Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Poetry as Topic: Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Miller Fisher Syndrome: A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Supreme Court Decisions: Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Beginning of Human Life: The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.Neonatology: A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Ceremonial Behavior: A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.Ethicists: Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Electrochemotherapy: A treatment modality that uses pulsed electrical currents to permeabilize cell membranes (ELECTROPORATION) and thereby enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines, or genes into the body's cells.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.DenmarkInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Infant, Premature, DiseasesRetinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Abortion, Criminal: Illegal termination of pregnancy.Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Minors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Hypertensive Retinopathy: Degenerative changes to the RETINA due to HYPERTENSION.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Societies, Nursing: Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.Consumer Product SafetySafety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)

The Caenorhabditis elegans mel-11 myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit affects tissue contraction in the somatic gonad and the embryonic epidermis and genetically interacts with the Rac signaling pathway. (1/189)

Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic elongation is driven by cell shape changes that cause a contraction of the epidermal cell layer enclosing the embryo. We have previously shown that this process requires a Rho-associated kinase (LET-502) and is opposed by the activity of a myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit (MEL-11). We now extend our characterization and show that mel-11 activity is required both in the epidermis during embryonic elongation and in the spermatheca of the adult somatic gonad. let-502 and mel-11 reporter gene constructs show reciprocal expression patterns in the embryonic epidermis and the spermatheca, and mutations of the two genes have opposite effects in these two tissues. These results are consistent with let-502 and mel-11 mediating tissue contraction and relaxation, respectively. We also find that mel-11 embryonic inviability is genetically enhanced by mutations in a Rac signaling pathway, suggesting that Rac potentiates or acts in parallel with the activity of the myosin phosphatase complex. Since Rho has been implicated in promoting cellular contraction, our results support a mechanism by which epithelial morphogenesis is regulated by the counteracting activities of Rho and Rac.  (+info)

Differential and inefficient splicing of a broadly expressed Drosophila erect wing transcript results in tissue-specific enrichment of the vital EWG protein isoform. (2/189)

In this report, we document an unusual mode of tissue-enriched gene expression that is primarily mediated by alternative and inefficient splicing. We have analyzed posttranscriptional regulation of the Drosophila erect wing gene, which provides a vital neuronal function and is essential for the formation of certain muscles. Its predominant protein product, the 116-kDa EWG protein, a putative transcriptional regulator, can provide all known erect wing-associated functions. Moreover, consistent with its function, the 116-kDa protein is highly enriched in neurons and is also observed transiently in migrating myoblasts. In contrast to the protein distribution, we observed that erect wing transcripts are present in comparable levels in neuron-enriched heads and neuron-poor bodies of adult Drosophila. Our analyses shows that erect wing transcript consists of 10 exons and is alternatively spliced and that a subset of introns are inefficiently spliced. We also show that the 116-kDa EWG protein-encoding splice isoform is head enriched. In contrast, bodies have lower levels of transcripts that can encode the 116-kDa protein and greater amounts of unprocessed erect wing RNA. Thus, the enrichment of the 116-kDa protein in heads is ensured by tissue-specific alternative and inefficient splicing and not by transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, this regulation is biologically important, as an increased level of the 116-kDa protein outside the nervous system is lethal.  (+info)

Interferon-gamma contributes to the normalcy of murine pregnancy. (3/189)

Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are transient, large, heavily granulated, maternal lymphocytes present on the mesometrial side of the pregnant mouse uterus. These cells contribute to normal implantation site development. Cytokine production, particularly interferon (IFN)-gamma, is a major function of most NK cell subsets. In this study, uNK cells were assessed for IFN-gamma production. Local concentrations of IFN-gamma were measured in the mesometrial regions of murine implantation sites between Days 6 and 16 of gestation. IFN-gamma was detected by ELISA at all days studied in a random-bred (CD1) and an inbred (BALB/c) strain of immune-competent mouse and in two immune-deficient strains, SCID (NK(+), T(-), B(-)) and tgepsilon26 (NK(-), T(-), B(+)). Concentrations of IFN-gamma per implantation site peaked at Day 10 of gestation in NK(+) strains but were low and relatively constant in NK(-) mice. To evaluate the functions of IFN-gamma at murine implantation sites, pregnancy was studied in homozygously mated IFN-gamma(-/-) and IFN-gammaRalpha(-/-) mice and their congenic controls. Primiparous but not multiparous IFN-gamma(-/-) mice experienced significant fetal loss. Primiparous IFN-gammaRalpha(-/-) carried full litters to term. Implantation site pathology was demonstrated in both strains of gene-deleted mice by light microscopy and ultrastructurally. This included elevated numbers of uNK cells that contained fewer and smaller granules and, after Day 10 of gestation, progressive necrosis and loss of decidua. The presence of a fetus able to produce IFN-gamma did not modify the phenotype of pregnant IFN-gamma(-/-) mice. This study indicates that during murine pregnancy, uNK cells are the main source of IFN-gamma on the mesometrial side of the uterus and that IFN-gamma contributes to normal health of the midgestational decidua. Furthermore, evidence is presented that IFN-gamma-producing cells exist in mesometrial regions of implantation sites that are neither NK nor T cells.  (+info)

