The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography using the added dimension of time to impart the cinematic perception of motion. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
A synthetic pregnadiene derivative with anti-aldosterone activity.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)
The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Act of listening for sounds within the heart.
Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.
A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).
Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.
Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
General or unspecified injuries to the heart.

Graphic monitoring of labour. (1/866)

The parturograph is a composite record designed for the monitoring of fetal and maternal well-being and the progress of labour. It permits the early recognition of abnormalities and pinpoints the patients who would benefit most from intervention. Observations are made from the time of admission of the mother to the caseroom and recorded graphically. Factors assessed include fetal heart rate, maternal vital signs and urine, cervical dilatation, descent of the presenting fetal part, and frequency, duration and intensity of uterine contractions.  (+info)

Restriction of placental and fetal growth in sheep alters fetal blood pressure responses to angiotensin II and captopril. (2/866)

1. We have measured arterial blood pressure between 115 and 145 days gestation in normally grown fetal sheep (control group; n = 16) and in fetal sheep in which growth was restricted by experimental restriction of placental growth and development (PR group; n = 13). There was no significant difference in the mean gestational arterial blood pressure between the PR (42.7 +/- 2.6 mmHg) and control groups (37.7 +/- 2.3 mmHg). Mean arterial blood pressure and arterial PO2 were significantly correlated in control animals (r = 0.53, P < 0.05, n = 16), but not in the PR group. 2. There were no changes in mean arterial blood pressure in either the PR or control groups in response to captopril (7.5 microg captopril min-1; PR group n = 7, control group n = 6) between 115 and 125 days gestation. After 135 days gestation, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the fetal arterial blood pressure in the PR group but not in the control group during the captopril infusion (15 microg captopril min-1; PR group n = 7, control group n = 6). 3. There was a significant effect (F = 14.75; P < 0.001) of increasing doses of angiotensin II on fetal diastolic blood pressure in the PR and control groups. The effects of angiotensin II were different (F = 8.67; P < 0.05) in the PR and control groups at both gestational age ranges. 4. These data indicate that arterial blood pressure may be maintained by different mechanisms in growth restricted fetuses and normally grown counterparts and suggests a role for the fetal renin-angiotensin system in the maintenance of blood pressure in growth restricted fetuses.  (+info)

Heart specific expression of mouse BMP-10 a novel member of the TGF-beta superfamily. (3/866)

Here we report the cloning and expression of murine BMP-10, a novel member of the TGF-beta superfamily. In the mouse embryo, BMP-10 expression begins at 9.0 d.p.c. and is restricted to the developing heart. Initially, BMP-10 expression localizes to the trabeculated part of the common ventricular chamber and to the bulbus cordis region. After 12.5 d.p.c., additional BMP-10 expression is seen in the atrial wall. The data presented here suggest that BMP-10 plays an important role in trabeculation of the embryonic heart.  (+info)

YAC complementation shows a requirement for Wt1 in the development of epicardium, adrenal gland and throughout nephrogenesis. (4/866)

The Wilms' Tumour gene WT1 has important functions during development. Knock-out mice were shown to have defects in the urogenital system and to die at embryonic day E13.5, probably due to heart failure. Using a lacZ reporter gene inserted into a YAC construct, we demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the early proepicardium, the epicardium and the subepicardial mesenchymal cells (SEMC). Lack of WT1 leads to severe defects in the epicardial layer and a concomitant absence of SEMCs, which explains the pericardial bleeding and subsequent embryonic death observed in Wt1 null embryos. We further show that a human-derived WT1 YAC construct is able to completely rescue heart defects, but only partially rescues defects in the urogenital system. Analysis of the observed hypoplastic kidneys demonstrate a continuous requirement for WT1 during nephrogenesis, in particular, in the formation of mature glomeruli. Finally, we show that the development of adrenal glands is also severely affected in partially rescued embryos. These data demonstrate a variety of new functions for WT1 and suggest a general requirement for this protein in the formation of organs derived from the intermediate mesoderm.  (+info)

Cardiac blood flow studies in fetuses with homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 at 12-13 weeks of gestation. (5/866)

OBJECTIVE: Fetuses affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 develop anemia as early as the first trimester. Our objective was to study hemodynamic indices in affected fetuses at 12-13 weeks of gestation to determine whether these would be useful in the prediction of anemia. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SUBJECTS: Women referred before 14 weeks of gestation for the prenatal diagnosis of homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1. METHODS: Transabdominal and/or transvaginal Doppler sonography was performed to measure the flow velocities in the fetal ascending aorta and pulmonary artery at 12-13 weeks. The Doppler indices were compared between those that were subsequently confirmed to be affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 and those that were unaffected. RESULTS: Between June 1997 and April 1998, 60 eligible women were recruited. Doppler examination was successful in 58 fetuses. Of these, 22 were subsequently confirmed to be affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1. The diagnosis was made by chorionic villus sampling and DNA analysis in two affected fetuses and by cordocentesis and hemoglobin evaluation in 20 affected fetuses. Hemoglobin concentrations could be measured in ten fetuses and these ranged from 4 to 8 g/dl. The affected fetuses had significantly higher peak velocities at the pulmonary valve and ascending aorta and a larger inner diameter of the pulmonary valve than that in unaffected fetuses. The total cardiac output was increased by one-third in affected fetuses and was mainly due to an increase of the right-side cardiac output. CONCLUSION: In the early stage of anemia, the fetus responds mainly by increasing its right-side cardiac output. However, there is extensive overlap of the values of cardiac output between the affected and the unaffected fetuses, precluding its use in the prediction of anemia.  (+info)

Characteristics of blood flow in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses with hypercoiled cord. (6/866)

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the characteristics of fetoplacental blood flow of growth-restricted fetuses with hypercoiled umbilical cord. SUBJECTS: Eight growth-restricted fetuses with hypercoiled cord. METHODS: Flow velocity waveforms of the umbilical cord artery and vein, fetal abdominal aorta and fetal inferior vena cava were analyzed. RESULTS: The resistance index in the umbilical artery in the hypercoiled cases was lower than that in normal fetuses. Early-diastolic reversed flow was observed in the abdominal aorta in some cases. In all cases, umbilical venous pulsation was observed in the entire cord until delivery. In one case, fetal heart failure occurred, resulting in pre-mature delivery. An atrophic type of single umbilical artery was observed in four cases. CONCLUSION: Fetal blood flow disturbance caused by a hypercoiled umbilical cord may be a cause of growth restriction.  (+info)

Prevalence of aneuploidy with a cardiac intraventricular echogenic focus in an at-risk patient population. (7/866)

The objective of this study was to determine the relative risk for aneuploidy in the presence of a cardiac intraventricular echogenic focus in a patient population at high risk for aneuploidy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients referred to a fetal diagnostic center who were undergoing amniocentesis. Records and second trimester sonograms were reviewed. Approximately 5100 comprehensive prenatal sonograms were obtained over a 2 year study period. Karyotyping by amniocentesis was done in 2412 women; 84 of the karyotypes (3.5%) were abnormal. Fetuses with no ultrasonographic findings suggestive of aneuploidy had a 1.4% (28 of 1940) prevalence of significant chromosomal abnormalities. An intraventricular echogenic focus was found in 149 of the women with karyotype analysis; 15 had an abnormal karyotype. Fetuses with intraventricular echogenic foci had a relative risk of 3.30 of aneuploidy when compared to fetuses without echogenic cardiac foci. The presence of an isolated intraventricular echogenic focus carried a relative risk of 4.08 compared to those fetuses in which ultrasonography had no finding associated with aneuploidy. In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate that presence of an intraventricular echogenic cardiac focus carries an increased risk of fetal aneuploidy.  (+info)

Loss of a gp130 cardiac muscle cell survival pathway is a critical event in the onset of heart failure during biomechanical stress. (8/866)

Biomechanical stress is a major stimulus for cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. By generating mice that harbor a ventricular restricted knockout of the gp130 cytokine receptor via Cre-IoxP-mediated recombination, we demonstrate a critical role for a gp130-dependent myocyte survival pathway in the transition to heart failure. Such conditional mutant mice have normal cardiac structure and function, but during aortic pressure overload, these mice display rapid onset of dilated cardiomyopathy and massive induction of myocyte apoptosis versus the control mice that exhibit compensatory hypertrophy. Thus, cardiac myocyte apoptosis is a critical point in the transition between compensatory cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. gp130-dependent cytokines may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing in vivo heart failure.  (+info)

The fetal heart is the cardiovascular organ that develops in the growing fetus during pregnancy. It starts to form around 22 days after conception and continues to develop throughout the first trimester. By the end of the eighth week of gestation, the fetal heart has developed enough to pump blood throughout the body.

The fetal heart is similar in structure to the adult heart but has some differences. It is smaller and more compact, with a four-chambered structure that includes two atria and two ventricles. The fetal heart also has unique features such as the foramen ovale, which is a hole between the right and left atria that allows blood to bypass the lungs, and the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta and diverts blood away from the lungs.

The fetal heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood from the placenta to the rest of the body and returning deoxygenated blood back to the placenta for re-oxygenation. The rate of the fetal heartbeat is faster than that of an adult, typically ranging from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Fetal heart rate monitoring is a common method used during pregnancy and childbirth to assess the health and well-being of the developing fetus.

Fetal heart rate (FHR) is the number of times a fetus's heart beats in one minute. It is measured through the use of a fetoscope, Doppler ultrasound device, or cardiotocograph (CTG). A normal FHR ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute (bpm), although it can vary throughout pregnancy and is usually faster than an adult's heart rate. Changes in the FHR pattern may indicate fetal distress, hypoxia, or other conditions that require medical attention. Regular monitoring of FHR during pregnancy, labor, and delivery helps healthcare providers assess fetal well-being and ensure a safe outcome for both the mother and the baby.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

Fetal monitoring is a procedure used during labor and delivery to assess the well-being of the fetus. It involves the use of electronic devices to measure and record the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. The information obtained from fetal monitoring can help healthcare providers identify any signs of fetal distress, such as a decreased fetal heart rate, which may indicate the need for interventions or an emergency cesarean delivery.

There are two main types of fetal monitoring: external and internal. External fetal monitoring involves placing sensors on the mother's abdomen to detect the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. Internal fetal monitoring, which is typically used during high-risk deliveries, involves inserting an electrode into the fetus' scalp to measure the fetal heart rate more accurately.

Fetal monitoring can provide valuable information about the fetus's well-being during labor and delivery, but it is important to note that it has limitations and may not always detect fetal distress in a timely manner. Therefore, healthcare providers must use their clinical judgment and other assessment tools, such as fetal movement counting and visual examination of the fetus, to ensure the safe delivery of the baby.

Cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of monitoring the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during pregnancy, particularly during labor. It provides visual information about the fetal heart rate pattern and the frequency and intensity of uterine contractions. This helps healthcare providers assess the well-being of the fetus and the progression of labor.

The cardiotocograph records two main traces:

1. Fetal heart rate (FHR): It is recorded using an ultrasound transducer placed on the mother's abdomen. The normal fetal heart rate ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Changes in the FHR pattern may indicate fetal distress, hypoxia, or other complications.

2. Uterine contractions: They are recorded using a pressure sensor (toco) placed on the mother's abdomen. The intensity and frequency of uterine contractions can be assessed to evaluate the progression of labor and the effect of contractions on fetal oxygenation.

Cardiotocography is widely used in obstetrics as a non-invasive method for monitoring fetal well-being during pregnancy and labor. However, it should always be interpreted cautiously by healthcare professionals, considering other factors like maternal and fetal conditions, medical history, and clinical presentation. Overinterpretation or misinterpretation of CTG traces can lead to unnecessary interventions or delays in recognizing actual fetal distress.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Four-dimensional echocardiography (4D echo) is a type of ultrasound imaging that captures the movement and function of the heart in three dimensions over time. It uses advanced software to create a real-time 3D image of the heart, allowing cardiologists to visualize and analyze its structure and motion from various angles. This technique provides detailed information about the size, shape, and function of the heart chambers, valves, and surrounding structures, which can help in the diagnosis and management of various heart conditions.

