexpression of FGF-2 via gene transfer stimulated endogenous HGF, irrespective of the presence of ischemia. (pubfacts.com)
  • This isoform arises by alternative splicing of the first exon of the FHF-2 gene and is predicted to encode a polypeptide with a distinct amino-terminus. (elsevier.com)
  • Western blot analysis of FGFRs in immortalized mutant osteoblastic cells confirmed that the mutation induced FGFR-2 downregulation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family consists of 22 members and regulates a broad spectrum of biological activities by activating diverse isotypes of FGF receptor tyrosine kinases (FGFRs). (biologists.org)
  • Despite the general presence of FGFRs and FGF-related signaling molecules, cell type-specific signal transduction pathways exist in the rat retina in vitro, with ERK1/2 representing a common downstream effector. (arvojournals.org)
  • Apert syndrome, associated with fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2 mutations, is characterized by premature fusion of cranial sutures. (jci.org)
  • We analyzed proliferation and differentiation of calvaria cells derived from Apert infants and fetuses with FGFR-2 mutations. (jci.org)
  • In contrast, the number of alkaline phosphatase- positive calvaria cells was fourfold higher than normal in mutant fetal calvaria cells with the most frequent Apert FGFR-2 mutation (Ser252Trp), suggesting increased maturation rate of cells in the osteoblastic lineage. (jci.org)
  • The results show that Apert FGFR-2 mutations lead to an increase in the number of precursor cells that enter the osteogenic pathway, leading ultimately to increased subperiosteal bone matrix formation and premature calvaria ossification during fetal development, which establishes a connection between the altered genotype and cellular phenotype in Apert syndromic craniosynostosis. (jci.org)
  • We examined the structure and function of CD4 T cell-derived LMCs, and we established a role for ASMC-derived basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2b) and FGF receptor (FGFR)1 in LMC formation. (jimmunol.org)
  • We recently showed that the Apert Ser252Trp fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2) mutation causes premature osteoblast differentiation and increased subperiosteal calvaria bone matrix formation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of the Apert calvaria suture showed that the Ser252Trp FGFR-2 mutation increased type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, and osteopontin expression in preosteoblasts compared to normal, whereas cell growth was not affected. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The premature osteoblast differentiation induced by the mutation was associated with lower than normal FGFR-2 immunolabeling, whereas FGFR-1 and FGFR-3 levels were not decreased. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Immunocytochemical analysis in osteoblasts isolated from Apert coronal suture showed that the Ser252Trp mutation induced constitutive downregulation of FGFR-2 in mutant cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • FGFR-2 mRNA levels were not altered in mutant cells, indicating that FGFR-2 downregulation resulted from receptor internalization rather than from changes in receptor mRNA. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The signaling pathway involved in FGFR-2 downregulation was studied using specific inhibitors of FGF signaling molecules. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The selective PKC inhibitor calphostin C markedly reduced FGFR-2 protein levels in mutant cells, in contrast to the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB 203580 or the Erk 1,2 MAP kinase inhibitor PD-98059, showing that PKC is involved in FGFR-2 regulation, but not in FGFR-2 downregulation in mutant cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The results indicate that the premature osteoblast differentiation induced by the FGFR-2 Ser252Trp mutation is associated with a PKC-independent downregulation of FGFR-2 in human calvaria cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 1994 ) Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 3. (biologists.org)
  • 1997 ) Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) is essential for normal neural tube and limb development. (biologists.org)
  • 1994 ) Murine FGFR-1 is required for early postimplantation growth and axial organization. (biologists.org)
  • FGFR-1(-/-) embryoid bodies responded to VEGF-A by establishment of the characteristic vascular plexus, but FGF-2 had no effect on vascular development in the absence of FGFR-1. (diva-portal.org)
  • This basal vascularization was blocked by neutralizing antibodies against VEGFR-2 or VEGF-A and biochemical analyses indicated changes in regulation of VEGFR-2 in the absence of FGFR-1 expression. (diva-portal.org)
  • We conclude that VEGF-A/VEGFR-2-dependent vessel formation occurs in the absence of FGF-2/FGFR-1, which, however, serve to modulate vascular development. (diva-portal.org)
  • Specific antibodies for FGFR-1, -2, -3 and -4, and different FGF-related signaling molecules were used to immunolabel primary cultures of different retinal cells [purified photoreceptors (PR), inner retina (IR)] in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • For adipogenic differentiation and osteogenic differentiation/conversion, downstream signal transduction involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1/2), probably via the phosphorylation of FGFR docking protein FGFR substrate 2a (FRS2a) and its effector Ras/MAPK. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • It binds to and exerts effects via specific fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) proteins, themselves a family of closely related molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • To document the specificity and the mechanism of induction of a novel class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen by mitogenic growth factors in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expanded in vitro for translational applications. (wiley.com)
  • It successfully suppressed the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of two tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo , and it potently inhibited cancer cell proliferation but not normal cell proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, this study investigated mRNA expression of the EC-specific markers vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and CD31 in DP cells derived from human deciduous teeth and treated with 10 ng/ml fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 in vitro. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A small molecule, compound that is shown to compete with the binding domain of TSP-1 against angiogenic factor FGF-2 (IC 50 = 1.3 µM) in a dose-dependent manner and prevents the binding of FGF-2 to HSPG on endothelial cells (IC 50 = 24.0 ±6.9 µM), in vitro . (emdmillipore.com)