Expression of the insulin-like growth factor-1 gene and its receptor in preimplantation mouse embryos; is it a marker of embryo viability? (4/189)

Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in mouse preimplantation development. We examined IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) gene expression in a single blastomere of an early mouse embryo and compared it with subsequent embryo development in culture. Fertilized eggs and 2-cell embryos were obtained by tubal flushing in superovulated and mated female mice. Single cells were removed from embryos at cleavage stage between 3 and 8 cells using the standard embryo biopsy techniques. Individual blastomeres from each embryo were then assayed for the presence of IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The biopsied embryos were washed in medium and placed in co-culture with murine endometrial cells. Embryonic development in culture was assessed and blastocyst grading was performed. IGF-1 gene expression was then examined for an association with in-vitro development. Eighty-seven embryos were biopsied. IGF-1R gene expression was detected in the majority of embryos tested and IGF-1 gene expression was detected in 34 of 81 (42%) embryos. A significant association between IGF-1 expression and blastocyst formation in vitro was found (P < 0.01). There was no association between IGF-1R expression and subsequent embryo development. We conclude that IGF-1 gene expression could potentially be used as a marker of embryo quality.  (+info)

Drosophila myc regulates cellular growth during development. (5/189)

Transcription factors of the Myc proto-oncogene family promote cell division, but how they do this is poorly understood. Here we address the functions of Drosophila Myc (dMyc) during development. Using mosaic analysis in the fly wing, we show that loss of dMyc retards cellular growth (accumulation of cell mass) and reduces cell size, whereas dMyc overproduction increases growth rates and cell size. dMyc-induced growth promotes G1/S progression but fails to accelerate cell division because G2/M progression is independently controlled by Cdc25/String. We also show that the secreted signal Wingless patterns growth in the wing primordium by modulating dMyc expression. Our results indicate that dMyc links patterning signals to cell division by regulating primary targets involved in cellular growth and metabolism.  (+info)

PPAR gamma is required for placental, cardiac, and adipose tissue development. (6/189)

The nuclear hormone receptor PPAR gamma promotes adipogenesis and macrophage differentiation and is a primary pharmacological target in the treatment of type II diabetes. Here, we show that PPAR gamma gene knockout results in two independent lethal phases. Initially, PPAR gamma deficiency interferes with terminal differentiation of the trophoblast and placental vascularization, leading to severe myocardial thinning and death by E10.0. Supplementing PPAR gamma null embryos with wild-type placentas via aggregation with tetraploid embryos corrects the cardiac defect, implicating a previously unrecognized dependence of the developing heart on a functional placenta. A tetraploid-rescued mutant surviving to term exhibited another lethal combination of pathologies, including lipodystrophy and multiple hemorrhages. These findings both confirm and expand the current known spectrum of physiological functions regulated by PPAR gamma.  (+info)

PPAR gamma mediates high-fat diet-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance. (7/189)

Agonist-induced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is known to cause adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. The biological role of PPAR gamma was investigated by gene targeting. Homozygous PPAR gamma-deficient embryos died at 10.5-11.5 dpc due to placental dysfunction. Quite unexpectedly, heterozygous PPAR gamma-deficient mice were protected from the development of insulin resistance due to adipocyte hypertrophy under a high-fat diet. These phenotypes were abrogated by PPAR gamma agonist treatment. Heterozygous PPAR gamma-deficient mice showed overexpression and hypersecretion of leptin despite the smaller size of adipocytes and decreased fat mass, which may explain these phenotypes at least in part. This study reveals a hitherto unpredicted role for PPAR gamma in high-fat diet-induced obesity due to adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance, which requires both alleles of PPAR gamma.  (+info)

Developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits with 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, the major metabolite of chlorpyrifos. (8/189)

