Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Fibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1: A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is mainly expressed in LUNG; KIDNEY; PANCREAS; and SPLEEN. It also plays an important role in SKELETAL MUSCLE development and can contribute to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Fibroblast Growth Factor 9: A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.Fibroblast Growth Factor 4: A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.Fibroblast Growth Factor 7: A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Fibroblast Growth Factor 5: A fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in regulation of HAIR FOLLICLE phenotype. Spontaneous mutation of the gene for this protein results in a strain of MICE with abnormally long hair, referred to as angora mice.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fibroblast Growth Factor 3: A fibroblast growth factor that is expressed primarily during development.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fibroblast Growth Factor 6: A fibroblast growth factor that was initially identified based on its sequence similarity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 4. It is found in MYOBLASTS and plays an important role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 5: The most divergent of the known fibroblast growth factor receptors. It does not contain an intracellular TYROSINE KINASE domain and has been shown to interact with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 5 is found primarily in skeletal tissue.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Angiogenesis Inducing Agents: Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Hypophosphatemia: A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Acrocephalosyndactylia: Congenital craniostenosis with syndactyly.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mice, Inbred C57BLTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Craniosynostoses: Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Achondroplasia: An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.GlucuronidaseVascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Thanatophoric Dysplasia: A severe form of neonatal dwarfism with very short limbs. All cases have died at birth or later in the neonatal period.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Craniofacial Dysostosis: Autosomal dominant CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS with shallow ORBITS; EXOPHTHALMOS; and maxillary hypoplasia.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Somatomedins: Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to both PDGF-A chains and PDGF-B chains. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Autocrine Communication: Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Mice, Inbred BALB CAlternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Suramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.ThymidineExtracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met: Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.PhosphoproteinsCell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.

Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 are distinct in oligomerization in the presence of heparin-like glycosaminoglycans. (1/605)

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 and FGF-2 are prototypic members of the FGF family, which to date comprises at least 18 members. Surprisingly, even though FGF-1 and FGF-2 share more than 80% sequence similarity and an identical structural fold, these two growth factors are biologically very different. FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in their ability to bind isoforms of the FGF receptor family as well as the heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (HLGAG) component of proteoglycans on the cell surface to initiate signaling in different cell types. Herein, we provide evidence for one mechanism by which these two proteins could differ biologically. Previously, it has been noted that FGF-1 and FGF-2 can oligomerize in the presence of HLGAGs. Therefore, we investigated whether FGF-1 and FGF-2 oligomerize by the same mechanism or by a different one. Through a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and chemical crosslinking, we show here that, under identical conditions, FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in the degree and kind of oligomerization. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of FGF-1 and FGF-2 uncomplexed and HLGAG complexed crystal structures enables us to readily explain why FGF-2 forms sequential oligomers whereas FGF-1 forms only dimers. FGF-2, which possesses an interface capable of protein association, forms a translationally related oligomer, whereas FGF-1, which does not have this interface, forms only a symmetrically related dimer. Taken together, these data show that FGF-1 and FGF-2, despite their sequence homology, differ in their mechanism of oligomerization.  (+info)

Molecular characteristics of fibroblast growth factor-fibroblast growth factor receptor-heparin-like glycosaminoglycan complex. (2/605)

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family plays key roles in development, wound healing, and angiogenesis. Understanding of the molecular nature of interactions of FGFs with their receptors (FGFRs) has been seriously limited by the absence of structural information on FGFR or FGF-FGFR complex. In this study, based on an exhaustive analysis of the primary sequences of the FGF family, we determined that the residues that constitute the primary receptor-binding site of FGF-2 are conserved throughout the FGF family, whereas those of the secondary receptor binding site of FGF-2 are not. We propose that the FGF-FGFR interaction mediated by the 'conserved' primary site interactions is likely to be similar if not identical for the entire FGF family, whereas the 'variable' secondary sites, on both FGF as well as FGFR mediates specificity of a given FGF to a given FGFR isoform. Furthermore, as the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) and FGF-2 share the same structural scaffold, we find that the spatial orientation of the primary receptor-binding site of FGF-2 coincides structurally with the IL-1beta receptor-binding site when the two molecules are superimposed. The structural similarities between the IL-1 and the FGF system provided a framework to elucidate molecular principles of FGF-FGFR interactions. In the FGF-FGFR model proposed here, the two domains of a single FGFR wrap around a single FGF-2 molecule such that one domain of FGFR binds to the primary receptor-binding site of the FGF molecule, while the second domain of the same FGFR binds to the secondary receptor-binding site of the same FGF molecule. Finally, the proposed model is able to accommodate not only heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (HLGAG) interactions with FGF and FGFR but also FGF dimerization or oligomerization mediated by HLGAG.  (+info)

Characterization of the entire transcription unit of the mouse fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) gene. Tissue-specific expression of the FGF-1.A mRNA. (3/605)

Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1, also known as acidic FGF) is a mitogen for a variety of mesoderm- and neuroectoderm-derived cells, as well as an angiogenic factor in vivo. It has been implicated in angiogenic diseases including atherosclerosis, cancer and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, the entire transcriptional unit of the mouse FGF-1 gene, including four promoters, is characterized. By nucleotide sequence and RNase protection analyses, we have determined that its 3'-end resides 3.2 kilobase pairs downstream from the stop codon. We have previously cloned and characterized the mouse homologue of the human 1B promoter, as well as a novel upstream untranslated exon. In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of FGF-1 gene expression, the mouse promoter containing TATA and CAAT consensus sequences (FGF-1. A) was isolated from a P1 library and characterized. We further determined that the mouse heart is the most abundant source for the FGF-1.A mRNA. Finally, via both RNase protection analysis and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we determined the transcription start site of the FGF-1.A mRNA.  (+info)

Prostate development requires Sonic hedgehog expressed by the urogenital sinus epithelium. (4/605)

The prostate gland develops from the urogenital sinus by a testosterone-dependent process of ductal morphogenesis. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the urogenital sinus epithelium and the time course of expression coincides with the formation of the main prostatic ducts. Expression is most abundant in the lumen of the urogenital sinus and in the contiguous proximal duct segments. The initial upregulation of Shh expression in the male urogenital sinus depends on the presence of testosterone. The function of Shh was examined in the male urogenital sinus which was transplanted under the renal capsule of an adult male host mouse. Blockade of Shh function by a neutralizing antibody interferes with Shh signaling and abrogates growth and ductal morphogenesis in the transplanted tissue. These observations show that testosterone-dependent Shh expression in the urogenital sinus is necessary for the initiation of prostate development.  (+info)

Serotonin derivative, N-(p-Coumaroyl)serotonin, isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) oil cake augments the proliferation of normal human and mouse fibroblasts in synergy with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF). (5/605)

N-(p-Coumaroyl)serotonin (CS) with antioxidative activity is present in safflower oil. We have reported that CS inhibits proinflammatory cytokine generation from human monocytes in vitro. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) affect cell proliferation, in this study the effect of CS on the proliferation of various cell types was examined. CS augments the proliferation of normal human and mouse fibroblast cells. The cells continue to proliferate in the presence of CS and form a transformed cell-like focus without transformation. CS, however, does not augment the proliferation of other cell types, either normal or tumor cells. CS augments the proliferation of fibroblasts in synergy with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF), but not with acidic FGF(aFGF) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). This study using synthesized derivatives of CS reveals that the growth-promoting activity is not due to antioxidative activity. These findings indicate that CS is a natural compound with unique growth-promoting activity for fibroblasts.  (+info)

Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) enhances IL-2 production and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in FGF receptor-bearing Jurkat T cells. (6/605)

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are heparin-binding proteins crucial to embryogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. FGF-1 is abundantly expressed in the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis and in rejecting allografts, sites of chronic immune-mediated inflammation. The frequency of FGF-1-responsive T cells is increased in the peripheral blood of these disorders, and a high percentage of infiltrating T cells in rheumatoid arthritis synovium express receptors for FGF-1. To understand the action of FGF-1 in T cells, studies were initiated in Jurkat T cells that express the signaling isoform of FGF receptor-1. These experiments show that FGF-1 stimulation of Jurkat T cells provides a second signal that augments TCR-mediated IL-2 production. Analogous to costimulation via CD28, this activity is mediated through activation of Rel/kappaB, a family of transcription factors known to regulate IL-2 and other activation-inducible proteins. FGF-1 alone induces modest nuclear translocation of kappaB-binding proteins, and this translocation is enhanced by the combination of anti-CD3 and FGF-1. This NF-kappaB binding complex is composed of transcriptionally active p65(RelA)/p50 heterodimers and results primarily from the targeted degradation of IkappaB-alpha, an inhibitor that sequesters Rel/kappaB in the cytoplasm. These data are the first to show a connection between FGF-1 signaling and NF-kappaB activation outside of embryonic development. The signaling events that link FGF receptor-1 engagement and NF-kappaB activation in Jurkat are probably distinct from the CD28 costimulation pathway, since FGF-1-induced Rel/kappaB binding proteins do not contain significant levels of c-Rel and are not identical with the CD28 response complex.  (+info)

Specificity for fibroblast growth factors determined by heparan sulfate in a binary complex with the receptor kinase. (7/605)

