Rift Valley Fever
Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral
Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean
Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome
African Swine Fever Virus
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Classical Swine Fever
Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo
African Swine Fever
Hemorrhagic Fever, American
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola
Marburg Virus Disease
Ephemeral Fever Virus, Bovine
Colorado Tick Fever
Sandfly fever Naples virus
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Communicable Diseases, Emerging
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal
Arenaviruses, New World
Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency
Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Molecular Sequence Data
West Nile Fever
Sensitivity and Specificity
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Body Temperature Regulation
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases
Indian Ocean Islands
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Pyorrhoea as cause of pyrexia. (1/3622)Three patients with fever and malaise, one of whom also had joint pains, were extensively investigated before their condition was attributed to dental sepsis. Each patient recovered fully after appropriate dental treatment. Dental sepsis should be added to the list of possible causes of pyrexia of undetermined origin, and a routine dental examination should be carried out in each case. (+info)
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) protects postimplantation murine embryos from the embryolethal effects of hyperthermia. (2/3622)Previous work has shown that there is a positive correlation between the induction of Hsp70 and its transient nuclear localization and the acquisition and loss of induced thermotolerance in postimplantation rat embryos. To determine whether Hsp70 is sufficient to induce thermotolerance in postimplantation mammalian embryos, we used a transgenic mouse in which the normally strictly inducible Hsp70 is constitutively expressed in the embryo under the control of a beta-actin promoter. Day 8.0 mouse embryos heterozygous for the Hsp70 transgene were not protected from the embryotoxic effects of hyperthermia (43 degrees C); however, homozygous embryos, expressing approximately twice as much Hsp70 as heterozygous embryos, were partially protected (increased embryo viability) from the embryolethal effects of hyperthermia. Although the viability of transgenic embryos was significantly increased compared with that of nontransgenic embryos, this protection did not extend to embryo growth and development. To determine whether the failure to achieve a more robust protection was related to the expression of insufficient Hsp70 in transgenic embryos, we undertook experiments to determine whether the level of Hsp70 correlated with the level of thermotolerance induced by various lengths of a 41 degrees C heat shock. A 41 degrees C, 5-minute heat shock failed to induce Hsp70 or thermotolerance, a 41 degrees C, 15-minute heat shock induced Hsp70 and a significant level of thermotolerance, while a 41 degrees C, 60-minute heat shock induced an even higher level of Hsp70 as well as a higher level of thermotolerance. Quantitation of Hsp70 levels indicated that thermotolerance was associated with levels of Hsp70 of 820 pg/microg embryo protein or greater. Subsequent quantitation of the amount of Hsp70 expressed in homozygous transgenic embryos indicated a level of 577 pg/microg embryo protein, that is, a level below that associated with induced thermotolerance. Overall, results presented indicate that Hsp70 does play a direct role in the induction of thermotolerance in postimplantation mouse embryos; however, the level of thermotolerance is dependent on the level of Hsp70 expressed. (+info)
Modulation of the thermoregulatory sweating response to mild hyperthermia during activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans. (3/3622)1. To investigate the effect of the muscle metaboreflex on the thermoregulatory sweating response in humans, eight healthy male subjects performed sustained isometric handgrip exercise in an environmental chamber (35 C and 50 % relative humidity) at 30 or 45 % maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), at the end of which the blood circulation to the forearm was occluded for 120 s. The environmental conditions were such as to produce sweating by increase in skin temperature without a marked change in oesophageal temperature. 2. During circulatory occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 120 s or at 45 % MVC for 60 s, the sweating rate (SR) on the chest and forearm (hairy regions), and the mean arterial blood pressure were significantly above baseline values (P < 0.05). There were no changes from baseline values in the oesophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, or SR on the palm (hairless regions). 3. During the occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 60 s and during the occlusion alone, none of the measured parameters differed from baseline values. 4. It is concluded that, under mildly hyperthermic conditions, the thermoregulatory sweating response on the hairy regions is modulated by afferent signals from muscle metaboreceptors. (+info)
Effects of targeted disruption of the mouse angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene on stress-induced hyperthermia. (4/3622)1. We have previously reported that brain angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT2) contribute to immunological stress-induced hyperthermia (fever) in rats. Now, in mice, we report the effect of AT2 gene disruption on the hyperthermia induced by immunological (interleukin-1 (IL-1) injection) and non-immunological (saline injection or cage switch) stress. 2. AT2-deficient and control mice both showed typical circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and physical activity. During the latter half of the dark period, AT2-deficient mice exhibited a lower body temperature than the controls. 3. By comparison with the controls, AT2-deficient mice exhibited: (i) a significantly smaller hyperthermia after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of IL-1beta; (ii) significantly greater increases in body temperature and physical activity after i. p. saline; and (iii) a significantly greater hyperthermia (but a similar increase in activity) during cage-switch stress. 4. These results suggest that AT2, presumably in the brain, plays important roles in stress-induced hyperthermia in mice. (+info)
Familial Mediterranean fever--renal involvement by diseases other than amyloid. (5/3622)BACKGROUND: In patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) renal involvement is usually in the form of AA amyloidosis. There is increasing evidence that renal involvement may be due to diseases other than amyloid as well. METHODS: Amongst 302 children with FMF we observed and followed 28 with typical clinical and laboratory features of vasculitis. The diagnosis of FMF was established according to the Tel Hashomer criteria. RESULTS: Polyarteritis nodosa, protracted febrile attacks and Henoch-Schonlein purpura were diagnosed in 4, 13, and 11 patients, respectively. The presentation was often difficult to distinguish from FMF attacks, but protracted febrile attacks lasting several weeks, hypertension, thrombocytosis, and dramatic responses to corticosteroid therapy that were observed in many cases were different from what is observed in classical FMF. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that FMF, perhaps as a consequence of impaired control of inflammatory responses, predisposes to vasculitis with renal involvement. (+info)
Acute-phase responses in transgenic mice with CNS overexpression of IL-1 receptor antagonist. (6/3622)The interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is an endogenous antagonist that blocks the effects of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta by occupying the type I IL-1 receptor. Here we describe transgenic mice with astrocyte-directed overexpression of the human secreted IL-1ra (hsIL-1ra) under the control of the murine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Two GFAP-hsIL-1ra strains have been generated and characterized further: GILRA2 and GILRA4. These strains show a brain-specific expression of the hsIL-1ra at the mRNA and protein levels. The hsIL-1ra protein was approximated to approximately 50 ng/brain in cytosolic fractions of whole brain homogenates, with no differences between male and female mice or between the two strains. Furthermore, the protein is secreted, inasmuch as the concentration of hsIL-1ra in the cerebrospinal fluid was 13 (GILRA2) to 28 (GILRA4) times higher in the transgenic mice than in the control animals. To characterize the transgenic phenotype, GILRA mice and nontransgenic controls were injected with recombinant human IL-1beta (central injection) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, peripheral injection). The febrile response elicited by IL-1beta (50 ng/mouse icv) was abolished in hsIL-1ra-overexpressing animals, suggesting that the central IL-1 receptors were occupied by antagonist. The peripheral LPS injection (25 micrograms/kg ip) triggered a fever in overexpressing and control animals. Moreover, no differences were found in LPS-induced (100 and 1,000 micrograms/kg ip; 1 and 6 h after injection) IL-1beta and IL-6 serum levels between GILRA and wild-type mice. On the basis of these results, we suggest that binding of central IL-1 to central IL-1 receptors is not important in LPS-induced fever or LPS-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 plasma levels. (+info)
Central administration of rat IL-6 induces HPA activation and fever but not sickness behavior in rats. (7/3622)Interleukin (IL)-6 has been proposed to mediate several sickness responses, including brain-mediated neuroendocrine, temperature, and behavioral changes. However, the exact mechanisms and sites of action of IL-6 are still poorly understood. In the present study, we describe the effects of central administration of species-homologous recombinant rat IL-6 (rrIL-6) on the induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, fever, social investigatory behavior, and immobility. After intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (50 or 100 ng/rat), rats demonstrated HPA and febrile responses. In contrast, rrIL-6 alone did not induce changes in social investigatory and locomotor behavior at doses of up to 400 ng/rat. Coadministration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) and rrIL-1beta (40 ng/rat), which alone did not affect the behavioral responses, reduced social investigatory behavior and increased the duration of immobility. Compared with rhIL-6, intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) induced higher HPA responses and early-phase febrile responses. This is consistent with a higher potency of rrIL-6, compared with rhIL-6, in the murine B9 bioassay. We conclude that species-homologous rrIL-6 alone can act in the brain to induce HPA and febrile responses, whereas it only reduces social investigatory behavior and locomotor activity in the presence of IL-1beta. (+info)
Liposomal amphotericin B for empirical therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. (8/3622)BACKGROUND: In patients with persistent fever and neutropenia, amphotericin B is administered empirically for the early treatment and prevention of clinically occult invasive fungal infections. However, breakthrough fungal infections can develop despite treatment, and amphotericin B has substantial toxicity. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing liposomal amphotericin B with conventional amphotericin B as empirical antifungal therapy. RESULTS: The mean duration of therapy was 10.8 days for liposomal amphotericin B (343 patients) and 10.3 days for conventional amphotericin B (344 patients). The composite rates of successful treatment were similar (50 percent for liposomal amphotericin B and 49 percent for conventional amphotericin B) and were independent of the use of antifungal prophylaxis or colony-stimulating factors. The outcomes were similar with liposomal amphotericin B and conventional amphotericin B with respect to survival (93 percent and 90 percent, respectively), resolution of fever (58 percent and 58 percent), and discontinuation of the study drug because of toxic effects or lack of efficacy (14 percent and 19 percent). There were fewer proved breakthrough fungal infections among patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B (11 patients [3.2 percent]) than among those treated with conventional amphotericin B (27 patients [7.8 percent], P=0.009). With the liposomal preparation significantly fewer patients had infusion-related fever (17 percent vs. 44 percent), chills or rigors (18 percent vs. 54 percent), and other reactions, including hypotension, hypertension, and hypoxia. Nephrotoxic effects (defined by a serum creatinine level two times the upper limit of normal) were significantly less frequent among patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B (19 percent) than among those treated with conventional amphotericin B (34 percent, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Liposomal amphotericin B is as effective as conventional amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with fever and neutropenia, and it is associated with fewer breakthrough fungal infections, less infusion-related toxicity, and less nephrotoxicity. (+info)
There are different types of fever, including:
1. Pyrexia: This is the medical term for fever. It is used to describe a body temperature that is above normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F).
2. Hyperthermia: This is a more severe form of fever, where the body temperature rises significantly above normal levels.