  • First, translation of the FGF-2 mRNA was shown to be cap independent in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Our previous studies showed significant activities of the dual VEGFR-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor ZD6474 against poorly differentiated gastric cancer ( 11 ) and non-small-cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations ( 12 , 13 ), both in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results indicate that neurobin is an authentic TTSP with trypsin-like activity and is able to process FGF-2 in vitro. (uzh.ch)
  • In addition, we verified the effects of this factor on the in vitro culture of preantral follicles isolated from goats. (ovid.com)
  • Preantral follicles were isolated and cultured in vitro for 12 days in either control (basic) or supplemented with FGF-2 medium. (ovid.com)
  • In the present study, we report that angiogenic growth factors, including HGF, were upregulated in a murine model of critical limb ischemia in vivo, a finding that was in conflict with previous in vitro data. (pubfacts.com)
  • The CUG-initiated isoforms are localized in the nucleus and are responsible for the intracrine effect, whereas, the AUG-initiated form is mostly cytosolic and is responsible for the paracrine and autocrine effects of this FGF.The heparin-binding growth factors are angiogenic agents in vivo and are potent mitogens for a variety of cell types in vitro. (neobiolab.com)
  • The heparin-binding growth factors are angiogenic agents in vivo and are potent mitogens for a variety of cell types in vitro. (neobiolab.com)
  • Thus, the FGF-stimulated growth of embryonic atrioventricular valve mesenchyme in vitro involves the production of a fibronectin matrix. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • In vitro, FGF-2 suppresses interleukin-1-driven aggrecanase activity in human cartilage explants, suggesting a chondroprotective role in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, and in the regulation of embryonic development. (rcsb.org)
  • The roles of cell proliferation and growth factor-induced signaling pathways were investigated as well as the class II MHC assembly machinery and functional capacity. (wiley.com)
  • Both MAPK/ERK-1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt controlled cell proliferation and HLA-DR expression, but only MAPK/ERK-1/2 controlled the induction of the class II MHC transcription activator protein CIITA, the major determinant of HLA-DR transcription. (wiley.com)
  • Growth factors (GFs) play a key role in regulating important cellular behaviors such as survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Complex subunit associated factors are involved in hybridoma growth, Eosinohils, eritroid proliferation and derived from promotor binding stimulating subunits on the DNA binding complex. (gentaur.com)
  • Compared with the control, cell proliferation around the existing bone and PDL, connective tissue formation on the root surface, and new bone formation in the defect at 7 days were significantly promoted by FGF-2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • First, the proliferation of fibroblastic cells derived from bone marrow and PDL was accelerated and enhanced by FGF-2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Previous work has shown that flow decreases the proliferation of cultured human aortic SMCs (hASMCs) 2 and increases the production of nitric oxide (NO) by these cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 Studies have shown that FGF-2 is a mitogen involved in the early SMC proliferation response to vascular injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Among these factors, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 is a multifunctional growth factor that exerts a variety of effects, including the induction of proliferation and differentiation in a wide range of mesodermal and neuro-ectodermal cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The data showed that anti-FGF-2 therapy led to significant reductions of early mesangial cell injury (mesangiolysis, microaneurysm formation) and the subsequent mesangioproliferative changes (glomerular de novo expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, mesangial cell proliferation, matrix accumulation, and platelet influx). (asnjournals.org)
  • The presence of an internal ribosome entry site in the FGF-2 mRNA suggests that the process of internal translation initiation, by controlling the expression of a growth factor, could have a crucial role in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. (asm.org)
  • VEGF-stimulated proliferation and VEGFR-2 phosphorylation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells was inhibited by AZD2171 (IC 50 , 0.4 and 0.5 nmol/L, respectively). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To investigate the effects of transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β 1) in combination with fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), on the properties of chondrocytes after proliferation culture. (asianaoms.org)
  • A combination of FGF-2, IGF-I, and TGF-β 1 was more effective than that of FGF-2 and IGF-I in terms of cell proliferation. (asianaoms.org)
  • This protein functions as a modifier of endothelial cell migration and proliferation, as well as an angiogenic factor. (neobiolab.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates embryonic cardiac mesenchymal cell proliferation. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • The proliferation response of stage 36 chick atrioventricular valve mesenchymal cells to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) was studied in the tissue-like environment of three-dimensional cell aggregates maintained in organ culture. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Inhibition of sulfation of cell surface glycosaminoglycans by treatment with sodium chlorate significantly reduced both the formation of the fibronectin matrix and cell proliferation in response to FGF-2, suggesting an involvement of the low-affinity sulfated glycosaminoglycan FGF receptor system. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Our results show that spinal cord injury triggers a significant increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes at sites of insult.In addition, these results were time-dependent.Therefore, we suggest that FGF-2 may be involved in cell proliferation and/or astroglial cells differentiation after body spinal cord transection, and could thus play an important role in locomotion recovery. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, FGF-2 appears to participate in astrocytic differentiation and proliferation and a good candidate for astrocytic function regulation in healthy, injured, or diseased CNS. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we suggest that FGF-2 may be involved in cell proliferation and/or astroglial cells differentiation after body spinal cord transection, and could thus play an important role in locomotion recovery. (nih.gov)
