Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.
A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.
Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.
Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A condition characterized by a broad range of progressive disorders ranging from TENOSYNOVITIS to tendon rupture with or without hindfoot collapse to a fixed, rigid, FLATFOOT deformity. Pathologic changes can involve associated tendons, ligaments, joint structures of the ANKLE, hindfoot, and midfoot. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is the most common cause of acquired flatfoot deformity in adults.
Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity that is caused by congenital or acquired shortening of a muscle (Stedman, 27th ed). Tenotomy is performed in order to lengthen a muscle that has developed improperly, or become shortened and is resistant to stretching.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
A dead body, usually a human body.
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Fixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Implants used in arthroscopic surgery and other orthopedic procedures to attach soft tissue to bone. One end of a suture is tied to soft tissue and the other end to the implant. The anchors are made of a variety of materials including titanium, stainless steel, or absorbable polymers.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Tendons are categorized as a connective tissue. Connective tissue supports, surrounds, and binds the muscle fibres. They ... It is arranged in bundles of parallel fibres. Stretch receptors have two parts: Spindle cells and Golgi tendons. Spindle cells ... On the other hand, Golgi tendon receptors are located near the end of a muscle fiber and send messages for the muscle to relax ... Internally, the joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments can affect one's flexibility. As previously mentioned, each part of the ...
Henle's ligament: Tendon of the transversus abdominis muscle. Henle's membrane: Bruch's layer forming inner boundary of the ... Henle's sheath: Connective tissue which supports outer layer of nerve fibres in a funiculus. Henle's spine: The supra-meateal ...
The fibres of the dorsal radiocarpal ligament blend with those of the dorsal intercarpal ligament. It is in relation, behind, ... with the Extensor tendons of the fingers; in front, it is blended with the articular disk. Hand kinesiology at the University ...
... superficial fibres of the lower part of the ligament continue into the tendon of biceps femoris. The ligament is pierced by the ... Its oblique fibres descend laterally, converging to form a thick, narrow band that widens again below and is attached to the ... The lower border of the ligament was found to be directly continuous with the tendon of origin of the long head of the Biceps ... The lowest fibres of gluteus maximus are attached to the posterior surface of the ligament; ...
Collagen triple helices are often bundled into fibrils which themselves form larger fibres, as in tendon. Glycine, proline, and ... Saad, Mohamed (Oct 1994). Low resolution structure and packing investigations of collagen crystalline domains in tendon using ...
From the inner surface of the aponeurosis, many muscle fibres originate. Some additional fibres arise from the tendon of the ... The fibers converge onto the medial part of the quadriceps tendon and the medial border of the patella. The obliquus genus ... Its fibers end in a superficial aponeurosis, which forms the deep part of the quadriceps tendon. The vastus medialis and vastus ... This lower aponeurosis becomes contracted and thickened into a flat tendon that attaches to the outer border of the patella, ...
It can also include stress to the tendons, and to the bones (see Wolff's law). It is unknown whether or not the ligaments adapt ... Microtrauma can include the microtearing of muscle fibres, the sheath around the muscle and the connective tissue. ...
The posterior border may be more or less closely united to the piriformis, or some of the fibers end on its tendon. The ... During gait, the posterior fibres help to decelerate internal rotation of the femur at the end of swing phase. • The anterior ... The fibers of the muscle converge into a strong flattened tendon that inserts on the lateral surface of the greater trochanter ... More specifically, the muscle's tendon inserts into an oblique ridge that runs downward and forward on the lateral surface of ...
For example, the tendon of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, and the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus muscle ... Two nerves can merge while at least part of the fibres cross the midline (see figure 2). Type III : The fibres within a single ... In neuroanatomy, a chiasm is the crossing of fibres of a nerve or the crossing of two nerves. Very different types of crossings ... There are other kinds of crossings of nerve fibres. The chiasm is distinguished from a decussation, which is a crossing of ...
The fibres pass obliquely forwards and medially across the dorsum of the foot and end in four tendons. The medial part of the ... The other three tendons insert into the lateral sides of the tendons of extensor digitorum longus for the second, third and ... in front of the groove for the peroneus brevis tendon), from the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament and the stem of the ... muscle, also known as extensor hallucis brevis, ends in a tendon which crosses the dorsalis pedis artery and inserts into the ...
"The role of flexible carbon-fibre implants as tendon and ligament substitutes in clinical practice. A preliminary report". The ... Liu ZT, Zhang XL, Jiang Y, Zeng BF (February 2010). "Four-strand hamstring tendon autograft versus LARS artificial ligament for ...
The muscle fibres from these attachments converge in a central tendon, which forms the crest of the dome.[5] Its peripheral ... Crura and central tendon[edit]. The left and right crura are tendons that blend with the anterior longitudinal ligament of the ... The muscle fibres of the diaphragm emerge from many surrounding structures. At the front, fibres insert into the xiphoid ... The central tendon of the diaphragm is a thin but strong aponeurosis near the center of the vault formed by the muscle, closer ...
Muscle fibres[edit]. Different skeletal muscle types: A: fusiform. B: unipennate. C: bipennate. (P.C.S., physiological cross- ... Insertions are usually connections of muscle via tendon to bone.[9] The insertion is a bone that tends to be distal, have less ... Fusiform muscles have fibres that run parallel to the length of the muscle, and are spindle-shaped. [10] For example, the ... Unipennate muscles have fibres that run the entire length of only one side of a muscle, like a quill pen. For example, the ...
Crossing on top of the lower part of the MCL is the pes anserinus, the joined tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and ... Because of this, the ligament occasionally contains muscle fibres. This is an atavistic variation. An MCL injury can be very ... The MCL's deep surface covers the inferior medial genicular vessels and nerve and the anterior portion of the tendon of the ... Embryologically and phylogenically, the ligament represents the distal portion of the tendon of adductor magnus muscle. In ...
Because the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii is inside the capsule, it requires a tendon sheath to minimize ... The glenoid labrum is a ring of cartilaginous fibre attached to the circumference of the cavity. This ring is continuous with ... The tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii passes through the bicipital groove on the humerus and inserts on the ... The primary stabilizers of the shoulder include the biceps brachii on the anterior side of the arm, and tendons of the rotator ...
They usually occur at or near the tendon, as a result of the tendon rubbing against the underlying bone. The teres minor is ... A pseudoganglion has no nerve cells but nerve fibres are present. Damage to the fibers innervating the teres minor is ... The tendon of this muscle passes across, and is united with, the posterior part of the capsule of the shoulder-joint. The ... Its fibers run obliquely upwards and laterally; the upper ones end in a tendon which is inserted into the lowest of the three ...
A crossing of fibres inside a nerve reversing their mapping A tendinous chiasm, the spot where two tendons cross. The tendon of ... with the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus muscle). Chiasma (genetics), the point where two chromatids are intertwined ( ... the flexor digitorum longus muscle forms two: the crural chiasm (with the tendon of the tibialis posterior muscle) and the ...
In 2015 Adams suffered a severe injury to his right patella tendon following the failure of a carbon fibre walking orthotic. ...
The muscle fibres from these attachments converge in a central tendon, which forms the crest of the dome. Its peripheral part ... The muscle fibres of the diaphragm emerge from many surrounding structures. At the front, fibres insert into the xiphoid ... The central tendon of the diaphragm is a thin but strong aponeurosis near the center of the vault formed by the muscle, closer ... When the central tendon is stabilized and the lower ribs are mobile, a contraction lifts the origins (ribs) up towards the ...
In addition, the joints may be loose (hypermobile) because of lax ligaments and tendons. When cutis laxa is severe, it can also ... Biopsies have shown reduction and degeneration of dermal elastic fibres in the affected areas of skin. The loose skin is often ... evidence of immunoglobulin A deposits on the dermal elastic fibres". The British Journal of Dermatology. 135 (1): 130-4. doi: ... genes can increase susceptibility of elastic fibres to inflammatory degradation in acquired cutis laxa. Acquired cutis laxa has ...
In humans, the distal part of the tendon detaches and becomes the medial collateral ligament of the knee. Because of this, the ... medial collateral ligament of the knee in humans may contain a few muscle fibres as an atavistic variation. Muscles of the ... and end about the lower third of the thigh in a rounded tendon which is inserted into the adductor tubercle on the medial ...
It also provides an attachment for muscles and tendons. The periosteum that covers the outer surface of the bones of the skull ... The periosteum is attached to the bone by strong collagenous fibers called Sharpey's fibres, which extend to the outer ...
Insertions are usually connections of muscle via tendon to bone. The insertion is a bone that tends to be distal, have less ... Bipennate muscles consist of two rows of oblique muscle fibres, facing in opposite diagonal directions, converging on a central ... Skeletal muscle, or "voluntary muscle", is a striated muscle tissue that primarily joins to bone with tendons. Skeletal muscle ... This may be a bone, a tendon or the subcutaneous dermal connective tissue. ...
Collagen fibres in tendons become more dense and thick following mechanical stimulation as a result of exercise, and MKX is ... Knocking out this gene in mouse embryos results in them developing hypoplastic tendons containing less type I collagen. MKX ... Expression of MKX is maintained in adult tendon tissues, decreasing as a result of ageing or osteoarthritis. ... MKX is a transcription factor that regulates tendon differentiation during embryological development. ...
Retinaculum is Latin for retainer). These bands consist of superior and inferior fibres. The superior fibres are attached above ... The peroneal retinacula (singular: peroneal retinaculum) are fibrous retaining bands which bind down the tendons of the ... The inferior fibres are continuous in front with those of the inferior extensor retinaculum of the foot; behind they are ... forming a septum between the tendons of the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis muscles. Peroneus longus Peroneus brevis This ...
Benjamin, M.; Toumi, H.; Ralphs, J. R.; Bydder, G.; Best, T. M.; Milz, S. (April 2006). "Where tendons and ligaments meet bone ... Sharpey's fibres "enthesis". Medcyclopaedia. GE. Archived from the original on 2012-02-05. Thomopoulos, Stavros; Birman, Victor ... The enthesis (plural entheses) is the connective tissue between tendon or ligament and bone. There are two types of entheses: ... In a fibrous enthesis, the collagenous tendon or ligament directly attaches to the bone. In a fibrocartilaginous enthesis, the ...
Cotton fibre is birefringent because of high levels of cellulosic material in the fibre's secondary cell wall. Polarized light ... Collagen, found in cartilage, tendon, bone, corneas, and several other areas in the body, is birefringent and commonly studied ... due to stress applied to the optical fibre and/or due to bending of the fibre. Birefringence is intentionally introduced (for ... Furthermore, scanning laser polarimetry utilises the birefringence of the optic nerve fibre layer to indirectly quantify its ...
Patellar tendinopathy frequently occurs in bowlers due to overuse of the tendon, and can lead to the tendon fibres beginning to ... Having a poor technique causes excess strain on the joint resulting in inflammation of the tendons surrounding the elbow. The ... a tear of the supraspinatus tendon, or even degenerative changes to the rotator cuff which could result in surgery to fix the ...
The tendon of the extensor digitorum longus muscle extends the MTP joint by using the plantar fibroaponeurotic structure as a ... The strong, longitudinal fibres of the deep plantar fascia are inserted along this transverse system to form a strong ...
On the posterior side, the capsule is thin and mainly composed of transverse fibres. A few of these fibres stretch across the ... In full flexion, however, the triceps tendon is "rolled up" on the olecranon as on a pulley which compensates for the loss of ... Deep fibres of the brachialis muscle insert anteriorly into the capsule and act to pull it and the underlying membrane during ... It originates on the scapula with two tendons: That of the long head on the supraglenoid tubercle just above the shoulder joint ...
Gamma motor neurons supply only muscle fibres within the spindle, whereas beta motor neurons supply muscle fibres both within ... unlike Golgi tendon organs, which are oriented in series References[edit]. *^ Mancall, Elliott L; Brock, David G, eds. (2011 ... Activation of muscle fibres within the spindle by up to a dozen gamma motor neurons and to a lesser extent by one or two beta ... Secondary type II sensory fibers (medium diameter) end adjacent to the central regions of the static bag and chain fibres.[2] ...
... tendons, connective tissue and cartilage. Vitamin A ensures sufficient collagen is produced to build strong healthy bones and ... sufficient calcium ensures strong collagen fibres supporting the bone and its growth (Deen & Hark, 2007). Assists in ...
... is a type of cord[1] that is prepared from the natural fibre found in the walls of animal intestines.[2] Catgut makers ...
"man-made fibre". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2013.. *^ Kauffman, George B. (1993). "Rayon: the first ... Saad, Mohamed (Oct 1994). Low resolution structure and packing investigations of collagen crystalline domains in tendon using ... Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra[1]) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly ... "synthetic fibre". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2013.. *^ Serope Kalpakjian, Steven R Schmid. " ...
... fibrous epimysium of skeletal muscle is both connected to and continuous with the tendons. In turn, the tendons connect to the ... Contrary to popular belief, the number of muscle fibres cannot be increased through exercise. Instead, muscles grow larger ... be measured in vivo using tendon strain (if a prominent tendon is present), or be measured directly using more invasive methods ... Skeletal muscle or "voluntary muscle" is anchored by tendons (or by aponeuroses at a few places) to bone and is used to effect ...
... connected to a central tendon that surrounds the swim bladder ventrally. These sonic muscle fibres are repeatedly contracted ... In some species the sonic muscle fibres are only present in males. These muscles strengthen during the mating season and are ... These muscles are called sonic muscle fibres, and run horizontally along the fish's body on both sides around the swim bladder ...
This skin membrane consists of connective tissue, elastic fibres, nerves, muscles, and blood vessels. The muscles keep the ... Tendons allow bats to lock their feet closed when hanging from a roost. Muscular power is needed to let go, but not to grasp a ... rich with collagen and elastic fibres. The membrane has no hair follicles or sweat glands, except between the fingers.[54][56] ...
Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is a rare congenital disorder of an abnormally enlarged trachea, characterised by absent elastic fibres, ...
The sensory input to α-MNs is extensive and has its origin in Golgi tendon organs, muscle spindles, mechanoreceptors, ... Another consequence is the depression of deep tendon reflexes, causing hyporeflexia. Muscle weakness and atrophy are inevitable ...
Reis, PJ (1992). "Variations in the strength of wool fibres - A review". Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 43 (6): ... and severe ulcerations around the Achilles tendon and malleoli. Other signs include change in voice, making it weak, hoarse, or ...
In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres, so ...
George, Michael S.; Khazzam, Michael (February 2019). "Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Rupture". Journal of the American Academy of ... Most latissimus dorsi exercises concurrently recruit the teres major, posterior fibres of the deltoid, long head of the triceps ... A fibrous slip usually passes from the upper border of the tendon of the Latissimus dorsi, near its insertion, to the long head ... Electromyography suggests that it consists of six groups of muscle fibres that can be independently coordinated by the central ...
Normally the heartbeat is initiated in the SA node of the atrium but initiation can also occur in the Purkinje fibres of the ... A tendinous band, called the tendon of the conus arteriosus, extends upward from the right atrioventricular fibrous ring and ...
Its melting point is around 130 to 136 °C (266 to 277 °F),[8] and, according to DSM, it is not advisable to use UHMWPE fibres ... "Free abrasive wear behaviour of UHMWPE composites filled with wollastonite fibres". Composites Part A: Applied Science and ...
... the proteoglycans may also have a role in the tensile properties of tendon. The structure of tendon is effectively a fibre ... Main article: Tendon (meal). Tendon (in particular, beef tendon) is used as a food in some Asian cuisines (often served at yum ... The internal tendon bulk is thought to contain no nerve fibres, but the epitenon and paratenon contain nerve endings, while ... They are anchored to bone by Sharpey's fibres. The dry mass of normal tendons, which makes up about 30% of their total mass, is ...
On the posterior side the capsule is thin and mainly composed of transverse fibres. A few of these fibres stretch across the ... In full flexion, however, the triceps tendon is "rolled up" on the olecranon as on a pulley which compensates for the loss of ... Deep fibres of the brachialis muscle insert anteriorly into the capsule and act to pull it and the underlying membrane during ... It originates on the scapula with two tendons: That of the long head on the supraglenoid tubercle just above the shoulder joint ...
Sesamoids act like pulleys, providing a smooth surface for tendons to slide over, increasing the tendon's ability to transmit ... In anatomy, a sesamoid bone (/ˈsɛsəmɔɪd/[1][2]) is a bone embedded within a tendon or a muscle.[3] It is derived from the Latin ... In the wrist-The pisiform of the wrist is a sesamoid bone (within the tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris).[7] It begins to ossify ... In the foot-the first metatarsal bone usually has two sesamoid bones at its connection to the big toe (both within the tendon ...
Blood, bone, tendon, ligament, adipose and areolar tissues are examples of connective tissues. One method of classifying ... 5. Sclerenchyma (bast fibre),. 6. Cortex,. 7. Epidermis. In plant anatomy, tissues are categorized broadly into three tissue ...
"Fibre Optics". Bell College. Archived from the original on 2006-02-24.. ... Tendon 4.7 Soft tissue (average) 0.54 Water 0.0022 There are two general ways of acoustic energy losses: absorption and ... Telecommunications: A Boost for Fibre Optics, Z. Valy Vardeny, Nature 416, 489-491, 2002. ...
Since they act to hold the tendon further away from the joint, the angle of the tendon is increased and thus the leverage of ... They provide a frame to keep the body supported, and an attachment point for skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints, ... Sesamoid bones are bones embedded in tendons. ... Sharpey's fibres. *enthesis. *lacunae. *canaliculi. *trabeculae ...
Saad, Mohamed (Oct 1994). Low resolution structure and packing investigations of collagen crystalline domains in tendon using ... Many tropocollagens then bind together to form a fibril, and many of these then form a fibre. ... Collagen has great tensile strength, and is the main component of fascia, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, bone and skin.[52][53] ... Fraser, R. D. B. & MacRae, T. P. (1981). "Unit cell and molecular connectivity in tendon collagen". Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 3 ( ...
Khash - In Armenia, this popular winter soup is made of boiled beef tendon and honeycomb tripe, and served with garlic and ... nowadays mainly thinly sliced tendon, tripe and sometimes tongue ...
Added an anterior spring and concealed tendons to simulate natural-looking movement. ... Carbon fibre[4]. Wheeled prostheses have also been used extensively in the rehabilitation of injured domestic animals, ... a steel knee joint and an articulated foot that was controlled by catgut tendons from the knee to the ankle. Came to be known ...
Except in the extremes, a muscle will fire fibres of both the aerobic or anaerobic types on any given exercise, in varying ... tendon, and ligament strength and toughness, improved joint function, reduced potential for injury,[1] increased bone density, ... The joints should not be locked as this inhibits muscle fibre recruitment and reduces the speed at which the exercise can be ... The intention is to utilise the intense nervous system activation and increased muscle fibre recruitment from the heavy lift in ...
"Natural Fibres. Diakses tanggal 8 July 2016.. *^ "Cochineal and Carmine". Major colourants and dyestuffs, mainly produced in ... sedangkan tendon binatang digunakan sebagai pengikat, dan kulit banyak digunakan untuk membuat sepatu dan barang-barang lainnya ...
The iliopectineal bursa separates the tendon of the iliopsoas muscle from the external surface of the hip joint capsule at the ... "Fibre type composition of the human psoas major muscle with regard to the level of its origin". Journal of Anatomy. 215 (6): ...
It inserts from the lower border of the last rib for about half its length and by four small tendons from the apices of the ... Measurement of the trunk musculature from T5 to L5 using MRI scans of 15 young males corrected for muscle fibre orientation, ...
... blends with the upper part of the tendon of the Obturator internus. In some people, the fibres of the gemellus superior extend ... The Gemelli are two small muscular fasciculi, accessories to the tendon of the Obturator internus which is received into a ...
"Hemp Fibre Production". Canadian Hemp Trade Alliance.. *^ MAŁACHOWSKA EDYTA, PRZYBYSZ PIOTR, DUBOWIK MARCIN, KUCNER MARTA, ... "Industrial fibre crops: business opportunities for farmers", gov.uk, Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, 13 June ... Feral hemp or ditch weed is usually a naturalized fibre or oilseed strain of Cannabis that has escaped from cultivation and is ... Hemp has been grown for millennia in Asia and the Middle East for its fibre. Commercial production of hemp in the West took off ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Our simulations showed that the collagen fibres in the Achilles tendon are the main load-bearing component during tensile ... Materials and Methods We developed a new material model of the Achilles tendon, which considers the tendons main constituents ... where the orientation of the collagen fibres plays an important role for the tendons viscoelastic response. In conclusion, ... Specimen-specific finite element models were created of 9 rat Achilles tendons from an animal experiment and simulations were ...
Vevo MD UHF 48 Lt Achilles Tendon with each collagenous fibre clearly delineated ... Vevo MD UHF 48 Lt Achilles Tendon with each collagenous fibre clearly delineated ...
The program studied the effect of tendon size, deviator size and harping angle on the tendon behaviour. The tendons were loaded ... the structural effectiveness of the external tendon is increased by using a deviated or harped tendon profile. Carbon-fibre ... Tensile-Flexural Behaviour of Carbon-Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Prestressing Tendons Subjected to Harped Profiles. ... Trevor George Quayle (2016). Tensile-Flexural Behaviour of Carbon-Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Prestressing Tendons ...
These Tekna Carbon Fibre Tendon Boots are the ideal choice for eventers and show jumpers. They're anatomically shaped to ... These Tekna Carbon Fibre Tendon Boots are the ideal choice for eventers and show jumpers. They're anatomically shaped to ... These Tekna Carbon Fibre Tendon Boots are the ideal choice for eventers and show jumpers. They're anatomically shaped to ... Features include open fronts, shatterproof rear carbon fibre inserts for added tendon support and protection, soft inner ...
... an embodiment of which is a tendon or a ligament prosthesis, graft or implants. These body parts have a combination of very ... Rat tail tendon (RTT) fibres are used in this study, since it is possible to dissect fibres as small as 50 um in diameter from ... Induction of Tendon Formation by Carbon Implants.. 47. J. Bone Joint Sur. 59-B, 53-7 (1977) Jenkins et al. Induction of Tendon ... Each tendon bundles was split in half along its axis repeatedly until the fiber diameter was about 50 um. Rat tail tendon (RTT ...
Golgi tendon organ.. The recruitment of muscle fibres.. Motor units.. Spatial summation. ... Characteristics and functions of different muscle fibre types for a variety of sporting activities. ...
In vivo muscle fibre behaviour during counter-movement exercise in humans reveals a significant role for tendon elasticity. * ... The estimated peak force, average power, and work at the Achilles tendon during the plantar flexion phase in CM were ... It was concluded that during CM muscle fibres optimally work almost isometrically, by leaving the task of storing and releasing ... then remained constant while the whole muscle-tendon unit lengthened, before decreasing in the final plantar flexion phase. In ...
Muscle fibres[edit]. Different skeletal muscle types: A: fusiform. B: unipennate. C: bipennate. (P.C.S., physiological cross- ... Insertions are usually connections of muscle via tendon to bone.[9] The insertion is a bone that tends to be distal, have less ... Fusiform muscles have fibres that run parallel to the length of the muscle, and are spindle-shaped. [10] For example, the ... Unipennate muscles have fibres that run the entire length of only one side of a muscle, like a quill pen. For example, the ...
Our purpose was to develop a non-invasive method for the assessment of fast twitch fibre content in human soleus muscle. From a ... Our purpose was to develop a non-invasive method for the assessment of fast twitch fibre content in human soleus muscle. ... Therefore, we hypothesised that the percentage area of type II fibres would show a high relationship with the maximum muscle ... Therefore, we hypothesised that the percentage area of type II fibres would show a correlation with the maximum muscle ...
Carbon Fibre Reinforced Concrete ( CFRC ). *Applications of Smart Materials. *Future Scope of Smart Materials ... A Biomimetic Approach to Reattaching Tendon to Bone. March 7th, 2011 Scott Jung Orthopedic Surgery ... The main reason for this is that repairing a torn rotator cuff often involves reconnecting the tendons to the ball of the ... Louis (WUSTL) want to improve the success rate of rotator cuff repair surgery by changing the way that tendons in the rotator ...
fibres run parallel to each other. (tendons/ligaments). lig.-> bone to bone. tend.-> bone to lig. ...
Tendons have the highest tensile strength of all connective tissue because of a high proportion of collagen in the fibres and ... In longitudinal sections, they are arranged in rows following the direction of the tendon fibres. This specialised arrangement ... BIOLOGY OF TENDON HEALING. Tendon healing is classically considered to occur through extrinsic and intrinsic healing. The ... In summary, tendon healing, even when successful, does not result in normal tendon. Mostly, the result is functionally ...
... which group together to form collagen fibres. The multicomposite tendon units are composed of several collagen fibres, known as ... "Structural and mechanical integrity of tendon-to-tendon attachments used in upper limb tendon transfer surgery," Journal of ... Fibres were made through gel-spinning process with the use of a filling load of 0.5 and 5 wt%. This was followed by fibre ... T. Majima, T. Irie, N. Sawaguchi et al., "Chitosan-based hyaluronan hybrid polymer fibre scaffold for ligament and tendon ...
Carbon fibre composites for a new generation of tendons *Use of stainless steel for durable concrete structures ... Textile reinforced concrete with AR-glass-fibre-multifilament yarn - a new innovative compound material for concrete repair and ... Structural rehabilitations with Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concretes (UHPFRC) *Developments in rehabilitation and ...
What is a tendon injury?. Tendons are the tough fibres that connect muscle to bone. For example, the Achilles tendon connects ... What causes a tendon injury?. Most tendon injuries are the result of gradual wear and tear to the tendon from overuse or aging ... A tendon injury may seem to happen suddenly, but usually it is the result of many tiny tears to the tendon that have happened ... A tendon injury can happen suddenly or little by little. You are more likely to have a sudden injury if the tendon has been ...
Tendons are categorized as a connective tissue. Connective tissue supports, surrounds, and binds the muscle fibres. They ... It is arranged in bundles of parallel fibres. Stretch receptors have two parts: Spindle cells and Golgi tendons. Spindle cells ... On the other hand, Golgi tendon receptors are located near the end of a muscle fiber and send messages for the muscle to relax ... Internally, the joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments can affect ones flexibility. As previously mentioned, each part of the ...
what are Sharpeys fibres? collagen fibres from tendons and ligaments penetrating bone surface ...
These fibres then inserted onto an umbrella-shaped apodeme (tendon), which then abruptly narrowed and ran through the coxa to ... Muscles and tendons. The metathorax was dominated by a pair of bilaterally symmetrical trochanteral depressor muscles that ... 2B). The ventral surface of hind coxae was covered by a flexible, transparent membrane through which the tendon and part of the ... Each muscle consisted of many long parallel fibres (Burrows et al., 2014) that arose from an anterior phragma made of tergal ...
The muscle-tendon length (LMT) derived from the muscle-tendon geometry was used to compute muscle fibre length (LM), fibre ... Effect of tendon stiffness on trajectory of normalized fibre length and feasible operating region. The default tendon force- ... Tendon was represented as a nonlinear elastic element. (b) Tendon force-strain relationship assumed that the strain in tendon ( ... Muscles with long tendons relative to their optimal fibre length (i.e. large values of ) have wider feasible operating ranges ...
... of tendon injuries worldwide together with the technical difficulty often encountered when repairing or augmenting tendons. ... and if normal architecture of damaged tendon (either macroscopic or microscopic) could be restored, this would significantly ... The use of stems cells in tendon repair is of particular interest given the frequency ... Tendon-bone analysis at 2 weeks showed the proportion of collagen fibres at the interface tissue was significantly higher in ...
... rat-tail tendons were investigated using synchrotron radiation. The specimens were kept isometric at their corresponding in ... X-ray diffraction patterns of fibres from 90 day (mature) ... X-ray diffraction patterns of fibres from 90 day (mature) rat- ... This effect was absent for fibres pretreated with sodium borohydride. The results are interpreted on the basis of cross-linking ... X-ray diffraction evidence of collagen molecular packing and cross-linking in fibrils of rat tendon observed by synchrotron ...
In males, AB muscle fibres inserted into the deep aspect of the gracilis tendon (figure 2A), whereas in females, the tendons ... Some of the proximal anterior fibres of the large AL tendon inserted into the capsular tissues of the pubic symphysis and were ... these intramuscular tendons extended further distally than the superficial tendon (table 1). The intramuscular tendons of AL ... A) AB and gracilis fusion showing AB muscle fibres inserting into the deep aspect of the gracilis tendon (male specimens, n = 6 ...
Tendon cells, or tenocytes, are elongated fibroblast type cells. The cytoplasm is stretched between the collagen fibres of the ... This is in turn attached to the shell via organic fibres which insert into the shell. Molluscan tendon cells appear columnar ... The myo-tendon space is then attached to the base of the tendon cells via basal hemidesmosomes, while apical hemidesmosomes, ... Tendon cells have a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and they are responsible for synthesis and turnover of tendon ...
Regeneration and repair of tendon and ligament tissue using collagen fibre biomaterials. Acta Biomater. 2011;7(9):3237-3247. ... CTGF treatment for 4 weeks failed to induce any CD146 expression in the sorted CD146- tendon cells (J-L). Sorted CD146+ tendon ... CD146+ tendon cells are multipotent. Isolated and culture-expanded tendon cells and their selected fractions were cultured in ... Tendons are dense connective tissues with the primary function of transferring mechanical forces from muscle to bone. Tendon ...
bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, blood. 6.3.3. muscular. 6.3.3.1. cells are long and thin = muscle fibres ... Due to lack of roughage in diet (cellulose/ insoluble fibre. lack of exercise, emotional problems ... fats in intestines trapped by soluble fibre = prevent their absorption by the body ...
1973). The effect of immobilization on the longitudinal growth of striated muscle fibres. J. Anat. 116, 45-55. ... Tendon strain is the ratio of tendon elongation over the tendon resting length, expressed as a percentage. Tendon length (Ltend ... tendon stiffness. Lf. fascicle length. Ltend. tendon length. MA. moment arm. MRI. magnetic resonance imaging. MTU. muscle- ... tendon stress (MPa) was computed by normalising the tendon forces to the tendon CSA as measured by MRI. ...
Tendons can also be strained. A tendon is the tough, narrow tissue at the end of a muscle that connects it to the bone. ... A muscle strain is where muscle tissues or fibres are stretched or torn. A muscle strain is sometimes referred to as pulling a ... Tendonitis is a fairly common injury that can result from a strain or tear in a tendon. Tendonitis can occur in the tendons ... Ankle and ligament damage is also common, as well as Achilles tendon ruptures and calf tendon tears. ...
... concluded that part of the positive work measured did derive from the recoil of the elastic component of the muscle-tendon ... Edman, K., & Tsuchiya, T. (1996). Strain of passive elements during force enhancement by stretch in frog muscle fibres. Journal ... Kim, S. (2013). An Effect of the Elastic Energy Stored in the Muscle-Tendon Complex at Two Different Coupling-Time Conditions ... An Effect of the Elastic Energy Stored in the Muscle-Tendon Complex at Two Different Coupling-Time Conditions during Vertical ...
A torn muscle is a tear in the muscle fibres of the tendons. This injury often damages blood vessels and causes bruising. In ... The greater the number of fibres that are torn, the more severe the diagnosis of the injury. A first degree strain is mild and ... A second degree strain damages more fibres. A third degree strain is a complete rupture of the muscle and may require surgery. ... damages a few muscle fibres. This is the fastest to heal. ...
  • The estimated peak force, average power, and work at the Achilles' tendon during the plantar flexion phase in CM were significantly greater than those in NoCM. (mendeley.com)
  • For more information about tendon injuries in these areas, see the topics Achilles Tendon Problems and Tennis Elbow . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • For example, the Achilles tendon connects the calf muscle to the heel bone. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) fascicle length, pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), the Achilles' tendon (AT) length, cross-sectional area (CSA) and mechanical properties, and the plantarflexion torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships were assessed in both groups. (biologists.org)
  • Specifically, we hypothesised that regular wearing of stilettos would lead to a shortening of the fascicles of the gastrocnemius muscle together with changes in the mechanical properties of the Achilles' tendon (AT), resulting in functional alterations, as seen in the torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships. (biologists.org)
  • One such tendon in the Human Body, the Achilles Tendon . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Achilles tendon , calcaneal tendon the powerful tendon at the back of the heel, attaching the triceps surae muscle to the calcaneus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Athletes with Achilles heel injuries could be treated in the future with bioresorbable synthetic tendons. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • The Achilles tendon joins the calf muscle to the muscles in the feet. (answers.com)
  • Why is the calf muscle sometimes called Achilles tendon? (answers.com)
  • the Achilles tendon is the area on the back of ur foot, between the ball of ur foot and ur ankle. (answers.com)
  • Site injury is noted as anechoic oblique line extending from skin to mid part of achilles tendon. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Swollen achilles tendon seen on the left leg of a 42 year-old man caused by achilles tendinitis as a result of wearing new boots. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The achilles tendon pulls up the back of the heel, it is formed from the calf muscles and attached to the heel bone. (sciencephoto.com)
  • 3D.DOTS at the rear of the sock protect the Achilles tendon from friction and pressure. (wiggle.co.uk)
  • The unique 3D.Dots design which offers protection of the medial malleolus and the Achilles tendon. (wiggle.co.uk)
  • Care first: Use shoes with a slightly elevated heel to protect your achilles tendon. (thehindu.com)
  • For most, the words 'achilles tendon' bring to mind stories of Greek mythology. (thehindu.com)
  • The achilles tendon is the strongest and thickest tendon in the body. (thehindu.com)
  • Most of the force that is generated during the "toe-off" phase of the run, is transmitted through the achilles tendon. (thehindu.com)
  • In achilles tendinosis, there occur micro tears in the body of the tendon and the structures around it. (thehindu.com)
  • This is a condition where the runner initially starts having a feeling of stiffness in their achilles tendon. (thehindu.com)
  • The pain usually starts off as a dull ache and can gradually progress to a sharp, stabbing pain around the midpoint of the achilles tendon, a few inches above the heel. (thehindu.com)
  • The logic of using the heel raise is that the pressure on the achilles tendon is immediately relieved and this, in turn, reduces the stress on the tendon, accelerating the healing process. (thehindu.com)
  • The next phase of management is often neglected and is the key to a pain-free achilles tendon. (thehindu.com)
  • One of the most common causes of the condition is a shortened or tight achilles tendon. (thehindu.com)
  • It consists of eccentric strengthening exercises of the affected achilles tendon. (thehindu.com)
  • Hence, eccentric muscle contractions appear to be associated with greater muscle strengthening, which may protect the achilles tendon and thereby prevent recurrent tendinosis. (thehindu.com)
  • Here we use a Hill-type muscle model of the human medial gastrocnemius to determine the muscle fascicle length and Achilles tendon compliance that maximise efficiency during the stance phase of walking (1.2m/s) and running (3.2 and 3.9 m/s). (nih.gov)
  • Kvist M. Achilles tendon injuries in athletes. (springer.com)
  • Overuse injuries of the Achilles tendon. (springer.com)
  • Ljungqvist R. Subcutaneous partial rupture of the Achilles tendon. (springer.com)
  • Achilles tendon lesions in sport. (springer.com)
  • Post-operative management of chronic achilles tendon pain in sportsmen. (springer.com)
  • We did a nested case-control study among users of fluoroquinolones in a large UK general practice database to study the association with Achilles tendon disorders. (bmj.com)
  • We excluded people with a history of Achilles tendon disorders, cancer, AIDS, illicit drug use, or alcohol misuse. (bmj.com)
  • We used unconditional logistic regression analysis to calculate adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for Achilles tendon disorders, using the no use group as the reference. (bmj.com)
  • The cohort included 46 776 users of fluoroquinolones between 1 July 1992 and 30 June 30 1998, of whom 704 had Achilles tendinitis and 38 had Achilles tendon rupture. (bmj.com)
  • Age, number of visits to the general practitioner in the previous 18 months, gout, obesity, and use of corticosteroid were determinants of Achilles tendon disorders. (bmj.com)
  • The adjusted relative risk of Achilles tendon disorders with current use of fluoroquinolones was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.6). (bmj.com)
  • Current exposure to fluoroquinolones increases the risk of Achilles tendon disorders. (bmj.com)
  • Skeletal striated muscle , or "voluntary muscle", primarily joins to bone with tendons . (wikipedia.org)
  • This presents a challenge, as tendons are compliant and stringy like rope, while bone is hard and porous like cement. (medgadget.com)
  • Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) want to improve the success rate of rotator cuff repair surgery by changing the way that tendons in the rotator cuff are reattached to bone. (medgadget.com)
  • While typical surgery involves suturing the tendon to the humerus, this new approach involves a patch made of mesenchymal stem cells, nanoscopic fibers, and hydroxyapatite to closely mimic the natural gradient from tendon to bone. (medgadget.com)
  • The idea is that the patch will promote the maturation of the mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (to form bone) at one end, and fibroblasts (to form cells found in tendons) on the other end. (medgadget.com)
  • The mat is then coated with a continuous gradient of hydroxyapatite, a mineral containing calcium and phosphorus that gives strength to bone, so that it is stiff and bone-like toward one end and compliant and tendon-like toward the other. (medgadget.com)
  • Finally the scaffold is seeded with adult mesenchymal stem cells, a type of stem cell that can mature into osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) or fibroblasts (cells common in tendon). (medgadget.com)
  • Stem cells toward the bone end will be coaxed by the presence of mineral to differentiate into osteoclasts while the stem cells at the tendon end, surrounded by aligned, unmineralized fibers, will form fibroblasts. (medgadget.com)
  • In the body, the attachment of tendons and ligaments to bone involves a transition zone with unmineralised and mineralised fibrocartilage [ 3 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Tendons are the tough fibres that connect muscle to bone. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Tendons attach muscle to bone and function to transmit tensile loads from muscle to bone and to enable the muscle belly to be at an optimal distance from the joint. (hindawi.com)
  • The tendinous zone of insertion (enthesis) is a progressive structural change from tendon to bone, resulting in increased stiffness and decreased stress concentration. (hindawi.com)
  • parallel collagen fibres at the end of tendon, unmineralised fibrocartilage, and mineralised fibrocartilage, which merges into cortical bone [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Macrotrauma results in the acute rupture of a tendon due to a force above the ultimate tensile strength, either at the tendinous insertion onto bone or in the tendon substance itself. (hindawi.com)
  • A tendon is the tough, narrow tissue at the end of a muscle that connects it to the bone. (hse.ie)
  • A tendon (or sinew ) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone [ 1 ] and is capable of withstanding tension . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Tendons are similar to ligaments and fascia as they are all made of collagen except that ligaments join one bone to another bone, and fascia connect muscles to other muscles. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Damage to collagen fibres and the connection between collagen fibres and bone is explored using light microscopy. (dal.ca)
  • When the muscle contracts it pulls on the tendon, which moves the bone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tendons are extremely tough and are seldom torn, even when an injury is severe enough to break a bone or tear a muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A strong band of COLLAGEN fibres that joins muscle to bone or cartilage and transmits the force of muscle contraction to cause movement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a bunch of parallel COLLAGEN fibres making up a band of CONNECTIVE TISSUE which serves to attach a muscle to a bone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The fibres become continuous with the collagen sheath around the muscle fibres and with the connective tissue covering the bone surface, making a strong cord with no weak connections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These include type II collagen in the cartilaginous zones, type III collagen in the reticulin fibres of the vascular walls, type IX collagen, type IV collagen in the basement membranes of the capillaries, type V collagen in the vascular walls, and type X collagen in the mineralized fibrocartilage near the interface with the bone. (scribd.com)
  • It consists of bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • When a muscle contracts, the tendon and its attached bone are pulled towards the contracting muscle. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Incompressible sesamoids often form inside tendons that wrap around bone. (scribd.com)
  • The incompressible nature of these tissues prevents tendon flattening and increases a muscle's mechanical advantage by lengthening the moment arm of the tendon as it passes around the bone. (scribd.com)
  • The tearing of a ligament, the fibrous tissue connecting bone to bone, is called a sprain.Related Information:A strain is an injury to a muscle or a tendon (the tendon connects muscle to bone). (answers.com)
  • Muscle attaches to tendons which then attach to bone. (answers.com)
  • What is the tendon called that joins the calf muscle of the heel bone? (answers.com)
  • The structure that attaches bone to muscle is called a tendon. (answers.com)
  • A tendon is a band of white tough fibrous connecting tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone. (answers.com)
  • A tendon connects a muscle to a bone. (answers.com)
  • A tendon connects a muscle and bone together but is not a muscle or bone. (answers.com)
  • The portion of muscle attachment to tendon is called the myo-tendinous junction (MTJ) and the portion of tendon attachment to bone is called the osteo-tendinous junction (OTJ). (answers.com)
  • For example, well-aligned collagen fibres provide the required viscoelastic properties of tendon and add elasticity to the composite material of bone. (nature.com)
  • The purpose of the tendon in attaching muscle to bone is to enable the power of the muscle to transfer over a distance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • tendon ( ten -dŏn) n. a tough whitish cord, consisting of numerous parallel bundles of collagen fibres, that serves to attach a muscle to a bone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tendons assist in concentrating the pull of the muscle on a small area of bone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The muscle pulls the tendon and the tendon pulls the bone. (teachingtimes.com)
  • The models, the very first full-sized synthetic cadavers in Canada, according to the Florida-based manufacturer, SynDaver, are complete with every bone, joint, muscle, organ and tendon found on the human body in vivid and colourful detail, as well as major parts of the nervous and vascular systems. (wlu.ca)
  • Tough fibrous connective tissues link muscle to bone where the collagen fibres are arranged parallel to load bearing forces giving this tissue the ability to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. (leathermag.com)
  • A tendon is just a connector, like a piece of string, between the part of the muscle that contracts and the bone to which it attaches. (londonphysiocentre.co.uk)
  • Any repetitive activity that places strain on the muscles of the forearm (particularly the outer muscles) can cause small tears to develop in the tendon fibres at the point where they attach to the bone on the outside of the elbow. (southerncross.co.nz)
  • There may be a partial tear of the tendon fibres, which connect muscle to bone. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Over time, this leads to irritation and pain where the tendon is attached to the bone. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Your doctor may also inject steroid around the area where the tendon attaches to the bone. (apollohospitals.com)
  • The fibres of the tendon (or aponeurosis) are plaited or braided with one another, so that tension in any part of the muscle is usually distributed more or less equally to all parts of the attachment to the bone. (davidhorne-gripmaster.com)
  • An example of how strong a tendon is: even after a chicken leg has been boiled, and the meat will fall off the bone just by touching it, the tendon is still intact and very tough to break. (davidhorne-gripmaster.com)
  • Tendons are specialised, heterogeneous connective tissues, which represent a significant healthcare challenge after injury. (hindawi.com)
  • Defining the structural organisation of tendons and ligaments has improved understanding of the way these heterogeneous tissues function in synergy [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The blood supply to tendons is inferior to that of most other connective tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • As muscles and tendons are highly malleable tissues, chronic use of HH might induce structural and functional changes in the calf MTU. (biologists.org)
  • A muscle strain is where muscle tissues or fibres are stretched or torn. (hse.ie)
  • At the macro level, we examine the mechanical response of whole tissues like tendons and ligaments. (dal.ca)
  • Because the tensile strengths of tendons and ligaments are provided by collagen fibrils, overload damage to these tissues means overload damage to collagen fibrils. (dal.ca)
  • The development of bio-devices for complete regeneration of ligament and tendon tissues is presently one of the biggest challenges in tissue engineering. (frontiersin.org)
  • Elastic fibres are major insoluble extracellular matrix (ECM) assemblies that endow connective tissues with resilience, permitting long-range deformability and passive recoil without energy input. (biologists.org)
  • Her early post-doctoral career concentrated on the application of synthetic collagen structures in the repair of load-bearing soft tissues such as tendons and the meniscus. (le.ac.uk)
  • Connective tissues within the muscle as well as the associated tendons and ligaments are stronger too. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This process leads to increased laxity of ligaments around the joints, subluxation of tendons & subsequently of joints & inflammation of many other tissues in the body. (hpathy.com)
  • A unique knee protector designed to hold your tendons and tissues securely in place. (physioroom.com)
  • Injuries to soft tissues such as ligaments and tendons can come on suddenly or may get worse gradually. (vic.gov.au)
  • By this point, many of the cells in the body are part of tendons and other fibrous tissues, where they are surrounded by a mesh of fibres made of collagen and other proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Sophisticated collagen matrixes are present in skin where a more uniform fibril diameter and specific web-like fibre arrangements influence the tissues strength and locationspecific behaviour. (leathermag.com)
  • This mineral stimulates the process of forming collagen and elastin fibres in muscle and tendon tissues. (healthpost.co.nz)
  • The individual collagen fibrils are arranged into fascicles which contain blood vessels and nerve fibres. (bmj.com)
  • In the inflammatory phase, occurring three to seven days after the injury, cells migrate from the extrinsic peritendinous tissue such as the tendon sheath, periosteum, subcutaneous tissue, and fascicles, as well as from the epitenon and endotenon. (bmj.com)
  • Unique structural hierarchy in which collagen molecules represent the simplest forming structure of tendon with complex arrangement up to tendon fascicles producing the final tendon tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • In tendons, the fibrils then assemble further to form fascicles, which are about 10 μm in length with a diameter of 50-300 μm, and finally into a tendon fiber with a diameter of 100-500 μm. (thefullwiki.org)
  • [ 5 ] Groups of fascicles are bounded by the epitendon and peritendon to form the tendon organ. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In tendons, the fibrils then assemble further to form fascicles, which are about 10 mm in length with a diameter of 50300 m, and finally into a tendon fibre with a diameter of 100500 m.[5] Fascicles are bound by the endotendideum, which is a delicate loose connective tissue containing thin collagen fibrils. (scribd.com)
  • Skeletal muscle has multiple bundles of cells called muscle fibres (or fascicles). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Both positive and negative areas of SHG-CD are observed in microscopy images, which relates to the anti-parallel arrangement of collagen fibres in different fascicles of the tendon. (nature.com)
  • Early stage fatigue damage occurs in bovine tendon fascicles in the absence of changes in mechanics at either the gross or micro-structural level. (le.ac.uk)
  • Functionally distinct tendon fascicles exhibit different creep and stress relaxation behaviour. (le.ac.uk)
  • however, efficient walking requires shorter muscle fascicles and a more compliant tendon than running. (nih.gov)
  • Tendons have the highest tensile strength of all connective tissue because of a high proportion of collagen in the fibres and their closely packed parallel arrangement in the direction of force. (bmj.com)
  • The newly formed tissue starts to mature, and the collagen fibres are increasingly orientated along the direction of force through the tendon. (bmj.com)
  • Tendons are categorized as a connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connective tissue supports, surrounds, and binds the muscle fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comprehensive literature searches focused on advanced composite biomaterials for tendon and ligament tissue engineering. (hindawi.com)
  • In the literature, a range of natural and/or synthetic materials have been combined to produce composite scaffolds tendon and ligament tissue engineering. (hindawi.com)
  • Advanced composite materials represent a promising solution to the challenges associated with tendon and ligament tissue engineering. (hindawi.com)
  • Tendon represents a specialised connective tissue in which collagen type I accounts for ~80% of the net dry weight. (hindawi.com)
  • This refers to tiny tears in the tissue in and around the tendon caused by overuse. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Elastin, secreted by fibroblasts, forms highly cross-linked sheets, allowing the tendon to stretch and coil, contributing to tissue recovery after loading. (hindawi.com)
  • These tendon-resident CD146 + stem/progenitor cells were selectively enriched by connective tissue growth factor delivery (CTGF delivery) in the early phase of tendon healing, followed by tenogenic differentiation in the later phase. (jci.org)
  • Investigating Collagen Fibre Formation in High Density Collagen Gels for Tendon Tissue Engineering. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Except at points of attachment, tendons are parallel bundles of collagenous fibers sheathed in delicate fibroelastic connective tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tendons consist of parallel bundles of collagen with little elastic tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • But, as described in a study published recently in PLOS ONE , genetically engineered fibres of spidroin -- the protein that builds cobweb strands -- might just fit the bill when it comes to human heart tissue. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Thus the particular challenge of tendon tissue engineering is to build the tissue with a highly organized structure of collagen fibres. (spie.org)
  • The rotation produces fine polymer fibres that mimic the natural collagen fibres in healthy tissue. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Surgeons either suture a damaged tendon together, and that can end up as scar tissue, or sometimes surgeons will remove a healthy tendon from one part of the body and put that in the damaged area. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Filling the interstitia within the fascia where the tendon is located is the paratenon a fatty areolar tissue. (scribd.com)
  • The peculiar hierarchical structure of the tendon, a highly anisotropic tissue, in which collagen fibrils assemble in parallel bundles, is difficult to restore since it is organized as an ensemble of structural units at increasing size levels, responsible for its remarkable biofunctional properties. (frontiersin.org)
  • The fibres and muscles are surrounded by connective tissue layers called fasciae. (sciencephoto.com)
  • A tear on tissue, in a muscle facia or in a tendon, is called a tear or a rupture of the relevant tissue. (answers.com)
  • Nonlinear optical properties of collagen type-I are investigated in thin tissue sections of pig tendon as a research model using a complete polarimetric second-harmonic generation (P-SHG) microscopy technique called double Stokes-Mueller polarimetry (DSMP). (nature.com)
  • tendon, tough cord composed of closely packed white fibers of connective tissue that serves to attach muscles to internal structures such as bones or other muscles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The fibres are arranged in bundles that are wrapped in tissue. (teachingtimes.com)
  • Soft tissue and tendons equal time. (slowtwitch.com)
  • Soft tissue is made from bundles of fibres. (vic.gov.au)
  • However, sudden twists or jolts can apply greater force than the tissue can tolerate, resulting in a tear of the fibres. (vic.gov.au)
  • Muscles are anchored to joints with connective tissue called tendons. (vic.gov.au)
  • We present a model for fibrous tissue growth based on 3D-electron microscopy of mouse tendon. (elifesciences.org)
  • These fibres provide strength to the tissue, but may also restrict its ability to grow. (elifesciences.org)
  • The ability of tendons to transmit such large forces is directly attributable to an extracellular matrix (ECM) comprising collagen fibrils aligned parallel to the tissue long axis. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, despite the high forces, tendon cells (tenocytes) remain viable and are able to sustain the integrity of the tissue. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our motivation for this study was to understand how tendons increase in size from an anlage of condensed mesenchyme to a mature tissue that is predominately ECM and which can withstand large forces without cell death. (elifesciences.org)
  • Break down scar tissue - Scar tissue is the result of previous injuries or trauma and can affect muscle, tendons, and ligaments. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • The function of the collagen is influenced by the load bearing forces on the particular piece of tissue as it is these forces that determine the collagen fibres' orientation. (leathermag.com)
  • However, if a tear does manage to propagate, the skin heals over this area with scar tissue, where again we see the effects of collagen fibre orientations producing certain characteristics. (leathermag.com)
  • The scar tissue skin that reforms over a wound has collagen fibres with a more parallel alignment, a collagen arrangement that has been shown to produce a greater strength. (leathermag.com)
  • Tension in the connective tissue decreases and the adhesions between the fibres in the tendon are softened. (londonphysiocentre.co.uk)
  • Tendons sutured to a prosthetic femur [ 1 ] do not remain attached, except to a fibrous envelope of tissue around the implant, restoring less than normal walking ability[ 14 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Muscle is a special type of tissue made up of fibres that contract (shorten) and relax (lengthen). (slideserve.com)
  • There are a number of factors affecting the biomechanical properties of tendons and subsequent tendinosis (degenerative tendon) or tendinopathy (an inflammatory reaction secondary to rupture or vascular damage) [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Pharmacological agents such as corticosteroids and anabolic steroids are associated with tendon rupture. (hindawi.com)
  • 8 , 11 , 12 Acute rupture or avulsion of a proximal adductor tendon is rare. (bmj.com)
  • Overuse of tendons and ligaments without proper training may eventually lead to tendon or ligament damage, or even rupture. (dal.ca)
  • Rupture of the patellar tendon usually occurs at the osseotendinous junction and causes complete derangement of the knee extensor mechanism. (medscape.com)
  • In the past, the surgical technique for acute rupture of the patellar tendon was primary suture repair. (medscape.com)
  • Given that considerable force is needed to rupture a healthy tendon, it is likely that ruptures occur in areas of preexisting disease. (medscape.com)
  • Patellar tendon rupture often occurs in the setting of long-standing patellar tendon irritation. (medscape.com)
  • The rupture is the final result of chronic tendon degeneration due to repetitive microtrauma. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with a total tendon rupture nerve fibre occurrence was normal. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tendon biopsies from patients with total tendon rupture showed statistically normal levels. (diva-portal.org)
  • [2] In middle age, a subacromial space less than 6 mm is pathological, and may indicate a rupture of the tendon of the supraspinatus muscle . (wikipedia.org)
  • As a rule the tendon is stronger than the muscle, and does not rupture when a limb is subjected to severe strain. (davidhorne-gripmaster.com)
  • Loads great enough to produce lesions usually pull the tendon insertion away, rupture the muscle belly, separate the muscle-tendinous junction, cause the muscle origin to pull out, or fracture the bones! (davidhorne-gripmaster.com)
  • In addition, cross linking between the collagen fibrils increases the tendon tensile strength. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, tendons display a unique structural hierarchy where collagen molecules produce collagen fibrils, which group together to form collagen fibres. (hindawi.com)
  • X-ray diffraction evidence of collagen molecular packing and cross-linking in fibrils of rat tendon observed by synchrotron radiation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The collagen in tendons are held together with proteoglycan components, including decorin and, in compressed regions of tendon, aggrecan , which are capable of binding to the collagen fibrils at specific locations. (thefullwiki.org)
  • We are continuing to investigate whether discrete plasticity occurs in all tendons and ligaments when they are overloaded, whether cells are able to distinguish these fibrils from normal fibrils, and if and how fibrils with discrete plasticity are repaired. (dal.ca)
  • Both the annulus of intervertebral discs and the ligaments that run along the back of the spinal column are composed of collagen fibrils, which, as we know from our work with tendons, can sustain longitudinally distributed overload damage. (dal.ca)
  • While the collagen fibrils allow tendons to resist tensile stress, the proteoglycans allow them to resist compressive stress. (scribd.com)
  • Most of the sensory fibrils entering each segment of the spinal cord terminate on interneurons, but a small number of large sensory fibres from the muscle spindles terminate directly on the anterior motorneurons. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Traumatic tendon and ligamentous injuries represent significant healthcare and economic challenges for the future. (hindawi.com)
  • The heel and elbow joints are common sites of tendon injuries. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Most tendon injuries are the result of gradual wear and tear to the tendon from overuse or aging. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The use of stems cells in tendon repair is of particular interest given the frequency of tendon injuries worldwide together with the technical difficulty often encountered when repairing or augmenting tendons. (hindawi.com)
  • Stems cells have the capability to differentiate into a variety of different cell types including osteocytes and tenocytes, and if normal architecture of damaged tendon (either macroscopic or microscopic) could be restored, this would significantly improve the management of patients with these injuries. (hindawi.com)
  • By investigating the nanoscale structure of tendons and ligaments both before and after fatigue loading, we are working to answer important questions about the development of overuse injuries that cost our healthcare system millions of dollars annually. (dal.ca)
  • The focus of this article is acute patellar tendon ruptures, especially those associated with acute sports-related injuries. (medscape.com)
  • Injuries to the tendon usually involve the adjacent retinacula as well, causing dysfunction of the entire extensor hood. (medscape.com)
  • That said, because muscles, tendons and ligaments are repeatedly and rapidly flexed and contracted during exercise it is important that we are aware of how to care for them in order to avoid unnecessary injuries. (technogym.com)
  • Strains are injuries to muscle fibres or tendons, which anchor muscles to bones. (technogym.com)
  • Tendon injuries are not conditions that you can exercise through. (londonphysiocentre.co.uk)
  • Fibre bundle actions related to ligament replacements and injuries. (springermedizin.de)
  • The researchers created a scoring system for grading tendon injuries in racehorses when they first occur and used this in a large study to determine which ultrasound features will predict whether the horse will successfully race again after rehabilitation. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • The study team, whose findings are reported in the Equine Veterinary Journal , focused on injuries to the superficial digital flexor tendon. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • The authors set out to determine whether the features of such tendon injuries seen in ultrasound images of the front legs of Thoroughbred racehorses could predict a successful return to racing, completing five or more races. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • Ultrasound images of 469 horses with forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon injuries were used in the research. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • Ultrasound is a quick and easy method of assessing tendon injuries, widely available across veterinary practices," said lead researcher Dr Rafael Alzola, equine surgery resident at the Nottingham Veterinary School and Oakham Veterinary Hospital. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • 32 million traumatic and repetitive motion injuries to tendons and ligaments [ 18 ], costing$30 billion per year in the U.S. alone [ 19 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tendon injuries can dramatically affect quality of life and are expected to increase in number and severity in our aging and active population. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the flexed knee position, the patellar tendon sustains greater stress than the quadriceps tendon, and the tensile load is much higher at the insertion sites than in the midsubstance of the tendon. (medscape.com)
  • Where the quadriceps muscle becomes the quadriceps tendon a little way above the patella, a thin aponeurotic sheet leaves the tendon and anchors laterally to the deep fascia layer. (kneeguru.co.uk)
  • The four bellies converge distally to form the thick quadriceps tendon, which inserts into the superior pole of the patella. (sportsinjurybulletin.com)
  • The quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon were removed from the right hind limb in 24 goats. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The new models were found to perform very well and were used to develop design equations for the reduced tensile strength of harped CFRP tendons as well as failure mode control guidelines for the avoidance of undesirable failure modes. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Collagen fibres have an enormous tensile strength and are not stretchable. (fairvital.com)
  • The tensile strength of adult tendons is about 4169 PSI. (davidhorne-gripmaster.com)
  • Tendons and muscles work together to move bones. (scribd.com)
  • Muscles are attached to bones by tendons that are made of collagen fibres. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • The patellar tendon is actually a ligament connecting two bones, the tibia and the patella. (medscape.com)
  • Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibres (called tendons). (sciencephoto.com)
  • They are attached to your bones by tendons. (teachingtimes.com)
  • Tendons connect muscles to bones. (elifesciences.org)
  • The strength of tendons in resisting pulls is said to be 'equal to at least half that of the bones' (2). (davidhorne-gripmaster.com)
  • Attached to proteins, N.A.G can form cartilage, ligaments and tendons. (bodykind.com)
  • Muscle cells are attached to the collagenous myo-tendon space via hemidesmosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These bind the extracellular water in the tendon, helping to stabilise the collagenous skeleton and contributing to the overall tendon strength. (hindawi.com)
  • tendon of conus , tendon of infundibulum a collagenous band connecting the posterior surface of the pulmonary annulus and the muscular infundibulum with the root of the aorta. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This thesis describes an experimental research study of the tensile-flexural behaviour of post-tensioned CFRP tendons subjected to harped profiles. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Tendon cells, or tenocytes, are elongated fibroblast type cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The left and right crura are tendons that blend with the anterior longitudinal ligament of the vertebral column . (wikipedia.org)
  • The uniaxial orientation and bundle formation of collagen fibres determine the mechanical properties of tendons. (spie.org)
  • The patellar tendon serves as the distal extent of the quadriceps insertion. (medscape.com)
  • The patellar tendon ruptures relatively infrequently. (medscape.com)
  • Anteriorly, the fibers of the rectus femoris tendon traverse the patella and condense inferior to the patella to insert on the tibial tubercle as the patellar tendon. (medscape.com)
  • The retinacula converge into the patellar tendon. (medscape.com)
  • Unilateral traumatic ruptures of the patellar tendon tend to occur when a violent contraction of the quadriceps is resisted by the flexed knee (eg, during landing after a jump). (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, the patellar tendon most commonly ruptures near its proximal end, off the inferior pole of the patella. (medscape.com)
  • A smaller percentage of fibres of the superficial lamina lie superficial to the patella and merge directly into the patellar tendon. (sportsinjurybulletin.com)
  • It is caused by strenuous overuse of the muscles and tendons of the forearm and around the elbow joint. (hse.ie)
  • Athletic tendinopathy is an overuse condition causing pain and swelling in and around tendons, 8 not only restricted to athletes, but 25-30% of patients are nonathletes. (springer.com)
  • Maffulli N, Khan KM, Puddu G. Overuse tendon conditions: time to change a confusing terminology. (springer.com)
  • Tennis elbow is a condition caused by overuse of the muscles and tendons in the forearm. (southerncross.co.nz)
  • Carbon-fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement has emerged as an alternative to steel because it is non-corroding and fatigue resistant. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • These Tekna Carbon Fibre Tendon Boots are the ideal choice for eventers and show jumpers. (robinsonsequestrian.com)
  • Features include open fronts, shatterproof rear carbon fibre inserts for added tendon support and protection, soft inner neoprene linings which offer excellent shock absorption and double fastening elasticated touch tape straps for comfort and security. (robinsonsequestrian.com)
  • Developing new steel anchor for Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers tendons and/or cable stays. (aucegypt.edu)
  • Rehabilitation of masonry walls using Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers strips and/or epoxy grout. (aucegypt.edu)
  • Saskatchewan continued the scary most with 1,520 jacks, most of which is economic book Update on Carbon Fibre. (nukefix.org)
  • Made from a woven carbon fibre, these boxing knee pads will last for years. (physioroom.com)
  • The distal limb muscles are also highly specialized, consisting of extremely long tendons that cross mobile metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Normal skin, which covers mobile areas like joints, has fibres arranged in a more isotropic manner, creating a mesh like structure that allows more flexibility. (leathermag.com)
  • as well as crossing two joints, it contains a high percentage of explosive 'type-II fibres' and also has a complex musculotendinous architecture, all of which are known to increase injury risk (9,10) . (sportsinjurybulletin.com)
  • Your body uses Copper to maintain healthy joints, tendons and ligaments. (healthpost.co.nz)
  • Tendons and sheets of fascia cross most joints. (davidhorne-gripmaster.com)
  • Golgi tendon organ. (aqa.org.uk)
  • Stretch receptors have two parts: Spindle cells and Golgi tendons. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, Golgi tendon receptors are located near the end of a muscle fiber and send messages for the muscle to relax. (wikipedia.org)
  • The internal tendon bulk is thought to contain no nerve fibers, but the epi- and peritendon contain nerve endings, while Golgi tendon organs are present at the junction between tendon and muscle. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Is the Golgi tendon tendon organ voluntary or involuntary? (answers.com)
  • To answer your question in brief, the Golgi tendon organ is an involuntary mechanism that serves to maintain muscle tension and prevent injury. (answers.com)
  • The invention provides graft, prothesis, orthopaedic structures, implants and like body replacement parts which are constituted of synthetic collagen fibers, an embodiment of which is a tendon or a ligament prosthesis, graft or implants. (google.es)
  • 1. A biocompatible, biodegradable graft which is a tendon of improved mechanical properties which comprises aligned cross-linked synthetic collagen fibers embedded in a non-crosslinked and loose collagen matrix, said fibers having a diameter in the range of 20 to about 60 microns. (google.es)
  • 13. The biocompatible, biodegradable graft of claim 8 which has a wet ultimate strain in the range of about 16.10 2.70, 13.0 2.90 and 14.50 3.50 at strain rates of 10, 50 and 100 percent, respectively, wherein the fibres were 2 days cross-linked fibers. (google.es)
  • 18. The biocompatible, biodegradable graft of claim 10 which has an UTS which is in excess of an autograph or of naturally occurring tendon fibers of rats. (google.es)
  • The WUSTL scaffold consists of a mat of nanoscopic fibers electrospun in Xia's lab that mimics the structure of the collagen fibers in a tendon. (medgadget.com)
  • The time-controlled proliferation and differentiation of CD146 + stem/progenitor cells by CTGF delivery successfully led to tendon regeneration with densely aligned collagen fibers, normal level of cellularity, and functional restoration. (jci.org)
  • Normal healthy tendons are mostly composed of parallel arrays of collagen fibers closely packed together. (thefullwiki.org)
  • [5] Its peripheral part consists of muscular fibers that take origin from the circumference of the inferior thoracic aperture and converge to be inserted into a central tendon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central tendon of the diaphragm is a thin but strong aponeurosis near the center of the vault formed by the muscle, closer to the front than to the back of the thorax , so that the posterior muscular fibers are the longer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen fibers, such as those in tendons, can be stretched only about twenty percent before they tear,' says Koenderink. (tudelft.nl)
  • In all animals studied, the cartilago transiliens receives collagen fibers and tendon insertions from its two main muscular attachments. (scribd.com)
  • Sometimes when the muscle involved is thin and wide, the tendon is not a cord but a thin sheet known as an aponeurosis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • fibres from the aponeurosis of the quadriceps muscle . (kneeguru.co.uk)
  • The bulk of the iliotibial band runs longitudinally down the lateral part of the thigh to attach to Gerdy's tubercle on the side of the tibia , but bands of fibres sweep obliquely from the iliotibial band to converge with those of the quadriceps aponeurosis above and to the side of the patella. (kneeguru.co.uk)
  • In this review, we look at the advanced biomaterial composites employed to improve cellular growth while providing appropriate mechanical properties for tendon and ligament repair. (hindawi.com)
  • Consequently, any change in the contractile behaviour of the plantarflexor muscles induced by long-term use of HH might indirectly also affect tendon mechanical properties. (biologists.org)
  • Properties of CFRP tendons: short- and long-term mechanical properties, coefficient of thermal expansion, effect of elevated temperature, etc. (aucegypt.edu)
  • The proteoglycan components of tendons also are important to the mechanical properties. (scribd.com)
  • 3 Extrinsic healing occurs through the chemotaxis of the specialised fibroblasts into the defect from the ends of the tendon sheath. (bmj.com)
  • The migrating fibroblasts still play a phagocytic role, and are arranged in a radial fashion in relation to the direction of the fibres of the tendon. (bmj.com)
  • The data support a model where the shape and size of tendon is determined by the number and position of embryonic fibroblasts. (elifesciences.org)
  • Larger tendons contain a thin internal septum, a few blood vessels, and specialized stereognostic nerves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In all biopsies the tendon and the bursa contained more blood vessels than normal. (diva-portal.org)
  • The main reason for this is that repairing a torn rotator cuff often involves reconnecting the tendons to the ball of the humerus in your upper arm. (medgadget.com)
  • rotator cuff muscles or tendons. (answers.com)
  • [3] The tendons of the rotator cuff and their respective muscles ( supraspinatus , infraspinatus , teres minor , and subscapularis ) stabilize and fix the joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • A torn muscle is a tear in the muscle fibres of the tendons. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The greater the number of fibres that are torn, the more severe the diagnosis of the injury. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Tendons may become inflamed, or may be torn or cut. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is because when the tendon is torn the area around the tendon will not be in very much use until the tendon is repaired which can take a good while unless professionally handled. (answers.com)
  • The muscle fibres can become stretched or torn completely. (medic8.com)
  • When a tendon is damaged fluid seeps out of torn fibres and causes localised swelling. (londonphysiocentre.co.uk)
  • When you use these muscles over and over again, small tears develop in the tendon. (apollohospitals.com)
  • However, its use in external post-tensioning has been limited due to a lack of knowledge regarding the tensile-flexural behaviour of the tendons under typical harped profiles. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The program studied the effect of tendon size, deviator size and harping angle on the tendon behaviour. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Both the flexural and overall behaviour of the tendon were observed and recorded throughout the tests. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In vivo muscle fibre behaviour during cou. (mendeley.com)
  • Behaviour and design of Fibre Reinforced Polymers structures and bridges. (aucegypt.edu)
  • Behaviour and design of masonry diaphragm walls prestressed with CFRP tendons. (aucegypt.edu)
  • Skeletal muscle fibre with exposed intracellular actin myosin filaments, scanning electron micrograph (SEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • 1. Alpha a motorneurons of which stimulation of a single nerve fibre excites from 3 to 2000 skeletal muscle fibres which we call the motor unit. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2. Gamma [chi] motorneurons, which transmit impulses to special skeletal muscle fibres, called intrafusal fibres, part of the muscle spindle. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Each muscle spindle is built around 3-10 small intrafusal muscle fibres attached to the sheaths of the surrounding extrafusal skeletal muscle fibres, the ends of which are excited by small gamma efferent motor nerve fibres. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • There is also the presence of developmental myoblasts, and these coalesce to form the important muscle fibres of the skeletal muscle. (differencebetween.net)
  • In combination with proteoglycans and elastin, collagen permits high mechanical strength in tendons [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The dry mass of normal tendons, which makes up about 30% of the total mass in water, is composed of about 86% collagen, 2% elastin , 1-5% proteoglycans , and 0.2% inorganic components such as copper , manganese , and calcium . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Elastic fibres are essential extracellular matrix macromolecules comprising an elastin core surrounded by a mantle of fibrillin-rich microfibrils. (biologists.org)
  • Genesis of elastic fibres in early development involves deposition of tropoelastin (the soluble precursor of mature elastin) on a preformed template of fibrillin-rich microfibrils (Figs 1 , 2 ) ( Mecham and Davis, 1994 ). (biologists.org)
  • Mature elastic fibres are thus a composite biomaterial comprising an outer microfibrillar mantle and an inner core of amorphous crosslinked elastin. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, we hypothesised that the percentage area of type II fibres would show a correlation with the maximum muscle mechanical power normalised to muscle volume and specific muscle contractile strength (i.e., plantar flexion moment divided by muscle cross-sectional area). (frontiersin.org)
  • In 20 male adults, the percentage area of type II fibres, volume and maximum cross-sectional area of the soleus muscle as well as the maximum plantar flexion moment and the maximum mechanical power were measured using muscle biopsies, magnetic resonance imaging and dynamometry. (frontiersin.org)
  • The maximum mechanical power normalised to muscle volume and specific muscle contractile strength provided a significant relationship ( r = 0.654, p = 0.002) with the percentage area of type II fibres. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specific muscle training that favours the hypertrophy of the type II fibres may be important in activities where high muscle power production (e.g., sprinting or jumping) and high rates of force development (e.g., balance responses after unexpected perturbations) are needed. (frontiersin.org)
  • increasing the percentage area of type II fibres during hypertrophic adaptation without any changes in the numerical fibre distribution within a muscle. (frontiersin.org)
  • The intrinsic model produces obliteration of the tendon and its tendon sheath. (bmj.com)
  • Tendons are often provided with sheaths in which they move smoothly, lubricated by a fluid secreted by the sheath lining. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If there is a tendon sheath involved, it will be called tenosynovitis. (answers.com)
  • t. sheath a tubular sac, lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid, that surrounds some tendons. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii is inside the capsule, it requires a tendon sheath to minimize friction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, the tendons of the vastus medialis insert into the superomedial border of the patella and tibia to form the medial retinaculum. (medscape.com)
  • This includes deeper dense transverse fibres that anchor the lateral edge of the patella and the tendon of vastus lateralis obliquus ( VLO ) to the iliotibial band (but not to the femur). (kneeguru.co.uk)
  • The proximal tendons of AB and gracilis were fused, forming a common tendinous insertion in all specimens. (bmj.com)
  • The inferior vena cava passes through the caval opening, a quadrilateral opening at the junction of the right and middle leaflets of the central tendon , so that its margins are tendinous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods The adductors were dissected bilaterally in 10 embalmed cadavers (7 females, mean age at death 79 years (range 57-93 years)), focusing on the type of enthesis, and architecture of the proximal tendons and MTJs. (bmj.com)
  • The arrangement and fusion of these muscles, their fibrocartilaginous entheses and differences in vascularity of their proximal tendons may be important anatomical considerations in the pathogenesis and pattern of adductor-related groin pain. (bmj.com)
  • The RF originates from the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS), and has three proximal tendons: the straight or direct tendon, which arises from the AIIS, the indirect tendon which inserts into the superolateral rim of the acetabulum, and a small reflected tendon, which inserts into the anterior capsule of the hip joint (2) . (sportsinjurybulletin.com)
  • Tendons can further attach to muscles through fascia [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • What is the medical term meaning tearing of muscle fascia or tendon? (answers.com)
  • The quadriceps muscle and tendon lie deep to the deep fascia layer. (kneeguru.co.uk)
  • Parts of the muscular system: tendons, deep fascia, epimysium etc. (acsedu.co.uk)
  • 6][7] and elastic fibres. (scribd.com)
  • The biology of elastic fibres is complex because they have multiple components, a tightly regulated developmental deposition, a multi-step hierarchical assembly and unique biomechanical functions. (biologists.org)
  • Transmission electron microscopy of fibrillin-rich microfibrils and elastic fibres. (biologists.org)
  • D) Close-up of elastic fibres forming in bovine nuchal ligament fibroblast cultures. (biologists.org)
  • Elastic fibres are designed to maintain elastic function for a lifetime. (biologists.org)
  • What is the different between the ligament and tendon? (answers.com)
  • The fibres also slightly expand in diameter and form regular waves called crimps that are important for the structural strength of the tendon. (elifesciences.org)
  • The thickness and strength of the tendon will vary greatly, depending upon the location of the muscle. (davidhorne-gripmaster.com)
  • Endocrine factors play a part, and pregnancy is associated with a decreased stiffness of pelvic tendons. (hindawi.com)
  • In CM, in the dorsiflexion phase, fascicle length initially increased with little electromyographic activity, then remained constant while the whole muscle-tendon unit lengthened, before decreasing in the final plantar flexion phase. (mendeley.com)
  • Wearing high heels (HH) places the calf muscle-tendon unit (MTU) in a shortened position. (biologists.org)
  • During a movement, the functional role of a muscle-tendon unit (MTU) can be established based on a combination of muscular force generation and muscle and tendon length trajectories [ 19 - 21 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Future challenges are to understand how the number and the arrangement of cells in the tendon is determined before the collagen fibres are made, and how these cells control the number of collagen fibres that form. (elifesciences.org)
  • Collagen structures produce properties in collagen-based materials resulting from the fibre arrangement in response to external forces and chemical treatments. (leathermag.com)
  • What is a tendon injury? (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • A tendon injury may seem to happen suddenly, but usually it is the result of many tiny tears to the tendon that have happened over time. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Doctors may use different terms to describe a tendon injury. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Many doctors still use this familiar word to describe a tendon injury. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • What causes a tendon injury? (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Anyone can have a tendon injury. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • A tendon injury can happen suddenly or little by little. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • You are more likely to have a sudden injury if the tendon has been weakened over time. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The symptoms of a tendon injury can be a lot like those caused by bursitis . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • How is a tendon injury diagnosed? (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • To diagnose a tendon injury, a doctor will ask questions about your past health and your symptoms and will do a physical examination. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • In most cases, you can treat a tendon injury at home. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • If the injury is severe or long-lasting, your doctor may have you use a splint, brace , or cast to hold the tendon still. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • It may take weeks or months for a tendon injury to heal. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • If your job caused the tendon injury, ask your human resource department if there are other ways to do your job. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Remodelling occurs several weeks after injury consisting of maturation and orientation of collagen fibres. (hindawi.com)
  • Injury to the body of the muscle or attachment of the tendon? (answers.com)
  • An injury to a muscle or a tendon is called a strain. (answers.com)
  • About 1/2 thickness of fibres is involved by cut injury - partial thickness tear which involves full width of the tendon. (radiopaedia.org)
  • This injury is more common in older players because the tendons in the shoulder become weakened as you get older. (medic8.com)
  • Injury to these tendons or the muscles themselves is called a strain. (vic.gov.au)
  • For example, high forces across the muscle-tendon units combined with eccentric contraction can lead to strain injury. (sportsinjurybulletin.com)
  • A new technique that uses ultrasound findings to predict a racehorse's likelihood of returning to racing after a tendon injury has been described by researchers. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • Standard treatment for tendon injury in a racehorse is the three 'Equine Rs' - Rest (until able to race again), Rehabilitation (toward an alternative career) or Retirement. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • Six ultrasonographic parameters were evaluated, including the type and extent of the injury, its location, and the fibre pattern in the injury zone. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • For cases without a core lesion, the longitudinal fibre pattern at the maximal injury zone best predicted a successful return to racing. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopaedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A successful artificial tendon, a fastener that interfaces with muscle proximally and provides a link directly or indirectly to the skeleton distally, would expand effective treatment in important applications: orthopaedic oncology, tendon transfer procedures, revision arthroplasty, and tendon injury reconstruction [ 1 - 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)