In 4D echo, the fourth dimension refers to time, as it allows for the analysis of motion and change over time. This technique provides more comprehensive information compared to traditional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography, which only captures a single plane of the heart at a time. Four-dimensional echocardiography is a valuable tool in the field of cardiology, as it can help clinicians make more informed decisions about patient care and treatment planning.

Fetal movement, also known as quickening, refers to the first perceived movements of the fetus in the uterus during pregnancy. These movements are often described as a fluttering sensation in the lower abdomen and are usually felt by pregnant individuals between 18 and 25 weeks of gestation, although they may occur earlier or later depending on various factors such as the position of the placenta and whether it is a first-time pregnancy.

Fetal movements are an important sign of fetal well-being, and pregnant individuals are typically advised to monitor them regularly starting from around 28 weeks of gestation. A decrease in fetal movement or the absence of fetal movement for an extended period may indicate a problem and should be reported to a healthcare provider immediately.

Fetal movements can be described as kicks, rolls, jabs, or turns, and they become stronger and more frequent as the pregnancy progresses. By 32 weeks of gestation, most fetuses move around 10 times per hour, and by 37 weeks, they typically move around 30 times per day. However, it is important to note that every fetus has its own pattern of movements, and what is normal for one may not be normal for another.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

Fetal distress is a term used to describe situations where a fetus is experiencing problems during labor or delivery that are causing significant physiological changes. These changes may include an abnormal heart rate, decreased oxygen levels, or the presence of meconium (the baby's first stool) in the amniotic fluid. Fetal distress can be caused by a variety of factors, such as problems with the umbilical cord, placental abruption, maternal high blood pressure, or prolonged labor. It is important to monitor fetal well-being during labor and delivery to detect and address any signs of fetal distress promptly. Treatment may include changing the mother's position, administering oxygen, giving intravenous fluids, or performing an emergency cesarean section.

Fetal hypoxia is a medical condition that refers to a reduced level of oxygen supply to the fetus. This can occur due to various reasons, such as maternal health problems, complications during pregnancy or delivery, or issues with the placenta. Prolonged fetal hypoxia can lead to serious complications, including brain damage and even fetal death. It is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor fetal oxygen levels during pregnancy and delivery to ensure the well-being of the fetus.

The umbilical arteries are a pair of vessels that develop within the umbilical cord during fetal development. They carry oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the developing fetus through the placenta. These arteries arise from the internal iliac arteries in the fetus and pass through the umbilical cord to connect with the two umbilical veins within the placenta. After birth, the umbilical arteries become ligaments (the medial umbilical ligaments) that run along the inner abdominal wall.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

Heart block is a cardiac condition characterized by the interruption of electrical impulse transmission from the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) to the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This disruption can lead to abnormal heart rhythms, including bradycardia (a slower-than-normal heart rate), and in severe cases, can cause the heart to stop beating altogether. Heart block is typically caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system due to various factors such as aging, heart disease, or certain medications.

There are three types of heart block: first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree (also known as complete heart block). Each type has distinct electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and symptoms. Treatment for heart block depends on the severity of the condition and may include monitoring, medication, or implantation of a pacemaker to regulate the heart's electrical activity.

Canrenone, also known as canrenoic acid, is a synthetic steroidal compound that is commonly used as a diuretic and antihypertensive agent. It is a derivative of aldosterone, a hormone that regulates sodium and potassium balance in the body, and works by blocking the action of aldosterone on the distal tubules of the kidney. This leads to increased excretion of sodium and water, which helps to reduce blood volume and lower blood pressure.

Canrenone is often prescribed for the treatment of hypertension, edema associated with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome. It has also been shown to have anti-androgenic effects and has been used off-label in the treatment of hirsutism and acne.

Like other diuretics, canrenone can cause electrolyte imbalances, particularly low potassium levels (hypokalemia), and may interact with other medications that affect potassium levels. It is important for patients taking canrenone to be monitored regularly for changes in electrolyte levels and kidney function.

The second trimester of pregnancy is the period between the completion of 12 weeks (the end of the first trimester) and 26 weeks (the beginning of the third trimester) of gestational age. It is often considered the most comfortable period for many pregnant women as the risk of miscarriage decreases significantly, and the symptoms experienced during the first trimester, such as nausea and fatigue, typically improve.

During this time, the uterus expands above the pubic bone, allowing more space for the growing fetus. The fetal development in the second trimester includes significant growth in size and weight, formation of all major organs, and the beginning of movement sensations that the mother can feel. Additionally, the fetus starts to hear, swallow and kick, and the skin is covered with a protective coating called vernix.

Prenatal care during this period typically includes regular prenatal appointments to monitor the mother's health and the baby's growth and development. These appointments may include measurements of the uterus, fetal heart rate monitoring, and screening tests for genetic disorders or other potential issues.

Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is a type of cardiac ultrasound that uses advanced technologies to create a real-time, detailed 3D image of the heart. This imaging technique provides a more comprehensive view of the heart's structure and function compared to traditional 2D echocardiography. By visualizing the heart from multiple angles, 3DE can help physicians better assess complex cardiac conditions, plan treatments, and monitor their effectiveness.

In a 3DE examination, a transducer (a handheld device that emits and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest to capture ultrasound data. This data is then processed by specialized software to create a 3D model of the heart. The procedure is non-invasive and typically takes less than an hour to complete.

Three-dimensional echocardiography has several clinical applications, including:

1. Evaluation of cardiac morphology and function in congenital heart disease
2. Assessment of valvular structure and function, such as mitral or aortic valve regurgitation or stenosis
3. Guidance during interventional procedures like transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
4. Quantification of left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, and mass
5. Assessment of right ventricular size and function
6. Detection and monitoring of cardiac tumors or other masses
7. Pre-surgical planning for complex heart surgeries

Overall, 3DE offers a more accurate and detailed view of the heart, allowing healthcare providers to make informed decisions about patient care and improve outcomes.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

Magnetocardiography (MCG) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that measures the magnetic fields produced by the electrical activity of the heart. It uses highly sensitive devices called magnetometers to detect and record these magnetic signals, which are then processed and analyzed to provide information about the heart's electrical function and structure.

MCG can be used to detect and monitor various cardiac conditions, including arrhythmias, ischemia (reduced blood flow to the heart), and myocardial infarction (heart attack). It can also help in identifying abnormalities in the heart's conduction system and assessing the effectiveness of treatments such as pacemakers.

One advantage of MCG over other diagnostic techniques like electrocardiography (ECG) is that it is not affected by the conductive properties of body tissues, which can distort ECG signals. This makes MCG a more accurate tool for measuring the heart's magnetic fields and can provide additional information about the underlying electrical activity. However, MCG requires specialized equipment and shielding to reduce interference from external magnetic sources, making it less widely available than ECG.

Ultrasonography, Doppler refers to a non-invasive diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create real-time images of the movement of blood flow through vessels, tissues, or heart valves. The Doppler effect is used to measure the frequency shift of the ultrasound waves as they bounce off moving red blood cells, which allows for the calculation of the speed and direction of blood flow. This technique is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, heart valve abnormalities, and fetal heart development during pregnancy. It does not use radiation or contrast agents and is considered safe with minimal risks.

Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure where a diseased, damaged, or failing heart is removed and replaced with a healthy donor heart. This procedure is usually considered as a last resort for patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease who have not responded to other treatments. The donor heart typically comes from a brain-dead individual whose family has agreed to donate their loved one's organs for transplantation. Heart transplantation is a complex and highly specialized procedure that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, nurses, and other support staff. The success rates for heart transplantation have improved significantly over the past few decades, with many patients experiencing improved quality of life and increased survival rates. However, recipients of heart transplants require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the donor heart, which can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

The third trimester of pregnancy is the final stage of pregnancy that lasts from week 29 until birth, which typically occurs around the 40th week. During this period, the fetus continues to grow and mature, gaining weight rapidly. The mother's body also prepares for childbirth by dilating the cervix and producing milk in preparation for breastfeeding. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this time to monitor the health of both the mother and the developing fetus, as well as to prepare for delivery.

Heart valves are specialized structures in the heart that ensure unidirectional flow of blood through its chambers during the cardiac cycle. There are four heart valves: the tricuspid valve and the mitral (bicuspid) valve, located between the atria and ventricles, and the pulmonic (pulmonary) valve and aortic valve, located between the ventricles and the major blood vessels leaving the heart.

The heart valves are composed of thin flaps of tissue called leaflets or cusps, which are supported by a fibrous ring. The aortic and pulmonic valves have three cusps each, while the tricuspid and mitral valves have three and two cusps, respectively.

The heart valves open and close in response to pressure differences across them, allowing blood to flow forward into the ventricles during diastole (filling phase) and preventing backflow of blood into the atria during systole (contraction phase). A properly functioning heart valve ensures efficient pumping of blood by the heart and maintains normal blood circulation throughout the body.

The first trimester of pregnancy is defined as the period of gestational development that extends from conception (fertilization of the egg by sperm) to the end of the 13th week. This critical phase marks significant transformations in both the mother's body and the growing embryo/fetus.

During the first trimester, the fertilized egg implants into the uterine lining (implantation), initiating a series of complex interactions leading to the formation of the placenta - an organ essential for providing nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus while removing waste products. Simultaneously, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and differentiation, giving rise to various organs and systems. By the end of the first trimester, most major structures are present, although they continue to mature and grow throughout pregnancy.

The mother may experience several physiological changes during this time, including:
- Morning sickness (nausea and vomiting)
- Fatigue
- Breast tenderness
- Frequent urination
- Food aversions or cravings
- Mood swings

Additionally, hormonal shifts can cause various symptoms and prepare the body for potential changes in lactation, posture, and pelvic alignment as pregnancy progresses. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this period to monitor both maternal and fetal wellbeing, identify any potential complications early on, and provide appropriate guidance and support throughout the pregnancy.

'Labor, Obstetric' refers to the physiological process that occurs during childbirth, leading to the expulsion of the fetus from the uterus. It is divided into three stages:

1. The first stage begins with the onset of regular contractions and cervical dilation and effacement (thinning and shortening) until full dilation is reached (approximately 10 cm). This stage can last from hours to days, particularly in nulliparous women (those who have not given birth before).
2. The second stage starts with complete cervical dilation and ends with the delivery of the baby. During this stage, the mother experiences strong contractions that help push the fetus down the birth canal. This stage typically lasts from 20 minutes to two hours but can take longer in some cases.
3. The third stage involves the delivery of the placenta (afterbirth) and membranes, which usually occurs within 15-30 minutes after the baby's birth. However, it can sometimes take up to an hour for the placenta to be expelled completely.

Obstetric labor is a complex process that requires careful monitoring and management by healthcare professionals to ensure the safety and well-being of both the mother and the baby.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

Cardiac volume refers to the amount of blood contained within the heart chambers at any given point in time. It is a measure of the volume of blood that is being moved by the heart during each cardiac cycle, which includes both systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) phases.

There are several types of cardiac volumes that are commonly measured or estimated using medical imaging techniques such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These include:

1. End-diastolic volume (EDV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of diastole, when the heart chambers are fully filled with blood.
2. End-systolic volume (ESV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of systole, when the heart chambers have contracted and ejected most of the blood.
3. Stroke volume (SV): This is the difference between the EDV and ESV, and represents the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart with each beat.
4. Cardiac output (CO): This is the product of the stroke volume and heart rate, and represents the total amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute.

Abnormalities in cardiac volumes can indicate various heart conditions such as heart failure, valvular heart disease, or cardiomyopathy.

Bradycardia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute in adults. While some people, particularly well-trained athletes, may have a naturally low resting heart rate, bradycardia can also be a sign of an underlying health problem.

There are several potential causes of bradycardia, including:

* Damage to the heart's electrical conduction system, such as from heart disease or aging
* Certain medications, including beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and digoxin
* Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland)
* Sleep apnea
* Infection of the heart (endocarditis or myocarditis)
* Infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis or sarcoidosis

Symptoms of bradycardia can vary depending on the severity and underlying cause. Some people with bradycardia may not experience any symptoms, while others may feel weak, fatigued, dizzy, or short of breath. In severe cases, bradycardia can lead to fainting, confusion, or even cardiac arrest.