A divalent cation-dependent association between heparin or heparan sulfate and the ectodomain of the FGF receptor kinase (FGFR) restricts FGF-independent trans-phosphorylation and supports the binding of activating FGF to self-associated FGFR. Here we show that in contrast to heparin, cellular heparan sulfate forms a binary complex with FGFR that discriminates between FGF-1 and FGF-2. FGFR type 4 (FGFR4) in liver parenchymal cells binds only FGF-1, whereas FGFR1 binds FGF-1 and FGF-2 equally. Cell-free complexes of heparin and recombinant FGFR4 bound FGF-1 and FGF-2 equally. However, in contrast to FGFR1, when recombinant FGFR4 was expressed back in epithelial cells by transfection, it failed to bind FGF-2 unless heparan sulfate was depressed by chlorate or heparinase treatment. Isolated heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) from liver cells in cell-free complexes with FGFR4 restored the specificity for FGF-1 and supported the binding of both FGF-1 and FGF-2 when complexed with FGFR1. In contrast, FGF-2 bound equally well to complexes of both FGFR1 and FGFR4 formed with endothelial cell-derived HSPG, but the endothelial HSPG was deficient for the binding of FGF-1 to both FGFR complexes. These data suggest that a heparan sulfate subunit is a cell type- and FGFR-specific determinant of the selectivity of the FGFR signaling complex for FGF. In a physiological context, the heparan sulfate subunit may limit the redundancy among the current 18 FGF polypeptides for the 4 known FGFR.  (+info)

Signaling through fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b plays a key role in the development of the exocrine pancreas. (8/605)

The development of the pancreas depends on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs 1-4) have been identified as mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in different organs. We show here that FGFR-2 IIIb and its ligands FGF-1, FGF-7, and FGF-10 are expressed throughout pancreatic development. We also show that in mesenchyme-free cultures of embryonic pancreatic epithelium FGF-1, FGF-7, and FGF-10 stimulate the growth, morphogenesis, and cytodifferentiation of the exocrine cells of the pancreas. The role of FGFs signaling through FGFR-2 IIIb was further investigated by inhibiting FGFR-2 IIIb signaling in organocultures of pancreatic explants (epithelium + mesenchyme) by using either antisense FGFR-2 IIIb oligonucleotides or a soluble recombinant FGFR-2 IIIb protein. Abrogation of FGFR-2 IIIb signaling resulted in a considerable reduction in the size of the explants and in a 2-fold reduction of the development of the exocrine cells. These results demonstrate that FGFs signaling through FGFR-2 IIIb play an important role in the development of the exocrine pancreas.  (+info)

*3T3 cells

... with the 3T3 cells secreting growth factors favourable to these kinds of cells. Todaro, GJ; Green, H (1963). "Quantitative ... The 3T3 cell line has become the standard fibroblast cell line. Todaro and Green originally obtained their 3T3 cells from Swiss ... The spontaneously immortalized cells with stable growth rate were established after 20 to 30 generations in culture, and then ... The primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells were transferred (the "T") every 3 days (the first "3"), and inoculated at the ...

*Basic fibroblast growth factor

... , also known as bFGF, FGF2 or FGF-β, is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. In ... Ribatti D, Vacca A, Rusnati M, Presta M (2007). "The discovery of basic fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor-2 and ... Angiogenesis Anxiety disorders Cytokine Fibroblast growth factor Growth factor Proteases in angiogenesis Receptor (biochemistry ... Basic fibroblast growth factor has been shown to interact with casein kinase 2, alpha 1, RPL6 and ribosomal protein S19. ...

*Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

... (FGFR1), also known as basic fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fms-related tyrosine ... FGFR1 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family, which in addition to FGFR1, includes FGFR2, FGFR3, ... There are four other members of the FGFR1 gene family: FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, and Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 ( ... neoplasms with eosinophil such as those caused by Platelet-derived growth factor receptor A or platelet-derived growth factor ...

*Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGFRL1 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 2001). "A novel fibroblast growth factor receptor-5 preferentially expressed in the pancreas(1)". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1518 ... The extracellular portion of the protein interacts with fibroblast growth factors, setting in motion a cascade of downstream ... Trueb B, Zhuang L, Taeschler S, Wiedemann M (2003). "Characterization of FGFRL1, a novel fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ...

*Beta trefoil fold

... and in fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2. CATH Architecture "Beta Trefoil" Murzin AG, Lesk AM, Chothia C (Jan 1992). "β-trefoil ... patterns of structure and sequence in the kunitz inhibitors interleukins-1β and 1α and fibroblast growth factors". Journal of ... in members of the interleukin 1 cytokine family (interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist ...

*HSPA9

Mizukoshi E, Suzuki M, Loupatov A, Uruno T, Hayashi H, Misono T, Kaul SC, Wadhwa R, Imamura T (1999). "Fibroblast growth factor ... "Fibroblast growth factor-1 interacts with the glucose-regulated protein GRP75/mortalin". Biochem. J. 343 Pt 2 (2): 461-6. doi: ... "Inactivation of p53 and life span extension of human diploid fibroblasts by mot-2". FEBS Lett. 474 (2-3): 159-64. doi:10.1016/ ... 75 (1): 193-9. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-75-1-193. PMID 7906708. Matoba R, Okubo K, Hori N, Fukushima A, Matsubara K (1994). "The ...

*Elizabeth Nabel

Recombinant fibroblast growth factor-1 promotes intimal hyperplasia and angiogenesis in arteries in vivo. Nature 1993;362:844- ... Nabel delineated the mechanisms by which cell cycle and growth factor proteins regulate the proliferation of vascular cells in ... She developed gene transfer techniques to investigate the pathophysiology of vascular cell growth and designed models of ... She conducted clinical studies to understand the contribution of genetic factors to proliferative and inflammatory diseases in ...

*FGF-1 internal ribosome entry site (IRES)

UTR of the mRNA of fibroblast growth factor-1 and allows cap-independent translation. It is thought that FGF-1 internal ... "Internal Ribosome Entry Site Structural Motifs Conserved among Mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 Alternatively Spliced mRNAs ... The FGF-1 internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is an RNA element present in the 5' ... Page for FGF-1 internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at Rfam. ...

*S100A13

"S100A13 is involved in the regulation of fibroblast growth factor-1 and p40 synaptotagmin-1 release in vitro". The Journal of ... "S100A13 is involved in the regulation of fibroblast growth factor-1 and p40 synaptotagmin-1 release in vitro". The Journal of ... "Copper induces the assembly of a multiprotein aggregate implicated in the release of fibroblast growth factor 1 in response to ... "Copper induces the assembly of a multiprotein aggregate implicated in the release of fibroblast growth factor 1 in response to ...

*FGF1

"The expression of acidic fibroblast growth factor (heparin-binding growth factor-1) and cytokine genes in human cardiac ... "Entrez Gene: FGF1 fibroblast growth factor 1 (acidic)". Suh JM, Jonker JW, Ahmadian M, Goetz R, Lackey D, Osborn O, Huang Z, ... "Human vascular smooth muscle cells both express and respond to heparin-binding growth factor I (endothelial cell growth factor ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad ...

*GRB14

... has been shown to interact with Epidermal growth factor receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and TNKS2. GRCh38: ... This gene encodes a growth factor receptor-binding protein that interacts with insulin receptors and insulin-like growth-factor ... Reilly, J F; Mickey G; Maher P A (March 2000). "Association of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 with the adaptor protein ... Reilly JF, Mickey G, Maher PA (2000). "Association of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 with the adaptor protein Grb14. ...

*Pfeiffer syndrome

... on chromosome 8 or the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene on chromosome 10. These genes code for fibroblast ... 1994). "A common mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene in Pfeiffer syndrome". Nat Genet. 8 (3): 269-74. doi: ... Pfeiffer syndrome is strongly associated with mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) ... "Pleiotropic features of syndromic craniosynostoses correlate with differential expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors ...

*FGFR1OP2

Fibroblast growth factor receptor oncogene partner 2 (FGFR1OP2) was identified in a study on myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS ... The protein encoded by the FGFR1 gene belongs to the fibroblast growth factor receptor family. FGFRs usually contain an ... FGFR1OP2, when fused with the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), is shown to cause myeloproliferative syndrome. ... The study aimed to identify the partner genes to the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) involved in the syndrome. ...

*SOS1

Spivak-Kroizman T, Mohammadi M, Hu P, Jaye M, Schlessinger J, Lax I (May 1994). "Point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor ... Curto M, Frankel P, Carrero A, Foster DA (1998). "Novel recruitment of Shc, Grb2, and Sos by fibroblast growth factor receptor- ... "Binding of Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase to FRS2 is essential for fibroblast growth factor-induced PC12 cell differentiation". Mol ... SOS1 has been shown to interact with: ABI1, BCR gene, CRK, EPS8, Epidermal growth factor receptor, FRS2, Grb2, HRAS, ITSN1, ...

*ZMYM2

"Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is fused to FIM in stem-cell myeloproliferative disorder with t(8;13)". Proceedings of the ... "Consistent fusion of ZNF198 to the fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in the t(8;13)(p11;q12) myeloproliferative syndrome". ... rearrangement associated with an atypical myeloproliferative disorder fuses the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene to a ... "The oncogenic fusion protein-tyrosine kinase ZNF198/fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 has signaling function comparable with ...

*Angiogenesis

... including several growth factors. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family with its prototype members FGF-1 (acidic FGF) and ... by secreting various growth factors (e.g. VEGF). Growth factors such as bFGF and VEGF can induce capillary growth into the ... "Synergistic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on the proliferation and cord ... One of the first applications of pro-angiogenic methods in humans was a German trial using fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) ...