3. Febrile seizure: This is a seizure that occurs in children who have a high fever.
4. Remittent fever: This is a type of fever that comes and goes over a period of time.
5. Intermittent fever: This is a type of fever that recurs at regular intervals.
6. Chronic fever: This is a type of fever that persists for an extended period of time, often more than 3 weeks.
The symptoms of fever can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:
* Elevated body temperature
* Muscle aches
* Loss of appetite
In some cases, fever can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone in your care has a fever, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, confusion, or chest pain.
Treatment for fever depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen may be prescribed to help reduce the fever. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully and to consult with a healthcare professional before giving medication to children.
In addition to medication, there are other ways to help manage fever symptoms at home. These include:
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Taking cool baths or using a cool compress to reduce body temperature
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities
* Using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen, to help manage headache and muscle aches.
Preventive measures for fever include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying up to date on vaccinations, which can help prevent certain infections that can cause fever.
The disease is primarily transmitted through inhalation of infected particles, such as dust or aerosols, which contain the bacterium. People working in close contact with animals, such as veterinarians and farmers, are at higher risk of contracting Q fever.
Symptoms of Q fever typically develop within 2-3 weeks after exposure and may include fever, headache, fatigue, muscle pain, and respiratory symptoms such as cough and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the heart, liver, and other organs, leading to life-threatening complications.
Diagnosis of Q fever is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and epidemiological investigations. Laboratory confirmation of the disease requires the isolation of Coxiella burnetii from blood or other bodily fluids.
Treatment of Q fever typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection if administered early. However, treatment is not always necessary for mild cases, and some people may recover without any treatment.
Prevention of Q fever primarily involves avoiding exposure to infected animals or their tissues, as well as practicing good hygiene practices such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling animals or their tissues. Vaccination is also available for high-risk groups, such as veterinarians and farmers.
Overall, Q fever is an important zoonotic disease that can cause significant illness in humans and a range of animal species. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are critical to preventing complications and ensuring effective management of the disease.
Yellow fever is a serious and sometimes fatal disease, with a high mortality rate in unvaccinated individuals. However, it can be prevented through vaccination, which is recommended for all travelers to areas where the virus is present. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) both recommend that travelers to these areas receive a yellow fever vaccine at least 10 days before travel to ensure adequate protection.
Yellow fever is not contagious, meaning it cannot be spread from person to person through casual contact. However, infected mosquitoes can transmit the virus to other animals and humans. The virus is most commonly found in monkeys and other primates, which can become carriers of the disease without showing any symptoms.
There are several strains of the yellow fever virus, with some being more virulent than others. The most common strain is the Asibi strain, which is found in West Africa and is responsible for most outbreaks of the disease. Other strains include the Central African, East African, and South American strains.
Yellow fever was first identified in the 17th century in West Africa, where it was known as "yellow jack" due to the yellowish tint of the skin of infected individuals. The disease spread throughout the Americas during the colonial period, where it caused devastating outbreaks and killed millions of people. In the United States, yellow fever was eradicated in the early 20th century through vaccination and mosquito control measures. However, it still remains a significant public health threat in many parts of the world today.
Prevention of yellow fever is primarily achieved through vaccination, which is recommended for travelers to areas where the disease is common. Vaccines are available in different forms, including injectable and oral versions, and they provide long-lasting protection against the virus. In addition to vaccination, other measures can be taken to prevent the spread of yellow fever, such as using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito bites.
There is no specific treatment for yellow fever, and treatment is primarily focused on managing symptoms and supporting the body's immune response. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide intravenous fluids and other supportive care. Antiviral medications may also be used in some cases to help reduce the severity of the disease.
Prevention is key to avoiding yellow fever, and vaccination is the most effective way to protect against this deadly disease. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and prevention methods for yellow fever, individuals can take steps to protect themselves and their loved ones from this potentially deadly illness.
The diagnosis of typhoid fever is based on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can significantly reduce the duration of illness and the risk of complications. Prevention measures include vaccination against typhoid fever, proper sanitation and hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.
* High fever
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Intestinal hemorrhage
* Multi-organ failure
* Salmonella Typhi bacteria
* Contaminated food or water
* Poor sanitation and hygiene practices
* International travel or contaminated food imports
* Supportive care (fluids, electrolytes, pain management)
* Vaccination against typhoid fever
* Proper sanitation and hygiene practices
* Avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.
The term "fever of unknown origin" was first used in the medical literature in the early 20th century to describe cases of fever that were unexplained after a careful physical examination, laboratory testing, and other diagnostic procedures. FUO is also sometimes referred to as "undifferentiated fever."
FUO can be caused by a wide range of underlying conditions, including infections, inflammatory disorders, malignancies, and other rare medical conditions. Some common causes of FUO include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, tuberculosis, and rheumatic fever.
The diagnosis of FUO is based on a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment of FUO typically involves supportive care, such as fluid replacement, pain management, and antipyretic medications, as well as empiric antibiotic therapy until the underlying cause is identified.
In summary, fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a type of fever that cannot be diagnosed or identified after a thorough medical evaluation, and it can be caused by a wide range of underlying conditions.
Signs and symptoms of rheumatic fever may include:
* Joint pain and swelling
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Sore throat
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain
Rheumatic fever can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests and electrocardiogram (ECG).
Treatment for rheumatic fever typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the underlying infection, as well as medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the patient.
Complications of rheumatic fever can include:
* Heart damage, such as inflammation of the heart muscle or scarring of the heart valves
* Joint damage, leading to long-term arthritis
* Nervous system damage, including inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
* Kidney damage
* Skin damage, including rashes and skin lesions
Prevention of rheumatic fever includes prompt treatment of group A streptococcal infections with antibiotics, as well as good hygiene practices to avoid the spread of infection. Vaccines are also available to prevent streptococcal infections.
The symptoms of RVF in humans can range from mild to severe and include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and bleeding disorders. In severe cases, RVF can cause hemorrhagic fever, which can lead to death. Pregnant women, the elderly, and young children are at higher risk for developing severe forms of the disease.
RVF is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as PCR or ELISA, and serology. Treatment is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and supporting vital organ function, and may include antiviral medications, antibiotics, and blood transfusions.
Prevention of RVF relies on controlling the transmission of the virus by reducing the population of infected mosquitoes through insecticides, eliminating standing water where mosquitoes can breed, and protecting against mosquito bites using personal protective measures such as long sleeves, pants, and insect repellents. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent RVF.
Rift Valley fever is a significant public health concern in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, where it can have a significant impact on human health, animal production, and economic development. Outbreaks of RVF can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, as well as disruption of social and economic activities.
Some of the common types of hemorrhagic fever, viral include:
1. Ebola virus disease (EVD): a severe and often fatal illness caused by the Ebola virus, which is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, sweat, and saliva.
2. Marburg virus disease (MVD): a highly contagious and deadly illness caused by the Marburg virus, which is also transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids.
3. Lassa fever: a viral hemorrhagic fever that is common in West Africa and is caused by the Lassa virus, which is transmitted through contact with infected rodents.
4. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF): a widespread viral disease that affects the Balkans, the Middle East, and parts of Africa, and is caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, which is transmitted through contact with infected ticks.
5. Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF): a rare and potentially deadly viral disease that is caused by the Machupo virus and is found in Bolivia and other parts of South America.
These diseases can be diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and are typically treated with supportive care, such as fluid replacement and pain management, as well as antiviral medications in some cases.
Prevention of hemorrhagic fever, viral includes avoiding contact with infected individuals, wearing protective clothing and equipment, and using insecticides to prevent tick bites. Vaccines are also available for some of the diseases, such as Ebola and Marburg, but they are not widely available or effective against all strains of the virus.
Overall, hemorrhagic fever is a serious and potentially deadly condition that requires prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
The symptoms of Lassa fever can vary from mild to severe and include fever, headache, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding. In severe cases, the virus can cause multi-organ failure and death.
There is no specific treatment for Lassa fever, but supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy, can help manage symptoms. Ribavirin, an antiviral drug, has been shown to be effective in treating the virus in some cases.
Prevention of Lassa fever involves reducing exposure to infected rodents, such as by storing food in rat-proof containers and avoiding contact with rodents that may be carrying the virus. Vaccines are also being developed to protect against the virus.
Overall, Lassa fever is a serious and potentially deadly disease that requires prompt medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes for patients infected with the virus.
Symptoms of CHF typically begin within 3-7 days after the tick bite and may include:
* Muscle and joint pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin (petechiae)
In severe cases, CHF can lead to:
* Hemorrhagic manifestations such as bleeding from the eyes, ears, and mouth
* Central nervous system involvement including seizures, meningitis, and encephalitis
* Multi-organ failure
The diagnosis of CHF is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and serology. Treatment is primarily supportive, with management of symptoms and fluid replacement as needed. Antiviral therapy may be used in some cases.
Prevention of CHF involves protecting against tick bites, such as using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where ticks are common. Vaccines are also available for high-risk individuals, such as military personnel and laboratory workers who handle the virus.
The prognosis for CHF varies depending on the severity of the disease and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, milder cases may have a good outcome with supportive care, while severe cases can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.
Treatment with antibiotics is effective in preventing serious complications and death.
There are several forms of HFRS, including:
1. Severe Hemorrhagic Fever (SHF): This form of the disease is characterized by rapid onset of severe symptoms, including fever, hemorrhaging, and renal failure.
2. Epidemic Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF): This form of the disease is similar to SHF but has a milder course.
3. African Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF): This form of the disease is found primarily in sub-Saharan Africa and is characterized by a severe course with high mortality rates.
4. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF): This form of the disease is found in parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa and is transmitted through tick bites or contact with infected animals.
The symptoms of HFRS can include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and hemorrhaging. In severe cases, the disease can lead to kidney failure, shock, and death.
Diagnosis of HFRS is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests (such as PCR and ELISA), and serology. Treatment is primarily supportive, with management of symptoms and fluid replacement. Antiviral medications may be used in some cases.
Prevention of HFRS includes tick control measures, protective clothing, and avoiding contact with potentially infected animals or ticks. Vaccines are available for some forms of the disease, particularly CCHF.
Symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever typically begin within one to two weeks after a tick bite and may include:
* Muscle and joint pain
* Rash (usually starts on the wrists and ankles and spreads to other parts of the body)
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
If left untreated, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever can be fatal. However, with prompt antibiotic treatment, the prognosis is generally good. Treatment typically involves using antibiotics such as doxycycline or azithromycin to kill the bacteria. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as respiratory failure, kidney failure, or other infections.
Prevention of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever includes avoiding tick habitats, using protective clothing and repellents when outdoors, and regularly checking for ticks on oneself and pets. Early detection and prompt treatment are key to preventing serious complications and death from this infection.