Treatment for bradycardia depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the slow heart rate, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, a pacemaker may be necessary to regulate the heart's rhythm. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of bradycardia, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Fetal development is the process in which a fertilized egg grows and develops into a fetus, which is a developing human being from the end of the eighth week after conception until birth. This complex process involves many different stages, including:

1. Fertilization: The union of a sperm and an egg to form a zygote.
2. Implantation: The movement of the zygote into the lining of the uterus, where it will begin to grow and develop.
3. Formation of the embryo: The development of the basic structures of the body, including the neural tube (which becomes the brain and spinal cord), heart, gastrointestinal tract, and sensory organs.
4. Differentiation of tissues and organs: The process by which different cells and tissues become specialized to perform specific functions.
5. Growth and maturation: The continued growth and development of the fetus, including the formation of bones, muscles, and other tissues.

Fetal development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Proper nutrition, prenatal care, and avoidance of harmful substances such as tobacco, alcohol, and drugs are important for ensuring healthy fetal development.

A "threatened abortion" is a medical term used to describe a situation in which there are symptoms that suggest an impending miscarriage, such as vaginal bleeding and/or cramping during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed and the fetal heartbeat is still present. This condition is estimated to occur in up to 20-30% of all pregnancies, and while it can be a source of anxiety for pregnant individuals, it does not necessarily mean that a miscarriage will definitely occur.

It's important to note that if you are experiencing any symptoms of a threatened abortion, you should contact your healthcare provider right away for evaluation and guidance on how to manage the situation. They may recommend bed rest, pelvic rest, or other treatments to help support the pregnancy and reduce the risk of miscarriage.

Prenatal diagnosis is the medical testing of fetuses, embryos, or pregnant women to detect the presence or absence of certain genetic disorders or birth defects. These tests can be performed through various methods such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, or ultrasound. The goal of prenatal diagnosis is to provide early information about the health of the fetus so that parents and healthcare providers can make informed decisions about pregnancy management and newborn care. It allows for early intervention, treatment, or planning for the child's needs after birth.

Maternal-fetal exchange, also known as maternal-fetal transport or placental transfer, refers to the physiological process by which various substances are exchanged between the mother and fetus through the placenta. This exchange includes the transfer of oxygen and nutrients from the mother's bloodstream to the fetal bloodstream, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide from the fetal bloodstream to the mother's bloodstream.

The process occurs via passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport mechanisms across the placental barrier, which is composed of fetal capillary endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix, and the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta. The maternal-fetal exchange is crucial for the growth, development, and survival of the fetus throughout pregnancy.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

The heart atria are the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and deliver it to the lower chambers, or ventricles. There are two atria in the heart: the right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the right ventricle, which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated; and the left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle, which then sends it out to the rest of the body. The atria contract before the ventricles during each heartbeat, helping to fill the ventricles with blood and prepare them for contraction.

The Apgar score is a quick assessment of the physical condition of a newborn infant, assessed by measuring heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and skin color. It is named after Virginia Apgar, an American anesthesiologist who developed it in 1952. The score is usually given at one minute and five minutes after birth, with a possible range of 0 to 10. Scores of 7 and above are considered normal, while scores of 4-6 indicate moderate distress, and scores below 4 indicate severe distress. The Apgar score can provide important information for making decisions about the need for resuscitation or other medical interventions after birth.

Cardiac myocytes are the muscle cells that make up the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. These specialized cells are responsible for contracting and relaxing in a coordinated manner to pump blood throughout the body. They differ from skeletal muscle cells in several ways, including their ability to generate their own electrical impulses, which allows the heart to function as an independent rhythmical pump. Cardiac myocytes contain sarcomeres, the contractile units of the muscle, and are connected to each other by intercalated discs that help coordinate contraction and ensure the synchronous beating of the heart.

Echocardiography, Doppler, color is a type of ultrasound test that uses sound waves to create detailed moving images of the heart and its blood vessels. In this technique, color Doppler is used to visualize the direction and speed of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. The movement of the red blood cells causes a change in frequency of the reflected sound waves (Doppler shift), which can be used to calculate the velocity and direction of the blood flow. By adding color to the Doppler image, it becomes easier for the interpreting physician to understand the complex three-dimensional motion of blood through the heart. This test is often used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including valve disorders, congenital heart defects, and cardiac muscle diseases.

Fetal growth retardation, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), is a condition in which a fetus fails to grow at the expected rate during pregnancy. This can be caused by various factors such as maternal health problems, placental insufficiency, chromosomal abnormalities, and genetic disorders. The fetus may be smaller than expected for its gestational age, have reduced movement, and may be at risk for complications during labor and delivery. It is important to monitor fetal growth and development closely throughout pregnancy to detect any potential issues early on and provide appropriate medical interventions.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Myocardial contraction refers to the rhythmic and forceful shortening of heart muscle cells (myocytes) in the myocardium, which is the muscular wall of the heart. This process is initiated by electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, causing a wave of depolarization that spreads throughout the heart.

During myocardial contraction, calcium ions flow into the myocytes, triggering the interaction between actin and myosin filaments, which are the contractile proteins in the muscle cells. This interaction causes the myofilaments to slide past each other, resulting in the shortening of the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscle contraction) and ultimately leading to the contraction of the heart muscle.

Myocardial contraction is essential for pumping blood throughout the body and maintaining adequate circulation to vital organs. Any impairment in myocardial contractility can lead to various cardiac disorders, such as heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Perinatology is a subspecialty of maternal-fetal medicine in obstetrics that focuses on the care of pregnant women and their unborn babies who are at high risk for complications due to various factors such as prematurity, fetal growth restriction, multiple gestations, congenital anomalies, and other medical conditions.

Perinatologists are trained to provide specialized care for these high-risk pregnancies, which may include advanced diagnostic testing, fetal monitoring, and interventions such as c-sections or medication management. They work closely with obstetricians, pediatricians, and other healthcare providers to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Perinatology is also sometimes referred to as "maternal-fetal medicine" or "high-risk obstetrics."

Crown-rump length (CRL) is a medical measurement used in obstetrics to estimate the age of a developing fetus. It refers to the length from the top of the head (crown) to the bottom of the buttocks (rump). This measurement is typically taken during an ultrasound examination in the first trimester of pregnancy, between 8 and 13 weeks of gestation.

The CRL is used to calculate the estimated due date and to monitor fetal growth and development. It can also help identify potential issues or abnormalities in fetal development. As the pregnancy progresses, other measurements such as head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length are used to assess fetal growth and development.

"Medical electronics" refers to the field of electronics that is specifically designed for medical applications. This can include a wide range of devices and systems, such as:

1. Medical imaging equipment, such as X-ray machines, CT scanners, MRI machines, and ultrasound machines.
2. Patient monitoring equipment, such as heart rate monitors, blood pressure monitors, and oxygen saturation monitors.
3. Therapeutic devices, such as pacemakers, defibrillators, and deep brain stimulators.
4. Laboratory equipment, such as DNA sequencers, mass spectrometers, and microarray scanners.
5. Wearable health technology, such as fitness trackers, smartwatches, and continuous glucose monitors.
6. Telemedicine systems that enable remote consultations and patient monitoring.

Medical electronics must meet strict regulatory requirements to ensure safety, effectiveness, and reliability. These devices often require specialized electronic components, such as sensors, signal processing circuits, and power management circuits, that are designed to operate in the challenging environments found in medical settings. Medical electronics engineers must have a deep understanding of both electronics and medical applications to design and develop these complex systems.

The heart septum is the thick, muscular wall that divides the right and left sides of the heart. It consists of two main parts: the atrial septum, which separates the right and left atria (the upper chambers of the heart), and the ventricular septum, which separates the right and left ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). A normal heart septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not mix with oxygen-poor blood from the body. Any defect or abnormality in the heart septum is called a septal defect, which can lead to various congenital heart diseases.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Obstetrical analgesia refers to the use of medications or techniques to relieve pain during childbirth. The goal of obstetrical analgesia is to provide comfort and relaxation for the mother during labor and delivery while minimizing risks to both the mother and the baby. There are several methods of obstetrical analgesia, including:

1. Systemic opioids: These medications, such as morphine or fentanyl, can be given intravenously to help reduce the pain of contractions. However, they can cause side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, and respiratory depression in the mother and may also affect the baby's breathing and alertness at birth.
2. Regional anesthesia: This involves numbing a specific area of the body using local anesthetics. The two most common types of regional anesthesia used during childbirth are epidural and spinal anesthesia.

a. Epidural anesthesia: A catheter is inserted into the lower back, near the spinal cord, to deliver a continuous infusion of local anesthetic and sometimes opioids. This numbs the lower half of the body, reducing the pain of contractions and allowing for a more comfortable delivery. Epidural anesthesia can also be used for cesarean sections.

b. Spinal anesthesia: A single injection of local anesthetic is given into the spinal fluid, numbing the lower half of the body. This type of anesthesia is often used for cesarean sections and can also be used for vaginal deliveries in some cases.

3. Nitrous oxide: Also known as laughing gas, this colorless, odorless gas can be inhaled through a mask to help reduce anxiety and provide some pain relief during labor. It is not commonly used in the United States but is more popular in other countries.

When choosing an obstetrical analgesia method, it's essential to consider the potential benefits and risks for both the mother and the baby. Factors such as the mother's health, the progression of labor, and personal preferences should all be taken into account when making this decision. It is crucial to discuss these options with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate choice for each individual situation.

High-risk pregnancy is a term used to describe a situation where the mother or the fetus has an increased risk of developing complications during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or in the postpartum period. These risks may be due to pre-existing medical conditions in the mother, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, kidney disease, autoimmune disorders, or infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. Other factors that can contribute to a high-risk pregnancy include advanced maternal age (35 years and older), obesity, multiple gestations (twins, triplets, etc.), fetal growth restriction, placental issues, and a history of previous pregnancy complications or preterm labor.

High-risk pregnancies require specialized care and monitoring by healthcare professionals, often involving maternal-fetal medicine specialists, obstetricians, perinatologists, and neonatologists. Regular prenatal care, frequent checkups, ultrasound monitoring, and sometimes additional testing and interventions may be necessary to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Placental circulation refers to the specialized circulatory system that develops during pregnancy to allow for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother's blood and the fetal blood in the placenta. The placenta is a highly vascular organ that grows within the uterus and is connected to the developing fetus via the umbilical cord.

In the maternal side of the placenta, the spiral arteries branch into smaller vessels called the intervillous spaces, where they come in close contact with the fetal blood vessels within the villi (finger-like projections) of the placenta. The intervillous spaces are filled with maternal blood that flows around the villi, allowing for the exchange of gases and nutrients between the two circulations.

On the fetal side, the umbilical cord contains two umbilical arteries that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the fetus to the placenta, and one umbilical vein that returns oxygenated blood back to the fetus. The umbilical arteries branch into smaller vessels within the villi, where they exchange gases and nutrients with the maternal blood in the intervillous spaces.

Overall, the placental circulation is a crucial component of fetal development, allowing for the growing fetus to receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients to support its growth and development.

Obstetrical anesthesia refers to the use of anesthetic techniques and medications during childbirth or obstetrical procedures. The goal is to provide pain relief and comfort to the birthing person while ensuring the safety of both the mother and the baby. There are different types of obstetrical anesthesia, including:

1. Local anesthesia: Injection of a local anesthetic agent to numb a specific area, such as the perineum (the area between the vagina and the anus) during childbirth.
2. Regional anesthesia: Numbing a larger region of the body using techniques like spinal or epidural anesthesia. These methods involve injecting local anesthetic agents near the spinal cord to block nerve impulses, providing pain relief in the lower half of the body.
3. General anesthesia: Using inhaled gases or intravenous medications to render the birthing person unconscious during cesarean sections (C-sections) or other surgical procedures related to childbirth.

The choice of anesthetic technique depends on various factors, including the type of delivery, the mother's medical history, and the preferences of both the mother and the healthcare team. Obstetrical anesthesia requires specialized training and expertise to ensure safe and effective pain management during labor and delivery.

Cardiomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlarged heart. It can be caused by various conditions such as high blood pressure, heart valve problems, cardiomyopathy, or fluid accumulation around the heart (pericardial effusion). Cardiomegaly can be detected through imaging tests like chest X-rays or echocardiograms. Depending on the underlying cause, treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, or in some cases, surgery. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Heart auscultation is a medical procedure in which a healthcare professional uses a stethoscope to listen to the sounds produced by the heart. The process involves placing the stethoscope on various locations of the chest wall to hear different areas of the heart.