  • FGF-2 as a growth factor is a potent stimulator of endothelial proliferation which is very important in the process of angiogenesis. (usu.ac.id)
  • It was also shown to act on preosteoblasts - in the form of an increased proliferation - after binding to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the role of mast cells (MC) and their fibrogenic growth factors in silicosis, we performed quantitative immunohistochemistry for MC tryptase and for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in lung tissue from silicotic and control subjects. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyophilized Rat bFGF althoµgh stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18°C. Upon reconstitution Rat FGF-2 should be stored at 4°C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18°C.For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).Please prevent freeze-thaw cycles. (neobiolab.com)
  • Expression of class II MHC molecules was measured in human MSCs and differentiated cells expanded in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), human platelet lysate, or interferon-γ (IFNγ). (wiley.com)
  • FGF-2 and, to a lesser extent, PDGF-BB induced in adult human MSCs the expression of HLA-DR (normally induced by inflammatory cytokines), which was able to stimulate CD4+ T cells via superantigen binding. (wiley.com)
  • HLA-DR expression occurred following FGF-specific binding to its receptor(s), mainly FGF receptor 1, without inducing IFNγ or tumor necrosis factor α expression. (wiley.com)
  • Biochemical and Northern blot analyses also showed that the expression of alkaline phosphatase and type 1 collagen were 2-10-fold greater than normal in mutant fetal calvaria cells. (jci.org)
  • Moreover, FGF-2 increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and osteoblast differentiation markers (osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin) in the regenerated tissue. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Elevated FGF-2 expression in breast tumors is associated with more aggressive forms of the disease ( 14, 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Quantitative PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of the EC-specific markers, and showed that the FGF-2-cultured DP cells exhibited mRNA expression of VE-cadherin and VEGFR2, and marked CD31 mRNA expression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • They are characterized by the expression of vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin, CDH5) ( 2 - 4 ), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, KDR) ( 5 , 6 ) and CD31 (also called platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, PECAM-1) ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This process has important consequences on the fate of FGF-2: the CUG-initiated products are nuclear and their constitutive expression is able to induce cell immortalization, whereas the AUG-initiated product, mostly cytoplasmic, can generate cell transformation. (asm.org)
  • Second, expression of bicistronic vectors in COS-7 cells indicated that the FGF-2 mRNA is translated through a process of internal ribosome entry mediated by the mRNA leader sequence. (asm.org)
  • Here we show that fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22), a target-derived presynaptic organizer in the mouse hippocampus, induces the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) for the stabilization of presynaptic terminals. (harvard.edu)
  • Consistent with this defect, the expression of Fgf8, an apical ectodermal factor, is absent in the mutant presumptive limb ectoderm, and the expression of Fgf10, a mesenchymally expressed limb bud initiator, is down regulated in the underlying mesoderm. (biologists.org)
  • Meanwhile, the expression of genetic markers for adipogenic initiation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARg2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPa), as well as subsequent adipocyte maturation, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), were significantly downregulated. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The expression of FGF-2 mRNA was detected in all categories of follicles and there was no difference in preantral follicles and COCs or granulosa/theca cells from small and large antral follicles. (ovid.com)
  • We observed moderate expression of FGF-2 protein in preantral follicles but not in granulosa cells of primordial follicles and theca cells of secondary follicles. (ovid.com)
  • In culture, FGF-2 rapidly stimulated HGF mRNA, and a sustained expression was evident in the time course in vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. (pubfacts.com)
  • In the early expression, FGF-2 directly stimulated HGF mRNA without the requirement of new protein synthesis, whereas sustained induction of HGF in the later phase was partly mediated by platelet-derived growth factor-AA. (pubfacts.com)
  • This is the first demonstration of a regulational mechanism of HGF expression via FGF-2 that was independent of the presence of hypoxia. (pubfacts.com)
  • Tumor specimens were assessed for herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) transgene mRNA expression, FGF1/2 receptor expression, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-deoxy uridine triphosphate nick end labeling assay for apoptosis, CD31 immunohistochemistry to estimate tumor microvessel density, and tumor volume change. (elsevier.com)
  • In all regions, there was an obvious FGF-2 expression in GFAP-positive and -negative cells. (nih.gov)
  • MMP-1 expression is detected in fluid shear stress (20 dyn/cm 2 )-activated and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes, however, the precise mechanisms underlying shear-induced MMP-1 synthesis remain unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • Using primary chondrocytes and T/C-28a2 chondrocytic cells as model systems, we report that prolonged application of high fluid shear to human chondrocytes induced the synthesis of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), which led to a marked increase in MMP-1 expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Although 15d-PGJ 2 suppressed PI3-K/AKT and p38 signaling pathways, it stimulated MMP-1 expression via activating heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). (elsevier.com)