Paratyphoid fever is typically spread through contaminated food or water, and it can also be spread through direct contact with an infected person's feces. The symptoms of paratyphoid fever may include fever, headache, fatigue, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause serious complications, such as meningitis or pericarditis.
Paratyphoid fever is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help to shorten the duration and severity of the illness. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care and manage any complications.
Prevention is key to avoiding paratyphoid fever, and this includes practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before eating. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the infection, such as healthcare workers or travelers to areas where the infection is common.
The virus is transmitted through contact with infected animals, contaminated objects or people, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The disease can be spread quickly in populations of pigs, especially in areas where there are high densities of animals.
Classical Swine Fever is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, loss of appetite, and vomiting, followed by hemorrhagic diarrhea, lethargy, and difficulty breathing. The disease can be fatal in up to 90% of cases, especially in young pigs.
Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and serology. There is no specific treatment for Classical Swine Fever, and control measures focus on preventing the spread of the disease. Vaccination is an important tool in controlling outbreaks, and strict biosecurity measures can help to reduce the risk of transmission.
In addition to its impact on animal health, Classical Swine Fever can also have significant economic and social implications for the swine industry. Outbreaks can lead to significant losses, and the disease can be difficult to control, especially in areas with limited resources and infrastructure.
The symptoms of ASF are varied and can include:
* High fever
* Loss of appetite
* Weakness and lethargy
* Reduced productivity and milk production in breeding pigs
* Hemorrhages and skin lesions, which can be severe and fatal.
ASF is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated objects, such as meat products, animal feed, or farming equipment. The virus can also be spread by flies, ticks, and other insects that have fed on infected pigs.
There is no specific treatment for ASF, and control measures are largely focused on preventing the spread of the disease. These include:
* Implementing strict biosecurity measures, such as isolating infected animals, disinfecting equipment and facilities, and using protective clothing and gear.
* Vaccination of pigs, which can help reduce the severity of symptoms and prevent the spread of the disease.
* Culling of infected animals to prevent the spread of the disease and minimize economic losses.
* Implementing trade restrictions and surveillance programs to prevent the spread of ASF to other countries.
ASF has significant economic and social impacts on affected communities, particularly in Africa where it is a major threat to food security and livelihoods. The disease has also had significant impacts on global pork supplies, leading to increased prices and trade restrictions.
The symptoms of HFA can include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, and a characteristic rash that appears on the wrists and ankles. In severe cases, the disease can lead to bleeding under the skin, internal organs, and into the lungs, which can be fatal if not treated promptly.
Diagnosis of HFA is based on a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Prevention measures include avoiding tick habitats, wearing protective clothing, and using insect repellents when outdoors in areas where the disease is common.
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Symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever typically begin within 2 to 21 days after exposure and can include:
* Muscle pain
* Abdominal pain
* Bleeding, including nosebleeds, gum bleeding, and internal bleeding
In severe cases, Ebola hemorrhagic fever can lead to:
* Organ failure
* Septic shock
* Hypovolemia (low blood volume)
* Coagulopathy (abnormal blood clotting)
Ebola hemorrhagic fever is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Treatment is primarily focused on supporting the body's vital functions and managing symptoms, and can include:
* Fluid replacement and hydration therapy
* Oxygen therapy
* Pain management
* Restoration of blood clotting factors
There is no specific cure for Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and the disease has a high mortality rate, with rates ranging from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, survival rates can improve.
Prevention is key to controlling outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and measures include:
* Implementing infection control practices, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) and proper cleaning and disinfection
* Avoiding contact with infected individuals and animals
* Screening for symptoms before allowing individuals to travel
* Implementing quarantine and isolation measures for infected individuals
There are also several experimental treatments and vaccines being developed to prevent and treat Ebola hemorrhagic fever, including:
* ZMapp, a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies that have been shown to be effective in treating the disease
* Brincidofovir, an antiviral drug that has shown promise in treating Ebola in non-human primates
* VSV-EBOV, a vaccine that has shown protection against Ebola in non-human primates and is currently being tested in humans.
Overall, while there is no specific cure for Ebola hemorrhagic fever, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve survival rates, and prevention measures are critical to controlling outbreaks of the disease.
Symptoms of dengue fever typically begin within 2-7 days after the bite of an infected mosquito and can include:
* High fever
* Severe headache
* Pain behind the eyes
* Severe joint and muscle pain
In some cases, dengue fever can develop into a more severe form of the disease, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which can be life-threatening. Symptoms of DHF include:
* Severe abdominal pain
* Bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin
* Easy bruising
* Petechiae (small red spots on the skin)
* Black stools
* Decreased urine output
Dengue fever is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests. Treatment for dengue fever is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and managing fluid and electrolyte imbalances. There is no specific treatment for the virus itself, but early detection and proper medical care can significantly lower the risk of complications and death.
Prevention of dengue fever relies on measures to prevent mosquito bites, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the breeding of mosquitoes. Vaccines against dengue fever are also being developed, but none are currently available for widespread use.
In summary, dengue is a viral disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes and can cause a range of symptoms from mild to severe. Early detection and proper medical care are essential to prevent complications and death from dengue fever. Prevention of dengue relies on measures to prevent mosquito bites and eliminating standing water around homes and communities.
1. World Health Organization. (2020). Dengue and severe dengue. Retrieved from
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Dengue fever: Background. Retrieved from
3. Mayo Clinic. (2020). Dengue fever. Retrieved from
4. MedlinePlus. (2020). Dengue fever. Retrieved from
* High fever that lasts for more than 2 days
* Severe headache, muscle and joint pain, and rash
* Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
* Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, nose, or gums
* Decreased urine output or no urine output for more than 6 hours
* Rapid heart rate (more than 120 beats per minute)
* Low blood platelet count (less than 50,000 cells/mm3)
* Serious complications such as hemorrhagic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or multi-organ failure
Severe dengue is a medical emergency and requires immediate hospitalization and careful monitoring. Treatment includes fluid replacement therapy, pain management, and supportive care to prevent complications.
The most common types of Rickettsia infections in humans include:
1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF): This is the most commonly reported Rickettsia infection in the United States, and it is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms of RMSF include fever, headache, and a distinctive rash that appears on the wrists and ankles.
2. Epidemic typhus: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection caused by Rickettsia prowazekii. It is typically transmitted through the bite of infected lice or ticks, and it can cause fever, headache, and a rash.
3. Scrub typhus: This is a mild to moderate infection caused by Rickettsia akari, which is found in parts of Asia and the Pacific islands. Symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash.
4. Q fever: This is a rare infection caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is a type of Rickettsia bacterium. It is typically transmitted through contact with infected animals or contaminated tissue, and it can cause fever, headache, and pneumonia.
Rickettsia infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and the prognosis is generally good for most people who receive prompt and appropriate treatment. However, some people may experience serious complications or long-term effects from these infections, such as joint pain or neurological problems.
Prevention of Rickettsia infections primarily involves avoiding contact with arthropod vectors, such as ticks and mites, through the use of insect repellents, protective clothing, and other measures. In addition, vaccines are available for some types of Rickettsia infections, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Q fever.
It is important to note that Rickettsia infections can be difficult to diagnose, and they may be mistaken for other conditions such as viral infections or autoimmune disorders. Therefore, it is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms that are consistent with Rickettsia infection, particularly if you have recently been exposed to ticks or other arthropods.
The symptoms of Phlebotomus Fever can include high fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and swelling in the lymph nodes. In more severe cases, the disease can cause respiratory problems, kidney failure, and even death.
Phlebotomus Fever is most commonly found in dry, desert regions of the world, such as North Africa, the Middle East, and the southwestern United States. The disease is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history.
Treatment for Phlebotomus Fever typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and reduce symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care and manage complications. Prevention of Phlebotomus Fever includes protecting against sandfly bites through the use of insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where the disease is common.
The causes of ephemeral fever are varied and can include viral infections, bacterial infections, and other conditions such as allergic reactions or environmental exposures. In some cases, ephemeral fever may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as a severe respiratory infection or a bone marrow disorder.
Ephemeral fever is often characterized by its sudden onset and the presence of other symptoms such as headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and loss of appetite. The fever itself may be accompanied by chills, sweating, or other symptoms, depending on the underlying cause.
Treatment for ephemeral fever typically focuses on managing the symptoms and addressing any underlying conditions that may be contributing to the fever. This may include antiviral or antibacterial medications, pain relief medication, and plenty of rest and hydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.
The prognosis for ephemeral fever is generally good, as long as the underlying cause is identified and treated promptly. However, in some cases, ephemeral fever can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition that requires ongoing treatment and monitoring. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing sudden and severe fever, especially if it is accompanied by other concerning symptoms such as difficulty breathing or chest pain.
What are some ways that modern medicine has improved upon the treatment of trench fever from World War I?
Modern medicine has made significant improvements in the treatment of trench fever since World War I. Here are some of the key advancements:
1. Antibiotics: During World War I, sulfonamides were used to treat trench fever, but these drugs were not very effective and often caused allergic reactions. Today, we have a range of more effective antibiotics, such as doxycycline and ciprofloxacin, which can effectively treat trench fever.
2. Supportive care: In World War I, supportive care was limited, and patients often had to endure severe symptoms with little relief. Today, supportive care has improved significantly, including the use of pain management techniques, hydration, and nutritional support to help manage symptoms and speed up recovery.
3. Diagnostic advancements: In World War I, trench fever was often misdiagnosed or undiagnosed, leading to inadequate treatment. Today, we have more sophisticated diagnostic tools, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, which can quickly and accurately diagnose trench fever.
4. Better understanding of the disease: We now know more about the bacteria that cause trench fever and how it spreads, which has led to improved prevention and control measures. This includes the use of insecticides to kill body lice and the development of vaccines to protect against Bartonella infections.
5. Improved sanitation and hygiene: Good sanitation and hygiene practices are critical in controlling the spread of trench fever. In World War I, these practices were often lacking, leading to the spread of disease. Today, we have a much greater emphasis on proper handwashing, clean water, and waste disposal, which helps reduce the risk of infection.
In conclusion, while trench fever is still a serious illness today, advances in medicine and public health have significantly improved our ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat it. This has saved countless lives and reduced the impact of this disease on military personnel and civilian populations alike.
Blackwater fever is most commonly seen in areas where malaria is common, such as tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. It is typically seen in children under the age of 5 and in pregnant women, who are more susceptible to severe forms of malaria.