The sounds heard during auscultation are typically related to the opening and closing of the heart valves, as well as the turbulence created by blood flow through the heart chambers. These sounds can provide important clues about the structure and function of the heart, allowing healthcare professionals to diagnose various cardiovascular conditions such as heart murmurs, valvular disorders, and abnormal heart rhythms.

Heart auscultation is a key component of a physical examination and requires proper training and experience to interpret the findings accurately.

Tocolytic agents are a type of medication used in obstetrics to suppress premature labor. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle of the uterus, thereby reducing contractions and delaying delivery. Commonly used tocolytic agents include beta-adrenergic agonists (such as terbutaline), calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine), and prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (such as indomethacin). It's important to note that the use of tocolytic agents is typically reserved for specific clinical situations, and their benefits must be weighed against potential risks to both the mother and fetus.

Induced heart arrest, also known as controlled cardiac arrest or planned cardiac arrest, is a deliberate medical intervention where cardiac activity is temporarily stopped through the use of medications or electrical disruption. This procedure is typically carried out during a surgical procedure, such as open-heart surgery, where the heart needs to be stilled to allow surgeons to work on it safely.

The most common method used to induce heart arrest is by administering a medication called potassium chloride, which stops the heart's electrical activity. Alternatively, an electrical shock may be delivered to the heart to achieve the same effect. Once the procedure is complete, the heart can be restarted using various resuscitation techniques, such as defibrillation or medication administration.

It's important to note that induced heart arrest is a carefully monitored and controlled medical procedure carried out by trained healthcare professionals in a hospital setting. It should not be confused with sudden cardiac arrest, which is an unexpected and often unpredictable event that occurs outside of a medical setting.

Heart function tests are a group of diagnostic exams that are used to evaluate the structure and functioning of the heart. These tests help doctors assess the pumping efficiency of the heart, the flow of blood through the heart, the presence of any heart damage, and the overall effectiveness of the heart in delivering oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

Some common heart function tests include:

1. Echocardiogram (Echo): This test uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and functioning. It can help detect any damage to the heart muscle, valves, or sac surrounding the heart.
2. Nuclear Stress Test: This test involves injecting a small amount of radioactive substance into the patient's bloodstream and taking images of the heart while it is at rest and during exercise. The test helps evaluate blood flow to the heart and detect any areas of reduced blood flow, which could indicate coronary artery disease.
3. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This test uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and function. It can help detect any damage to the heart muscle, valves, or other structures of the heart.
4. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This test measures the electrical activity of the heart and helps detect any abnormalities in the heart's rhythm or conduction system.
5. Exercise Stress Test: This test involves walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and ECG readings. It helps evaluate exercise capacity and detect any signs of coronary artery disease.
6. Cardiac Catheterization: This is an invasive procedure that involves inserting a catheter into the heart to measure pressures and take samples of blood from different parts of the heart. It can help diagnose various heart conditions, including heart valve problems, congenital heart defects, and coronary artery disease.

Overall, heart function tests play an essential role in diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, helping doctors provide appropriate treatment and improve patient outcomes.

The umbilical cord is a flexible, tube-like structure that connects the developing fetus to the placenta in the uterus during pregnancy. It arises from the abdomen of the fetus and transports essential nutrients, oxygen, and blood from the mother's circulation to the growing baby. Additionally, it carries waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the fetus back to the placenta for elimination. The umbilical cord is primarily composed of two arteries (the umbilical arteries) and one vein (the umbilical vein), surrounded by a protective gelatinous substance called Wharton's jelly, and enclosed within a fibrous outer covering known as the umbilical cord coating. Following birth, the umbilical cord is clamped and cut, leaving behind the stump that eventually dries up and falls off, resulting in the baby's belly button.

A domestic sheep (Ovis aries) is not a medical term, but it is an animal species that humans keep and breed for a variety of purposes, including meat, wool, and milk production. While the term "sheep" may appear in medical contexts, such as in discussions of zoonotic diseases (diseases transmissible between animals and humans), the specific definition you are looking for is not medical in nature. Domestic sheep are social herbivores that prefer to eat short grasses and can be found in various parts of the world. They have been domesticated for thousands of years, making them one of the earliest animals to be domesticated by humans.

A Cesarean section, often referred to as a C-section, is a surgical procedure used to deliver a baby. It involves making an incision through the mother's abdomen and uterus to remove the baby. This procedure may be necessary when a vaginal delivery would put the mother or the baby at risk.

There are several reasons why a C-section might be recommended, including:

* The baby is in a breech position (feet first) or a transverse position (sideways) and cannot be turned to a normal head-down position.
* The baby is too large to safely pass through the mother's birth canal.
* The mother has a medical condition, such as heart disease or high blood pressure, that could make vaginal delivery risky.
* The mother has an infection, such as HIV or herpes, that could be passed to the baby during a vaginal delivery.
* The labor is not progressing and there are concerns about the health of the mother or the baby.

C-sections are generally safe for both the mother and the baby, but like any surgery, they do carry some risks. These can include infection, bleeding, blood clots, and injury to nearby organs. In addition, women who have a C-section are more likely to experience complications in future pregnancies, such as placenta previa or uterine rupture.

If you have questions about whether a C-section is necessary for your delivery, it's important to discuss your options with your healthcare provider.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is characterized by intellectual and developmental disabilities, distinctive facial features, and sometimes physical growth delays and health problems. The condition affects approximately one in every 700 babies born in the United States.

Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to moderate or severe. They may also have delayed development, including late walking and talking, and may require additional support and education services throughout their lives.

People with Down syndrome are at increased risk for certain health conditions, such as congenital heart defects, respiratory infections, hearing loss, vision problems, gastrointestinal issues, and thyroid disorders. However, many individuals with Down syndrome live healthy and fulfilling lives with appropriate medical care and support.

The condition is named after John Langdon Down, an English physician who first described the syndrome in 1866.

Sufentanil is a potent, synthetic opioid analgesic that is approximately 5-10 times more potent than fentanyl and 1000 times more potent than morphine. It is primarily used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in surgical settings, as an adjunct to anesthesia, or for obstetrical analgesia during labor and delivery.

Sufentanil works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which inhibits the transmission of pain signals to the brain. It has a rapid onset of action and a short duration of effect, making it useful for procedures that require intense analgesia for brief periods.

Like other opioids, sufentanil can cause respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, vomiting, and constipation. It should be used with caution in patients with compromised respiratory function or those who are taking other central nervous system depressants.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Tachycardia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally rapid heart rate, often defined as a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute in adults. It can occur in either the atria (upper chambers) or ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart. Different types of tachycardia include supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia.

Tachycardia can cause various symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, lightheadedness, chest discomfort, or syncope (fainting). In some cases, tachycardia may not cause any symptoms and may only be detected during a routine physical examination or medical test.

The underlying causes of tachycardia can vary widely, including heart disease, electrolyte imbalances, medications, illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, smoking, stress, anxiety, and other medical conditions. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. Treatment for tachycardia depends on the underlying cause, type, severity, and duration of the arrhythmia.

Myocardial ischemia is a condition in which the blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) is reduced or blocked, leading to insufficient oxygen delivery and potential damage to the heart tissue. This reduction in blood flow typically results from the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques, in the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen-rich blood. The plaques can rupture or become unstable, causing the formation of blood clots that obstruct the artery and limit blood flow.

Myocardial ischemia may manifest as chest pain (angina pectoris), shortness of breath, fatigue, or irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). In severe cases, it can lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) if the oxygen supply is significantly reduced or cut off completely, causing permanent damage or death of the heart muscle. Early diagnosis and treatment of myocardial ischemia are crucial for preventing further complications and improving patient outcomes.

Embryonic and fetal development is the process of growth and development that occurs from fertilization of the egg (conception) to birth. The terms "embryo" and "fetus" are used to describe different stages of this development:

* Embryonic development: This stage begins at fertilization and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which implants in the uterus and begins to develop into a complex structure called an embryo. The embryo consists of three layers of cells that will eventually form all of the organs and tissues of the body. During this stage, the basic structures of the body, including the nervous system, heart, and gastrointestinal tract, begin to form.
* Fetal development: This stage begins at the end of the 8th week of pregnancy and continues until birth. During this time, the embryo is called a fetus, and it grows and develops rapidly. The organs and tissues that were formed during the embryonic stage continue to mature and become more complex. The fetus also begins to move and kick, and it can hear and respond to sounds from outside the womb.

Overall, embryonic and fetal development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated growth and differentiation of cells and tissues. It is a critical period of development that lays the foundation for the health and well-being of the individual throughout their life.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Ultrasonography, also known as sonography, is a diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to produce dynamic images of organs, tissues, or blood flow inside the body. These images are captured in real-time and can be used to assess the size, shape, and structure of various internal structures, as well as detect any abnormalities such as tumors, cysts, or inflammation.

During an ultrasonography procedure, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the patient's skin, which emits and receives sound waves. The transducer sends high-frequency sound waves into the body, and these waves bounce back off internal structures and are recorded by the transducer. The recorded data is then processed and transformed into visual images that can be interpreted by a medical professional.

Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, painless, and safe procedure that does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as CT scans or X-rays. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions in various parts of the body, including the abdomen, pelvis, heart, blood vessels, and musculoskeletal system.

The heart ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart that receive blood from the atria and pump it to the lungs or the rest of the body. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Both ventricles have thick, muscular walls to generate the pressure necessary to pump blood through the circulatory system.

Epidural anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves the injection of local anesthetic medication into the epidural space in the spine, which is the space surrounding the dura mater, a membrane that covers the spinal cord. The injection is typically administered through a catheter placed in the lower back using a needle.

The local anesthetic drug blocks nerve impulses from the affected area, numbing it and relieving pain. Epidural anesthesia can be used for various surgical procedures, such as cesarean sections, knee or hip replacements, and hernia repairs. It is also commonly used during childbirth to provide pain relief during labor and delivery.

The effects of epidural anesthesia can vary depending on the dose and type of medication used, as well as the individual's response to the drug. The anesthetic may take several minutes to start working, and its duration of action can range from a few hours to a day or more. Epidural anesthesia is generally considered safe when administered by trained medical professionals, but like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including infection, bleeding, nerve damage, and respiratory depression.

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

'Pregnancy in Diabetics' refers to the condition where an individual with pre-existing diabetes mellitus becomes pregnant. This can be further categorized into two types:

1. Pre-gestational diabetes: This is when a woman is diagnosed with diabetes before she becomes pregnant. It includes both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Proper control of blood sugar levels prior to conception and during pregnancy is crucial to reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

2. Gestational diabetes: This is when a woman develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy, typically in the second or third trimester. While it usually resolves after delivery, women with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life. Proper management of gestational diabetes is essential to ensure a healthy pregnancy and reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

Obstetrics is a branch of medicine and surgery concerned with the care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postnatal period. It involves managing potential complications that may arise during any stage of pregnancy or delivery, as well as providing advice and guidance on prenatal care, labor and delivery, and postpartum care. Obstetricians are medical doctors who specialize in obstetrics and can provide a range of services including routine check-ups, ultrasounds, genetic testing, and other diagnostic procedures to monitor the health and development of the fetus. They also perform surgical procedures such as cesarean sections when necessary.

I couldn't find a medical definition specific to "data display," but I can provide some information related to the visual representation of medical data.

In healthcare and research, data displays are graphical representations of data designed to facilitate understanding, communication, and interpretation of complex information. These visualizations can include various types of charts, graphs, tables, and infographics that present medical data in a more accessible and easily digestible format. Examples of data displays in a medical context may include:

1. Line graphs: Used to show trends over time, such as changes in a patient's vital signs or the progression of a disease.
2. Bar charts: Employed to compare categorical data, like the frequency of different symptoms across various patient groups.
3. Pie charts: Utilized to illustrate proportions or percentages of different categories within a whole, such as the distribution of causes of death in a population.
4. Scatter plots: Applied to display relationships between two continuous variables, like the correlation between age and blood pressure.
5. Heat maps: Used to represent density or intensity of data points across a two-dimensional space, often used for geographical data or large datasets with spatial components.
6. Forest plots: Commonly employed in systematic reviews and meta-analyses to display the effect sizes and confidence intervals of individual studies and overall estimates.
7. Flow diagrams: Used to illustrate diagnostic algorithms, treatment pathways, or patient flow through a healthcare system.
8. Icon arrays: Employed to represent risks or probabilities visually, often used in informed consent processes or shared decision-making tools.