  • The critical role of COX-2 in regulating MMP-1 expression in articular cartilage in vivo was demonstrated using COX-2 +/- transgenic mice in the absence or presence of rofecoxib oral administration. (elsevier.com)
  • Whole-mount in situ hybridization reveals restricted domains of expression of cFHF-1 and cFHF-2 in the developing neural tube, peripheral sensory ganglia and limb buds, and shows that the two cFHF-2 transcript isoforms are present in non-overlapping spatial distributions in the neural tube and adjacent structures. (elsevier.com)
  • Ectopic cFHF-2 expression is induced adjacent to grafts of cells expressing Sonic Hedgehog and the zone of cFHF-2 expression is expanded in talpid 2 embryos. (elsevier.com)
  • In the absence of the apical ectodermal ridge or in wingless or limbless mutant embryos, expression of cFHF-1 and cFHF-2 is lost from the limb bud. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, we show that a secreted version of cFHF-2 activates the expression of HoxD13, HoxD11, Fgf-4 and BMP-2 ectopically, consistent with cFHF-2 playing a role in anterior-posterior patterning of the limb. (elsevier.com)
  • Its expression is induced by wounding in an FGF-2- and NF-kappaB-dependent manner. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 expression in apical periodontitis in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Synergism between any two of these growth factors was required for BRN2 protein induction, whereas all three factors were required to alter melanocyte morphology and for maximal BRN2 protein expression. (edu.au)
  • Material and Method: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 32 meningioma patients were immunohistochemically studied for FGF-2 expression. (usu.ac.id)
  • The association between FGF-2 expression and grade were anylized using SPSS 22 version. (usu.ac.id)
  • Conclusion: The positive expression of FGF-2 in the higher meningioma grade indicates that angiogenesis plays an important role in terms of tumor growth especially in malignant cases. (usu.ac.id)
  • The opposite effect was found with FGF-2 receptor down-regulation. (conicyt.cl)
  • These results suggest that the protective role of FGF-2 in the pathogenesis of ARF induced by I/R is a complex process, through which a differential regulation of metabolic pathways takes place. (conicyt.cl)
  • In rat islets and INS-1E cells, FGF-21 activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The glucose-sensing and insulin-signaling pathways have been shown to play important roles in insulin secretion as well as β-cell growth and survival. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, IR/MGC possess alternative, cell type and growth factor-specific MEK-independent ERK1/2 activation pathways. (arvojournals.org)
  • IL-1β, COX-2-dependent PGE 2 activated the PI3-K/AKT and p38 signaling pathways, which were in turn responsible for MMP-1 synthesis via NF-κB- and c-Jun-transactivating pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 is a potent mitogen for SMCs and endothelial cells (ECs). (ahajournals.org)
  • It also demonstrates anti-growth properties in FGF-2-induced, but not serum-induced, endothelial cells (IC 50 = 20.3 µM ±5.9 µM). (emdmillipore.com)
  • Increased calvaria cell differentiation and bone matrix formation induced by fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutations in Apert syndrome. (jci.org)
  • Description Aplha, transcription related growth factors and stimulating factors or repressing nuclear factors are complex subunits of proteins involved in cell differentiation. (gentaur.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 directly stimulates mature osteoclast function through activation of FGF receptor 1 and p42/p44 MAP kinase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The stimulation of FGF-2 on mouse and rabbit osteoclast functions was abrogated by PD-98059, a specific inhibitor of p42/p44 MAP kinase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results strongly suggest that FGF-2 acts directly on mature osteoclasts through activation of FGFR1 and p42/p44 MAP kinase, causing the stimulation of bone resorption at physiological or pathological concentrations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • AZD2171 directly inhibited the growth of two gastric cancer cell lines (KATO-III and OCUM2M), with an IC 50 of 0.15 and 0.37 μmol/L, respectively, more potently than the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The report provides comprehensive information on the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 or Fms Like Tyrosine Kinase 2 or Proto Oncogene c Fgr or CD331 or FLT2 or FGFR1 or EC 2.7.10.1), targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (marketresearch.com)
  • Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 or Fms Like Tyrosine Kinase 2 or Proto Oncogene c Fgr or CD331 or FLT2 or FGFR1 or EC 2.7.10.1) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (marketresearch.com)
  • FGF-2-mediated induction of HGF was fully dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway yet was not affected by either hypoxia or a protein kinase A inhibitor. (pubfacts.com)
  • Basic fibroblast growth factor has been shown to interact with casein kinase 2, alpha 1, RPL6, ribosomal protein S19 and API5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of endogenous FGF-2 production in vascular SMCs has been shown to induce apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Endogenous fibroblast growth factor-2 mediates cytotoxicity in experimental mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. (asnjournals.org)
  • The harmonized therapeutic effects of FGF-2, accompanied with the activity of endogenous HGF, may provide a beneficial effect for the treatment of limb ischemia. (pubfacts.com)
  • CONCLUSION: These data identify FGF-2 as a novel endogenous chondroprotective agent in articular cartilage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Heterozygous mice (+/−) show both the 4.2- and 3.9-kb diagnostic bands, d , Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from E1 3.5 embryos and several adult tissues from 2-month-old mice from heterozygous matings. (nih.gov)
  • Antibody-mediated activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 reverses the diabetic phenotype in mice, likely by affecting brown adipose tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • When compared with wild-type mice, poorly differentiated tumors arising in FGF +/− and FGF −/− mice expressed higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and, in some cases, increased levels of acidic FGF intracellular binding protein, a nuclear FGF1-binding protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Oral administration of AZD2171 (1.5 or 6 mg/kg/d) significantly and dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing KATO-III and OCUM2M tumor xenografts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1996 ) Skeletal overgrowth and deafness in mice lacking fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. (biologists.org)
  • On a molecular level these signals mediate cell division, growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A range of molecular mechanisms ensures optimal communication of CD4 T cells with their cellular environment via cytokines and growth factors, exosomes, direct cell-to-cell contact, membrane nanotubes (MNTs), and trogocytosis ( 1 - 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 6 FGF-2 exists in several molecular weight isoforms generated by the initiation of translation at alternate upstream CUG codons. (ahajournals.org)
  • The extracellular portion of the protein interacts with fibroblast growth factors, setting in motion a cascade of downstream signals, ultimately influencing mitogenesis and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation, at least in part due to BMP-2 production, were rapidly induced by FGF-2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Furthermore, genetic markers of osteogenic commitment, like the master regulator runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), as well as markers of osteogenic differentiation and ECM formation, like collagen 1 A1 (COL1A1) and integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP), were downregulated. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In addition, it has been shown that transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) signaling is crucial in that the TGFß/Activin/Nodal branch of the pathway needs to be activated and the bone morphogenic protein (BMP)/GDF branch repressed to prevent differentiation. (mpg.de)
  • Therefore, incorporating biological agents like FGF-2 within therapeutic biomaterials is a potential strategy to create angiogenic bioactivity for the repair of damaged tissue caused by trauma or complications that arise from age and/or disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the use of growth factors as therapeutic agents can be costly and does not always bring about efficient tissue repair due to rapid clearance from the targeted site. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An alternative would be a stable supramolecular nanostructure with the capacity to activate the FGF-2 receptor that can also assemble into a scaffold deliverable to tissue. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 , 2 These proteins are secreted to regulate a diverse number of cellular processes, such as tissue development or repair, and are usually bound and tightly regulated by their interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM) components. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, it is difficult to reform periodontal attachment because the rapid growth of the junctional epithelium and gingival connective tissue inhibit the growth of periodontal tissue associated with periodontal attachment. (brightsurf.com)
  • Therefore, these multifaceted effects of FGF-2 promote new tissue formation at the early regeneration phase, leading to enhanced formation of new bone, cementum, and PDL. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For regenerative therapy, biologically active soluble factors such as cytokines and growth factors are being evaluated for clinical use in the regeneration of periodontal tissue damaged or lost as a result of periodontitis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Adult prostates are androgen-dependent organs with respect to growth, tissue homeostasis and function. (biologists.org)
  • It remains unresolved whether androgens regulate growth, tissue homeostasis and tissue functions via similar signaling mechanisms, although the FGF signaling axis has been implicated to be important for androgen signaling in prostates. (biologists.org)
  • Results: The volumes of total augmentation, new bone, residual material, and fibrovascular tissue were significantly greater in the FGF-2 group than in the control group at 2 weeks, but the differences between the two groups had disappeared by 4 weeks. (quintpub.com)
  • The areas of total augmentation, new bone, residual material, and fibrovascular tissue, and the number of blood vessels did not differ significantly between the FGF-2 and the control groups at either time point. (quintpub.com)
  • there are differences in the tissue distribution and concentration of these 2 growth factors. (neobiolab.com)
  • FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (neobiolab.com)
  • The mitogenic effects of FGF-2 on mesenchymal tissue depended on the FGF-2-stimulated formation of a fibronectin-containing extracellular matrix. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • We suggest that the stimulation of the fibronectin matrix represents an essential element in growth factor signaling of mesenchymal tissue, with the matrix serving as an anchorage substratum for the proliferating cells. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • This pool of FGF-2 activates chondrocytes upon tissue loading and is released following mechanical injury. (ox.ac.uk)
  • FGF-2 levels in meningiomas have been assessed using the ELISA and qrPCR methods in many previous studies using blood serum in malignant cases with normal brain tissue as control. (usu.ac.id)
  • Based on these observations, FGF-21 has been proposed as a potential therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes in humans ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Preventing β-cell death and increasing survival of the β-cell can be a valuable therapeutic approach to treat and cure type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Despite intensive studies, the prognosis for patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent gastric cancer remains poor ( 1 , 2 ), and new therapeutic modalities are needed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This particular family member is a high-affinity receptor for acidic, basic and/or keratinocyte growth factor, depending on the isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. (curehunter.com)
  • A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. (curehunter.com)
  • We also describe the identification of a novel, conserved isoform of FHF-2 in chickens and mammals. (elsevier.com)