3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), the primary metabolite of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl, was evaluated for potential developmental toxicity. Groups of 32-34 bred female Fischer 344 rats were given 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg TCP/kg/day by gavage on gestation days 6-15; the fetuses were evaluated on gestation day 21. Similarly, groups of 16 inseminated female New Zealand White rabbits were given 0, 25, 100, or 250 mg TCP/kg/day by gavage on gestation days 7-19, and fetuses were evaluated on gestation day 28. No clinical signs of toxicity attributed to TCP were noted in either species. In rats, at 150 mg/kg/day, maternal effects included slight decreases in feed consumption, significantly depressed body weight gain (25% relative to controls) resulting in significantly lower maternal terminal body weights, and increased relative liver weight. At 100 mg/kg/day, maternal body weight gain in rats was depressed approximately 22%. Among rabbits, maternal effects were limited to the group given 250 mg/kg/day, which lost an average of approximately 70 g during the treatment period (vs. 140 g in the controls). There were no effects on fetal weight or viability, nor were there significant increases in any fetal alteration in either species. A slightly higher (not statistically significant) than usual incidence of central nervous system anomalies occurred in rabbits, but these anomalies were found in both treated and control groups in this study as well as contemporaneous studies of unrelated compounds. This, and the fact that these anomalies were not seen with the parent compound, chlorpyrifos, suggest that their origin was spontaneous. Thus, TCP was not considered fetotoxic or teratogenic in either rats or rabbits, even at dose levels that produced maternal toxicity.  (+info)

  • Viability (a baby's ability to survive outside the womb if born prematurely), has had a huge impact on the abortion debate. (texasrighttolife.com)
  • Consequently, 21 states maintain abortion laws prohibiting the killing of a preborn child who has reached the age of viability. (texasrighttolife.com)
  • Because so many states - and the Supreme Court - hold the abortion of nonviable children as a legal right, these new findings raise important questions: Will the widely-accepted age of viability be changed to 22 weeks, and if so, when? (texasrighttolife.com)
  • And, does a physician's bias in favor of abortion make him less likely to offer treatment to a baby delivered earlier than the status quo 24-week viability mark? (texasrighttolife.com)
  • One thing is clear: no argument for the legality of abortion stands on firm premises - the ever-changing perception of fetal viability is just one of many instances of the shaky ground on which the so-called "right" to kill children stands. (texasrighttolife.com)
  • The panel held that under controlling Supreme Court precedent, Arizona may not deprive a woman of the choice to terminate her pregnancy at any point prior to viability. (scribd.com)
  • Steven H. Aden and M. Casey Mattox, Alliance Defending Freedom, Washington, D.C., for Amicus Curiae Doctors on Fetal Pain. (scribd.com)
  • this case is that the parties do not dispute that the twentyweek line Arizona has drawn is three or four weeks prior to viability. (scribd.com)
  • The Canberra Fetal Assessment Centre (CFAC) is a complete and unique obstetrics and gynaecology ultrasound service. (cfac.com.au)
  • A repeat ultrasound 6 days after the initial one revealed no change: a persistent empty gestational sac without a fetal pole (Figure 1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Typically Fetal Doppler's are priced excessively, however due to modern manufacturing techniques and accelerated ultrasound technology, today's affordability has seen the practice of using Fetal Doppler's shift into the domestic market, making it common practice within the home of expecting parents. (ebay.com.au)
  • A noteworthy study in 2006 suggests exposure to ultrasound can affect fetal brain development in mice. (bionity.com)
  • Fetal viability or foetal viability is the ability of a fetus to survive outside the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the word is used in United States constitutional law since Roe v. Wade, viability is the potential of the fetus to survive outside the uterus after birth, natural or induced, when supported by up-to-date medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another definition for viability, as used in the medical phrase limit of viability, is the expectation that a fetus has an equal chance of surviving and not surviving outside his or her mother's womb. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Websters Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, viability of a fetus means having reached such a stage of development as to be capable of living, under normal conditions, outside the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limit of viability is the gestational age at which a prematurely born fetus/infant has a 50% chance of long-term survival outside its mother's womb. (wikipedia.org)
  • The courts often focus on viability , the point at which the fetus could survive outside the womb. (issues2000.org)
  • A: I support women's rights to choose up until viability of the fetus. (issues2000.org)
  • A fetus is a human being at the fetal stage of life. (freerepublic.com)
  • It is then maintained throughout gestation as the main fetomaternal interface, mediating nutrient, gas, and waste exchanges between the maternal and fetal blood, along with hormone production and protection of the fetus against the maternal immune system ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • On the fetal side of this interface, the membranes surrounding the fetus create a specialized epithelial surface within the placenta, and the syncytiotrophoblast cells control the nutrient exchange through their direct contact with maternal blood 22 . (jove.com)
  • And in fact, on the matter of "viability," David Forte has pointed out that the fetal heartbeat is one of the strongest predictors of viability: "absent some external, unexpected development, once a fetus has reached the stage of five or six weeks and [the] heart has begun to function, it is almost certain that he or she will continue to develop to full term. (thecatholicthing.org)
  • The scan is obtained with the fetus in sagittal section and a neutral position of the fetal head (neither hyperflexed nor extended, either of which can influence the nuchal translucency thickness). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfection efficiency was determined by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy and cell survival by cell viability assay. (springer.com)
  • Cell viability was evaluated by resazurin and acid phosphatase assays, while cell apoptosis was assessed by a fluorescent assay of caspase activity. (medsci.org)
  • A dose-dependent decrease in cell viability was obtained by treating MDA-MB-231 spheroids with αMG for 48 h (IC 50 = 0.70-1.25 μg/ml). (medsci.org)
  • In contrast, a decrease in the IAP expression was observed in the non-IBC, ErbB2-overexpressing SKBR3 cells in which trastuzumab treatment also decreased p-AKT and cell viability. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specific small interfering RNA-mediated XIAP inhibition in combination with trastuzumab caused decrease in inactive procaspase-9 and inhibition of p-AKT corresponding with 45% to 50% decrease in cell viability in the SUM190PT cells, which have high steady-state p-AKT levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Not all of the concentrations tested in the study affected cell viability. (mdpi.com)
  • By the ReCoDe classification, the most common condition was fetal growth restriction (43.0%), and only 15.2% of stillbirths remained unexplained. (bmj.com)
  • Fetal growth restriction is a common antecedent of stillbirth, but its high prevalence is hidden by current classification systems. (bmj.com)
  • Scolamiero G, Pazzini C, Bonafè F, Guarnieri C, Muscari C. Effects of α-Mangostin on Viability, Growth and Cohesion of Multicellular Spheroids Derived from Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines. (medsci.org)
  • Fetal growth and perinatal viability in California. (birthpsychology.com)
  • Fetal Growth in Humans. (birthpsychology.com)
  • Nearly 80% of the foetal growth occurs in the last 6 weeks of gestation. (nih.gov)
  • By generating KO mice for the syncytin-A gene, we previously showed that this gene is essential for placentation, with syncytin-A -deficient placentae disclosing defects in trophoblast fusion of syncytiotrophoblast layer I (ST-I) and overexpansion of trophoblast cells, ultimately leading to fetal growth retardation and death of the null embryos between 11.5 and 13.5 d of gestation ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our aim is to explore preferred prenatal counselling at the limits of viability by Dutch perinatal professionals and compare this to current care. (springer.com)
  • Online nationwide survey as part of the PreCo study (2013) amongst obstetricians and neonatologists in all Dutch level III perinatal care centers ( n = 205).The survey regarded prenatal counselling at the limits of viability and focused on the domains of organization, content and decision-making in both current and preferred practice. (springer.com)