These visual representations of medical data can aid in clinical decision-making, research, education, and communication between healthcare professionals, patients, and policymakers.

Doppler echocardiography is a type of ultrasound test that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart and its blood vessels. It measures the direction and speed of blood flow in the heart and major blood vessels leading to and from the heart. This helps to evaluate various conditions such as valve problems, congenital heart defects, and heart muscle diseases.

In Doppler echocardiography, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the chest, which emits sound waves that bounce off the heart and blood vessels. The transducer then picks up the returning echoes, which are processed by a computer to create moving images of the heart.

The Doppler effect is used to measure the speed and direction of blood flow. This occurs when the frequency of the sound waves changes as they bounce off moving objects, such as red blood cells. By analyzing these changes, the ultrasound machine can calculate the velocity and direction of blood flow in different parts of the heart.

Doppler echocardiography is a non-invasive test that does not require any needles or dyes. It is generally safe and painless, although patients may experience some discomfort from the pressure applied by the transducer on the chest. The test usually takes about 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

Meconium is the first stool passed by a newborn infant, typically within the first 48 hours of life. It is composed of materials ingested during fetal development, including intestinal epithelial cells, lanugo (fine hair), amniotic fluid, mucus, bile, and water. The color of meconium is usually greenish-black, and its consistency can range from a thick paste to a liquid. Meconium staining of the amniotic fluid can occur when the fetus has passed meconium while still in the uterus, which may indicate fetal distress and requires careful medical attention during delivery.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

"Delivery, Obstetric" is a medical term that refers to the process of giving birth to a baby. It involves the passage of the fetus through the mother's vagina or via Caesarean section (C-section), which is a surgical procedure.

The obstetric delivery process typically includes three stages:

1. The first stage begins with the onset of labor and ends when the cervix is fully dilated.
2. The second stage starts with full dilation of the cervix and ends with the birth of the baby.
3. The third stage involves the delivery of the placenta, which is the organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus during pregnancy.

Obstetric delivery requires careful monitoring and management by healthcare professionals to ensure the safety and well-being of both the mother and the baby. Various interventions and techniques may be used during the delivery process to facilitate a safe and successful outcome, including the use of medications, assisted delivery with forceps or vacuum extraction, and C-section.

Coronary artery disease, often simply referred to as coronary disease, is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or in severe cases, a heart attack.

The medical definition of coronary artery disease is:

A condition characterized by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques in the walls of the coronary arteries, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the myocardium (heart muscle). This can result in symptoms such as angina pectoris, shortness of breath, or arrhythmias, and may ultimately lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and managing stress can help reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Medical treatments may include medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or irregular heart rhythms, as well as procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Obstetric labor complications refer to any physical or physiological difficulties that arise during the process of childbirth (labor) and can pose risks to the health of the mother, baby, or both. These complications may result from various factors such as pre-existing medical conditions, fetal distress, prolonged labor, abnormal positioning of the fetus, or issues related to the size or weight of the baby.

Some examples of obstetric labor complications include:

1. Fetal distress: This occurs when the fetus is not receiving adequate oxygen supply or is in danger during labor. It can be caused by various factors such as umbilical cord compression, placental abruption, or maternal anemia.
2. Prolonged labor: When labor lasts for more than 20 hours in first-time mothers or more than 14 hours in subsequent pregnancies, it is considered prolonged labor. This can lead to fatigue, infection, and other complications for both the mother and baby.
3. Abnormal positioning of the fetus: Normally, the fetus should be positioned head-down (vertex) before delivery. However, if the fetus is in a breech or transverse position, it can lead to difficult labor and increased risk of complications during delivery.
4. Shoulder dystocia: This occurs when the baby's shoulders get stuck behind the mother's pubic bone during delivery, making it challenging to deliver the baby. It can cause injuries to both the mother and the baby.
5. Placental abruption: This is a serious complication where the placenta separates from the uterus before delivery, leading to bleeding and potential oxygen deprivation for the fetus.
6. Uterine rupture: A rare but life-threatening complication where the uterus tears during labor, causing severe bleeding and potentially endangering both the mother and baby's lives.
7. Preeclampsia/eclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder that can lead to complications such as seizures, organ failure, or even maternal death if left untreated.
8. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
9. Infections: Maternal infections during pregnancy or childbirth can lead to complications for both the mother and baby, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and even fetal death.
10. Anesthesia complications: Adverse reactions to anesthesia during delivery can cause respiratory depression, allergic reactions, or other complications that may endanger the mother's life.

Vascular malformations are abnormalities in the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels that can occur anywhere in the body. They can be present at birth or develop later in life, and they can affect both the form and function of the affected tissues and organs. Vascular malformations can involve arteries, veins, capillaries, and/or lymphatic vessels, and they can range from simple, localized lesions to complex, multifocal disorders.

Vascular malformations are typically classified based on their location, size, flow characteristics, and the type of blood or lymphatic vessels involved. Some common types of vascular malformations include:

1. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are characterized by abnormal dilated capillaries that can cause red or pink discoloration of the skin, typically on the face or neck.
2. Venous malformations (VMs): These involve abnormal veins that can cause swelling, pain, and disfigurement in the affected area.
3. Lymphatic malformations (LMs): These involve abnormal lymphatic vessels that can cause swelling, infection, and other complications.
4. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These involve a tangled mass of arteries and veins that can cause high-flow lesions, bleeding, and other serious complications.
5. Combined vascular malformations: These involve a combination of different types of blood or lymphatic vessels, such as capillary-lymphatic-venous malformations (CLVMs) or arteriovenous-lymphatic malformations (AVLMs).

The exact cause of vascular malformations is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from genetic mutations that affect the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Treatment options for vascular malformations depend on the type, size, location, and severity of the lesion, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment may include medication, compression garments, sclerotherapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Chromosome disorders are a group of genetic conditions caused by abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain most of the body's genetic material, which is composed of DNA and proteins. Normally, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.

Chromosome disorders can result from changes in the number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) or structural abnormalities in one or more chromosomes. Some common examples of chromosome disorders include:

1. Down syndrome: a condition caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and distinctive physical features.
2. Turner syndrome: a condition that affects only females and is caused by the absence of all or part of one X chromosome, resulting in short stature, lack of sexual development, and other symptoms.
3. Klinefelter syndrome: a condition that affects only males and is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome, resulting in tall stature, infertility, and other symptoms.
4. Cri-du-chat syndrome: a condition caused by a deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and a distinctive cat-like cry.
5. Fragile X syndrome: a condition caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, resulting in intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and physical symptoms.

Chromosome disorders can be diagnosed through various genetic tests, such as karyotyping, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific disorder and its associated symptoms and may include medical interventions, therapies, and educational support.

Nuchal translucency measurement (NT) is a prenatal ultrasound assessment used to screen for chromosomal abnormalities, particularly Down syndrome (Trisomy 21), and other fetal abnormalities. The nuchal translucency refers to the sonolucent space or fluid-filled area at the back of the neck of a developing fetus. During the first trimester of pregnancy, an increased nuchal translucency measurement may indicate an increased risk for certain genetic disorders and structural defects.

The procedure involves measuring the thickness of this fluid-filled space using ultrasound imaging, typically between 11 and 14 weeks of gestation. A larger nuchal translucency measurement (usually greater than 3 mm) may suggest an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities or structural issues in the fetus. The NT measurement is often combined with maternal age, biochemical markers (such as PAPP-A and free beta-hCG), and sometimes first-trimester fetal heart rate assessment to calculate the overall risk of chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.

It's important to note that while an increased nuchal translucency measurement can indicate a higher risk for genetic disorders, it does not confirm their presence. Further diagnostic testing, such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis, may be recommended to obtain a definitive diagnosis.

Hydrops Fetalis is a serious condition characterized by the accumulation of excessive fluid in two or more fetal compartments, including the abdomen (ascites), around the heart (pericardial effusion), and/or within the lungs (pleural effusion). This accumulation can also affect the skin, causing it to become edematous. Hydrops Fetalis is often associated with various underlying causes, such as chromosomal abnormalities, congenital infections, genetic disorders, and structural defects that impair the fetus's ability to maintain fluid balance. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. The prognosis for Hydrops Fetalis is generally poor, with a high mortality rate, although early detection and appropriate management can improve outcomes in certain situations.

Fetal weight is the calculated weight of a fetus during pregnancy, typically estimated through ultrasound measurements. It is a crucial indicator of fetal growth and development throughout pregnancy. The weight is determined by measuring various parameters such as the head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length, which are then used in conjunction with specific formulas to estimate the fetal weight. Regular monitoring of fetal weight helps healthcare providers assess fetal health, identify potential growth restrictions or abnormalities, and determine appropriate delivery timing. Low fetal weight can indicate intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), while high fetal weight might suggest macrosomia, both of which may require specialized care and management.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood that the heart pumps in one minute. It is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle during each contraction) by the heart rate (the number of times the heart beats per minute). Low cardiac output refers to a condition in which the heart is not able to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can occur due to various reasons such as heart failure, heart attack, or any other conditions that weaken the heart muscle. Symptoms of low cardiac output may include fatigue, shortness of breath, and decreased mental status. Treatment for low cardiac output depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or medical devices to help support heart function.

Left ventricular function refers to the ability of the left ventricle (the heart's lower-left chamber) to contract and relax, thereby filling with and ejecting blood. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Its function is evaluated by measuring several parameters, including:

1. Ejection fraction (EF): This is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle with each heartbeat. A normal ejection fraction ranges from 55% to 70%.
2. Stroke volume (SV): The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one contraction. A typical SV is about 70 mL/beat.
3. Cardiac output (CO): The total volume of blood that the left ventricle pumps per minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume and heart rate. Normal CO ranges from 4 to 8 L/minute.

Assessment of left ventricular function is crucial in diagnosing and monitoring various cardiovascular conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart diseases, and cardiomyopathies.

Systole is the phase of the cardiac cycle during which the heart muscle contracts to pump blood out of the heart. Specifically, it refers to the contraction of the ventricles, the lower chambers of the heart. This is driven by the action of the electrical conduction system of the heart, starting with the sinoatrial node and passing through the atrioventricular node and bundle branches to the Purkinje fibers.

During systole, the pressure within the ventricles increases as they contract, causing the aortic and pulmonary valves to open and allowing blood to be ejected into the systemic and pulmonary circulations, respectively. The duration of systole is typically shorter than that of diastole, the phase during which the heart muscle relaxes and the chambers fill with blood.

In clinical settings, the terms "systolic" and "diastolic" are often used to describe blood pressure measurements, with the former referring to the pressure exerted on the artery walls when the ventricles contract and eject blood, and the latter referring to the pressure when the ventricles are relaxed and filling with blood.

Oxytocics are a class of medications that stimulate the contraction of uterine smooth muscle. They are primarily used in obstetrics to induce or augment labor, and to control bleeding after childbirth. Oxytocin is the most commonly used oxytocic and is naturally produced by the posterior pituitary gland. Synthetic forms of oxytocin, such as Pitocin, are often used in medical settings to induce labor or reduce postpartum bleeding. Other medications with oxytocic properties include ergometrine and methylergometrine. It's important to note that the use of oxytocics should be monitored carefully as overuse can lead to excessive uterine contractions, which may compromise fetal oxygenation and increase the risk of uterine rupture.

Pulsatile flow is a type of fluid flow that occurs in a rhythmic, wave-like pattern, typically seen in the cardiovascular system. It refers to the periodic variation in the volume or velocity of a fluid (such as blood) that is caused by the regular beating of the heart. In pulsatile flow, there are periods of high flow followed by periods of low or no flow, which creates a distinct pattern on a graph or tracing. This type of flow is important for maintaining proper function and health in organs and tissues throughout the body.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

An artificial heart is a mechanical device designed to replace the function of one or both ventricles of the natural human heart. It can be used as a temporary or permanent solution for patients with end-stage heart failure who are not candidates for heart transplantation. There are different types of artificial hearts, such as total artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices (VADs), which can help to pump blood throughout the body. These devices are typically composed of titanium and polyurethane materials and are powered by external electrical systems. They are designed to mimic the natural heart's action, helping to maintain adequate blood flow and oxygenation to vital organs.