  • A role for cFHF-2 in the patterning and growth of skeletal elements is implied by the observation that engraftment of developing limb buds with QT6 cells expressing a cFHF-2 isoform that is normally expressed in the limb leads to a variety of morphological defects. (elsevier.com)
  • The Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Inhibitor, NSC37204 controls the biological activity of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2. (emdmillipore.com)
  • AZD2171 is an oral, highly potent, and selective vascular endothelial growth factor signaling inhibitor that inhibits all vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The MEK inhibitor U0126 was used to block ERK1/2 activation in separate trials. (arvojournals.org)
  • Activin A production on dissection was reduced by 80% by the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor inhibitor PD173074 and by 70% by the IKK inhibitor BMS345541.Activin A is potentially an anticatabolic molecule in articular cartilage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activin A is an anticatabolic autocrine cytokine in articular cartilage whose production is controlled by fibroblast growth factor 2 and NF-kappaB. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Proteomic analysis has previously shown that activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor beta family, is produced by human articular cartilage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activin A activity in cartilage explant medium was measured by incubating it with human dermal fibroblasts and determining the increase in phospho-Smad2 by Western blotting.Activin A (1-10 ng/ml) suppressed aggrecanase-mediated cleavage of aggrecan in human articular cartilage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: We have previously identified in articular cartilage an abundant pool of the heparin-binding growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), which is bound to the pericellular matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan. (ox.ac.uk)
  • MBS2602722 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Fibroblast growth factor-binding protein 2, FGFBP2, ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • In the present study, we demonstrated that VE-cadherin, VEGFR2 and CD31 mRNA are expressed in cultured DP cells upon treatment with FGF-2. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Alternative translation of human fibroblast growth factor 2 mRNA occurs by internal entry of ribosomes. (asm.org)
  • Alternative initiations of translation of the human fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) mRNA, at three CUG start codons and one AUG start codon, result in the synthesis of four isoforms of FGF-2. (asm.org)
  • We show here that translation initiation of the FGF-2 mRNA breaks the rule of the cap-dependent ribosome scanning mechanism. (asm.org)
  • Contents This study quantified Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) mRNA and localized FGF-2 protein in different categories of follicles isolated from goat ovaries. (ovid.com)
  • We conclude that FGF-2 mRNA is expressed throughout follicular development and that its protein can be found in different patterns in preantral and antral follicles. (ovid.com)
  • Progression of prostate cancer from an androgen sensitive to androgen insensitive tumor has previously been shown to be accompanied by a change in alternative splicing of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGF-R2) in a rat model of prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
  • FGF signaling seems to play a role in tumor growth and angiogenesis, and autocrine FGF signaling may be particularly important in the progression of steroid hormone-dependent cancers to a hormone-independent state ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background and objectives High levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 are associated with accelerated progression of CKD. (asnjournals.org)
  • It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor ( Fibroblast growth factor 1 ). (jove.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2 control of vascular tone. (nih.gov)
  • FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have employed embryoid bodies derived from murine embryonal stem cells to study effects on vascular development induced by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and FGF receptor-1, in comparison to the established angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and its receptor VEGF receptor-2. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mast cell basic fibroblast growth factor in silicosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 (or basic FGF) is expressed at increased levels in human prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent animal experiments demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) can improve neurological function after stroke by the neuroprotective effect or vasodilating effect. (ahajournals.org)
  • We previously showed the participation of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in renal repair. (conicyt.cl)
  • FGF-basic is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. (neobiolab.com)
  • We have reinvestigated a widely used protocol for conditioning hESC medium with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). (mpg.de)
  • The second and third Ig-like domains directly interact with fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. (rcsb.org)
  • Heparan sulfate chains bind and potentiate the activities of various growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2). (mysciencework.com)
  • Collectively, we propose FGFR1 in adipose tissues as a major functional receptor for FGF21, as an upstream regulator of PGC-1α, and as a compelling target for antibody-based therapy for type 2 diabetes and other obesity-associated disorders. (sciencemag.org)
  • We confirmed that this activity was specific to the FGFR1 signaling pathway by tracking the phosphorylation of downstream signaling effectors such ERK1/2 and pH3. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1997 ) Chimeric analysis of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (Fgfr1) function: a role for FGFR1 in morphogenetic movement through the primitive streak. (biologists.org)
  • The tumor growth curve shows a nearly exponential increase in median tumor volume up to day 31 in the vehicle group and a high rate of slow growing tumors up to day 40 in the study group. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data are consistent with potent inhibition of VEGF signaling, angiogenesis, neovascular survival, and tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This protein has been implicated in diverse biological processes, such as limb and nervous system development, wound healing, and tumor growth. (neobiolab.com)
  • Liver-derived fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 affects glucose and lipid metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is highly expressed in the liver and regulates hepatic glucose production and lipid metabolism in rodents. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of Wound healing and is a potent inducer of Physiologic angiogenesis . (jove.com)
  • It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to Fibroblast growth factor 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. (jove.com)
  • The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. (jove.com)
  • A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of wound healing and is a potent inducer of angiogenesis. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Moreover, FGF-2 is one of the most potent angiogenesis inducers ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent angiogenic polypeptide that stimulates angiogenesis. (pubfacts.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes manifests from the autoimmune destruction of β-cells, whereas type 2 diabetes is characterized by reduced β-cell mass and marked functional defects, including impaired first-phase insulin secretion, increased proinsulin-to-insulin ratio, and elevated rate of β-cell apoptosis ( 1 - 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • β-Cell mass is governed by the balance between β-cell growth and β-cell death (apoptosis). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetic patients display a progressive loss of β-cells caused by an increased rate of β-cell apoptosis ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, the cause and mechanism(s) responsible for the increased apoptosis rate in type 2 diabetes are not well understood ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Valproic acid (VPA), an epigenetic factor, reduces apoptosis in immortalized ARPE19 cells that were subjected to oxidative injury. (arvojournals.org)
  • Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family have been identified as signaling molecules in a variety of developmental processes, including important roles in limb bud initiation, growth and patterning. (elsevier.com)
  • Because FGF-2 is one of the most famous members of FGF family for its proliferating and angiogenic effects, a lot of studies have evidenced that it is closely related to tumors ( 16-18 ), we selected FGF-2 as a representative of FGF family to study the binding of sFGFR2 to FGF ligands and the mechanisms of the inhibition of sFGFR2 on tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background and Purpose- Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) administration and bone marrow stromal cell (MSC) transplantation could improve neurological deficits after occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2 Whereas bone marrow stromal cell (MSC) transplantation improved neurological deficits after occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • PlnDI-containing collagen I scaffolds to which FGF-2 was bound sustained growth of both MG63, an osteoblastic cell line, and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) significantly better than scaffolds lacking either PlnDI or FGF-2. (mysciencework.com)
  • Based on this, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of FGF-2 signaling pathway manipulation at hypoxia-induced protein levels, as well as in key proteins from the vasoactive systems of the kidney. (conicyt.cl)
  • Preosteoblastic calvaria cells isolated from Apert infants and fetuses showed normal cell growth in basal conditions or in response to exogenous FGF-2. (jci.org)
  • OBJECTIVE The incidence of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising worldwide. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, its role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in humans remains to be defined. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS Subjects with type 2 diabetes, subjects with IGT, and obese subjects with NGT were insulin resistant compared with lean subjects with NGT. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Plasma FGF-21 levels progressively increased from 3.9 ± 0.3 ng/ml in lean subjects with NGT to 4.9 ± 0.2 in obese subjects with NGT to 5.2 ± 0.2 in subjects with IGT and to 5.3 ± 0.2 in type 2 diabetic subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • FGF-21 may play a role in pathogenesis of hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 15 ) reported that patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes had significantly higher plasma FGF-21 concentrations than nondiabetic control subjects, and FGF-21 negatively correlated with fasting plasma glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thermodynamic binding studies indicated that msFGFR2 bound FGF-2 16.9 times as strongly as wild-type soluble FGFR2IIIc ectodomain (wsFGFR2). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The binding affinity of msFGFR2 for FGF-2 was found to be 16.9 times as high as that of wild-type sFGFR2 (wsFGFR2) by an isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The analytic sample consisted of a random subcohort of 590 patients with type 2 diabetes without prevalent CKD at baseline, 124 of whom developed incident CKD during follow-up, and 520 additional patients with incident CKD outside the random subcohort. (asnjournals.org)
  • Conclusions Higher fibroblast growth factor 23 levels are not independently associated with higher risk of incident CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes. (asnjournals.org)
  • Hamideh Sadat Mohammadipour, Fatemeh Forouzanfar and Ali Forouzanfar*, "The Role of Type 2 Fibroblast Growth Factor in Periodontal Therapy", Current Drug Targets (2021) 22: 310. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The release of FGF-2 is of interest, because it lacks a hydrophobic leader sequence necessary for secretion by the classic exocytotic pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5,6 Therefore, we expect that enhancement of growth factor secretion including FGF-2 by MSCs can achieve functional recovery after central nervous system occlusive disorders more effectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. (ahajournals.org)
  • Regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 were found at high levels in the JCs tested. (dovepress.com)
  • In order to better understand the activation process occurring in astrocytes, we measured the colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP after lesion by assessing FGF-2 intensity in both types of cells in each region of the CNS. (nih.gov)
  • The very high FGF-2 labeling intensity seen in GFAP-negative cells (Figure 5A, right), 1 week post-op, implies that FGF-2 is not only secreted in astrocytes but also in neurones to induce astrocyte activation in the beginning of the recovery process. (nih.gov)
  • The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway is a recognized target of cancer therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies on the mechanisms underlying the amplification of mesangial cell injury by FGF-2 showed that anti-FGF-2 therapy reduced cell death at 2 and 8 h after disease induction by 58 and 54%, respectively. (asnjournals.org)
  • Combination therapy with rhFGF-2 and deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) was performed on #45 and 47. (bvsalud.org)
  • Periodontal regenerative therapy using rhFGF-2 in combination with DBBM resulted in an improvement in clinical parameters and vertical bone resorption . (bvsalud.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 has been shown to interact with FGF1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are small polypeptide growth factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The chondrocytes were obtained from remnant auricular cartilage during microtia operations and cultured with various growth factors. (asianaoms.org)
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that FGF-2, IGF-I, and TGF-β 1 strongly induced chondrocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that FGF-2, IGF-I, and TGF-β 1 combined were inferior to FGF-2 and IGF-I in maintaining permanent cartilage phenotype. (asianaoms.org)
  • The results indicate that a combination of FGF-2 and IGF-I may be superior to one of FGF-2, IGF-I, and TGF-β 1 for permanent cartilage regeneration. (asianaoms.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2 is an intrinsic chondroprotective agent that suppresses ADAMTS-5 and delays cartilage degradation in murine osteoarthritis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We undertook this study to investigate the in vivo role of FGF-2 in murine cartilage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These observations identify ASMC-derived FGF2b as a factor needed for LMC formation by CD4 T cells, affecting intercellular communication. (jimmunol.org)
  • FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. (ahajournals.org)
  • Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm 2 in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Flow cytometry detected a 50% increase in mean fluorescence of cells exposed to 25 dyne/cm 2 versus control cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • This indicates that the observed FGF-2 release from human aortic smooth muscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 FGF-2 is also implicated as a survival factor for quiescent cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Membrane disruption of cells allows for leakage of FGF-2 from the cytosol. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, other studies 17 18 have shown that cells that are not subjected to injurious stimuli can also release FGF-2. (ahajournals.org)
  • Western blot analysis showed that CD31 protein was induced in the DP cells following 3 weeks of treatment with FGF-2. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is released from mesangial cells in experimental mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis induced with anti-Thy 1.1 antibody. (asnjournals.org)
  • The marrows were extruded with the culture medium (minimum essential medium with 2 mmol/L l -glutamate and 10% FBS) to flask and cultured in 5% CO 2 at 37°C. After 48 hours, the nonadherent cells were removed by changing the medium. (ahajournals.org)
  • FGF-2 stimulation of embryonal stem cells under conditions where VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 function was blocked, led to formation of endothelial cell clusters, which failed to develop into vessels. (diva-portal.org)
  • There was no significant difference in telomerase activities between cells cultured with FGF-2 and IGF-I and those with FGF-2, IGF-I, and TGF-β 1. (asianaoms.org)
  • There was a slight increase in the S phase of the cell cycle in cells cultured with FGF-2, IGF-I, and TGF-β 1 compared with those with only FGF-2 and IGF-I. There were also some alterations in the retinoblastoma pathway of the chondrocytes cultured with FGF-2, IGF-I, and TGF-β 1. (asianaoms.org)
  • Fgf-2 in astroglial cells during vertebrate spinal cord recovery. (nih.gov)
  • To further investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying FGF-2 restorative actions and to analyze the changes within astroglial cells, we studied the localization of GFAP and FGF-2 in adult intact and injured Pleurodeles CNS. (nih.gov)
  • Fibroblast growth factor-2 labeling intensity in GFAP-positive ad GFAP-negative cells compared to sham-operated cases in the four examined regions of the CNS. (nih.gov)
  • The graph shows an evident colocalization between FGF-2 and GFAP in lesioned animals brainstem (A) and spinal cord (SC1: B and SC3: D) during the whole experimental period except in SC2 (the part of the spinal cord above the lesion site: C). Pattern of distribution of FGF-2 secreting cells was somehow similar in BS (A) and SC3 (D) but the sublesional part showed a much more significant colocalization. (nih.gov)
  • Using a low calcium medium supplemented with stem cell factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, endothelin-3 and cholera toxin, we have established and partially characterised human melanocyte precursor cells, which are unpigmented, contain immature melanosomes and lack L-dihydroxyphenylalanine reactivity. (edu.au)
  • the growth factor is necessary for the cells to remain in an undifferentiated state, although the mechanisms by which it does this are poorly defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the mechanism through which FGF-2 acts in periodontal regeneration in vivo has not been fully clarified yet. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We revealed the facilitatory mechanisms of FGF-2 in periodontal regeneration in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In CAM assays in vivo , where angiogenesis is induced by FGF-2 embedded in gelatin sponges, the presence of the small molecule (0.5 µg) reduces the mean number of blood vessels entering the sponge from 26 ±4 (FGF-2 alone) to 10 ±2 (FGF-2 + NSC37203). (emdmillipore.com)
  • Furthermore, in vivo overexpression of FGF-2 significantly improved the blood perfusion, and the effect was abolished by systemic blockade of HGF in ischemic limbs. (pubfacts.com)