*FGFR1OP

2007). "Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 oncogene partner as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for lung ... A t(6;8)(q27;p11) chromosomal translocation, fusing this gene and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene, has ... 2001). "8p12 stem cell myeloproliferative disorder: the FOP-fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 fusion protein of the t(6;8) ... to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1". Blood. 93 (4): 1381-9. PMID 9949182. Reither A, Hehlmann R, Goldman JM, Cross NC (Aug ...

*Embryoid body

Chen, Y.; Li, X.; Eswarakumar, V. P.; Seger, R.; Lonai, P. (2000). "Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling through PI 3- ... including the growth factors from the Wnt and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) families (Lefty 1, Nodal), as well as ... Li, X.; Chen, Y.; Schéele, S.; Arman, E.; Haffner-Krausz, R.; Ekblom, P.; Lonai, P. (2001). "Fibroblast growth factor signaling ... Esner, M.; Pachernik, J.; Hampl, A.; Dvorak, P. (2002). "Targeted disruption of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 blocks ...

*Growth factor

Fibroblast growth factor 2(FGF2) Fibroblast growth factor 3(FGF3) Fibroblast growth factor 4(FGF4) Fibroblast growth factor 5( ... Fibroblast growth factor 6(FGF6) Fibroblast growth factor 7(FGF7) Fibroblast growth factor 8(FGF8) Fibroblast growth factor 9( ... Fibroblast growth factor 10(FGF10) Fibroblast growth factor 11(FGF11) Fibroblast growth factor 12(FGF12) Fibroblast growth ... Fibroblast growth factor 14(FGF14) Fibroblast growth factor 15(FGF15) Fibroblast growth factor 16(FGF16) Fibroblast growth ...

*P7C3

... pharmacological effects of P7C3 in vitro resemble those of endogenous proneurogenic peptides such as fibroblast growth factor 1 ... P7C3 was chosen for further animal studies on the basis of favorable pharmacokinetic factors, such as its high oral ... 142 (1): 39-51. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.06.018. PMC 2930815 . PMID 20603013. Wang G, Han T, Nijhawan D, Theodoropoulos P, ... FGF-1), and the proneurogenic activity of P7C3 was around thirty times that of latrepirdine when they were compared in mice. ...

*L1 (protein)

They interact with fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, which suggests it may be linked to the modulating of neuronal ... Some studies have proved that L1 has a role in tumor growth, tumor cell invasion, metastasis of melanoma, ovarian and collon ... Because L1CAM is considered to be a key factor in metastasis, it has been suggested that blocking this protein may inhibit ... This up-regulation may not be necessarily associated with mutations in L1 transcription factors. It has been seen this protein ...

*Receptor tyrosine kinase

Fibroblast growth factors comprise the largest family of growth factor ligands at 23 members. The natural alternate splicing of ... an autoinhibitor of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase, modulates epidermal growth factor signaling ... This local action of FGFs (Fibroblast Growth Factors) with their RTK receptors is classified as paracrine signalling. As RTK ... Duchesne L, Tissot B, Rudd TR, Dell A, Fernig DG (September 2006). "N-glycosylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... fibroblast growth factor 2 MeSH D23.348.383.130 --- fibroblast growth factor 3 MeSH D23.348.383.140 --- fibroblast growth ... fibroblast growth factor 5 MeSH D23.348.383.160 --- fibroblast growth factor 6 MeSH D23.348.383.170 --- fibroblast growth ... fibroblast growth factor 8 MeSH D23.348.383.190 --- fibroblast growth factor 9 MeSH D23.348.383.200 --- fibroblast growth ... fibroblast growth factor 9 MeSH D23.348.479.750.200 --- fibroblast growth factor 10 MeSH D23.348.479.875 --- nerve growth ...

*FGFBP1

2000). "Induction of the angiogenic modulator fibroblast growth factor-binding protein by epidermal growth factor is mediated ... Fibroblast growth factor-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGFBP1 gene. FGFBP1, or HBP17, binds ... 2005). "The fibroblast growth factor binding protein is a novel interaction partner of FGF-7, FGF-10 and FGF-22 and regulates ... 2001). "Enhancement of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activity by an FGF-binding protein". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (43): 40247-53. ...

*RTN1

"90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase is a direct target for the nuclear fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1): role in FGFR1 ... Reticulon-1 also known as neuroendocrine-specific protein (NSP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RTN1 gene. This ... 66 (1): 48-50. doi:10.1159/000133662. PMID 8275708. "Entrez Gene: RTN1 reticulon 1". Tagami S, Eguchi Y, Kinoshita M, Takeda M ... Iwahashi J, Hamada N (2004). "Human reticulon 1-A and 1-B interact with a medium chain of the AP-2 adaptor complex". Cell. Mol ...

*Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2

Each subunit has three different structural domains: a short N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain; an α-helical ... Callan OH, So OY, Swinney DC (February 1996). "The kinetic factors that determine the affinity and selectivity for slow binding ... is a key factor regulating the activity of PGHS-2 and its response to PTGS (COX) inhibitors. PTGS2 (COX-2) is unexpressed under ... 88 (1-2): 24-30. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2010.10.017. PMC 3046773 . PMID 21035466. Wang D, Patel VV, Ricciotti E, Zhou R, Levin MD, ...

*NCK2

"90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase is a direct target for the nuclear fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1): role in FGFR1 ... "Nckbeta adapter regulates actin polymerization in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts in response to platelet-derived growth factor bb". ... "Nckbeta adapter regulates actin polymerization in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts in response to platelet-derived growth factor bb". ... NCK2 has been shown to interact with: Epidermal growth factor receptor, LIMS1, PDGFRB, PTK2, T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 ...
How is human acidic fibroblast growth factor abbreviated? haFGF stands for human acidic fibroblast growth factor. haFGF is defined as human acidic fibroblast growth factor rarely.
Sea Kelp (Lactobacillus/Kelp Ferment Filtrate) Bioferment, Water/Aqua/Eau, Sodium PCA, Bisabolol (Alpha), Coconut Endosperm, Algae Extract (and) Pullulan, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride (and) Teprenone, Lecithin (and) Ubiquinone (and) Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate (and) Tocopherol (and) Vegetable Oil/Huile Vegetale (and) Glycerin (and) Benzoic Acid, Porphyridium Extract, Sodium Acrylate (and) Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer (and) Isohexadecane (and) Polysorbate 80, Fucoxanthin, Astaxanthin, Hydrolyzed Collagen, Hyaluronic Acid, Guaizulene, Glycine Soja (Soybean) Protein (and) Hydrolyzed Rice Protein (and) Superoxide Dismutase, Cycloastragenol, Kappaphycus Alvarezii Extract, Pentylene Glycol (and) 4-t-Butylcyclohexanol, sh-Polypeptide-11 (aFGF Recombinant Human acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor), Acetyl Tetrapeptide-5, Butylene Glycol, Ethylhexylglycerin, Ethoxydiglycol, Phenoxyethanol (and) Caprylyl Glycol (and) Sorbic Acid, Sodium Benzoate, Potassium Sorbate. ...
1JQZ: Structure and stability effects of mutations designed to increase the primary sequence symmetry within the core region of a beta-trefoil.
1JT5: Structure and stability effects of mutations designed to increase the primary sequence symmetry within the core region of a beta-trefoil.
To the best of my knowledge Eusol and Kriingle Pharma have not received much attention here -- would like to get your perspective on the advancements of these two companies; have you heard of them? Do you think it is promising? Any additional information available? Eusol -- they are already in phase III https://en.eusol-biotech.com.tw/service.php ES135 is a recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (rhFGF1) with 135 amino acids. With its effect to promote neurite outgrowth,
To the best of my knowledge Eusol and Kriingle Pharma have not received much attention here -- would like to get your perspective on the advancements of these two companies; have you heard of them? Do you think it is promising? Any additional information available? Eusol -- they are already in phase III https://en.eusol-biotech.com.tw/service.php ES135 is a recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (rhFGF1) with 135 amino acids. With its effect to promote neurite outgrowth,
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 3fjd. Crystal structure of L44F/F132W mutant of Human acidic fibroblast growth factor
Using molecular sieve and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we established that FGF-1 forms a tight complex with oxLDL in vitro, whereas its affinity to nonatherogenic, native LDL is low. Because the family of FGFs is defined by their high affinity for heparin, which is crucial for their functioning and conformational stabilization, especially in the case of FGF-1,4,9 ⇓ the interaction of FGF-1 with oxLDL discovered in this study is of particular interest in the context of the complex atherosclerotic milieu, where all 3 components (the growth factor, lipoproteins, and HSPGs) might be present simultaneously. The affinities of FGF-1 for oxLDL (Kd=206±9.7 nmol/L) and heparin (Ki=41±3.5 nmol/L) that we determined suggest that the form in which FGF-1 is present in the extracellular environment will depend on local relative concentrations of HSPGs and oxLDL. An HSPG-rich environment favors formation of the high-affinity FGF-1/HSPG/FGFR complex, whereas foci of high oxLDL accumulation might ...
Wu et al reported: "The current study provides important information on the safety, feasibility, and potential effectiveness of this regimen…As little as one motor level or couple of sensory level improvements may increase the quality of life for these patients." They add that their study has "elicited more questions than answers", as information is now needed on the best timing of intervention after injury, the optimum dose, the effective route of administration, and long-term side effects of the treatment. "Prospective, randomised, controlled trials are warranted to corroborate this relatively safe repair strategy.". Writing in an editorial in the Journal of Neurosurgery Spine, Michael Fehlings (Krembil Neuroscience Centre Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, Canada) and Jefferson Wilson (Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, University of Canada, Canada) say that it is "entirely" possible that the neurological recovery observed was due to the patients natural recovery that ...
The phenotypically plastic neurons of the embryonic mouse striatum were used to explore mechanisms of catecholamine differentiation in culture. De novo transcription and translation of the CA biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was induced in striatal neurons exposed, simultaneously or sequentially, to the growth factor, acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a catecholamine. Although dopamine was the most potent aFGF partner (ED50 = 4 microM), a number of substances, including dopamine (D1) receptor agonists, beta-adrenoceptor agonists, and dopamine uptake inhibitors also trigger TH induction when accompanied by aFGF. However, since none of the receptor antagonists nor transport blockers tested could inhibit dopamines action, the mechanism remains obscure. Structure-activity analysis suggests that effective aFGF partners all contain an amine group separated from a catechol nucleus by two carbons. Thus, TH expression can be novelly induced by the synergistic interaction of aFGF, ...
Human FGF-1, (Heparin-binding growth factor 1) Recombinant Protein. Excellent for studying cell mitogenic survival activities and a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion.
FGF acidic/FGF1 products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our FGF acidic/FGF1 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Centrifuge vial before opening. When reconstituting the product, gently pipet and wash down the sides of the vial to ensure full recovery of the protein into solution. It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized product with sterile water at 0.1 mg/ml, which can be further diluted into other aqueous solutions. ...
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) are involved in the induction of embryonic mesoderm, angiogenesis, neuronal differentiation, and proliferation and survival of many cell types. In cardiac myocytes their roles are not well understood. Effects of fibroblast growth factors on reexpression of fetal actin genes have been reported. In freshly isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes, bFGF mRNA was not detectable by in situ hybridization, although the cells contained significant amounts of bFGF and aFGF as quantified by radioimmunoassays, mitogen assays with immunoneutralization, and Western blotting. After culturing, bFGF mRNA was detected (aFGF mRNA was not studied), and the cells contained 2.5-fold more bFGF and 60% more aFGF than freshly isolated cells. The FGFs were not found in conditioned medium. They were localized, especially in cultured cells, to the nucleus. Cultured myocytes bound fourfold more 125I-FGF than freshly isolated cells and expressed the ...
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Examples of Biologically Active Agents Adenovirus with or without genetic material Angiogenic agents Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) Angiotensin II antagonists Anti-angiogenic agents Antiarrhythmics Anti-bacterial agents Antibiotics Erythromycin Penicillin Anti-coagulants Heparin Anti-growth factors Anti-inflammatory agents Dexamethasone Aspirin Hydrocortisone Antimicrobial Antioxidants Anti-platelet agents Forskolin Anti-proliferation agents Anti-rejection agents Rapamycin Anti-restenosis agents Antisense Anti-thrombogenic agents Argatroban Hirudin GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors Anti-virus drugs Arteriogenesis agents acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) angiogenin angiotropin basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) Bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) epidermal growth factor (EGF) fibrin granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) HIF-1 insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) interleukin-8 (IL-8) MAC-1 nicotinamide ...
The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This reaction uses calcium as a cofactor and plays an important role in the intracellular transduction of receptor-mediated tyrosine kinase activators. For example, when activated by SRC, the encoded protein causes the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1 to translocate to the Golgi, where it activates Ras. Also, this protein has been shown to be a major substrate for heparin-binding growth factor 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor)-activated tyrosine kinase. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892. We have demonstrated previously a pronounced increase in the expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (Z. Hu, R. P. Evarts, K. Fujio, E. R. Marsden, and S. S. Thorgeirsson, Am. J. Pathol., 142: 1823-1830, 1993), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) (R. P. Evarts, H. Nakatsukasa, E. R. Marsden, Z. Hu, and S. S. Thorgeirsson, Mol. Carcinog., 5: 25-31, 1992), and acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) (E. R. Marsden, Z. Hu, K. Fujio, H. Nakatsukasa, S. S. Thorgeirsson, and R. P. Evarts, Lab. Invest., 67: 427-433, 1992) that coincided with the proliferation and differentiation of putative hepatic stem cells and perisinusoidal stellate (Ito) cells. Here, we examine the earliest stages of stem cell activation in rat liver using an experimental model involving treatment with acetylaminofluorene and partial hepatectomy (R. P. Evarts, P. Nagy, E. Marsden, and S. S. ...
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Examples of Biological, Pharmaceutical, and other Therapies or Agents Deliverable via the Present Invention Adenovirus with or without genetic material Alcohol Amino Acids L-Arginine Angiogenic agents Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) Angiotensin II antagonists Anti-angiogenic agents Antiarrhythmics Anti-bacterial agents Antibiotics Erythromycin Penicillin Anti-coagulants Heparin Anti-growth factors Anti-inflammatory agents Dexamethasone Aspirin Hydrocortisone Antioxidants Anti-platelet agents Forskolin GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors eptifibatide Anti-proliferation agents Rho Kinase Inhibitors (+)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-1-(4-pyridylcarbamoyl) cyclohexane Anti-rejection agents Rapamycin Anti-restenosis agents Adenosine A2A receptor agonists Antisense Antispasm agents Lidocaine Nitroglycerin Nicarpidine Anti-thrombogenic agents Argatroban Hirudin GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors Anti-viral drugs Arteriogenesis agents acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) angiogenin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a binding site on human FGF-2 for fibrinogen. AU - Peng, Hu. AU - Sahni, Abha. AU - Fay, Philip. AU - Bellum, Stephen. AU - Prudovsky, Igor. AU - Maciag, Thomas. AU - Francis, Charles W.. PY - 2004/3/15. Y1 - 2004/3/15. N2 - Endothelial cell adhesive interactions are mediated by both fibrinogen and fibrin, and growth is stimulated by fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2). We have shown previously that FGF-2 binds specifically and with high affinity to fibrinogen and fibrin and that fibrinogen potentiates the proliferative capacity of FGF-2 and also protects it from proteolytic degradation. To further characterize this interaction we have performed FGF-2 mutagenesis to identify the interactive site. Because FGF-1 has a similar structure to FGF-2 but does not bind to fibrinogen, we used a strategy of cassette and site-directed mutagenesis, exchanging residues from FGF-1 and FGF-2 and correlating structural changes with fibrinogen binding. Two cassette interchange ...
The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.
Fibroblast growth factor-2による腱板修復促進に関する研究Fibroblast growth factor-2による腱板修復促進に関する研究 ...
MAA551Hu22, Monoclonal Antibody to Fibroblast Growth Factor 2, Basic (FGF2), 碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(FGF2)单克隆抗体, B-FGF; BFGF; FGFB; HBGH-2; Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor; Heparin-binding growth factor 2 | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
Fibroblast growth factor-2 labeling intensity in GFAP-positive ad GFAP-negative cells compared to sham-operated cases in the four examined regions of the CNS. T
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
FGF-8 (FGF-8b) is a heparin-binding growth factor belonging to the FGF family. Proteins of this family play a central role during prenatal development,
K04357 EGF; epidermal growth factor K08774 TGFA; transforming growth factor, alpha K18496 FGF1; fibroblast growth factor 1 K18497 FGF2; fibroblast growth factor 2 K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K02582 NGFB; nerve growth factor, beta K04355 BDNF; brain-derived neurotrophic factor K04356 NTF3; neurotrophin 3 K12457 NTF4; neurotrophin 4 ...