Heart failure, systolic is a type of heart failure in which the heart's lower chambers, the ventricles, are not able to contract with enough force to pump an adequate amount of blood throughout the body. This means that the heart cannot effectively pump oxygenated blood to meet the body's needs, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid buildup in the lungs and other parts of the body.

Systolic heart failure is often caused by damage to the heart muscle, such as from a heart attack or long-standing high blood pressure. Over time, this damage can weaken the heart muscle and make it harder for the ventricles to contract with enough force to pump blood efficiently.

Treatment for systolic heart failure typically involves medications to help improve heart function, reduce symptoms, and prevent further damage to the heart. Lifestyle changes, such as following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and quitting smoking, can also help manage this condition. In some cases, more advanced treatments such as implantable devices or heart transplantation may be necessary.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of a nonviable fetus from the uterus before the 20th week of gestation. It is a common complication of early pregnancy, with most miscarriages occurring during the first trimester. Spontaneous abortion can have various causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural issues of the uterus or cervix. In many cases, the exact cause may remain unknown.

The symptoms of spontaneous abortion can vary but often include vaginal bleeding, which may range from light spotting to heavy bleeding; abdominal pain or cramping; and the passing of tissue or clots from the vagina. While some miscarriages occur suddenly and are immediately noticeable, others may progress slowly over several days or even weeks.

In medical practice, healthcare providers often use specific terminology to describe different stages and types of spontaneous abortion. For example:

* Threatened abortion: Vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed, and there is no evidence of fetal demise or passing of tissue.
* Inevitable abortion: Vaginal bleeding with an open cervix, indicating that a miscarriage is imminent or already in progress.
* Incomplete abortion: The expulsion of some but not all products of conception from the uterus, requiring medical intervention to remove any remaining tissue.
* Complete abortion: The successful passage of all products of conception from the uterus, often confirmed through an ultrasound or pelvic examination.
* Missed abortion: The death of a fetus in the uterus without any expulsion of the products of conception, which may be discovered during routine prenatal care.
* Septic abortion: A rare and life-threatening complication of spontaneous abortion characterized by infection of the products of conception and the surrounding tissues, requiring prompt medical attention and antibiotic treatment.

Healthcare providers typically monitor patients who experience a spontaneous abortion to ensure that all products of conception have been expelled and that there are no complications, such as infection or excessive bleeding. In some cases, medication or surgical intervention may be necessary to remove any remaining tissue or address other issues related to the miscarriage. Counseling and support services are often available for individuals and couples who experience a spontaneous abortion, as they may face emotional challenges and concerns about future pregnancies.

Perfusion, in medical terms, refers to the process of circulating blood through the body's organs and tissues to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products. It is a measure of the delivery of adequate blood flow to specific areas or tissues in the body. Perfusion can be assessed using various methods, including imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and perfusion scintigraphy.

Perfusion is critical for maintaining proper organ function and overall health. When perfusion is impaired or inadequate, it can lead to tissue hypoxia, acidosis, and cell death, which can result in organ dysfunction or failure. Conditions that can affect perfusion include cardiovascular disease, shock, trauma, and certain surgical procedures.

Computer-assisted signal processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer algorithms and software to analyze, interpret, and extract meaningful information from biological signals. These signals can include physiological data such as electrocardiogram (ECG) waves, electromyography (EMG) signals, electroencephalography (EEG) readings, or medical images.

The goal of computer-assisted signal processing is to automate the analysis of these complex signals and extract relevant features that can be used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Signal acquisition: Collecting raw data from sensors or medical devices.
2. Preprocessing: Cleaning and filtering the data to remove noise and artifacts.
3. Feature extraction: Identifying and quantifying relevant features in the signal, such as peaks, troughs, or patterns.
4. Analysis: Applying statistical or machine learning algorithms to interpret the extracted features and make predictions about the underlying physiological state.
5. Visualization: Presenting the results in a clear and intuitive way for clinicians to review and use.

Computer-assisted signal processing has numerous applications in healthcare, including:

* Diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias or other heart conditions using ECG signals.
* Assessing muscle activity and function using EMG signals.
* Monitoring brain activity and diagnosing neurological disorders using EEG readings.
* Analyzing medical images to detect abnormalities, such as tumors or fractures.

Overall, computer-assisted signal processing is a powerful tool for improving the accuracy and efficiency of medical diagnosis and monitoring, enabling clinicians to make more informed decisions about patient care.

The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, is a biological system responsible for pumping and transporting blood throughout the body in animals and humans. It consists of the heart, blood vessels (comprising arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood. The main function of this system is to transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body to maintain homeostasis and support organ function.

The heart acts as a muscular pump that contracts and relaxes to circulate blood. It has four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body, pumps it through the lungs for oxygenation, and then sends it back to the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart then pumps the oxygenated blood through the aorta and into the systemic circulation, reaching all parts of the body via a network of arteries and capillaries. Deoxygenated blood is collected by veins and returned to the right atrium, completing the cycle.

The cardiovascular system plays a crucial role in regulating temperature, pH balance, and fluid balance throughout the body. It also contributes to the immune response and wound healing processes. Dysfunctions or diseases of the cardiovascular system can lead to severe health complications, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

Physiological monitoring is the continuous or intermittent observation and measurement of various body functions or parameters in a patient, with the aim of evaluating their health status, identifying any abnormalities or changes, and guiding clinical decision-making and treatment. This may involve the use of specialized medical equipment, such as cardiac monitors, pulse oximeters, blood pressure monitors, and capnographs, among others. The data collected through physiological monitoring can help healthcare professionals assess the effectiveness of treatments, detect complications early, and make timely adjustments to patient care plans.

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy characterized by the enlargement and weakened contraction of the heart's main pumping chamber (the left ventricle). This enlargement and weakness can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. DCM can be caused by various factors including genetics, viral infections, alcohol and drug abuse, and other medical conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes. It is important to note that this condition can lead to heart failure if left untreated.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition characterized by the death of a segment of heart muscle (myocardium) due to the interruption of its blood supply. This interruption is most commonly caused by the blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot formed on the top of an atherosclerotic plaque, which is a buildup of cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the artery.

The lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscle tissue results in damage or death of the cardiac cells, causing the affected area to become necrotic. The extent and severity of the MI depend on the size of the affected area, the duration of the occlusion, and the presence of collateral circulation.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and sweating. Immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. Treatment options for MI include medications, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and pain relievers, as well as procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

Turner Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females, caused by complete or partial absence of one X chromosome. The typical karyotype is 45,X0 instead of the normal 46,XX in women. This condition leads to distinctive physical features and medical issues in growth, development, and fertility. Characteristic features include short stature, webbed neck, low-set ears, and swelling of the hands and feet. Other potential symptoms can include heart defects, hearing and vision problems, skeletal abnormalities, kidney issues, and learning disabilities. Not all individuals with Turner Syndrome will have every symptom, but most will require medical interventions and monitoring throughout their lives to address various health concerns associated with the condition.

Heart injuries, also known as cardiac injuries, refer to any damage or harm caused to the heart muscle, valves, or surrounding structures. This can result from various causes such as blunt trauma (e.g., car accidents, falls), penetrating trauma (e.g., gunshot wounds, stabbing), or medical conditions like heart attacks (myocardial infarction) and infections (e.g., myocarditis, endocarditis).

Some common types of heart injuries include:

1. Contusions: Bruising of the heart muscle due to blunt trauma.
2. Myocardial infarctions: Damage to the heart muscle caused by insufficient blood supply, often due to blocked coronary arteries.
3. Cardiac rupture: A rare but life-threatening condition where the heart muscle tears or breaks open, usually resulting from severe trauma or complications from a myocardial infarction.
4. Valvular damage: Disruption of the heart valves' function due to injury or infection, leading to leakage (regurgitation) or narrowing (stenosis).
5. Pericardial injuries: Damage to the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart, which can result in fluid accumulation (pericardial effusion), inflammation (pericarditis), or tamponade (compression of the heart by excess fluid).
6. Arrhythmias: Irregular heart rhythms caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system.

Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing heart injuries, as they can lead to severe complications or even be fatal if left untreated.