The symptoms of blackwater fever can include:
* Severe chills and fever
* Muscle and joint pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or abdominal pain
* Dark urine
* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Kidney failure
If left untreated, blackwater fever can progress to more severe complications such as:
* Cerebral malaria (infection of the brain)
* Respiratory distress syndrome (breathing problems)
* Disseminated intravascular coagulation (bleeding disorder)
* Multi-organ failure
Treatment of blackwater fever typically involves supportive care, such as fluid replacement, oxygen therapy, and management of complications, as well as antimalarial drugs to kill the parasite. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit may be necessary.
Prevention of blackwater fever includes the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, and preventive medications for travelers to areas where malaria is common. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of malaria. Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria are critical in preventing severe complications such as blackwater fever.
The virus is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, sweat, and saliva, and can also be spread through contaminated surfaces and objects. Symptoms of the disease typically begin within 2-21 days after exposure and include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bleeding.
The disease progresses rapidly, with patients often developing severe hemorrhagic symptoms, such as bleeding from the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and rectum, as well as internal organ failure and shock. The mortality rate for Marburg virus disease is high, ranging from 23-90% in past outbreaks, depending on factors such as the virulence of the virus and the quality of medical care provided to patients.
There is currently no cure for Marburg virus disease, but supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management, can help alleviate symptoms and improve survival chances. Experimental treatments, such as convalescent plasma and brincidofovir, have shown promise in clinical trials, but more research is needed to determine their efficacy and safety.
Prevention of Marburg virus disease primarily involves reducing the risk of exposure to infected bodily fluids, such as through the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and proper sterilization and disposal of contaminated materials. Vaccines are also being developed, but none have yet been approved for human use.
Overall, Marburg virus disease is a highly dangerous and potentially deadly illness that requires prompt recognition, isolation, and treatment to prevent further transmission and improve survival chances.
Rat-bite fever is relatively rare in the United States, but it is more common in areas with high rodent populations, such as cities with poor sanitation and poor housing conditions. People who work with rats, such as laboratory workers or pest control professionals, are at a higher risk of contracting the infection.
Diagnosis of rat-bite fever is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, or other tests to identify the presence of the bacteria in the bloodstream.
Treatment of rat-bite fever typically involves antibiotics, such as penicillin or doxycycline, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide intravenous antibiotics and other supportive care.
Prevention of rat-bite fever is primarily focused on avoiding contact with infected rats. This includes wearing protective clothing and gloves when handling rats, washing hands thoroughly after exposure to rats or their saliva, and avoiding contact with wild rats.
Overall, while rat-bite fever is a serious infection, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help prevent complications and ensure a full recovery.
Malignant catarrh is a term that was previously used to describe a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes, particularly in the respiratory tract and nasal sinuses. It was considered a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, and was sometimes associated with tuberculosis or other infectious diseases.
However, the term "malignant catarrh" is no longer used in modern medical practice, as it has been largely replaced by more specific and accurate diagnostic categories such as chronic rhinosinusitis, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis. These conditions are now recognized as distinct entities with specific causes, symptoms, and treatments, rather than being lumped together under the outdated term of "malignant catarrh."
Although the term is no longer used in modern medical practice, it is still found in some older medical texts and may be encountered in historical or archival contexts. In these cases, it is important to understand that the term refers to a condition that is now better understood and classified under more specific diagnostic categories.
Colorado tick fever (CTF) is a viral disease that affects humans and is transmitted by the bite of an infected tick. The disease is most commonly found in the western United States, particularly in Colorado, where it was first identified in 1948.
The symptoms of CTF typically develop within 7-10 days after being bitten by an infected tick and can include:
* Muscle aches
* Joint pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Rash (in some cases)
CTF is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies against the virus or PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests to detect the genetic material of the virus in the blood.
There is no specific treatment for CTF, but symptoms can be managed with rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases.
Prevention of CTF involves protecting against tick bites. This can include:
* Avoiding areas with high grass and leaf litter, where ticks are more common
* Wearing protective clothing such as long-sleeved shirts and pants when outdoors
* Applying insect repellents that contain DEET or permethrin to exposed skin and clothing
* Checking for ticks on the body after spending time outdoors, and removing any found ticks promptly
Most people with CTF experience mild symptoms and recover fully within a few days to a week without complications. However, in rare cases, the disease can progress to more severe forms, such as meningitis or encephalitis, which can be life-threatening.
While rare, CTF can lead to complications such as:
* Meningitis: Inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
* Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain itself
* Arthritis: Painful joint inflammation
* Myocarditis: Inflammation of the heart muscle
It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms worsen or new symptoms develop, as early treatment can improve outcomes.
Some common tick-borne diseases include:
1. Lyme disease: This is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States, and it is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and a distinctive rash, and if left untreated, can lead to joint pain, swelling, and long-term health problems.
2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and a rash with tiny red spots. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.
3. Babesiosis: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the parasite Babesia, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and fatigue. It can be particularly dangerous for people with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly or those with chronic illnesses.
4. Anaplasmosis: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle pain. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.
5. Powassan virus disease: This is a rare tick-borne disease caused by the Powassan virus, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and confusion. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.
Prevention of tick-borne diseases includes protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and doing regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of tick-borne diseases can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Bunyaviridae infections can be severe and potentially life-threatening, especially in certain populations such as young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of Bunyaviridae infections can include fever, headache, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and in severe cases, hemorrhagic symptoms such as bleeding from the eyes, ears, or gastrointestinal tract.
There is no specific treatment for Bunyaviridae infections, but supportive care and management of symptoms can help alleviate the severity of the illness. Prevention of Bunyaviridae infections includes avoiding insect bites by using protective clothing and insect repellents, as well as controlling the populations of potential vector insects in affected areas.
Examples of diseases caused by Bunyaviridae viruses include Rift Valley fever, which is common in Africa and the Middle East, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, which is found in parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Other examples of Bunyaviridae infections include La Crosse encephalitis, which is found in North America, and Japanese encephalitis, which is prevalent in parts of Asia.
It's important to note that Bunyaviridae infections can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to other viral or bacterial infections. Laboratory testing, such as PCR or ELISA assays, is often necessary to confirm the presence of a Bunyaviridae virus.
Prevention and control measures for Bunyaviridae infections include avoiding insect bites, controlling vector populations, and implementing public health measures such as surveillance, education, and vaccination programs. Research into the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs against Bunyaviridae viruses is ongoing, but there are currently no licensed treatments available for these infections.
Treatment for rheumatic heart disease typically involves antibiotics to prevent further damage and medications to manage symptoms such as high blood pressure, swelling, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged valves.
Prevention of rheumatic heart disease involves early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic fever, as well as maintaining good cardiovascular health through a healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking.
Some common symptoms of rheumatic heart disease include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Irregular heartbeat
Some common risk factors for developing rheumatic heart disease include:
* Previous exposure to group A streptococcus bacteria, which can cause rheumatic fever
* Family history of rheumatic heart disease
* Poor living conditions or overcrowding, which can increase the risk of exposure to group A streptococcus bacteria
* Malnutrition or a diet low in certain nutrients, such as vitamin D and iron.
Examples of emerging communicable diseases include SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), West Nile virus, and HIV/AIDS. These diseases are often difficult to diagnose and treat, and they can spread rapidly due to increased travel and trade, as well as the high level of interconnectedness in today's world.
Emerging communicable diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, such as environmental changes, genetic mutations, or the transmission of diseases from animals to humans. These diseases can also be spread through various routes, including airborne transmission, contact with infected bodily fluids, and vector-borne transmission (such as through mosquitoes or ticks).
To prevent the spread of emerging communicable diseases, it is important to have strong surveillance systems in place to detect and monitor outbreaks, as well as effective public health measures such as vaccination programs, quarantine, and contact tracing. Additionally, research into the causes and transmission mechanisms of these diseases is crucial for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies.
Overall, emerging communicable diseases pose a significant threat to global health security, and it is important for healthcare professionals, policymakers, and the general public to be aware of these diseases and take steps to prevent their spread.
Symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis typically begin soon after exposure to the allergen and may last for several days or weeks. In addition to nasal congestion and discharge, other common symptoms include:
* Itchy eyes and throat
* Sneezing and coughing
* Headaches and facial pain
* Fatigue and general malaise
* Loss of sense of smell (hyposmia)
Seasonal allergic rhinitis is most commonly caused by exposure to airborne pollens from trees, grasses, and weeds. Treatment typically involves avoiding exposure to the allergen, medications such as antihistamines or decongestants, and immunotherapy (allergy shots) in severe cases.
The symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis can be managed with over-the-counter or prescription medications, and home remedies like saline nasal sprays, humidifiers, and steam inhalers. In addition to these treatments, avoiding exposure to the allergen and taking steps to reduce nasal congestion can also help alleviate symptoms.
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Mevalonate kinase deficiency can have a wide range of symptoms, including:
* Developmental delays and intellectual disability
* Vision loss or blindness
* Hearing loss
* Muscle weakness and wasting
* Joint deformities
* Skin rashes and lesions
The most common form of mevalonate kinase deficiency is called "classic" or "type A," which is characterized by seizures, developmental delays, and intellectual disability. Other forms of the condition may have more limited symptoms or different patterns of brain involvement.
Mevalonate kinase deficiency is caused by mutations in the MVK gene, which are usually inherited from one's parents. The condition is very rare, and it is estimated to affect only about 1 in 1 million people worldwide.
There is currently no cure for mevalonate kinase deficiency, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include anticonvulsant medications to control seizures, physical therapy to improve muscle strength and coordination, and speech and language therapy to address communication difficulties. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be considered as a potential treatment option.
Early diagnosis of mevalonate kinase deficiency is important, as it can help healthcare providers develop an appropriate treatment plan and provide support and resources for individuals with the condition and their families.
The most common types of Rickettsiaceae infections include:
1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening illness that is spread by the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) and the wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a characteristic rash.
2. Epidemic typhus: This infection is caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and is transmitted by the human louse (Pediculosis humanus corporis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash.
3. Q fever: This infection is caused by Coxiella burnetii and is transmitted through contact with infected livestock or contaminated soil or airborne particles. Symptoms include fever, headache, and muscle pain.
4. Rickettsialpox: This is a rare infection caused by Rickettsia akari and is transmitted through the bite of an infected mite. Symptoms include fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes.
Rickettsiaceae infections can be diagnosed through blood tests and other laboratory techniques. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as fluids and pain management. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected arthropods, wearing protective clothing when outdoors, and using insect repellents.
A type of typhus fever that is caused by a bacterial infection and transmitted to humans through the bites of infected fleas. The disease is typically found in rural areas where there are poor living conditions and inadequate sanitation, and it is most commonly seen in parts of Africa and Asia.
Symptoms of endemic typhus fever include high fever, headache, muscle aches, and a rash that may appear on the abdomen or palms of the hands. In severe cases, the disease can lead to complications such as kidney failure, pneumonia, and death.
Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination and laboratory tests, and treatment usually involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include controlling flea populations on animals and in living areas, and improving sanitation and living conditions.
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Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
A group of infectious diseases caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected body lice. The three forms of epidemic typhus are:
1. Classic typhus fever, which is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, headache, myalgia, and a rash that appears on the fourth or fifth day of illness.
2. Brilliant's disease, which is similar to classic typhus fever but with a more rapid onset and a higher mortality rate.
3. Endemic typhus, which is a mild form of the disease that occurs in areas where the disease is constantly present.
Epidemic louse-borne typhus has been known to occur in areas of poverty, poor hygiene, and overcrowding, such as refugee camps, homeless shelters, and prisons. The disease is typically treated with antibiotics, and prevention measures include using insecticides to kill body lice and improving living conditions to reduce the risk of transmission.
There are several different types of malaria, including:
1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.
The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:
4. Muscle and joint pain
6. Nausea and vomiting
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.
Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:
1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.
1. Platelet disorders: These include conditions such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), where the immune system attacks and destroys platelets, leading to a low platelet count and bleeding symptoms.
2. Von Willebrand disease: This is a bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a protein that helps platelets stick together and form clots.
3. Hemophilia A and B: These are genetic disorders that affect the blood's ability to clot and stop bleeding.
4. Vitamin K-dependent bleeding disorders: These include conditions such as vitamin K-dependent coagulopathy, which is caused by a deficiency of vitamin K and leads to abnormal clotting and bleeding.
5. Other causes: Purpura can also be caused by other medical conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, and certain medications.
The symptoms of purpura can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Easy bruising (especially on the skin and joints)
* Petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin)
* Prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites
* Gingival bleeding (bleeding from the gums)
* Heavy menstrual periods
* Bleeding into joints and muscles
If you suspect that you or someone else may have purpura, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional will perform a physical examination and order laboratory tests to determine the underlying cause of the bleeding disorder. Treatment for purpura depends on the specific cause, but may include medications to increase platelet count or clotting factor, or surgery to correct an underlying condition.
Symptoms of neutropenia may include recurring infections, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. The diagnosis is typically made through a blood test that measures the number of neutrophils in the blood.
Treatment options for neutropenia depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, supportive care to manage symptoms, and in severe cases, bone marrow transplantation or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy to increase neutrophil production.
Symptoms of pharyngitis may include sore throat, fever, difficulty swallowing, and tender lymph nodes in the neck. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-inflammatory medications to reduce swelling and pain, and plenty of rest and fluids to help the body recover.
Pharyngitis is a common condition that affects people of all ages and can be caused by various factors, such as:
1. Viral infections: The most common cause of pharyngitis is a viral infection, such as the common cold or influenza.
2. Bacterial infections: Strep throat, which is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, is a type of bacterial infection that can cause pharyngitis.
3. Allergies: Allergies to pollens, dust mites, or other substances can cause postnasal drip and irritation of the throat, leading to pharyngitis.
4. Irritants: Exposure to smoke, chemicals, or other irritants can cause inflammation and soreness in the throat.
5. Dry air: Dry air can cause the throat to become dry and irritated, leading to pharyngitis.
6. Hormonal changes: Hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy or menstruation can cause changes in the throat that lead to pharyngitis.
7. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): GERD can cause stomach acid to flow up into the throat, leading to inflammation and soreness.
8. Sinus infections: Sinus infections can cause postnasal drip and irritation of the throat, leading to pharyngitis.
9. Mononucleosis: Mononucleosis, also known as mono, is a viral infection that can cause pharyngitis.
10. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, can cause pharyngitis.
It's important to note that a sore throat can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, so if you have a persistent or severe sore throat, you should see a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The exact cause of parturient paresis is not well understood, but it is believed to be related to changes in hormone levels and the physical demands of pregnancy on the body. Some factors that may contribute to the development of the condition include:
* Hormonal changes: Fluctuating levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy can affect the nervous system and cause muscle weakness or paralysis.
* Physical strain: The growing uterus and weight gain during pregnancy can put strain on the muscles and joints, leading to fatigue and muscle weakness.
* Sleep disturbances: Poor sleep quality and quantity during pregnancy can contribute to muscle weakness and paralysis.
The symptoms of parturient paresis typically occur suddenly and may include:
* Weakness or paralysis of one side of the body, including the arm, leg, or facial muscles.
* Sudden head movement or strain, such as bending over or lifting.
* Difficulty speaking or swallowing.
* Numbness or tingling sensations in the affected limbs.
* Weakness or paralysis of the muscles used for breathing.
Parturient paresis is typically diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. Imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans may be ordered to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies may also be performed to assess muscle function and nerve damage.
The treatment of parturient paresis is primarily focused on managing the symptoms and supporting the woman during childbirth. Treatment options may include:
* Physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and mobility.
* Pain management strategies, such as breathing exercises or medication.
* Supportive devices such as braces or slings to assist with movement and lifting.
* Home modifications to enhance safety and accessibility.
* In some cases, corticosteroid injections or other treatments may be recommended to reduce inflammation and promote healing.
Parturient paresis can lead to several complications during pregnancy and childbirth, including:
* Preterm labor and delivery.
* Gestational diabetes.
* Respiratory problems.
There is no guaranteed way to prevent parturient paresis, but there are several strategies that may help reduce the risk of developing this condition during pregnancy and childbirth. These include:
* Maintaining a healthy weight before pregnancy and gaining appropriate weight during pregnancy.
* Engaging in regular physical activity during pregnancy, as approved by your healthcare provider.
* Avoiding heavy lifting and bending during pregnancy.
* Getting regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications.
* Practicing good posture and body mechanics during pregnancy and childbirth.
It is important to discuss any concerns or questions about parturient paresis with your healthcare provider before, during, and after pregnancy and childbirth. They can help determine the best course of action for your individual situation and provide guidance on how to manage and prevent this condition.
Causes and risk factors:
The most common cause of bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart. This can occur through various means, such as:
* Injecting drugs or engaging in other risky behaviors that allow bacteria to enter the body
* Having a weakened immune system due to illness or medication
* Having a previous history of endocarditis or other heart conditions
* Being over the age of 60, as older adults are at higher risk for developing endocarditis
The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the infected area. Some common symptoms include:
* Joint pain or swelling
* Shortness of breath
* Heart murmurs or abnormal heart sounds
Bacterial endocarditis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and detect any abnormalities
* Chest X-ray to look for signs of infection or inflammation in the lungs or heart
* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the electrical activity of the heart
The treatment of bacterial endocarditis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria and reduce inflammation, while surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, the infected heart tissue may need to be removed.
Preventing bacterial endocarditis involves good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and avoiding certain high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles. People with existing heart conditions should also take antibiotics before dental or medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.
The prognosis for bacterial endocarditis is generally good if treatment is prompt and effective. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or death. Patients with pre-existing heart conditions are at higher risk for complications.
Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year in the United States. However, people with certain risk factors such as heart conditions or prosthetic heart valves are at higher risk for developing the infection.
Bacterial endocarditis can lead to a number of complications, including:
* Heart failure
* Stroke or brain abscess
* Kidney damage or failure
* Pregnancy complications
* Nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
* Skin or soft tissue infections
* Bone or joint infections
* Septicemia (blood poisoning)
Preventive measures for bacterial endocarditis include:
* Good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to reduce the risk of dental infections
* Avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles
* Antibiotics before dental or medical procedures for patients with existing heart conditions
* Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment
* Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (prevention) in high-risk patients.
Newly emerging trends in the management of bacterial endocarditis include:
* The use of novel antibiotics and combination therapy to improve treatment outcomes
* The development of new diagnostic tests to help identify the cause of infection more quickly and accurately
* The increased use of preventive measures such as antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients.
Future directions for research on bacterial endocarditis may include:
* Investigating the use of novel diagnostic techniques, such as genomics and proteomics, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis
* Developing new antibiotics and combination therapies to improve treatment outcomes
* Exploring alternative preventive measures such as probiotics and immunotherapy.
In conclusion, bacterial endocarditis is a serious infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures such as good oral hygiene and antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic techniques, developing new treatments, and exploring alternative preventive measures.
Sheep diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental factors. Here are some common sheep diseases and their meanings:
1. Scrapie: A fatal neurological disorder that affects sheep and goats, caused by a prion.
2. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium ovipneumoniae.
3. Maedi-Visna: A slow-progressing pneumonia caused by a retrovirus, which can lead to OPP.
4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep and goats.
5. Bloat: A condition caused by gas accumulation in the rumen, which can lead to abdominal pain and death if not treated promptly.
6. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which can be fatal in young lambs.
8. Babesiosis: A blood parasitic disease caused by Babesia oviparasites, which can lead to anemia and death if left untreated.
9. Fascioliasis: A liver fluke infection that can cause anemia, jaundice, and liver damage.
10. Anthrax: A serious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can be fatal if left untreated.
Sheep diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of flocks, as well as the economy of sheep farming. It is important for sheep farmers to be aware of these diseases and take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.
1. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE): A viral disease that affects the joints and central nervous system of goats.
2. Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA): A bacterial infection that causes abscesses in the lymph nodes and other organs.
3. Contagious ecthyma (Orf): A viral disease that causes skin lesions and scarring.
4. Goat pox: A viral disease that causes fever, weakness, and skin lesions.
5. Pneumonia: A bacterial or viral infection of the lungs that can be caused by a variety of pathogens.
6. Scabies: A parasitic infestation that causes skin irritation and hair loss.
7. Tetanus: A neurological disorder caused by a bacterial toxin that affects muscle contractions.
8. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can cause fever, anemia, and other symptoms in goats.
9. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Bacterial infections of the urinary system that can affect both male and female goats.
10. Vitamin deficiencies: Deficiencies in vitamins such as vitamin A, D, or E can cause a range of health problems in goats, including skin conditions, poor appetite, and weakness.
Goat diseases can be diagnosed through physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment depends on the specific disease and may involve antibiotics, antiviral medications, or supportive care such as fluid therapy and nutritional supplements. Prevention is key in managing goat diseases, and this includes maintaining good hygiene, providing clean water and a balanced diet, and vaccinating goats against common diseases.
The symptoms of Arenaviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus causing the infection, but they may include:
* Muscle pain
* Joint pain
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
Some Arenaviridae infections can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or other animals, while others are spread by blood transfusions or organ transplantation. There is no specific treatment for Arenaviridae infections, and treatment is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and managing complications.
Examples of Arenaviridae infections include:
* Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV)
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE)
* Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE)
* Western equine encephalitis (WEE)
* Sabia virus infection
It's important to note that Arenaviridae infections can be severe and potentially life-threatening, so if you suspect you or someone else may have been infected, it's important to seek medical attention immediately.
The symptoms of West Nile Fever typically develop within 3-14 days after the bite of an infected mosquito and can range from mild to severe. Mild symptoms may include fever, headache, muscle weakness, and joint pain. Severe symptoms can include high fever, stiff neck, confusion, loss of consciousness, and in rare cases, death.
There is no specific treatment for West Nile Fever, but supportive care such as rest, hydration, and pain relief medications may be provided to help manage the symptoms. The prognosis for most people with West Nile Fever is generally good, but it can be more severe in older adults and those with underlying health conditions.
Prevention of West Nile Fever involves protecting oneself against mosquito bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of the virus.
In conclusion, West Nile Fever is a viral disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and can cause mild to severe symptoms. Prevention involves protecting oneself against mosquito bites and eliminating standing water to reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of the virus.
Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:
* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)
The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:
* Muscle aches
* Shortness of breath
Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Prevention measures for bacteremia include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures
Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.
Exanthema is often used interchangeably with the term "rash," but it specifically refers to a type of rash that is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, headache, or joint pain. Exanthematous rashes can be contagious and may require treatment with antiviral or antibacterial medications, depending on the underlying cause.
Some common types of exanthema include:
* Measles: a highly contagious viral infection that causes a characteristic rash and other symptoms such as fever and cough.
* Roseola: a viral infection that causes a high fever followed by a rash.
* Fifth disease: a mild viral infection that causes a rash on the face and body.
* Hand, foot and mouth disease: a viral infection that causes a rash on the hands, feet, and mouth.
It's important to note that exanthema can be a symptom of various conditions, so it's important to seek medical attention if you or your child experiences a rash with other symptoms, especially if it's accompanied by fever, headache, or joint pain. A healthcare professional can diagnose the underlying cause and recommend appropriate treatment.
Some common examples of bacterial infections include:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.
In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.
The symptoms of scrub typhus can range from mild to severe and may include:
* Fever, headache, and body aches
* Rash, which may appear on the third to fifth day of infection
* Pneumonia, hepatitis, and meningitis
* In severe cases, scrub typhus can cause multiple organ failure and death
Diagnosis of scrub typhus is based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and serology. Treatment is typically with antibiotics, and early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes. Prevention includes protective clothing, insect repellents, and avoiding contact with areas where the mite is found.
Scrub typhus is an important public health concern in many parts of the world, particularly in rural and semi-rural areas where exposure to infected mites is more common. It is essential to be aware of the risk of scrub typhus when traveling or living in areas where the disease is prevalent.
The main features of HAIDs include:
1. Recurrent episodes of inflammation: Patients with HAIDs experience recurrent episodes of fever, pain, and swelling in various parts of the body, such as the joints, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. These episodes can last for days or weeks and can significantly impact quality of life.
2. Autoantibody production: HAIDs are characterized by the production of autoantibodies, which are antibodies that attack the body's own tissues. These autoantibodies can cause inflammation and damage to various organs and tissues in the body.
3. Genetic mutations: HAIDs are caused by genetic mutations that affect the function of the immune system. These mutations can be inherited from one or both parents and can vary in severity and expression.
4. Multi-system involvement: HAIDs can affect multiple systems in the body, such as the joints, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous system. This can result in a range of symptoms, including pain, fatigue, and cognitive impairment.
5. High morbidity and mortality: HAIDs can have a significant impact on quality of life and survival. These conditions are often associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, particularly if left untreated or inadequately treated.
Examples of HAIDs include:
1. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF): FMF is an inherited disorder that affects individuals of Mediterranean descent. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, pain, and inflammation in the joints, skin, and gastrointestinal tract.
2. Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS): CAPS are a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the immune system. They are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, pain, and inflammation in various parts of the body.
3. Hyper-IgE syndrome: Hyper-IgE syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by high levels of IgE antibodies in the blood and recurrent infections, particularly with Staphylococcus aureus.
4. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by recurrent candidal infections of the skin, nails, and mucous membranes.
5. X-linked agammaglobulinemia: X-linked agammaglobulinemia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by a lack of antibody production and recurrent infections, particularly with encapsulated bacteria.
6. Common variable immunodeficiency: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by low levels of antibodies and recurrent infections.
7. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including eczema, allergies, and an increased risk of infections.
8. X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by high levels of IgM antibodies in the blood and recurrent infections.
9. Chronic granulomatous disease: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by the failure of white blood cells to produce oxidizing chemicals, leading to recurrent infections and inflammation.
10. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by a weakened immune system, low levels of white blood cells, and an increased risk of infections.
These are just a few examples of primary immunodeficiency disorders. There are many other types of these disorders, each with its own set of symptoms and characteristics. If you suspect that you or your child may have a primary immunodeficiency disorder, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Some common types of streptococcal infections include:
1. Strep throat (pharyngitis): an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
2. Sinusitis: an infection of the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the skull) that can cause headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause cough, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.
4. Cellulitis: an infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth over the affected area.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves, which can cause fever, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and abdomen.
6. Meningitis: an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
7. Septicemia (blood poisoning): an infection of the bloodstream that can cause fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
Streptococcal infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Prevention measures for streptococcal infections include:
1. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have streptococcal infections.
3. Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered to prevent bacterial entry.
4. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of streptococcal infections through sexual contact.
5. Getting vaccinated against streptococcus pneumoniae, which can help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by this bacterium.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have a streptococcal infection, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Febrile seizures are relatively common in children under the age of five. They affect approximately 2-5% of children in this age group and account for nearly one-third of all seizures in childhood. Febrile seizures are more common in boys than girls and tend to occur more frequently between 12 and 18 months of age.
The exact cause of febrile seizures is not known, but they are believed to be triggered by a rapid increase in body temperature. This can occur due to an infection such as a viral or bacterial infection, or due to other factors such as dehydration or an allergic reaction.
During a febrile seizure, the child may experience a variety of symptoms including:
* Convulsions or shaking of the arms and legs
* Loss of consciousness or confusion
* Stiffness or rigidity of the body
* Confusion or disorientation after the seizure has ended
Febrile seizures are typically diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms and medical history. A doctor may perform a physical examination and order additional tests such as blood work or imaging studies to rule out other conditions that could be causing the fever and seizure.
There is no specific treatment for febrile seizures, but there are steps parents can take to help their child feel more comfortable and reduce the risk of future seizures. These include:
* Providing plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration
* Keeping the child cool with a cool compress or bath
* Medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce fever
* Home remedies such as ginger or chamomile tea to help soothe the child and reduce inflammation
While there is no surefire way to prevent febrile seizures, parents can take steps to reduce the risk of their child experiencing one. These include:
* Keeping the child's immunizations up to date to prevent infections that can cause fever and seizures
* Monitoring the child's temperature and seeking medical attention if it reaches 104°F (40°C) or higher
* Providing plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration
* Avoiding overdressing the child and keeping them in a cool, well-ventilated environment to prevent overheating
In most cases, febrile seizures are not a cause for concern and do not indicate any underlying medical condition. However, if your child experiences a second seizure or if the first seizure lasts for more than 15 minutes, it is important to seek immediate medical attention. Additionally, if your child has a fever that does not come down with treatment or if they experience other symptoms such as stiffness or confusion, you should also seek medical help.
In rare cases, febrile seizures can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition such as a brain infection or a congenital disorder. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of these conditions and to seek medical attention if you suspect that your child may have one.
In conclusion, while febrile seizures can be alarming for parents, they are generally not a cause for concern and can be treated effectively with home remedies and over-the-counter medications. However, it is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of more serious underlying conditions and to seek medical attention if you suspect that your child may have one.
Symptoms of filoviridae infections typically begin within 2 to 21 days after exposure and can include fever, headache, muscle pain, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. As the disease progresses, patients may experience bleeding and hemorrhaging, including bruising, petechiae (small red spots on the skin), and ecchymoses (larger purple or brown spots on the skin).
Filoviridae infections are diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antigen detection, which can detect the presence of the virus in the blood or other bodily fluids. There is no specific treatment for filoviridae infections, and treatment is primarily focused on providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Prevention of filoviridae infections relies on standard precautions, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), including gloves, masks, and gowns, and strict infection control practices, such as proper disposal of contaminated materials and avoidance of contact with infected individuals. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent filoviridae infections, but they are not yet widely available.
Overall, filoviridae infections are highly dangerous and can have a high mortality rate, highlighting the importance of early detection, isolation, and supportive care, as well as the need for ongoing research to develop effective treatments and vaccines.
1. Dictionary of Medical Microbiology, Second Edition. Edited by A. S. Chakrabarti and S. K. Das. Springer, 2012.
2. Medical Microbiology, Fourth Edition. Edited by P. R. Murray, K. S. N air, and M. J. Laurence. Mosby, 2014.
Hemorrhagic fever, Omsk (HFO) is a rare and severe viral disease that is caused by the Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV). The disease is characterized by fever, bleeding disorders, and damage to the central nervous system.
The name "Omsk" refers to the city of Omsk in western Siberia, Russia, where the disease was first identified in 1978.
The symptoms of HFO typically develop within 2-14 days after exposure to the virus and may include:
* Fever (which can be very high)
* Muscle pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Bleeding disorders (e.g., petechiae, ecchymoses, hematuria)
* Meningitis or encephalitis
HFO is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical features and laboratory tests, including:
* Complete blood count (CBC) to identify thrombocytopenia and leukopenia
* Blood cultures to detect the presence of the virus
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the virus genome in blood or other bodily fluids
* Imaging studies (e.g., CT or MRI scans) to evaluate the central nervous system
Treatment and Prognosis:
There is no specific treatment for HFO, and management of the disease is primarily supportive. Treatment may include:
* Intravenous fluids and antipyretics to reduce fever
* Transfusions of blood products to replace lost platelets and red blood cells
* Antiviral medications (e.g., ribavirin) to reduce the severity of the disease
* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation in the central nervous system
The prognosis for HFO is generally poor, with a mortality rate of 20-40%. However, the disease can resolve spontaneously in some cases. Factors that are associated with a better prognosis include:
* Early diagnosis and treatment
* Mild severity of the disease
* Absence of neurological symptoms
* Presence of antibodies against the virus
Prevention of HFO is challenging, as there is no effective vaccine against the virus. However, measures that can help reduce the risk of infection include:
* Avoiding contact with infected individuals or animals
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly
* Using protective equipment (e.g., gloves, masks) when handling animals or their tissues
* Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked poultry products
It is important to note that HFO can be transmitted through organ transplantation, and donated organs should be screened for the virus before transplantation.
In summary, HFO is a rare but severe disease caused by the Hantavirus, which is primarily found in the Americas. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to improving outcomes, and prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected individuals or animals, practicing good hygiene, and screening donated organs for the virus before transplantation.
Falciparum malaria can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, the disease can lead to anemia, organ failure, and death.
Diagnosis of falciparum malaria typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of parasites in the blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment usually involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) or quinine, which can effectively cure the disease if administered promptly.
Prevention of falciparum malaria is critical to reducing the risk of infection, and this includes the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying (IRS), and preventive medications for travelers to high-risk areas. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the number of mosquitoes and the spread of the disease.
In summary, falciparum malaria is a severe and life-threatening form of malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which is responsible for the majority of malaria-related deaths worldwide. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and death from this disease. Prevention measures include the use of bed nets, indoor spraying, and preventive medications, as well as reducing standing water around homes and communities.
Examples of syndromes include:
1. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 that affects intellectual and physical development.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a missing or partially deleted X chromosome that affects physical growth and development in females.
3. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder affecting the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and cardiovascular problems.
4. Alzheimer's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and changes in personality and behavior.
5. Parkinson's disease: A neurological disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with movement.
6. Klinefelter syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra X chromosome in males, leading to infertility and other physical characteristics.
7. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of genetic material on chromosome 7, characterized by cardiovascular problems, developmental delays, and a distinctive facial appearance.
8. Fragile X syndrome: The most common form of inherited intellectual disability, caused by an expansion of a specific gene on the X chromosome.
9. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a defect in the hypothalamus, leading to problems with appetite regulation and obesity.
10. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands that produce tears and saliva, causing dry eyes and mouth.
Syndromes can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment for a syndrome depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms and signs presented by the patient.
Some common types of arbovirus infections include:
* Dengue fever: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause severe flu-like symptoms.
* Chikungunya: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause joint pain, fever, and swelling of the limbs.
* Yellow fever: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause fever, chills, headache, and muscle pain.
* Zika virus disease: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes).
Arbovirus infections can be diagnosed through blood tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which can detect the presence of viral antigens or genetic material in the blood. Treatment for arbovirus infections is typically supportive, such as providing fluids and pain relief medication to manage symptoms.
Prevention of arbovirus infections primarily involves controlling the populations of mosquitoes and ticks that transmit the viruses, through measures such as:
* Using insecticides to kill mosquitoes and ticks.
* Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors.
* Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce mosquito breeding sites.
* Implementing public health measures such as spraying insecticides and installing window screens to reduce the risk of mosquito bites.
Overall, arbovirus infections can be a significant public health concern, particularly in areas where the viruses are common and transmission is frequent. Effective prevention and control measures, such as those listed above, can help reduce the risk of infection and manage outbreaks when they do occur.
Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.
Types of Cattle Diseases
There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:
1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.
Symptoms of Cattle Diseases
The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:
1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases
Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.
Prevention of Cattle Diseases
Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:
1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.
It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.
By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.
There are several possible causes of thrombocytopenia, including:
1. Immune-mediated disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
2. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia or leukemia.
3. Viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis C.
4. Medications such as chemotherapy or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
5. Vitamin deficiencies, especially vitamin B12 and folate.
6. Genetic disorders such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
7. Sepsis or other severe infections.
8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition where blood clots form throughout the body.
9. Postpartum thrombocytopenia, which can occur in some women after childbirth.
Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), and prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include platelet transfusions, steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and in severe cases, surgery.
In summary, thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by low platelet counts that can increase the risk of bleeding and bruising. It can be caused by various factors, and treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause.
The symptoms of pneumonic pasteurellosis in humans include fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, the infection can lead to respiratory failure, sepsis, and death.
Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood cultures and chest x-rays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation, to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Prevention of pneumonic pasteurellosis includes avoiding close contact with infected animals, wearing protective clothing and equipment when handling animals, and properly cleaning and disinfecting animal products and facilities. Vaccination of animals is also recommended to reduce the risk of transmission to humans.
Types of Infection:
1. Bacterial Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful bacteria in the body. Examples include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.
2. Viral Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful viruses in the body. Examples include the common cold, flu, and HIV/AIDS.
3. Fungal Infections: These are caused by the presence of fungi in the body. Examples include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis.
4. Parasitic Infections: These are caused by the presence of parasites in the body. Examples include malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.
Symptoms of Infection:
4. Muscle aches
5. Skin rashes or lesions
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Sore throat
Treatment of Infection:
1. Antibiotics: These are used to treat bacterial infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria.
2. Antiviral medications: These are used to treat viral infections and work by interfering with the replication of viruses.
3. Fungicides: These are used to treat fungal infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of fungi.
4. Anti-parasitic medications: These are used to treat parasitic infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of parasites.
5. Supportive care: This includes fluids, nutritional supplements, and pain management to help the body recover from the infection.
Prevention of Infection:
1. Hand washing: Regular hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infection.
2. Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against specific infections can help prevent them.
3. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other safe sex practices can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
4. Food safety: Properly storing and preparing food can help prevent the spread of foodborne illnesses.
5. Infection control measures: Healthcare providers use infection control measures such as wearing gloves, masks, and gowns to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings.
Flavivirus infections can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, and skin rashes. In severe cases, these infections can lead to hemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.
The transmission of flaviviruses is typically through the bite of an infected mosquito or other insect vectors, although some viruses can also be transmitted through blood transfusions or organ transplantation.
There is no specific treatment for flavivirus infections, but supportive care such as hydration, pain relief, and antipyretic medications may be provided to manage symptoms. Prevention includes avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites.
In addition, vaccines are available for some flaviviruses, such as yellow fever and dengue fever, which can provide protection against infection.
Overall, flavivirus infections are a significant public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions where these viruses are most commonly found.
The diagnosis of leptospirosis is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and the patient's exposure history. The most common diagnostic test is a blood test that detects antibodies against Leptospira. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention of leptospirosis includes avoiding exposure to contaminated water, soil, or food, wearing protective clothing when working with animals or in areas where the bacteria may be present, and vaccinating animals that are at risk of infection. The disease is more common in tropical and subtropical regions, and it affects people who work outdoors or engage in activities that expose them to contaminated water, such as farmers, veterinarians, and sewer workers.
In medical terminology, leptospirosis is classified as a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted between animals and humans. The bacteria that cause the infection are gram-negative, aerobic, and helical shaped, and they belong to the family Leptospiraceae.
In summary, leptospirosis is a bacterial infection that can affect both humans and animals, and it is spread through contact with contaminated water, soil, or food. It can cause a wide range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and can lead to serious complications if left untreated. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to contaminated sources, wearing protective clothing, and vaccinating animals at risk.
Dengue Fever Treatment | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Yellow Fever | CDC Yellow Book 2024
'Fever'[majr:noexp] AND humans[mh] AND english[la] AND 'last 1 Year' [edat] NOT (letter[pt] OR case reports[pt] OR editorial[pt...
Familial Mediterranean fever - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center
Infantile-onset periodic fever-panniculitis-dermatosis syndrome - NIH Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) - NCBI
Hay Fever | Pollen | Allergies | MedlinePlus
Q Fever Outbreak -- Switzerland
Typhoid fever: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
ArboCat Virus: Yellow fever (YFV)
ArboCat Virus: Rift Valley fever (RVFV)
Q Fever Differential Diagnoses
Case : Child With Fever, Neck Pain, Abdominal Pain, Rash
PediaCare Infants Fever Reducer Grape
ACIP: Yellow Fever Vaccine
CDC Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers | Education & Training
Familial Mediterranean fever: MedlinePlus Genetics
Fever Blisters & Canker Sores | National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
Scientists develop novel vaccine for Lassa fever and rabies | National Institutes of Health (NIH)
SEA/RC17/R2 - Typhoid Fever
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever
Roman Fever | Encyclopedia.com
- Early symptoms include fever, general ill-feeling, and abdominal pain. (nih.gov)
- Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized by recurrent episodes of painful inflammation in the abdomen, chest, or joints. (nih.gov)
- Autoinflammation, panniculitis, and dermatosis syndrome (AIPDS) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disease characterized by neonatal onset of recurrent fever, erythematous rash with painful nodules, painful joints, and lipodystrophy. (nih.gov)
- FMF often causes recurrent fevers accompanied by pain in the abdomen, joints, or chest. (rheumatology.org)
- On November 18, 1983, the Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Division of the Valais Central Laboratory (VCL) notified the Valais Health Department of an outbreak of Q fever in Bagnes, Switzerland. (cdc.gov)
- An outbreak of dengue fever on a small island chain in the middle of the Pacific. (cdc.gov)
- In 2018, Nigeria experienced its largest-ever Lassa fever outbreak, with 514 confirmed cases and 134 deaths from Jan. 1 through Sept. 30, according to the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control . (nih.gov)
- In July 1878, an outbreak of yellow fever was reported in Vicksburg, just south of Memphis. (history.com)
- Once the first cases are confirmed as yellow fever, an outbreak can be reported. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
- The largest yellow fever outbreak of the past 30 years began in Angola in December 2015 and spread to neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
- For details, see Map 5-10 , Map 5-11 , and YF vaccine recommendations (Sec. 2, Ch. 5, Yellow Fever Vaccine & Malaria Prevention Information, by Country ). (cdc.gov)
- A vaccine is recommended for travel outside of the United States to places where there is typhoid fever. (nih.gov)
- These revised Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) recommendations on yellow fever vaccine update previous recommendations (MMWR 1984;32:679-88). (cdc.gov)
- Changes have been made to clarify(1) the risks of acquiring yellow fever associated with travel to endemic areas,(2) the precautions necessary for vaccination of special groups (immunosuppressed individuals, infants, pregnant women), and(3) simultaneous administration of cholera vaccine and other vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- Yellow fever vaccine is a live, attenuated virus preparation made from the 17D yellow fever virus strain (4). (cdc.gov)
- A novel vaccine designed to protect people from both Lassa fever and rabies showed promise in preclinical testing, according to new research published in Nature Communications . (nih.gov)
- The vaccine also protected guinea pigs from Lassa fever after being exposed to the virus 58 days after vaccination. (nih.gov)
- Levels of this type of antibody could potentially be a Lassa fever correlate of protection used to determine vaccine efficacy, according to the authors. (nih.gov)
- Non-neutralizing antibodies elicited by recombinant Lassa-Rabies vaccine are critical for protection against Lassa fever. (nih.gov)
- A vaccine is available for yellow fever. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- As of June 2016, the World Health Organization recommends a one-time yellow fever vaccine, instead of a vaccine every 10 years. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- A vaccine is available to prevent yellow fever. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- From October 15 to December 15, more than 300 persons with acute illness characterized by high fever, chills, general malaise, headache, and arthralgias were seen by a physician in Bagnes County (population approximately 4,700). (cdc.gov)
- Most infections show no symptoms or only mild illness three to six days after infection, with fever and sometimes headache, chills, back pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
- Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in U.S. travelers. (cdc.gov)
- Illness ranges from a fever with aches and pains to severe liver disease with bleeding and yellowing skin (jaundice). (cdc.gov)
- Humans infected with YF virus experience the highest levels of viremia shortly before onset of fever and for the first 3-5 days of illness, during which time they can transmit the virus to mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that physicians evaluate travelers, particularly military personnel and civilian contractors, for Q fever if they present with febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. (medscape.com)
- The first episode of illness in familial Mediterranean fever usually occurs in childhood or the teenage years, but in some cases, the initial attack occurs much later in life. (nih.gov)
- Although Lassa fever is often a mild illness, some people experience serious symptoms, such as hemorrhage (severe bleeding) and shock. (nih.gov)
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious tickborne illness which can be deadly if not treated early. (cdc.gov)
- Study co-author Donald Shepard of Brandeis University's Schneider Institutes for Health Policy said dengue fever inflicts a $37.8 million burden on Puerto Rico each year, but every $1 invested in traditional surveillance and prevention could save $5 in costs associated with the illness. (upi.com)
- These episodes are often accompanied by fever and sometimes a rash or headache. (nih.gov)
- Typhoid fever is an infection that causes diarrhea and a rash . (nih.gov)
- A 7-year-old boy with no underlying conditions is brought to the emergency department (ED) by his mother for fever, sore throat, abdominal and neck pain, and rash. (medscape.com)
- The rash most often appears 3-5 days after the fever and headache start, but can take longer. (kidshealth.org)
- BOSTON, May 4 (UPI) -- The spread of dengue fever could cause more sickness and prove more costly globally than malaria, U.S. public health experts said. (upi.com)
- Typhoid fever is common in developing countries. (nih.gov)
- Most cases in the United States are brought in from other countries where typhoid fever is common. (nih.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website has information about where typhoid fever is common -- www.cdc.gov/typhoid-fever/index.html . (nih.gov)
- Typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and typhoidal fevers. (nih.gov)
- Yellow fever infection is diagnosed based on laboratory testing, a person's symptoms, and travel history. (cdc.gov)
- The value of fever assessment in addition to the Early Detection Infection Scale (EDIS). (nih.gov)
- Marrie TJ, Stein A, Janigan D, Raoult D. Route of infection determines the clinical manifestations of acute Q fever. (medscape.com)
- Fever Blisters are caused by an infection with the herpes simplex virus, usually type 1, or HSV-1. (nih.gov)
- The overall Lassa virus infection case-fatality rate is about 1 percent, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), but that rate rises to 15 percent for patients hospitalized with severe cases of Lassa fever. (nih.gov)
- Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an often fatal viral infection described in about 30 countries, and it has the most extensive geographic distribution of the medically important tickborne viral diseases, closely approximating the known global distribution of Hyalomma spp ticks. (nih.gov)
- But valley fever can come back again in people who have weak immune systems and can't fight infection. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection. (kidshealth.org)
- We have responded to yellow fever epidemics since the year 2000 in countries including Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea , Sudan , Sierra Leone , Central African Republic , and Chad . (doctorswithoutborders.org)
Africa and South America2
- After a three-to-six-day incubation period, an afflicted person feels flu-like symptoms such as fever and aches. (history.com)
Acute Q fever2
- To date, a total of 191 clinical cases of acute Q fever (Figure 1) have been serologically confirmed at the VCL by a fourfold or greater rise in Q fever complement fixation phase II antibody titer or by a 1:20 or greater Coxiella burnetii-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) titer using an indirect immunofluorescence test on a single serum specimen. (cdc.gov)
- To date, no deaths have been attributed to acute Q fever. (cdc.gov)
- Yellow fever is found mainly in certain areas of Africa and in South America. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Valley fever is also called desert fever, San Joaquin Valley fever, coccidioidomycosis, and desert rheumatism. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) is caused by the fungi Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii . (cdc.gov)
- The most common symptoms of primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis are cough and persistent fatigue, with only about half of patients reporting fever. (cdc.gov)
- Jungle yellow fever is an enzootic viral disease transmitted among nonhuman primate hosts by various mosquito vectors. (cdc.gov)
- Yellow fever is a rare viral disease caused by the bite of a mosquito. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Yellow fever is a disease caused by a virus passed on through the bite of a daytime-biting mosquito. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne acute hemorrhagic viral disease without a cure. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
- Known as "break-bone fever" for its capacity to cause excruciating joint pain, the disease -- transmitted by a bite from the Aedes aegypti mosquito -- broke out in the Florida Keys in 2010 and threatens nearly 3 billion people worldwide, Shepard said. (upi.com)
- Urban yellow fever is an epidemic viral disease of humans transmitted from infected to susceptible persons by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which breed in domestic and peridomestic containers (e.g., water jars, barrels, drums, tires, tin cans) and thus in close association with humans. (cdc.gov)
- Jungle yellow fever can most effectively be prevented by vaccination of human populations at risk of exposure. (cdc.gov)
- Fever is the body's way of killing off infections by raising the heat on germs. (webmd.com)
- Streptococcal infections that fail to cause recurrences of rheumatic fever. (medscape.com)
- After that, yellow-fever infections spread quickly throughout Memphis. (history.com)
- Yellow fever is difficult to diagnose because many of its mild, early flu-like symptoms resemble those of many other infections. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
- Although not a nationally reportable disease, Q fever in humans has been reported from 31 states in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- When Do Symptoms of Familial Mediterranean fever Begin? (nih.gov)
- Familial Mediterranean fever primarily affects populations originating in the Mediterranean region, particularly people of Armenian, Arab, Turkish, or Jewish ancestry. (nih.gov)
- Familial Mediterranean fever is caused by variants (also known as mutations) in the MEFV gene. (nih.gov)
- Normal variations in the SAA1 gene may modify the course of familial Mediterranean fever. (nih.gov)
- Some evidence suggests that a particular version of the SAA1 gene (called the alpha variant) increases the risk of amyloidosis among people with familial Mediterranean fever. (nih.gov)
- Research shows that about one-third of people with familial Mediterranean fever have a single MEFV gene variant, though most experts believe there is a second variant somewhere else in the gene that has not been detected by genetic testing. (nih.gov)
- However, another mechanism is believed to account for some cases of familial Mediterranean fever that were originally thought to be inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. (nih.gov)
- Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a non-infectious genetic disorder manifested by episodic fevers typically accompanied by pain in the abdomen, joints, or chest. (rheumatology.org)
- What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Familial Mediterranean Fever? (rheumatology.org)
- Your health care provider may diagnose hay fever based on a physical exam and your symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
- But if your body's natural defence system (immune system) is weak, valley fever can be deadly. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- A blood culture during the first week of the fever can show S typhi bacteria. (nih.gov)
- Parental knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards childhood fever among South-East and East Asian parents: A literature review. (nih.gov)
- To prevent getting sick from yellow fever, use insect repellent, wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants, and get vaccinated. (cdc.gov)
- Yellow fever (YF) virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus . (cdc.gov)
- See www.who.int/publications/m/item/countries-with-risk-of-yellow-fever-transmission-and-countries-requiring-yellow-fever-vaccination-(november-2022) . (cdc.gov)
- Two forms of yellow fever--urban and jungle--are epidemiologically distinguishable. (cdc.gov)
- aegypti has been eliminated or suppressed, urban yellow fever has disappeared. (cdc.gov)
- aegypti-borne yellow fever epidemic in the western hemisphere occurred in Trinidad in 1954. (cdc.gov)
- Other countries remain infested, including areas of Venezuela, Colombia, and the Guyanas, which include enzootic areas for jungle yellow fever. (cdc.gov)
- The jungle yellow fever cycle may be active but unrecognized in forested areas of countries within the yellow fever endemic zone (Figure 1). (cdc.gov)
- Urban yellow fever can be prevented by eradicating Ae. (cdc.gov)
- They also differ in appearance: Fever blisters are patches of several small fluid-filled blisters, while canker sores are usually single round white or yellow sores with a red border. (nih.gov)
- What is yellow fever? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Yellow fever is caused by a virus (flavivirus). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- What are the symptoms of yellow fever? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- How is yellow fever diagnosed? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- How is yellow fever treated? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- What are the complications of yellow fever? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Most people who get yellow fever do not have complications. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Can yellow fever be prevented? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The disease no longer happens in the U.S. But talk with your healthcare provider to see if you need the shot before visiting areas where yellow fever still exists. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- People who have had yellow fever develop lifelong immunity. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- On August 13, 1878, Kate Bionda, a restaurant owner, dies of yellow fever in Memphis, Tennessee , after a man who had escaped a quarantined steamboat visited her restaurant. (history.com)
- In the 19th century, it was not known that mosquitoes carried yellow fever. (history.com)
- Those who came down with yellow fever were quarantined in an effort to prevent the disease from spreading. (history.com)
- Kate Bionda, the first Memphis resident to get yellow fever, died on August 13. (history.com)
- Yellow fever is transmitted through the daytime bite of infected female Aedes mosquitoes. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
- There is no specific antiviral drug for yellow fever, but hospital-based supportive care can save the lives of some patients. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
- There are currently no approved Lassa fever vaccines. (nih.gov)
- Give them a child's dosage of ibuprofen or acetaminophen to safely bring their fever down. (webmd.com)
- Call if the fever lasts more than 24 hours in a child younger than 2, or more than three days in a child 2 and up. (webmd.com)
- Prevalence of fever of unidentified aetiology in East African adolescents and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
- 2015. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Diagnosaurus/114161/all/Fever. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Fever blisters can be treated with prescription antiviral medications either applied as topical creams or taken orally. (nih.gov)
- Clinical features commonly show a dramatic progression characterised by haemorrhage, myalgia, and fever. (nih.gov)
- Joseph N, Madi D, Kumar GS, Nelliyanil M, Saralaya V, Rai S. Clinical spectrum of rheumatic Fever and rheumatic heart disease: a 10 year experience in an urban area of South India. (medscape.com)
- You should also call your doctor if the fever has dropped but your child is still acting sick or if they seem to be getting worse. (webmd.com)
- An inappropriate or prolonged inflammatory response can result, leading to fever and pain in the abdomen, chest, or joints. (nih.gov)
- Prior research indicated that an antibody-mediated immune response is not correlated with protection from Lassa fever, the authors note. (nih.gov)