Alternative initiations of translation of the human fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) mRNA, at three CUG start codons and one AUG start codon, result in the synthesis of four isoforms of FGF-2. This process has important consequences on the fate of FGF-2: the CUG-initiated products are nuclear and their constitutive expression is able to induce cell immortalization, whereas the AUG-initiated product, mostly cytoplasmic, can generate cell transformation. Thus, the different isoforms probably have distinct targets in the cell. We show here that translation initiation of the FGF-2 mRNA breaks the rule of the cap-dependent ribosome scanning mechanism. First, translation of the FGF-2 mRNA was shown to be cap independent in vitro. This cap-independent translation required a sequence located between nucleotides (nt) 192 and 256 from the 5 end of the 318-nt-long 5 untranslated region. Second, expression of bicistronic vectors in COS-7 cells indicated that the FGF-2 mRNA is translated through a ...
Creative Bioarray produces the worlds most comprehensive list of research-use cells, including tumor cells, primary cells, stem cells AND transformed cells. Creative Bioarray offers ActoFactor™ Recombinant Human Fibroblast growth factor 22 for your research.
Creative Bioarray produces the worlds most comprehensive list of research-use cells, including tumor cells, primary cells, stem cells AND transformed cells. Creative Bioarray offers ActoFactor™ Recombinant Human Fibroblast growth factor 12 for your research.
Migration of endothelial cells is involved in normal and pathological angiogenesis and in re-endothelialization after vascular injury or rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Several types of endothelial cells are known to synthesize basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF); in some of these, migration is increased by exogenous bFGF and inhibited by anti-bFGF antibodies. Using immunocytochemical techniques and RNase protection analysis, we studied endothelial cells from bovine coronary arteries and veins as well as from adrenal microvessels. We found that bFGF mRNA and peptide were present in confluent endothelial cells and were upregulated during migration stimulated by removal of some cells from the monolayer. During migration, extracellular matrix stores of bFGF were depleted, and bFGF immunoreactivity began to accumulate in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells between 2 and 6 hours. After migration had begun, but before the initiation of DNA synthesis, bFGF immunoreactivity increased in the nuclei ...
Definition of fibroblast growth factor 10 in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of fibroblast growth factor 10. What does fibroblast growth factor 10 mean? Information and translations of fibroblast growth factor 10 in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
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FGF2 has been implicated in a multitude of physiologic and pathologic processes, including limb development, angiogenesis, wound healing, and tumor growth. FGF2 belongs to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) exhibit widespread mitogenic and neurotrophic activities. Nine members of the family are currently known, and FGF-1 and FGF-2 are present in relatively high levels in CNS. FGF-2 is expressed by at low levels in many tissues and cell types and reaches high concentrations in brain and pituitary. ...
Shop Fibroblast growth factor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Fibroblast growth factor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play a critical role in diverse physiological processes and the pathogenesis of diseases. Integrins are involved in FGF signaling, since integrin antagonists suppress FGF signaling. This is called integrin-FGF crosstalk, while the specifics of the crosstalk are unclear. This review highlights recent findings that FGF1 directly interacts with integrin αvβ3, and the resulting integrin-FGF-fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) ternary complex formation is essential for FGF1-induced cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. An integrin-binding defective FGF1 mutant (Arg-50 to Glu, R50E) is defective in ternary complex formation and in inducing cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, while R50E still binds to the FGF receptor and heparin. In addition, R50E suppressed tumorigenesis in vivo, while wild-type (WT) FGF1 enhanced it. Thus, the direct interaction between FGF1 and integrin αvβ3 is a potential therapeutic target, and R50E is a potential
Read independent reviews on BD Basic Fibroblast Growth Factors (bFGF), human recombinant, 10 ug from BD Biosciences Discovery Labware on SelectScience
PD166866 (N-[2-Amino-6-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-yl]-N-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-urea) -Inhibitor of basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF)
The cardiovascular effects of proteolysis of high molecular weight basic fibroblast growth factor by inflammatory serine proteases
The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain, and preferably two peptide chains branched from a dipeptide branch moiety composed of two trifunctional amino acid residues, which peptide chain or chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a linker, which may be a hydrophobic linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGF receptors) constitute a signalling system conserved throughout animal evolution
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) 15/19 and 21 belong to the FGF endocrine subfamily. They present the intriguing characteristic to be transcribed and secreted in certain tissues and to act as hormones. The insulin-mimetic properties of FGF21 and the regulatory role of FGF15/19 in bile acid and glucose homeostasis endorse these hormones as druggable targets in metabolic disorders. Here, we present details on discoveries, identification, transcriptional regulation, and mechanism of actions of FGF15/19 and FGF21 with a critical perspective view on their putative role as metabolic integrators in the liver. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;56:2404-2411) ...
Analysis of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) protein in the lungs of mice fed a low Pi diet (0.1% Pi) or a normal (0.5% Pi) diet for 4 weeks. (A) The expressi
A fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in regulation of HAIR FOLLICLE phenotype. Spontaneous mutation of the gene for this protein results in a strain of MICE with abnormally long hair, referred to as angora mice ...
House, Stacey; Belanger, Thomas; Weinheimer, Carla; Ornitz, David, "Fibroblast growth factor 2 affects vascular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction" (2012). Conference Abstracts and Posters. Paper 8. http://digitalcommons.wustl.edu/em_conf/8. ...
FGF8 - FGF8 (untagged)-Human fibroblast growth factor 8 (androgen-induced) (FGF8), transcript variant B available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Bagai S, Rubio E, Cheng JF, Sweet R, Thomas R, Fuchs E, Grady R, Mitchell M, Bassuk JA. Fibroblast growth factor-10 is a mitogen for urothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jun 28; 277(26):23828-37 ...
An isolated DNA sequence encoding an angiogenic factor protein consisting of a single-polypeptide-chain protein having at least one active site possessing mitotic and chemotactic activity and the abil
KOYAMA Tadaaki , HASEBE Takahiro , TSUDA Hitoshi , HIROHASHI Setsuo , SASAKI Satoshi , FUKUTOMI Takashi , IMOTO Shigeru , UMEDA Toru , MUKAI Kiyoshi Japanese journal of cancer research : gann 90(3), 294-300, 1999-03-31 医中誌Web 参考文献16件 被引用文献1件 ...
Plays an important role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Required for normal branching morphogenesis. May play a role in wound healing.
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Reaktivität: Fledermaus, Huhn, Rind (Kuh) and more. 73 verschiedene FGF16 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Fgf3 - Fgf3 (untagged ORF) - Rat fibroblast growth factor 3 (Fgf3), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Homo sapiens fibroblast growth factor 8 (androgen-induced) (FGF8), transcript variant A, mRNA. (H00002253-R01) - Products - Abnova
K04357 EGF; epidermal growth factor K04357 EGF; epidermal growth factor K08774 TGFA; transforming growth factor, alpha K18496 FGF1; fibroblast growth factor 1 K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K04358 FGF; fibroblast growth factor K02582 NGFB; nerve growth factor, beta K04355 BDNF; brain-derived neurotrophic factor K04356 NTF3; neurotrophin 3 K12457 NTF4; neurotrophin 4 K05459 IGF1; insulin-like growth factor 1 K13769 IGF2; insulin-like growth ...
Looking for online definition of Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 in the Medical Dictionary? Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 explanation free. What is Fibroblast Growth Factor 7? Meaning of Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 medical term. What does Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 mean?
Basic fibroblast growth factor, also known as bFGF, FGF2 or FGF-β, is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. In normal tissue, basic fibroblast growth factor is present in basement membranes and in the subendothelial extracellular matrix of blood vessels. It stays membrane-bound as long as there is no signal peptide. It has been hypothesized that, during both wound healing of normal tissues and tumor development, the action of heparan sulfate-degrading enzymes activates bFGF, thus mediating the formation of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. In addition, it is synthesized and secreted by human adipocytes and the concentration of bFGF correlates with the BMI in blood samples. In this study, bFGF was also shown to act on preosteoblasts - in the form of an increased proliferation - after binding to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase. bFGF has been shown in preliminary animal studies to protect the heart from injury associated ...
Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) has broad therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine but has undesirable biophysical properties of low thermostability and three buried Cys residues (at positions 16, 83 and117) that interact to promote irreversible protein unfolding under oxidizing conditions. Mutational substitution of such Cys residues eliminates reactive buried thiols but cannot be accomplished simultaneously at all three positions without also introducing further substantial instability. The mutational introduction of a novel Cys residue (Ala66Cys) that forms a stabilizing disulfide bond (i.e., cystine) with one of the extant Cys residues (Cys83) effectively eliminates one Cys while increasing overall stability. This increase in stability offsets the associated instability of remaining Cys substitution mutations and permits production of a Cys-free form of FGF-1 (Cys16Ser/Ala66Cys/Cys117Ala) with only minor overall instability. The addition of a further stabilizing mutation ...
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Fibroblast Growth Factor-basic (bFGF), Clone F-74Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen: Purified
Although basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a classical mitogen and survival factor in fibroblasts and endothelial cells, it inhibits proliferation in breast cancer cells. We investigated the survival effects of bFGF in MCF-7 breast cancer cells to determine if this effect was also paradoxic. Our data confirmed that bFGF increased clonogenic survival of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts alone and prior to treatment with etoposide or 5-fluorouracil, two chemotherapeutic agents with different mechanisms of action, but decreased clonogenic survival of MCF-7 cells and increased their susceptibility to these chemotherapeutic agents in a dose and time dependent manner. Similarly, bFGF preincubation increased programmed cell death or apoptosis in these cells and was additive with the apoptotic effects of etoposide and 5-FU as determined by morphologic criteria and by DNA fragmentation assayed by 3-OH dUTP-FITC end labeling. These effects correlated with bFGF-induced decreases in Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels and a
Asakai, R.; Tamura, K.; Eishi, Y.; Iwamoto, M.; Kato, Y.; Okamoto, R., 1993: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) receptors decrease with luteal age in rat ovarian luteal cells: colocalization of bFGF receptors and bFGF in luteal cells
Treatment of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) with organic disulfides, preferably glutathione disulfide, or with inorganic compounds of similar function results in a bFGF composition of enhanced stability and resistance to multimerization. The resulting stabilized form mimics the chromatographic behavior of bFGF as isolated from bovine pituitary.
Harga Laminine Stem Cell Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF2) yang telah teruji dari segi keamanan dan kualitas yang secara keseluruhan merupakan Makanan.
fibroblast growth factor 21: hormone effects involved with hibernation, starvation and metabolism, causing a metabolic shift to burning stored fats instead of carbohydrates
Principal Investigator:HIROSE Takehisa,広廣 武尚, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:矯正・小児・社会系歯学
View mouse Fgf10 Chr13:118669791-118792115 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
FGF) From Bovine Pituitary Gland Prepared according to Gospodurowicz. Membrane filtered before being lyophilized. Optimal Concentration: 10-50 ng/ml for Balb/c 3T3 cells. Ref: Gospodurowicz, D., J. Biol. Chem. ,250: 2515 (1975).Thi ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , GenWay \ Glycosylated Fibroblast Growth Factor-basic Human - N_A N_A \ 10-663-45196 for more molecular products just contact us
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell …
(2013) Kim et al. PloS one. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis during starvation and has an excellent therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
Mice, Cells, Serum, Cancer, Obesity, Tumor, Drugs, Risk, Micelles, Tissue, Glucose, Liver, Blood, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Disease, Concentration, Chinese, Population, Cell, Patients
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coexpression of Truncated Human Cytomegalovirus gH with the UL115 Gene Product or the Truncated Human Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Results in Transport of gH to the Cell Surface. AU - Spaete, Richard R.. AU - Perot, Karen. AU - Scott, Patricia I.. AU - Nelson, Jay. AU - Stinski, Mark F.. AU - Pachl, Carol. PY - 1993/4. Y1 - 1993/4. N2 - The gH glycoprotein of herpesviruses is located on the cell surface in viral-infected cells but is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when expressed separately from a recombinant expression vector. These observations suggested the requirement for either a viral function or a viral-induced cellular function which facilitates surface expression of gH, gL fulfills this role in the herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cell (J. Virol. 66, 2240-2250, 1992). We have identified the gene product of the UL115 open reading frame (ORF) as the functional homologue of HSV gL in the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome. In addition, we have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-3 Is Expressed in Undifferentiated Intestinal Epithelial Cells during Murine Crypt Morphogenesis. AU - Vidrich, Alda. AU - Buzan, Jenny M.. AU - Ilo, Chibuzo. AU - Bradley, Leigh. AU - Skaar, Kirstin. AU - Cohn, Steven. PY - 2004/5/1. Y1 - 2004/5/1. N2 - Prior studies have demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) regulates proliferation of undifferentiated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. However, the function(s) of FGFR-3-mediated signaling during intestinal development and epithelial differentiation in vivo remain unknown. The goal of this study was to define the temporal, regional, and cell-specific patterns of FGFR-3 expression and its ligands during normal intestinal ontogeny and epithelial regeneration. Both the IIIb and IIIc isoforms of FGFR-3 mRNA, which result from differential splicing of the FGFR-3 primary transcript, were detected in mouse small intestine as early as embryonic day 16. FGFR-3 levels peaked in ...
Fibroblast Growth Factor 4 is a growth factor predominantly expressed during embryonic development, playing a key role in limb and cardiac valve development.
Recently identified BLast Colony Forming Cells (BL-CFCs) from in vitro differentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells represent the common progenitor of hematopoietic and endothelial cells, the hemangioblast. Access to this initial cell population committed to the hematopoietic lineage provides a unique opportunity to characterize hematopoietic commitment events. Here, we show that BL-CFC expresses the receptor tyrosine kinase, Flk1, and thus we took advantage of the BL-CFC assay, as well as fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis for Flk1(+) cells to determine quantitatively if mesoderm-inducing factors promote hematopoietic lineage development. Moreover, we have analyzed ES lines carrying targeted mutations for fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (fgfr1), a receptor for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), as well as scl, a transcription factor, for their potential to generate BL-CFCs and Flk1(+) cells, to further define events leading to hemangioblast development. Our data suggest that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of chondrogenesis. T2 - Requirement for synergistic interaction of basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta. AU - Frenz, Dorothy A.. AU - Liu, Wei. AU - Williams, James D.. AU - Hatcher, Victor Bernard. AU - Galinovic-Schwartz, Vera. AU - Flanders, Kathleen C.. AU - Van De Water, Thomas R.. PY - 1994/2. Y1 - 1994/2. N2 - Interactions between the epithelial anlage of the developing mouse inner ear and its associated periotic mesenchyme control the differentiation of the cartilaginous otic capsule. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is a naturally occurring signal peptide that is present in these tissues at times of active differentiation and morphogenesis. Previous studies have shown that TGF-β1 alone is not a sufficient stimulus to initiate chondrogenesis in cultured periotic mesenchyme. In this study, we provide evidence that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) can elicit a specific but limited chondrogenic response in cultured ...
The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF/FGFR) signaling has a significant role in normal organ development, like vascular and skeletal development. The dysregulation of the fibroblast growth receptor signaling occursdue to genetic modification or over expression of the receptor. This has been observed in different carcinomas [34,35].The endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic malignancy in western counties and fourth most common cancer among women worldwide.Type I endometrial carcinomas constitute approximately 70 to 80% of all endometrium cancer.Itfollows estrogens related pathways in carcinogenesis. The BDII rat model is an ideal model for hormonal carcinogenesis because 90% of the female virgin spontaneously develop type I hormone independent endometrial adenocarcinomas within two years of age. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligands via FGFR combined with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HPSG) in extracellular matrix with the help of proteases and participate in the signal ...
Avner Yayon.; Michael Klagsbrun.; Jeffrey D. Esko.; Philip Leder.; David M. Ornitz. Cell surface, heparin-like molecules are required for binding of basic fibroblast growth factor to its high affinity receptor. Cell. 1991, 64 (4), 841-848.. W H Burgess.; T Maciag. The Heparin-Binding (Fibroblast) Growth Factor Family of Proteins. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 1989, 58 575-602.. ...
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a mitogen that is exported from cells by an endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-independent secretory pathway. Recent findings have shown that FGF-2 export occurs by direct translocation from the cytoplasm across the plasma membrane into the extracellular space. Here, we report that FGF-2 contains a binding site for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)], the principal phosphoinositide species associated with plasma membranes. Intriguingly, in the context of a lipid bilayer, the interaction between FGF-2 and PI(4,5)P(2) is shown to depend on a lipid background that resembles plasma membranes. We show that the interaction with PI(4,5)P(2) is critically important for FGF-2 secretion as experimental conditions reducing cellular levels of PI(4,5)P(2) resulted in a substantial drop in FGF-2 export efficiency. Likewise, we have identified FGF-2 variant forms deficient for binding to PI(4,5)P(2) that were found to be severely impaired with regard to export ...
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a pleotropic metabolic regulator, expression of which is elevated during fasting. To this end the precise role played by FGF21 in the biology of fasting has been the subject of several recent studies which have demonstrated contributions to the regulation of both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In the present study we compared wild type (WT) and FGF21 null (FGF21KO) mice, demonstrating that despite the significant induction of FGF21 during fasting in the WT animals, our strain of FGF21 null mice exhibit only limited impairments in their adaptation to nutrient deprivation. Specifically, fasted FGF21KO mice display a mild attenuation of gluconeogenic transcriptional induction in the liver accompanied by partially blunted glucose production in response to a pyruvate challenge. Furthermore, FGF21KO mice displayed only minor impairments in lipid metabolism in the fasted state, limited to accumulation of hepatic triglycerides and a reduction in expression of genes
Perlecan Domain I Promotes Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Delivery in Collagen I Fibril Scaffolds: Perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is widely distributed i
Lemmon, S K.; Riley, M C.; Thomas, K A.; Hoover, G A.; Maciag, H; and Bradshaw, R A., "Bovine fibroblast growth factor: comparison of brain and pituitary preparations." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3395 ...
Fibroblast growth factor signaling as a bypass mechanism of the androgen receptor pathway: new perspectives for castrationresistant prostate cancer
House, Stacey; Weinheimer, Carla; Kovacs, Attila; Ornitz, David, "Cardioprotection by endogenous fibroblast growth factor 2 in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo" (2011). Conference Abstracts and Posters. Paper 7. http://digitalcommons.wustl.edu/em_conf/7. ...
Dermal ulcers pose a significant healthcare problem in the United States, ultimately affecting 10-15% of the approximately 20 million patients with diabetes and a similar number of patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Dermal leg and foot ulcers can result from compromised arterial inflow, microvascular perfusion or venous outflow which can lead to amputation unless vascular perfusion is improved. FGF-1 for topical administration offers the possibility of improved microvascular perfusion by promoting the formation of new blood vessels in the wound bed resulting in enhanced development of granulation tissue and accelerated healing ...
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We have previously described the purification of a heparin binding growth factor from adult bovine brain named heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP), which was identical to an uterus derived growth factor named pleiotrophin and to a developmentally regulated neurite promoting factor named heparin-binding growth associated molecule. However, for yet unclear reasons, the mitogenic activity of this purified polypeptide following isolation from animal tissue extracts is a subject of controversy, due to conflicting and irreproducible data when produced by recombinant DNA technologies in E. coli or insect cells. The purified protein was inactive in mitogenic assays but the natural molecule was active in assay of neurite outgrowth. In order to clarify these conflicting results and to obtain a recombinant protein free from other contaminating heparin-binding growth factors, we have cloned human cDNA encoding human HARP, engineered its expression in NIH 3T3 cells and characterised the resulting ...
Plays an important role in the regulation of cell survival, cell division, angiogenesis, cell differentiation and cell migration. Functions as potent mitogen in vitro. Can induce angiogenesis.
NIEHS intramural scientists have defined descriptive terms of particular relevance to their own research, and have ranked those terms accordingly. This search feature obtains best-matches with the terms you choose, and shows an overall score based on the scientific rankings.. View our page to search various areas of interest and methodology.. ...
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The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
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This gene encodes a secreted fibroblast growth factor carrier protein. The encoded protein plays a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration by binding to fibroblast growth factors and potentiating their biological effects on target cells. The encoded protein may also play a role in tumor growth as an angiogenic switch molecule, and expression of this gene has been associated with several types of cancer including pancreatic and colorectal adenocarcinoma. A pseudogene of this gene is also located on the short arm of chromosome 4 ...
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Complete information for FGF17 gene (Protein Coding), Fibroblast Growth Factor 17, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for FGF9 gene (Protein Coding), Fibroblast Growth Factor 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Type 2 Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in APERT SYNDROME.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 (FGFR4) Inhibitors -Pipeline Insights, 2019 has complete details about market of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 (FGFR4) Inhibitors -Pipeline Insights, 2019 industry, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 (FGFR4) Inhibitors -Pipeline Insights, 2019 analysis and current trends.
Looking for online definition of fibroblast growth factor receptor gene in the Medical Dictionary? fibroblast growth factor receptor gene explanation free. What is fibroblast growth factor receptor gene? Meaning of fibroblast growth factor receptor gene medical term. What does fibroblast growth factor receptor gene mean?
Title: Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: From Laboratory Evidence to Clinical Application. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Chu-Huang Chen, Simon M. Poucher, Jonathan Lu and Philip D. Henry. Affiliation:Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin St., M.S. A-601, Houston, Texas77030, USA.. Keywords:fgf2, endothelial cells, angiogenesis, apoptosis, hypercholesterolemia, phospholipids, signal transduction, gene therapy. Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed ubiquitously in mesodermal and neuroectodermal cells. Human FGF2 occurs in isoforms translated from a common mRNA by alternative use of AUG (low-molecular weight isoforms) and CUG (high-molecular weight isoforms) start codons. Whereas the high-molecular weight isoforms function in an intracrine manner, the low-molecular weight isoform functions as autocrine, paracrine, and intracrine ligands. FGF2s signals are mediated by a family of high- and low-affinity receptors. The nuclear localization of FGF2 appears to be ...