It is the fetal heart and not the mother's heart that builds up the fetal blood pressure to drive its blood through the fetal ... Remnants of the fetal circulation can be found in the adult. The core concept behind fetal circulation is that fetal hemoglobin ... The fetal heart contains two upper atria and two lower ventricles. It also contains two additional structures, the foramen ... The fetal circulation is composed of the placenta, umbilical blood vessels encapsulated by the umbilical cord, heart and ...
If the fetal aortic stenosis is critical it may lead to hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS ... Fetal aortic stenosis impairs left ventricular development, which can lead to hypoplastic left heart syndrome. If untreated, ... Management before birth is done by a fetal aortic valvuloplasty. In this procedure, fetal positioning is crucial. It is ... Other options for newborns involve open heart surgery. Potential open heart surgeries may include aortic valve repair or the ...
"Intrapartum fetal scalp lactate sampling for fetal assessment in the presence of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate trace". The ... While continuous fetal heart rate monitoring is the primary method for assessing fetal wellbeing during labor, a change in ... Young C, Ryce A (2018). Fetal Scalp Lactate Testing During Intrapartum Pregnancy with Abnormal Fetal Heart Rate: A Review of ... The procedure is contraindicated in the case of pregnancies less than 34 weeks, abnormal fetal heart rate, abnormal fetal blood ...
... fetal echocardiography has provided clinicians with earlier diagnosis of heart disease and a better understanding of fetal ... Fetal echocardiography, or Fetal echocardiogram, is the name of the test used to diagnose cardiac conditions in the fetal stage ... Abnormal fetal cardiac screening Major extracardiac abnormality Abnormal Fetal karyotype Hydrops Fetal dysrthythhmia Fetal Echo ... Today, a dedicated fetal echocardiogram can detect nearly 100% of serious congenital heart disease. Yet most pregnant women do ...
The original fetal EEGs came from recordings through the maternal abdomen. However, electrical activity from the mother's heart ... 3. Pattern changes in presence of fetal heart rate alterations and after use of maternal medications". Obstetrics and ... fetal EEG prevailed in clinical settings for determining sleep states in the unborn, or fetal distress. Healthy newborns ... Recordings from the maternal abdomen or cervix have less than 5 cm of tissue between the maternal skin and the fetal cortex. A ...
This is often done via electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring, which helps providers monitor the fetus' heart rate to ... The term "non-reassuring fetal status" has largely replaced it. It is characterized by changes in fetal movement, growth, heart ... Risk factors for fetal distress/non-reassuring fetal status include anemia, restriction of fetal growth, maternal hypertension ... Kwon JY, Park IY (March 2016). "Fetal heart rate monitoring: from Doppler to computerized analysis". Obstet Gynecol Sci. 59 (2 ...
Heart rate display: some Dopplers automatically display the heart rate on a built-in LCD; for others the fetal heart rate must ... The newer EchoHeart 5-MHz transvaginal probes aids in the detection of fetal heart tones (FHT) early in pregnancy (6-8 weeks) ... The Doppler fetal monitor is commonly referred to simply as a Doppler or fetal Doppler. It may be classified as a form of ... A Doppler fetal monitor is a hand-held ultrasound transducer used to detect the fetal heartbeat for prenatal care. It uses the ...
... dissection guide: including sheep heart, brain, and eye. (3rd). Goshen College. ( ... Secondly, fetal pigs are easy to obtain because they are by-products of the pork industry. Fetal pigs are the unborn piglets of ... Male fetal pigs have an urogenital opening located behind the umbilical cord. The swelling behind the hind legs of the fetal ... The fetal pig's urogenital system is similar to the adult pig's system with the exception of the reproductive organs. The fetal ...
A smaller population will have growth problems and developmental delay, or intellectual disability.[citation needed] Heart ... Fetal hydantoin syndrome, also called fetal dilantin syndrome, is a group of defects caused to the developing fetus by exposure ... The treatment of fetal hydantoin syndrome is directed toward the specific symptoms that are apparent in each individual. ... It is important to note that the majority of infants born to women who take phenytoin during pregnancy will not develop fetal ...
Heart: A heart murmur that frequently disappears by one year of age. Ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, tetralogy ... 96-06). Seattle: University of Washington, Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit. Malbin, D. (1993). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Fetal ... Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS) refers to individuals with a known, or highly suspected, ... "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) - conditions and interventions". Swedish ...
Heart surgery may also be required to close a patent ductus arteriosus. Yurdakök, M. 2012, "Fetal and neonatal effects of ... a sunken sternum form an immediately recognizable sign of fetal warfarin syndrome. Congenital heart defects such as a thinned ... "Dose-dependent fetal complications of warfarin in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves", Journal of the American College ... Babies born with fetal warfarin syndrome may have a below-average birth weight and do continue to grow at a reduced rate. ...
2004). Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Lung, Pleura, Thymus and Heart (PDF). World Health Organization Classification ... April 2008). "Fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung in a 25-year-old woman". J Thorac Oncol. 3 (4): 441-3. doi:10.1097/JTO. ... Fetal adenocarcinoma (FA) of the lung is a rare subtype of pulmonary adenocarcinoma that exhibits tissue architecture and cell ... A variant of fetal adenocarcinoma". Cancer. 73 (5): 1383-9. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19940301)73:5.;2-v. PMID 8111705. ...
Kintraia PI, Zarnadze MG, Kintraia NP, Kashakashvili IG (March 2005). "Development of daily rhythmicity in heart rate and ... "Fetal movement counting for assessment of fetal wellbeing". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015 (10): CD004909. ... "Fetal Motility in the First Half of Pregnancy", in Continuity of Neural Functions from Prenatal to Postnatal Life, pages 4 and ... Fetal movement refers to motion of a fetus caused by its own muscle activity. Locomotor activity begins during the late ...
A comparison among normal and failing adult heart, fetal heart, and adult and fetal skeletal muscle". Circulation Research. 69 ... Fetal hemoglobin, the fetal version of hemoglobin. Fetal Troponin T and Troponin I isoforms. Fetal Hemoglobin is a member of ... in which case the fetal varieties are called fetal isoforms. Sometimes, the genes coding fetal isoforms occur adjacent to their ... Fetal hemoglobin is vital in this system because it has a high affinity for oxygen. Fetal hemoglobin can be used to screen for ...
November 2010). "Neonatal resuscitation: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and ... Fetal viability depends largely on the fetal organ maturity, and environmental conditions. According to Websters Encyclopedic ... That stage of fetal development when the life of the unborn child may be continued indefinitely outside the womb by natural or ... Fetal viability is the ability of a human fetus to survive outside the uterus. Medical viability is generally considered to be ...
The normal method of collection is cardiac puncture, wherein a needle is inserted into the heart. This minimizes the danger of ... "Animal welfare and ethics in the collection of fetal blood for the production of fetal bovine serum". Altex. 38 (2): 319-323. ... Fetal bovine serum is the most widely used serum-supplement for the in vitro cell culture of eukaryotic cells. This is due to ... Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is derived from the blood drawn from a bovine fetus via a closed system of collection at the ...
Nutrients are diverted towards the development of the heart, brain, and other essential organs of the fetus. The body also ... Fetal programming, also known as prenatal programming, is the theory that environmental cues experienced during fetal ... MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit page at the University of Southampton Fetal Programming page on the Centre for Fetal ... decreased fetal growth leading to lower birth weight, and impaired fetal lung development. There is evidence pointing towards ...
He had noticed that the poorest areas of England were the same areas with the highest rates of heart disease, unearthing the ... As perhaps the most well-known fetal risk, It wasn't until 1973 that fetal alcohol syndrome was first formally diagnosed, and ... Epidemiology Epigenetics Evolutionary developmental psychology Fetal programming Fetal psychology Prenatal nutrition and birth ... The effects of fetal origin are marked by three characteristics: latency, wherein effects may not be apparent until much later ...
Schidlow, David N.; Freud, Lindsay; Friedman, Kevin; Tworetzky, Wayne (2017). "Fetal interventions for structural heart disease ... Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart defect in which the left side of the heart is severely ... "Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Facts , Congenital Heart Defects". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-10-26. ... and must be monitored by a cardiologist for the rest of their lives to check on their heart function.[citation needed] Heart ...
Conversely, the fetal heart pumps low-oxygen, nutrient-depleted blood through the umbilical arteries back to the placenta. The ... "Fetal Circulation". Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2018. Kiserud, T.; ... This is sometimes related to fetal abnormalities, but it may also occur without accompanying problems. It is unusual for a vein ... MD, Amy Tuteur (2018-12-19). "Lotus birth leaves a newborn critically ill with a heart infection". The Skeptical OB. Retrieved ...
Non-reassuring fetal heart tracing. Fetal distress. After-coming head in breech delivery. Cuts and bruises. Increased risk of ... Ascertaining the precise position of the fetal head is paramount, and though historically was accomplished by feeling the fetal ... The fetal head is then rotated to the occiput anterior position if it is not already in that position. An episiotomy may be ... Forceps with a fixed lock mechanism are used for deliveries where little or no rotation is required, as when the fetal head is ...
This means that the heart is working against higher pressures, which makes it more difficult for the heart to pump blood. In a ... Persistent fetal circulation is a condition caused by a failure in the systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation to ... Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 70 (2): F155-6. doi:10.1136/fn.70.2.f155. PMC 1061019. PMID 8154909. (Articles with short ... Persistent fetal circulation in neonates can be reversible or irreversible depending on the classified etiology listed above. ...
An acceleration of the fetal heart rate of 15 bpm lasting at least 15 seconds is suggestive of normal fetal outcome. Fetal ... Fetal scalp stimulation test is a diagnostic test used to detect fetal metabolic acidemia. It can be used as a non-invasive ... A firm digital pressure on head or a gentle pinch of fetal head with atraumatic clamp is used for stimulation. ... Skupski, DW; Rosenberg, CR; Eglinton, GS (January 2002). "Intrapartum fetal stimulation tests: a meta-analysis". Obstetrics and ...
"Fetal Keepsake Videos". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-21. "Statement on Measurement of the Fetal Heart Rate ... fetal heart function, volume evaluation, fetal lung maturity, and general fetus well being. Second-trimester ultrasound ... Fetal number, including number of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations Fetal cardiac activity Fetal ... Doppler sonography can be used to evaluate the pulsations in the fetal heart and bloods vessels for signs of abnormalities. ...
"Antenatal foetal heart monitoring". Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Antenatal Fetal Surveillance. ... Monitoring the fetal heart rate is becoming increasingly prevalent in the standard care of antepartum pregnant patients. As of ... Wearable optical heart rate monitors are less reliable than electrode-based heart rate monitors. The accuracy of the wearable ... A generic cardiac monitor has the following functions: A display of heart rate and heart rhythm Sound alarms above and below a ...
Hess began working on a fetal heart monitor in the 1930s as a research fellow at Yale University due to his frustration with ... Orvan W. Hess, 96, Dies; Developed Fetal Heart Monitor". New York Times. with "Obituary Corrections". New York Times. October 6 ... Dervan, Andrew (September 18, 2002). "Orvan Hess, inventor of fetal heart monitor, dies at age 96". Yale Daily News. Archived ... Orvan Hess, who helped develop fetal heart monitor, dies at 96". Yale Bulletin and Calendar. 31 (12). November 22, 2002. ...
Embryonic Heart Rate, Gestational Sac Diameter and Yolk Sac Diameter at 6-10 Weeks". Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy. 28 (4): 207- ... Karki DB, Sharmqa UK, Rauniyar RK (2006). "Study of accuracy of commonly used fetal parameters for estimation of gestational ... a yolk sac should be seen when the gestational sac is 20mm and a fetal pole should be seen when the gestational sac reaches ...
Orvan W. Hess, 96, Dies; Developed Fetal Heart Monitor". The New York Times. p. B 7. Retrieved August 11, 2021. Langdon, Julia ... Tim Rose, 62, American singer and songwriter, heart attack. Ludwig Warnemünde, 85, German long-distance runner (men's marathon ... "Piece of My Heart"), older sister of Aretha Franklin. Uziel Gal, 78, designer of the Uzi submachine gun. Don Smith, 73, ... heart attack. George Wilson, 86, British cricketer. Bailey Aldrich, 95, American judge (United States circuit judge of the ...
If the clot travels into a coronary artery it can cause a heart attack. Fetal circulation Hara, H; Virmani, R; Ladich, E; ... If there is a clot in the right side of the heart, it can cross the PFO, enter the left atrium, and travel out of the heart and ... The fossa ovalis is the remnant of a thin fibrous sheet that covered the foramen ovale during fetal development. During fetal ... The major changes that are made by the body occur at the first breath (in the case of heart and lung functions) and up to weeks ...
Sontag, L. W. (1936). "Changes in the Rate of the Human Fetal Heart in Response to Vibratory Stimuli". Archives of Pediatrics ... In a series of 214 tests conducted on 7 pregnant women, a reliable increase in fetal movement was detected in the minute ... Forbes, H. S.; Forbes, H. B. (1927). "Fetal sense reaction: Hearing". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 7 (5): 353-355. doi: ...
The risk of fetal congenital heart defect (CHD) gradually increased with increasing pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI ... Cite this: High Maternal BMI Ups Risk of Fetal Congenital Heart Defects - Medscape - Jul 11, 2023. ... Pregnancies With Low Anti-SSA/Ro Autoantibody Levels: Forgo Fetal Heart Rhythm Monitoring? ... This is a summary of a preprint research study, "Maternal obesity, interpregnancy weight changes and congenital heart defects ...
However, advances in ultrasound technology have enabled earlier and more precise diagnosis of human fetal cardiac lesions; this ... technology has also enabled the field of congenital heart disea... ... encoded search term (Fetal Intervention for Congenital Heart Disease) and Fetal Intervention for Congenital Heart Disease What ... Fetal aortic valve stenosis and the evolution of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: patient selection for fetal intervention. ...
Fetal heart rate monitoring measures the heart rate and rhythm of your baby (fetus). This lets your healthcare provider see how ... What is fetal heart monitoring? Fetal heart rate monitoring measures the heart rate and rhythm of your baby (fetus). This lets ... Fetal heart rate monitoring may be used in other tests, including: * Nonstress test. This measures the fetal heart rate as your ... The average fetal heart rate is between 110 and 160 beats per minute. It can vary by 5 to 25 beats per minute. The fetal heart ...