  • Perinatal care of pregnant women at high risk for preterm delivery and of preterm infants born at the limit of viability (22-26 completed weeks of gestation) requires a multidisciplinary approach by an experienced perinatal team. (smw.ch)
  • All pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery or premature rupture of membranes at the limit of viability must be transferred to a perinatal centre with a level III neonatal intensive care unit no later than 23 0/7 weeks of gestation, unless emergency delivery is indicated. (smw.ch)
  • Here we discuss the various clinical parameters used to assess gamete and embryo viability and discuss markers of gamete function that may be used within future studies attempting to derive AGs. (bioone.org)
  • Furthermore, DiNP exposure in rats during gestation and perinatally increased the incidence of reproductive malformations in male offspring and caused alterations in fetal testicular testosterone production (Borch et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each state also determines rules about informed consent , about 24-hour waiting periods, and about when viability occurs after the 1st trimester. (issues2000.org)
  • or do not permit a physician to determine viability in each individual case, but rather rely on a rigid construct based on specific weeks of gestation or trimester. (guttmacher.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of first trimester fetal stem cell therapy using unrelated donor partially HLA-matched stem and progenitor cells derived from human umbilical cord blood for the treatment of selected lysosomal storage diseases that are known to cause severe and irreversible neurological disability in early infancy and which are lethal in childhood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sonographers are not specialists in obstetrics or fetal medicine, so if something is found you will usually be referred to someone with specialist knowledge. (arc-uk.org)
  • For freshly prepared rat fetal NSCs, after rinsing with D-PBS, resuspend in warmed complete StemPro NSC SFM at a density of 1 × 10 7 viable cells/mL. (thermofisher.com)
  • For thawed rat fetal NSCs, after determining the viable cell count, resuspend in warmed complete StemPro® NSC SFM at a cell density of 1 × 10 7 viable cells/mL. (thermofisher.com)
  • It shows, without explanation, how fertilization/conception happens, and then offers a whirlwind tour of fetal development roughly up to the point of viability (where the infant could, with medical care, live outside the womb). (christiansexed.com)
  • Due to the fact that personhood has such far reaching implications, it is important that definitive demarcations are provided as to exactly when foetal viability occurs. (ssrn.com)
  • 1 The preponderance of fetal deaths ending up in a non-specific or unexplained category occurs despite the use of three classification methods: the pathophysiological classification by Wigglesworth, 2 the fetal and neonatal classification, 3 and the revised obstetric (Aberdeen) classification. (bmj.com)
  • Who knows when "viability" occurs? (aul.org)
  • that state of fetal development when the life of the unborn child may be continued indefinitely outside of the womb by natural or life-support systems. (ewtn.com)
  • Steven H. Aden and M. Casey Mattox, Alliance Defending Freedom, Washington, D.C., for Amicus Curiae Doctors on Fetal Pain. (scribd.com)
  • To determine fetal viability is the job of doctors expert in the field. (debate.org)
  • Described herein is a protocol to isolate and analyze the infiltrating leukocytes of tissues at the maternal-fetal interface (uterus, decidua, and placenta) of mice. (jove.com)
  • However, the mechanisms responsible for MeHg-induced changes in adult neuronal function, when their exposure occurred primarily during fetal development, are not yet understood. (mdpi.com)
  • With the support of neonatal intensive care units, the limit of viability in the developed world has declined since 50 years ago, but has remained unchanged in the last 12 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • except maybe those women I mentioned earlier, ya know, the ones the catholic hospitals are sitting on their arse waiting for the fetal heartbeat to stop while the women is in pain and infection is spreading their bodies. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Knowledge of current gestational age-specific mortality and morbidity rates and how they are modified by prenatally known prognostic factors (estimated foetal weight, sex, exposure or nonexposure to antenatal corticosteroids, single or multiple births) as well as the application of accepted ethical principles form the basis for responsible decision-making. (smw.ch)
  • We hypothesized that fetal MeHg exposure could affect neural precursor development leading to long-term neurotoxic effects. (mdpi.com)
  • Other common chromosomal defects that cause a thicker nuchal translucency are Turner syndrome Trisomy 18 Trisomy 13 Triploidy In fetuses with a normal number of chromosomes, a thicker nuchal translucency is associated with other fetal defects and genetic syndromes. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the effect of parturition and inflammation on the fetal brain, we utilized two in vivo mouse models of preterm birth. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To investigate the effect of parturition on the immature fetal brain, in the absence of inflammation, we used a non-infectious model of preterm birth by administering RU486. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While adverse neurological outcomes are increasingly prevalent in ex-preterm children, it remains unknown whether the process of parturition alone at an early gestational age or inflammatory pathways associated with preterm birth are mechanistically responsible for evoking injury in the fetal brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • strongly argue that activation of inflammatory pathways may mediate fetal brain injury in a preterm birth. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Obstetric interventions for foetal indications such as Caesarean section delivery are usually not indicated. (smw.ch)
  • 4, 5 At an international level difficulties in identifying all the cases, especially all liveborn infants at the limit of viability, pose a particular challenge as the classification of such babies is known to vary. (bmj.com)
  • The comparison was based on datasets containing particularly detailed information about the outcome of all livebirths at the limit of viability. (bmj.com)
  • Survival of infants born at the limit of viability varies between high-income countries. (aappublications.org)
  • The decision to provide or withhold life-saving treatment at the limit of viability is ethically challenging both in terms of what may be regarded as in the best interest of the child and the family, the norms of the society, and who should be part of the decision process. (aappublications.org)
  • As far as we know, there are no updated systematic reviews that have summarized the prognosis of both survival and functional outcomes for infants born at the limit of viability. (aappublications.org)
  • Other critics of the new bill insist knowledge of a fetal abnormality allows parents to pursue prenatal treatment or financially prepare for the costs of raising a disabled child. (theweek.com)
  • As exclusive distributors and registered suppliers of approved Fetal Doppler's with the Therapeutic Goods Administration, the purpose of this guide is to educate consumers and to ensure your decision is an informed one. (ebay.com.au)
  • We have demonstrated that Si-HPMC and alginate particles support hASC viability and the maintenance of their ability to secrete therapeutic factors. (hindawi.com)