Craniosynostosis Syndromes | The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease | OMMBID | McGraw-Hill MedicalCraniosynostosis Syndromes | The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease | OMMBID | McGraw-Hill Medical

The first results in increased affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), the FGFR ligands. The second is fibroblast growth ... Pfeiffer syndrome is heterogeneous and due to heterozygous mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes 1 and 2 ... Growth of the skull and maintenance of suture patency represent a balance between cell division and differentiation. ... A second important cause of craniosynostosis is heterozygous mutations in TWIST, a transcription factor. In contrast to the ...
more infohttp://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=971§ionid=62663640

Yunni Recombinant Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor, Natural Spray By AmberseedYunni Recombinant Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor, Natural Spray By Amberseed

WHATS INSIDE 1x Freeze-dried powder1x 2ml; 1 solution: 6m1x 0.1ml quantitative nozzle STORAGE: Keep product in a seal ... Specification: 40000 units (identified by recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor activity) ... Contains 155 amino acids of cell growth factor for deep cell repair, accelerated healing, rapid repair of damaged nerves and ... 1x 2ml; 1 solution: 6m. 1x 0.1ml quantitative nozzle. STORAGE: Keep product in a sealed, cool and dry environment -- store ...
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SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 3fjdSWISS-MODEL Template Library | 3fjd

Crystal structure of L44F/F132W mutant of Human acidic fibroblast growth factor ... Crystal structure of L44F/F132W mutant of Human acidic fibroblast growth factor; X-RAY DIFFRACTION 1.90 Å SMTL ID. 3fjd.1. ... Heparin-binding growth factor 1. Oligo-state. monomer. SMTL ID. 3fjd.2. Ligands. FORMIC ACID. Polypeptides. Heparin-binding ...
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EURORAD - Radiologic Teaching FilesEURORAD - Radiologic Teaching Files

Thanatophoric dysplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder which is caused due to specific mutation in Fibroblast growth factor ... A single live intrauterine fetus with head somewhat larger than rest of the body, corresponding to 21 weeks 4 days (Figure 1, 3 ... Fetal limbs were extremely short and thick with femur, humerus, tibia and radius corresponding to 14 weeks and 1 day of ... Fetal nuchal fold thickness was increased and measured 13.7 mm (Figure 1).. Fetal thorax was extremely narrow (transthoracic ...
more infohttp://www.eurorad.org/eurorad/case.php?id=15213&teaching=true

Journal of Clinical Imaging Science - Crouzon Syndrome: Clinico-Radiological Illustration of a CaseJournal of Clinical Imaging Science - Crouzon Syndrome: Clinico-Radiological Illustration of a Case

It is one of the craniosynostosis syndrome that is caused by a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2 ... This syndrome is caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) gene which is mapped to chromosome ... Craniosynostosis may also be caused by abnormal external forces such as decreased brain growth or abnormal fetal head ... The goal is to stage reconstruction to coincide with facial growth patterns, visceral function, and psychosocial development.[8 ...
more infohttps://clinicalimagingscience.org/crouzon-syndrome-clinico-radiological-illustration-of-a-case/

Psychology of Medicine: AchondroplasiaPsychology of Medicine: Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is caused by a mutation in Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). In normal development FGFR3 has a ... The disorder is caused by a change in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), which causes an abnormality of ... studies in short-limbed dogs reveal a strong association of this trait with a retro-gene coding for fibroblast growth factor 4 ... At present, there is no known treatment for achondroplasia, even though the cause of the mutation in the growth factor receptor ...
more infohttp://monsterologist.blogspot.com/2014/12/achondroplasia.html

THREE OF A KIND: What is Achondroplasia?THREE OF A KIND: What is Achondroplasia?

The gene is one of a family of genes that makes proteins called fibroblast growth factor receptors. Scientists have recently ... We would like to raise money to support restricted growth conditions. Restricted growth conditions can happen to any child and ... Growing Stronger is a non-profit focused on improving the quality of medical care for people with restricted growth conditions ... Achondroplasia is a common, nonlethal form of skeletal dysplasia (dysplasia - not normal), or a genetic disorder of bone growth ...
more infohttp://chmielewskifamily.blogspot.com/2011/12/what-is-achondroplasia.html

Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 | DiabetesFibroblast Growth Factor 1 | Diabetes

... epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor. Cancer Res48 :4266 -4271,1988. ... Effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) on human ... cell growth factor beta is the precursor of both endothelial cell growth factor alpha and acidic fibroblast growth factor. Proc ... Subsequent work identified a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family as a factor having profound effects on human ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/53/12/3097

Fibroblast growth factor 1 - DrugBankFibroblast growth factor 1 - DrugBank

Fibroblast growth factor 1. P05230. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. Pharmacological ... Fibroblast growth factor 1. Details. Name. Fibroblast growth factor 1. Kind. protein. Organism. Human. Polypeptides. Name. ... Foreskin fibroblast (neonatal). approved. unknown. agonist. Details. DB10772. Foreskin keratinocyte (neonatal). approved. yes. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/biodb/bio_entities/BE0000689

FGF1 (fibroblast growth factor 1 (acidic))FGF1 (fibroblast growth factor 1 (acidic))

... fibroblast growth factor 1 (acidic)), Authors: Seiji Mori, Yoshikazu Takada. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol ... growth factor receptor signaling pathway fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway fibroblast growth factor receptor ... growth factor receptor signaling pathway fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway fibroblast growth factor receptor ... Expression of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) in breast fibroadenomas.. ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/FGF1ID40549ch5q31.html

Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 (FGF-1) for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govFibroblast Growth Factor-1 (FGF-1) for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 (FGF-1) for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease (ACORD). The recruitment status of this study is ... Drug: Human Recombinant Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 (FGF 1-141) Drug: Human Recombinant Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 (FGF1-141) ... Drug: Human Recombinant Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 (FGF 1-141) One time injection of 2 ug/kg of FGF 1-141, via a catheter ... Human Recombinant Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 (FGF 1-141). Drug: Human Recombinant Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 (FGF 1-141) One ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00117936

Astrocyte activation by fibroblast growth factor-1 and motor neuron apoptosis: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ...Astrocyte activation by fibroblast growth factor-1 and motor neuron apoptosis: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ...

Anti-Nerve Growth Factor-β Antibody, Anti-Nerve Growth Factor-β Antibody detects level of Nerve Growth Factor-β & has been ... Astrocyte activation by fibroblast growth factor-1 and motor neuron apoptosis: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/15773903

Safety and Efficacy of SC0806 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 and a Device) in Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Subjects | Clinical...Safety and Efficacy of SC0806 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 and a Device) in Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Subjects | Clinical...

Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 and a Device) in Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Subjects ... Safety and Efficacy of SC0806 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 and a Device) in Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Subjects Brief ...
more infohttps://www.centerwatch.com/clinical-trials/listings/75321/spinal-cord-injury-safety-efficacy-sc0806-fibroblast/

The Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus-Median Eminence is a Target for Sustained Diabetes Remission Induced by Fibroblast Growth...The Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus-Median Eminence is a Target for Sustained Diabetes Remission Induced by Fibroblast Growth...

... injection of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). To identify the brain area(s) responsible for this effect, we first used ... Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus-Median Eminence is a Target for Sustained Diabetes Remission Induced by Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 ... Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus-Median Eminence is a Target for Sustained Diabetes Remission Induced by Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 ... Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus-Median Eminence is a Target for Sustained Diabetes Remission Induced by Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 ...
more infohttps://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2019/02/18/db19-0025

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 - WikipediaFibroblast growth factor receptor 1 - Wikipedia

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), also known as basic fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fms-related tyrosine ... FGFR1 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family, which in addition to FGFR1, includes FGFR2, FGFR3, ... There are four other members of the FGFR1 gene family: FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, and Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 ( ... neoplasms with eosinophil such as those caused by Platelet-derived growth factor receptor A or platelet-derived growth factor ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibroblast_growth_factor_receptor_1

APA032Mu01 | Active Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic (FGF1) | Mus musculus (Mouse) USCN(Wuhan USCN Business Co., Ltd. )APA032Mu01 | Active Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic (FGF1) | Mus musculus (Mouse) USCN(Wuhan USCN Business Co., Ltd. )

Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor; heparin-binding growth factor 1; Endothelial Cell Growth Factor, Beta , Products for research ... Active Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic (FGF1), ECGF; AFGF; ECGFA; ECGFB; FGF-Alpha; FGFA; HBGF1; ECGFB; HBGF1; ... ECGF; AFGF; ECGFA; ECGFB; FGF-Alpha; FGFA; HBGF1; ECGFB; HBGF1; Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor; heparin-binding growth factor ... FGF1) Fibroblast growth factor 1 belongs to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF1 plays an important role in the ...
more infohttp://uscnk.com/uscn/Active-Fibroblast-Growth-Factor-1--Acidic-

FGFR1 | Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Human | ProSpecFGFR1 | Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Human | ProSpec

Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) comprise a family of at least eighteen structurally realted proteins that are involved in a ... FGFR-1, bFGF-R, C-FGR, CD331, fms-related tyrosine kinase 2, Pfeiffer syndrome, CEK, FLG, FLT2, KAL2, BFGFR, FGFBR, HBGFR, ... Only the alpha isoform has been identified for FGFR-3 and FGFR-4. Additional splicing events for FGFR-1 to -3, involving the C- ... Multiple forms of FGFR-1 to -3 are generated by alternative splicing of the mRNAs. A frequent splicing event involving FGFR-1 ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/fgfr1_human

FGFR1 - Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - FGFR1 gene & proteinFGFR1 - Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - FGFR1 gene & protein

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,C9J205,C9J205_HUMAN Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=FGFR1 PE=1 SV=9 ... 1 - 21. Sequence analysis. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without manual ... Annotation score:1 out of 5. ,p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/C9J205

Intramuscular gene transfer of fibroblast growth factor-1 using improved pCOR plasmid design stimulates collateral formation in...Intramuscular gene transfer of fibroblast growth factor-1 using improved pCOR plasmid design stimulates collateral formation in...

... is an angiogenic factor known to play a role in the growth of arteries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ... Truncated FGF1 fused to the human fibroblast interferon (FIN) signal peptide was expressed from a newly designed plasmid ... Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is an angiogenic factor known to play a role in the growth of arteries. The purpose of this ... Crosstalk between Fibroblast Growth Factor ( FGF ) Receptor and Integrin through Direct Integrin Binding to FGF and Resulting ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Intramuscular-gene-transfer-of-fibroblast-growth-in-Witzenbichler-Mahfoudi/55d76c1cab6c17f1d6eb44eb168b78676022c876

FGFR1 His Tag | Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 | ProSpecFGFR1 His Tag | Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 | ProSpec

Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) comprise a family of at least eighteen structurally realted proteins that are involved in a ... FGFR-1, bFGF-R, C-FGR, CD331, fms-related tyrosine kinase 2, Pfeiffer syndrome, CEK, FLG, FLT2, KAL2, BFGFR, FGFBR, HBGFR, ... Only the alpha isoform has been identified for FGFR-3 and FGFR-4. Additional splicing events for FGFR-1 to -3, involving the C- ... Multiple forms of FGFR-1 to -3 are generated by alternative splicing of the mRNAs. A frequent splicing event involving FGFR-1 ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/fgfr1_human-his

MAA032Ra21 | Monoclonal Antibody to Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic (FGF1) | Rattus norvegicus (Rat) USCN(Wuhan USCN...MAA032Ra21 | Monoclonal Antibody to Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic (FGF1) | Rattus norvegicus (Rat) USCN(Wuhan USCN...

Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor; heparin-binding growth factor 1; Endothelial Cell Growth Factor, Beta , Products for research ... Monoclonal Antibody to Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic (FGF1), ECGF; AFGF; ECGFA; ECGFB; FGF-Alpha; FGFA; HBGF1; ECGFB; ... ECGF; AFGF; ECGFA; ECGFB; FGF-Alpha; FGFA; HBGF1; ECGFB; HBGF1; Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor; heparin-binding growth factor ... Immunogen RPA032Ra01-Recombinant Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic (FGF1) *Buffer FormulationPBS, pH7.4, containing 0.02% NaN3 ...
more infohttp://www.uscnk.com/uscn/Monoclonal-Antibody-to-Fibroblast-Growth-Factor-1--Acidic-

A common mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene in Pfeiffer syndrome.  - PubMed - NCBIA common mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene in Pfeiffer syndrome. - PubMed - NCBI

A common mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene in Pfeiffer syndrome.. Muenke M1, Schell U, Hehr A, Robin NH ... Here we present evidence that mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) gene, which maps to 8p, cause one ... FGFR1 therefore becomes the third fibroblast growth factor receptor to be associated with an autosomal dominant skeletal ... 1. Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia.. Abstract. Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) is one of the classic autosomal dominant ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7874169

Active Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic (FGF1), Cat#RPU54849 - BiomatikActive Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic (FGF1), Cat#RPU54849 - Biomatik

ECGF; AFGF; ECGFA; ECGFB; FGF-Alpha; FGFA; HBGF1; ECGFB; HBGF1; Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor; heparin-binding growth factor ... Active Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic (FGF1), Cat#RPU54849. Write a Review Write a Review. × ... Active Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic (FGF1), Cat#RPU54849. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars ... Human 11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (HSD11b1) ELISA kit, Cat#EKU02002 ...
more infohttps://www.biomatik.com/proteins/active-fibroblast-growth-factor-1-acidic-fgf1-cat-rpu54849/

Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 - WikipediaFibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 - Wikipedia

Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGFRL1 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 2001). "A novel fibroblast growth factor receptor-5 preferentially expressed in the pancreas(1)". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1518 ... The extracellular portion of the protein interacts with fibroblast growth factors, setting in motion a cascade of downstream ... Trueb B, Zhuang L, Taeschler S, Wiedemann M (2003). "Characterization of FGFRL1, a novel fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibroblast_growth_factor_receptor-like_1

Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) is essential for normal neural tube and limb development.  - PubMed - NCBIFibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) is essential for normal neural tube and limb development. - PubMed - NCBI

Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) is essential for normal neural tube and limb development.. Deng C1, Bedford M, Li ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) is a membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase that serves as a high-affinity receptor for ... fibroblast growth factors. It has recently been shown that FGFR-1 mutant embryos die during gastrulation displaying severe ... Fibroblast Growth Factor/genetics. *Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor/physiology*. Substances. *Receptors, Fibroblast Growth ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9169049?dopt=Abstract
  • Multiple forms of FGFR-1 to -3 are generated by alternative splicing of the mRNAs. (prospecbio.com)
  • Mutations in FGFR-1 to -3 have been found in patients with birth defects involving craniosynostosis. (prospecbio.com)
  • It has recently been shown that FGFR-1 mutant embryos die during gastrulation displaying severe growth retardation and defective mesodermal structures. (nih.gov)
  • This early lethality has obscured functions of FGFR-1 that might occur later in development. (nih.gov)
  • To circumvent these embryonic defects, we generated chimeras by injecting FGFR-1-deficient (R1-/-) ES cells into wild-type blastocysts. (nih.gov)
  • We found that the fgfr-1 gene plays an important role after gastrulation and that it acts in a cell-autonomous fashion. (nih.gov)
  • Embryos with a high contribution of R1-/- cells replicate the FGFR-1 null phenotype and die during gastrulation. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, FGFR-1 plays a role in neurulation, suggesting that there may be a connection between FGFR-1-mediated signal pathways and neural tube defects, the most common malformations in the human central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Human FGF-1 gene transfer promotes the formation of collateral vessels and arterioles in ischemic muscles of hypercholesterolemic hamsters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have previously shown that adipose-derived microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) secrete a factor(s) that increases proliferation of human preadipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We have previously reported that MVECs derived from human adipose tissue secrete a factor(s) that stimulates proliferation in human subcutaneous and omental (intraabdominal) preadipocytes ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 1-Transfected Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Angiogenic Proliferation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, paracrine interaction between MVECs in the developing capillary network and preadipocytes resident in the adipose tissue depots may play a role in the regulation of adipose tissue growth. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The proliferative effect of MVECs on human preadipocytes was blocked using a neutralizing antibody specific for FGF-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We also show that 3T3-L1 cells, a highly efficient murine model of adipogenesis, express FGF-1 and, unlike human preadipocytes, display no increased differentiation potential in response to exogenous FGF-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conversely, FGF-1-treated human preadipocytes proliferate rapidly and differentiate with high efficiency in a manner characteristic of 3T3-L1 cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To develop more sustainable therapies for the treatment of obesity, a better understanding of human adipose tissue growth is essential. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 is Associated with the Decreased Risk of Obesity in Human. (beds.ac.uk)
  • CD331 was lyophilized from a concentrated (1 mg/ml) sterile solution containing 1xPBS. (prospecbio.com)