The American Heart Association explains why Fetal Circulation, circulation in the fetus, is more complicated than after birth. ... Fetal Circulation. Blood flow through the fetus is actually more complicated than after the baby is born (normal heart). Thats ... 2023 American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited.. The American Heart Association is a ... the large vein that carries blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the fetal heart). After oxygenated ...
... of the foetal chest and the foetal heart and eventually well end up with something we can interpret in three dimensions. ... If we look at the heart - so if we suspect that there may be a problem with the heart then that patient will get referred on ... Its a very good tool for most things but when we get to things like the small vessels around the heart that can be very ... So weve developed a technique to use those types of MRI scans using lots of images that we acquire of the heart and then ...
Discover how congenital heart defects are diagnosed in womb and how certain diagnoses can be treated. ... Congenital heart defects are the most common type of birth defect. Usually, the cause is not known. ... Diagnosing Fetal Heart Defects. There are many types of congenital heart defects. Some heart defects are not evident until the ... A fetal echocardiogram (echo) is a detailed ultrasound exam that takes images of the babys heart. A fetal echo may be ...
Find out what the heart rate actually measures. Learn more with Huggies. ... Learn about baby heart rate gender prediction and whether the heart rate test works. ... This theory states that if the fetal heart rate is above 140 beats per minute (BPM), then the baby is more likely to be a girl ... The issue is, of course, what if the babys heart rate varies between 120-160 BPM? This is, after all, where the normal fetal ...
Conclusion Heart failure during pregnancy is associated with unfavourable fetal outcomes including prematurity and low birth ... Neonatal death rate was higher in the heart failure group (1.0% vs 0.4%, p=0.03). Infants delivered to women with heart failure ... in the heart failure group and 423 (0.11%) in the control group died. Heart failure was associated with a 7.7-fold increase ... Women with heart failure were identified using International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes. Medical records ...
Fetal heart monitoring procedure is done to monitor the heart rate of the fetus during the pregnancy of a woman. Learn on facts ... Fetal Heart Monitoring Test, Principles and Practices. Fetal heart monitoring is a procedure to monitor the heart rate of the ... Internal fetal heart monitoring is conducted by inserting a device into the cervix. This device is used to monitor the fetal ... This should stimulate the fetus and cause the heart rate to change. The fetal heart monitoring interpretation needs to be done ...
Matilda Guy are being given a chance of survival thanks to a specialist cardiology team at the Mater Centre for Maternal Fetal ... Hundreds of unborn babies with life-threatening heart conditions like ... Fetal heart ultrasounds save hundreds of babies like Matilda 28/Aug/2023 HealthMater GroupMater Mothers HospitalMaternal Fetal ... after a fetal heart ultrasound had identified she had a congenital heart defect that would have been fatal if left untreated. ...
Learn how a fetal echocardiogram diagnoses heart defects in utero.. We will also assist with coordination of care with UMCH ... Learn more about the fetal heart conditions we diagnose that are treated at UM Childrens Hospital after birth. ... Our goal at the Center for Advanced Fetal Care is to assist you on the journey ahead and help educate you to better communicate ... Our specialized program aims to diagnose congenital heart defects as early and as accurately as possible. We strive to create ...
Tag: fetal heart beat at 21 days. Five Facts about Fetal Development. Merriest of Christmases from our Birth Choice family to ... This month we thought it would be fitting to talk about fetal development and some facts that not everyone may know. Sure, we ...
Fetal QRS detection and heart rate estimation: A wavelet-based approach Title. Fetal QRS detection and heart rate estimation: A ...
Introduction to Fetal Dopplers - Fetal Heart Rate Instruments. A fetal Doppler is portable device that utilizes ultrasound ... Fetal Heart Rate Instruments. Factors to Consider When Choosing the Best Fetal Doppler. When choosing the best doppler to hold ... Fetal Heart Rate Instruments. The good news is that advances in technology allow you to do this in the at-home comforts of your ... Fetal Heart Rate Instruments.. Womb Music Heartbeat Baby Monitor: This handheld doppler is a popular choice for parents ...
He inserts a needle into the unborn babys heart, and after several minutes of observation, the woman is released in order ... The procedure, the website says, involves using a "spinal needle" that is injected "into the fetal heart." It "usually takes 2 ... LIFE DIGEST: Controversial doctor injects fetal hearts with poison in partial abortions. ... Ying died after she had a toxic reaction to anesthesia and suffered a heart attack during the early stages of a second- ...
there was a fetal pole, but no heart beat. should i worry about possible miscarriage or could i just be to early for heartbeat ... My HCG levels dropped no fetal heart beat measuring 6 weeks am I miscarrying only Light spotting ?. 1 doctor answer • 1 doctor ... Further to a t/v ultrasound, fetal pole measuring 6w6d, no heart beat. Dr said expect a miscarriage. 6 days since u/s, no ... 6 weeks 3 days hCG 38, 519 and fetal heart rate 124 . Ultrasound said 6w 1d just want to make sure everything sounds good 4 ...
Introduction to Fetal Dopplers - Sonoline B Professional Baby Fetal Doppler Heart Monitor. A fetal doppler can be described as ... Sonoline B Professional Baby Fetal Doppler Heart Monitor. Factors to Consider When Choosing the Best Fetal Doppler. When you ... Top Fetal Dopplers in the Market. There are many top-quality fetal dopplers on the market. Here are a few of the best ones:. ... Benefits of Using Fetal Dopplers. One of the main advantages of an fetal doppler is the ability to hear the heartbeat of your ...
Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2018; 104 F1-F1 Published Online First: 13 Dec 2018. doi: 10.1136 ... Heart rate changes during positive pressure ventilation after asphyxia-induced bradycardia in a porcine model of neonatal ... Heart rate changes during positive pressure ventilation after asphyxia-induced bradycardia in a porcine model of neonatal ... Funding This study was funded by the Women and Childrens Health Research Institute, Edmonton, Alberta; Heart and Stroke ...
Fetal ultrasound is used to check that the heart is working properly and to see if there could be any heart problems. ... The heart. The image below shows all four chambers of the heart, as well as the heart valves. This type of image usually is ... 3D fetal ultrasound. The image below is from a 3D fetal ultrasound. This type of ultrasound can make images that are clearer ... The risks posed by fetal ultrasound are low. But as with all medical procedures, it carries some risk. Fetal ultrasound should ...
Glutathione supplementation decreases mortality and congenital heart disease in an avian model of fetal alcohol spectrum ... Survival, gross body, eye, and heart abnormalities were assessed. Hearts were then optically cleared and imaged with optical ... OCT heart imaging also demonstrates a decrease in heart defects commonly found in FASD. With this data, we suggest that ... Glutathione supplementation decreases mortality and congenital heart disease in an avian model of fetal alcohol spectrum ...
However, advances in ultrasound technology have enabled earlier and more precise diagnosis of human fetal cardiac lesions; this ... technology has also enabled the field of congenital heart disea... ... encoded search term (Fetal Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease) and Fetal Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease What to Read ... Fetal complete heart block. Complete heart block in the fetus can be a life-threatening emergency that may present without ...
Inside the fetal heart. * Blood enters the right atrium. This is the chamber on the upper right side of the heart. When the ... Fetal Circulation. How does the fetal circulatory system work?. During pregnancy, the fetal circulatory system works ... This is the lower chamber of the heart. Blood then passes to the aorta. This is the large artery coming from the heart. ... The fetal circulatory system uses three shunts. These are small passages that direct blood that needs to be oxygenated. The ...
... disband an independent advisory board that reviews applications for federal funding of projects outside the NIH that use fetal ... Christmas and the heart of the cosmos. *. Who are the innocent Palestinians?. ... reverses Trump-era ban on fetal tissue research. By Anugrah Kumar, Christian Post Contributor Saturday, April 17, 2021. ... The Trump administrations policy required all applicants for NIH grants involving fetal tissue from elective abortions to be ...
It is the fetal heart and not the mothers heart that builds up the fetal blood pressure to drive its blood through the fetal ... Remnants of the fetal circulation can be found in the adult. The core concept behind fetal circulation is that fetal hemoglobin ... The fetal heart contains two upper atria and two lower ventricles. It also contains two additional structures, the foramen ... The fetal circulation is composed of the placenta, umbilical blood vessels encapsulated by the umbilical cord, heart and ...
FURLAN, Fabiola Luciana de Paula et al. Depression on pregnant woman with heart disease and its influence on maternal-fetal ... maternal-fetal bond and to verify if the maternal-fetal bond can be a risk factor for depression in pregnant women with heart ... Keywords : Cardiac disease; Depression; Pregnancy; Maternal-fetal bond. · abstract in Portuguese · text in Portuguese · ... Method: We interviewed 20 pregnant women with heart disease, being 10 of clinic and 10 hospitalized in the nursery of the ...
... urgent fetal surgery to save her babys life. The 44-year-old reality TV star - who has three children with her former partner ... Suicide bombing rocks heart of Turkish capital Ankara. A suicide bomber has detonated an explosive device in the heart of the ... As someone who has had three really easy pregnancies in the past, I wasnt prepared for the fear of rushing into urgent fetal ... Kourtney Kardashian had to have urgent fetal surgery to save her babys life.. The 44-year-old reality TV star - who has ...
Learn about the conditions we treat at the New England Fetal Treatment Program, including Craniosynostosis, Omphalocele and ... Fetal Arrhythmia. *Hypoplastic Left and Right Heart Syndrome. Limb. *Amniotic Band Syndrome ... General Research at the Fetal Treatment Center * Ongoing Studies * Fetal Intervention For Severe Congenital Diaphragmatic ...
It is gestational age-independent and fetal heart rate-independent, and it is increased in cases of first-degree heart block. ... fetal cardiac Doppler - fetal TIE index - fetal MPI - fetal echo - fetal PR interval - fetal semilunar valves ... Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of the normal human fetal heart. Br Heart J 1987; 57 (06) 528-533 ... Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of the normal human fetal heart. Br Heart J 1987; 57 (06) 528-533 ...
... legal and practical effects of sequencing fetal genomes from mothers blood, says Henry T. Greely. ... Impact of prenatal screening on congenital heart defects in neonates with Down syndrome in the US *Stephen A. Hart ... both researchers published proof that the fetal genotype could be derived for thousands of sites from cell-free fetal DNA2,3 - ... Cell-Free Fetal Nucleic Acids for Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis (PHG Foundation, 2009). ...
... decelerations of fetal heart rate have been known to be associated with fetal distress. Intermittent observations of fetal ... The first fetal heart rate (FHR) monitors were developed more than 50 years ago, and became widely available by the mid-1970s. ... Events 1 and 4: Fetal heart rate measurement. In these events, the goal is to produce a set of N annotations that can be used ... Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring: retrospective reflections on a twentieth-century technology. J R Soc Med 1998 May; 91(5 ...
  • Fetal complications, on the other hand, could have drastic effects on the viability of the fetus. (
  • Owing to the complications of any intrauterine intervention, investing in innovative fetal treatment can be considered a useful exercise only when it is made feasible in terms of procedural ease and risks. (
  • [ 19 ] However, much effort must be applied to appropriate planning and selection of candidates (maternal and fetal) to minimize the obvious complications and risks associated with in-utero interventions. (
  • Malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal and fetal complications. (
  • The Chicago Institute for Fetal Health , a regional leader in integrated care for pregnant women with fetal complications, now offers an innovative fetoscopic option for spina bifida repair. (
  • We care for pregnancies with complicated maternal medical conditions, fetal anomalies, and other pregnancy-related complications or high-risk situations. (
  • July marks the five-year anniversary for The Chicago Institute for Fetal Health at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, a regional leader in providing integrated care for pregnant patients with fetal complications across the nation. (
  • Pregnancy complications are top-of-mind for many after Kourtney Kardashian revealed she underwent 'urgent fetal surgery' that lead to her husband, Travis Barker , halting his band's tour. (
  • When maternal diabetes develops in the second half of pregnancy, then it is associated with fetal macrosomia, cardiomyopathy, the increasing incidence of perinatal complications and the mortality rate. (
  • In the years since that landmark paper, however-in large part as a consequence of technical and scientific advances in maternal-fetal medicine, surgical technique, and fetal echocardiography-fetal therapy has also grown to include fetal cardiac intervention (FCI). (
  • MFM Sonographer Alison Lee-Tannock, who has worked at Mater for 25 years and has a PhD in fetal and paediatric echocardiography said Mater Mothers' is Australia's leading centre for fetal echocardiography. (
  • Patients are referred for fetal echocardiography for specific reasons. (
  • The essential step in getting a sound pulse wave Doppler waveform in fetal echocardiography is to have the correct magnification, that is, only the fetal thorax should occupy the whole screen. (
  • The suite, located inside Lurie Children's, provides patients with a state-of-the-art, 7,000 square-foot space, equipped with private nesting rooms, integrated fetal ultrasound, echocardiography and MRI, consultation spaces fitted with the latest telemedicine capabilities and direct bridge access to Prentice Women's Hospital. (
  • Fetal congenital heart diseases: Diagnosis by anatomical scans, echocardiography and genetic. (
  • Dr. Heather Sun is director of the Fetal Cardiology Program at Rady Children's Hospital-San Diego and an associate clinical professor at UC San Diego School of Medicine, specializing in echocardiography and fetal cardiology. (
  • Before becoming a fetal cardiology director and associate professor, she completed her pediatric residency training at the Children's Hospital of New York-Presbyterian at Columbia University, followed by a pediatric cardiology fellowship and advanced fellowship training in pediatric and fetal echocardiography at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford University. (
  • Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects: echocardiography. (
  • Echocardiography (ultrasonography of the heart) helps identify almost all heart defects. (
  • Results In a cohort of 385 935 pregnancies, 488 (0.13%) had a diagnosis of heart failure, corresponding to 126 cases per 100 000 pregnancies. (
  • