Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Carboxypeptidase U: A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal lysine and arginine from biologically active peptides and proteins thereby regulating their activity. It is a zinc enzyme with no preference shown for lysine over arginine. Pro-carboxypeptidase U in human plasma is activated by thrombin or plasmin during clotting to form the unstable carboxypeptidase U.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.alpha-2-Antiplasmin: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Thrombomodulin: A cell surface glycoprotein of endothelial cells that binds thrombin and serves as a cofactor in the activation of protein C and its regulation of blood coagulation.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Plasminogen Activators: A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation.Carboxypeptidase B: A ZINC-dependent carboxypeptidase primary found in the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. The enzyme catalyzes the preferential cleavage of a C-terminal peptidyl-L-lysine or arginine. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.2.2 and EC 3.4.12.3.Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Plasminogen Inactivators: Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Factor XIII: A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Tranexamic Acid: Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Gravity Suits: Double-layered inflatable suits which, when inflated, exert pressure on the lower part of the wearer's body. The suits are used to improve or stabilize the circulatory state, i.e., to prevent hypotension, control hemorrhage, and regulate blood pressure. The suits are also used by pilots under positive acceleration.Aminocaproic Acid: An antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.Aminocaproates: Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Enoxaparin: Low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, having a 4-enopyranosuronate sodium structure at the non-reducing end of the chain. It is prepared by depolymerization of the benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. Therapeutically, it is used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Factor XII: Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Serpin E2: A protease nexin and serpin subtype that is specific for several SERINE PROTEASES including UROKINASE; THROMBIN; TRYPSIN; and PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATORS.Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Thrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Factor VII: Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.Shock, Traumatic: Shock produced as a result of trauma.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Afibrinogenemia: A deficiency or absence of FIBRINOGEN in the blood.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Clot Retraction: Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Factor XI: Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Whole Blood Coagulation Time: The time required by whole blood to produce a visible clot.Hereditary Angioedema Types I and II: Forms of hereditary angioedema that occur due to mutations in the gene for COMPLEMENT C1 INHIBITOR PROTEIN. Type I hereditary angioedema is associated with reduced serum levels of complement C1 inhibitor protein. Type II hereditary angioedema is associated with the production of a non-functional complement C1 inhibitor protein.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Fibrin Clot Lysis Time: A measurement of the time needed for FIBRINOLYSIS to occur.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Aprotinin: A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Paracentesis: A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.

Coagulation and fibrinolysis in intact hydatidiform molar pregnancy. (1/1717)

Tests of coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet function were performed in 17 patients with intact molar pregnancies. Women with intact molar pregnancies had higher fibrinogen factor VIII, and fibrinogen degradation products, concentrations and lower prothrombin, factor X, plasminogen, and plasminogen activator concentrations than controls with normal pregnancies. They also had reduced platelet counts and thromboelastographic values, which indicated hypocoagulability. These results suggest that intravascular coagulation occurs in intact hydatidiform molar pregnancies.  (+info)

Isolation of SMTP-3, 4, 5 and -6, novel analogs of staplabin, and their effects on plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis. (2/1717)

Four novel triprenyl phenol metabolites, designated SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6, have been isolated from cultures of Stachybotrys microspora IFO 30018 by solvent extraction and successive chromatographic fractionation using silica gel and silica ODS columns. A combination of spectroscopic analyses showed that SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6 are staplabin analogs, containing a serine, a phenylalanine, a leucine or a tryptophan moiety in respective molecules in place of the N-carboxybutyl portion of the staplabin molecule. SMTP-4, -5, and -6 were active at 0.15 to 0.3 mM in enhancing urokinase-catalyzed plasminogen activation and plasminogen binding to fibrin, as well as plasminogen- and urokinase-mediated fibrinolysis. On the other hand, the concentration of staplabin required to exert such effects was 0.4 to 0.6 mM, and SMTP-3 was inactive at concentrations up to 0.45 mM.  (+info)

Regulation of the activities of thrombin and plasmin by cholesterol sulfate as a physiological inhibitor in human plasma. (3/1717)

Thrombin and plasmin, both of which are serine proteases in the plasma of vertebrates, play essential roles in blood clotting and fibrinolysis, respectively, and regulation of their activities is important to suppress the excessive reactions within the vascular network and to prevent tissue injury. Along with the peptidic inhibitors belonging to the serpin family, we found that cholesterol sulfate (CS), which is present at the concentration of 2.0+/-1.2 nmol/ml in human plasma, was a potent inhibitor of both plasma thrombin and plasmin. Thrombin, as determined both using a chromogenic substrate and the natural substrate, fibrinogen, was inactivated upon reaction with CS in a dose-dependent manner, but not in the presence of the structurally related steroid sulfates, I3SO3-GalCer and II3NAalpha-LacCer, suggesting that both the sulfate group and the hydrophobic side chain of CS are necessary for the inhibitory activity of CS. Preincubation of thrombin with CS at 37 degrees C for 10 min was required to achieve maximum inhibition, and virtually complete inhibition was achieved at a molar ratio of CS to thrombin of 18:1. CS-treated thrombin had the same Km and a lower Vmax than the original enzyme, and a higher molecular weight. The molecular weight and activity of the original enzyme were not observed on the attempted separation of the CS-treated enzyme by gel permeation chromatography and native PAGE, indicating that the inactivation of thrombin by CS is irreversible. In contrast, CS was readily liberated from the enzyme by SDS-PAGE, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are involved in the CS-mediated inactivation of thrombin. When acidic lipids were reacted with thrombin after dissolving them in DMSO, I3SO3-GalCer, steroid sulfates and II3NAalpha-LacCer, as well as CS, but not SDS and sodium taurocholate, exhibited inhibitory activity, probably due to micellar formation facilitating interaction between thrombin and negatively charged lipids. On the other hand, plasmin, as determined using a chromogenic substrate, was more susceptible to acidic lipids than thrombin. CS, I3SO3-GalCer and II3NAalpha-LacCer, all of which are present in serum, inhibited the activity of plasmin in aqueous media, as well as in DMSO-mediated lipid solutions. Thus, acidic lipids in plasma were demonstrated to possess regulatory activity as endogenous detergents toward both enzymes for blood clotting and fibrinolysis.  (+info)

Distinct contributions of residue 192 to the specificity of coagulation and fibrinolytic serine proteases. (4/1717)

Archetypal members of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteases, such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase, exhibit relatively broad substrate specificity. However, the successful development of efficient proteolytic cascades, such as the blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, required the evolution of proteases that displayed restricted specificity. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), for example, possesses exquisitely stringent substrate specificity, and the molecular basis of this important biochemical property of t-PA remains obscure. Previous investigations of related serine proteases, which participate in the blood coagulation cascade, have focused attention on the residue that occupies position 192 (chymotrypsin numbering system), which plays a pivotal role in determining both the inhibitor and substrate specificity of these enzymes. Consequently, we created and characterized the kinetic properties of new variants of t-PA that contained point mutations at position 192. These studies demonstrated that, unlike in coagulation serine proteases, Gln-192 does not contribute significantly to the substrate or inhibitor specificity of t-PA in physiologically relevant reactions. Replacement of Gln-192 with a glutamic acid residue did, however, decrease the catalytic efficiency of mature, two-chain t-PA toward plasminogen in the absence of a fibrin co-factor.  (+info)

Age-related changes in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in mice fed on a high-cholesterol diet. (5/1717)

To investigate the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis, we examined age-dependent changes in platelet activity, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in susceptibility to a high cholesterol diet (HCD) feeding in male ICR mice. Pretreatment of platelet-rich-plasma from HCD feeding mice for 3 days with epinephrine (300 microM) resulted in a marked enhancement of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP: 0.1 microM) or collagen (0.7 microgram/ml)-stimulated aggregation compared with the same in control mice. Yohimbine as alpha 2-adrenergic blocker antagonized these aggregations in a dose-dependent manner. A significant increase in plasma total cholesterol and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein)-LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol and the liver/body weight ratio was observed in mice fed on HCD for 3 months (3-month HCD mice). In the early phase of this experiment, a significant increase in fibrinogen was observed. In the middle phase, increases in the activity of antithrombin III (ATIII) and alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2-Pl) followed. Plasminogen content gradually decreased in both normal diet and HCD mice throughout the experiment. The activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) decreased in 3-month HCD mice. Morphological observation of the aortic arch from 3-month HCD mice revealed apparent atheromatous plaques not seen in control mice. These results suggest that 3-month HCD mice can be a convenient hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerotic model and the changes in platelet activity, coagulation and fibrinolysis in the early phase may be a cause of pathologic changes in this model.  (+info)

Fibrinolytic activation markers predict myocardial infarction in the elderly. The Cardiovascular Health Study. (6/1717)

Coagulation factor levels predict arterial thrombosis in epidemiological studies, but studies of older persons are needed. We studied 3 plasma antigenic markers of fibrinolysis, viz, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fibrin fragment D-dimer, and plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP) for the prediction of arterial thrombosis in healthy elderly persons over age 65. The study was a nested case-control study in the Cardiovascular Health Study cohort of 5201 men and women >/=65 years of age who were enrolled from 1989 to 1990. Cases were 146 participants without baseline clinical vascular disease who developed myocardial infarction, angina, or coronary death during a follow-up of 2.4 years. Controls remained free of cardiovascular events and were matched 1:1 to cases with respect to sex, duration of follow-up, and baseline subclinical vascular disease status. With increasing quartile of D-dimer and PAP levels but not of PAI-1, there was an independent increased risk of myocardial infarction or coronary death, but not of angina. The relative risk for D-dimer above versus below the median value (>/=120 microg/L) was 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 5.9) and for PAP above the median (>/=5.25 nmol/L), 3.1 (1.3 to 7.7). Risks were independent of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen concentrations. There were no differences in risk by sex or presence of baseline subclinical disease. D-dimer and PAP, but not PAI-1, predicted future myocardial infarction in men and women over age 65. Relationships were independent of other risk factors, including inflammation markers. Results indicate a major role for these markers in identifying a high risk of arterial disease in this age group.  (+info)

Relationship of plasmin generation to cardiovascular disease risk factors in elderly men and women. (7/1717)

Plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin complex (PAP) marks plasmin generation and fibrinolytic balance. We recently observed that elevated levels of PAP predict acute myocardial infarction in the elderly, yet little is known about the correlates of PAP. We measured PAP in 800 elderly subjects who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease in 2 cohort studies: the Cardiovascular Health Study and the Honolulu Heart Program. Median PAP levels did not differ between the Cardiovascular Health Study (6.05+/-1.46 nmol/L) and the Honolulu Heart Program (6.11+/-1.44 nmol/L), and correlates of PAP were similar in both cohorts. In CHS, PAP levels increased with age (r=0. 30), procoagulant factors (eg, factor VIIc, r=0.15), thrombin activity (prothrombin fragment F1+2, r=0.29), and inflammation-sensitive proteins (eg, fibrinogen, r=0.44; factor VIIIc, r=0.37). PAP was associated with increased atherosclerosis as measured by the ankle-arm index (AAI) (P for trend, +info)

Relative contribution of insulin and its precursors to fibrinogen and PAI-1 in a large population with different states of glucose tolerance. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). (8/1717)

Hyperinsulinemia is associated with the development of coronary heart disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Hypercoagulability and impaired fibrinolysis are possible candidates linking hyperinsulinism with atherosclerotic disease, and it has been suggested that proinsulin rather than insulin is the crucial pathophysiological agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of insulin and its precursors to markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in a large triethnic population. A strong and independent relationship between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen and insulin and its precursors (proinsulin, 32-33 split proinsulin) was found consistently across varying states of glucose tolerance (PAI-1 versus fasting insulin [proinsulin], r=0.38 [r=0.34] in normal glucose tolerance; r=0.42 [r=0.43] in impaired glucose tolerance; and r=0.38 [r=0.26] in type 2 diabetes; all P<0.001). The relationship remained highly significant even after accounting for insulin sensitivity as measured by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. In a stepwise multiple regression model after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and clinic, both insulin and its precursors were significantly associated with PAI-1 levels. The relationship between fibrinogen and insulin and its precursors was significant in the overall population (r=0.20 for insulin and proinsulin; each P<0.001) but showed a more inconsistent pattern in subgroup analysis and after adjustments for demographic and metabolic variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that proinsulin (split products) but not fasting insulin significantly contributed to fibrinogen levels after adjustment for age, sex, clinic, and ethnicity. Decreased insulin sensitivity was independently associated with higher PAI-1 and fibrinogen levels. In summary, we were able to demonstrate an independent relationship of 2 crucial factors of hemostasis, fibrinogen and PAI-1, to insulin and its precursors. These findings may have important clinical implications in the risk assessment and prevention of macrovascular disease, not only in patients with overt diabetes but also in nondiabetic subjects who are hyperinsulinemic.  (+info)

  • In fibrinolysis, a fibrin clot, the product of coagulation , is broken down. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first part markers of coagulation, anticoagulation and fibrinolysis are studied to define a possible pathogenic mechanism for the increased risk of cardiovascular disease as a long-term complication in HIV-infected patients. (uu.nl)
  • The ELT measures fibrinolysis by clotting the euglobulin fraction (primarily the important fibrinolytic factors fibrinogen , PAI-1 , tPA , alpha 2-antiplasmin , and plasminogen ) from plasma and then observing the time required for clot dissolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinetics fibrinolysis by plasmin (Pro) was studied by a new method which allowed to describe quantitatively the clot lysis reaction. (elsevier.com)
  • A wide array of in vitro fibrinolysis tests had been performed for a long period, suggesting defective fibrinolysis, mainly impaired tPA response and reserve as major, frequent abnormality, predecessor or causative factor of venous thromboembolism. (elsevier.com)
  • Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary type is a normal body process, whereas secondary fibrinolysis is the breakdown of clots due to a medicine, a medical disorder, or some other cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically, the TEM is useful for near real-time measurement of activated fibrinolysis for at-risk patients, such as those experiencing significant blood loss during surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study examined fibrin degradation by measuring D-dimer crosslinked fibrin degradation products (indicates hypercoagulability), plasminogen activators (fibrinolysis), and antithrombin III in 42 adult trauma patients and correlated these data with injury severity, types of injury, complications, and clinical tests of coagulation. (ovid.com)
  • There are 2 plasminogen activators in the blood responsible for fibrinolysis: tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). (onlinejacc.org)
  • We work with several global collaborators to study fundamental questions around the regulation of enzymes used as plasminogen activators that promote fibrinolysis. (nibsc.org)
  • Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase are the agents that convert plasminogen to the active plasmin, thus allowing fibrinolysis to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urokinase versus Alteplase for intraventricular hemorrhage fibrinolysis. (nih.gov)
  • Fibrinolysis with local intraarterial urokinase infusion for basilar artery thrombosis has been associated with a low rate of spontaneous symptomatic cerebral hemorrhage, even when patients have been treated late in the course of symptoms. (ajnr.org)
  • Because urokinase is presently unavailable in the United States, this study was undertaken to determine the frequency of spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage in basilar artery fibrinolysis performed with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). (ajnr.org)
  • Despite delays in diagnosis and treatment common in this condition, fibrinolysis with urokinase has had an acceptable safety profile, especially in view of the high mortality rate associated with conservative treatment. (ajnr.org)
  • Several open-label clinical studies using continuous infusion of thrombolytic agents have suggested that local intraarterial fibrinolysis (LIF) is efficacious in the treatment of central retinal artery occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • The deep veins of both lower limbs were examined by Rili Erlangshen's color Doppler ultrasound diagnostic instrument (CDU), and the fibrinolysis system was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and automatic hemagglutination analyzer. (scirp.org)
  • Borzak S. Early transfer for angiography after fibrinolysis reduced ischemic events in patients with STEMI. (annals.org)
  • The impact of cross-linking on resistance to fibrinolysis has proved challenging to evaluate quantitatively. (wiley.com)
  • Its release is concentrated to platelet rich clots leading to an increased thrombus resistance to fibrinolysis. (diapharma.com)
  • tPA/plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis may be a widespread protective mechanism in neuroinflammatory pathologies. (scienceopen.com)
  • Reocclusion occurred in all control and heparin/aspirin-treated dogs within 1 h after fibrinolysis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In minimal amounts there is evidence of consumption of blood coagulation factors with sustained thrombocytopenia, but no fibrinolysis, where heparin therapy might have a beneficial effect. (sun.ac.za)
  • The work of the fibrinolysis group includes maintaining a range of WHO International Standards in the field of thrombolytic drugs. (nibsc.org)
  • Intraosseous cannulation represents a novel route for administration of systemic fibrinolysis in cases of difficult peripheral venous access in the out-of-hospital setting. (ivteam.com)
  • Model thrombi, which mimic arterial thrombi formed in vivo , were prepared with incorporated fluorescently labeled fibrinogen, in order to allow quantification of fibrinolysis as released fluorescence units per minute. (wiley.com)
Urokinase and its Receptor: Markers of Malignancy? | SpringerLink
Urokinase and its Receptor: Markers of Malignancy? | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Applying the new STEMI guidelines: 1. Reperfusion in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction | CMAJ
Applying the new STEMI guidelines: 1. Reperfusion in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction | CMAJ (cmaj.ca)
Effect of Fibrinolysis Inhibition on the Growth and Hematogenous Dissemination of Cancer | Springer for Research & Development
Effect of Fibrinolysis Inhibition on the Growth and Hematogenous Dissemination of Cancer | Springer for Research & Development (rd.springer.com)
Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis
Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis (journals.lww.com)
Previous Issues : Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis
Previous Issues : Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis (journals.lww.com)
JCI -
Volume 77, Issue 3
JCI - Volume 77, Issue 3 (jci.org)
Fibrinolysis Before Cardiopulmonary Bypass? - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Fibrinolysis Before Cardiopulmonary Bypass? - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov)
Targeting the Vasculature in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment | The New York Academy of Sciences
Targeting the Vasculature in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment | The New York Academy of Sciences (nyas.org)
Septic Shock: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Septic Shock: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology (emedicine.medscape.com)
Thieme E-Books & E-Journals - Thrombosis and Haemostasis / Current Issue
Thieme E-Books & E-Journals - Thrombosis and Haemostasis / Current Issue (thieme-connect.com)
Endovascular Approaches to Acute Stroke, Part 1: Drugs, Devices, and Data | American Journal of Neuroradiology
Endovascular Approaches to Acute Stroke, Part 1: Drugs, Devices, and Data | American Journal of Neuroradiology (ajnr.org)
Impairment of Fibrinolysis as a Risk Factor for Thrombosis | SpringerLink
Impairment of Fibrinolysis as a Risk Factor for Thrombosis | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Coagulation : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
Coagulation : Wikis (The Full Wiki) (thefullwiki.org)
Viagra Improves Insulin Sensitivity in People with Prediabetes
Viagra Improves Insulin Sensitivity in People with Prediabetes (endocrineweb.com)
Clots Are Potent Triggers of Inflammatory Cell Gene ExpressionHighlights | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Clots Are Potent Triggers of Inflammatory Cell Gene ExpressionHighlights | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology (atvb.ahajournals.org)
2012 - 2013 General Academic Catalog by UT Health Science Center at Tyler - Issuu
2012 - 2013 General Academic Catalog by UT Health Science Center at Tyler - Issuu (issuu.com)
Trauma and Critical Care - SurgicalSOP.com
Trauma and Critical Care - SurgicalSOP.com (sites.google.com)
Plus it
Plus it (erj.ersjournals.com)
Glycemic impact of non-nutritive sweeteners: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials | European...
Glycemic impact of non-nutritive sweeteners: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials | European... (nature.com)
Platelet - Wikipedia
Platelet - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Thrombosis and Cardiovascular Disease | Springer for Research & Development
Thrombosis and Cardiovascular Disease | Springer for Research & Development (rd.springer.com)
Strategies for Intravenous Fluid Resuscitation in Trauma Patients | SpringerLink
Strategies for Intravenous Fluid Resuscitation in Trauma Patients | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes | Cardiovascular Disease | Medicine, Nursing & Dentistry | Subjects | Wiley
Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes | Cardiovascular Disease | Medicine, Nursing & Dentistry | Subjects | Wiley (wiley.com)
PGI2 and Its Analogs: From Pharmacology to Therapeutic Applications | SpringerLink
PGI2 and Its Analogs: From Pharmacology to Therapeutic Applications | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Fibrinolysis and Body Weight: Fibrinolytic Response to Venous Occlusion in Obese Children | SpringerLink
Fibrinolysis and Body Weight: Fibrinolytic Response to Venous Occlusion in Obese Children | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
What is included in long-term monitoring of factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency?
What is included in long-term monitoring of factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency? (medscape.com)
What are alternative treatment options for hemophilia A with factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors?
What are alternative treatment options for hemophilia A with factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors? (medscape.com)
What are the sexual predilections of antithrombin III (ATIII) deficiency?
What are the sexual predilections of antithrombin III (ATIII) deficiency? (medscape.com)
What is the role of D-dimer and fibrin degradation product (FDP) tests in the workup of disseminated intravascular coagulation ...
What is the role of D-dimer and fibrin degradation product (FDP) tests in the workup of disseminated intravascular coagulation ... (medscape.com)
Which lab tests are performed in the workup of deep venous thrombosis (DVT)?
Which lab tests are performed in the workup of deep venous thrombosis (DVT)? (medscape.com)
What is the incidence of recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT)?
What is the incidence of recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT)? (medscape.com)
What is the morbidity associated with arterial thrombosis in protein C deficiency?
What is the morbidity associated with arterial thrombosis in protein C deficiency? (medscape.com)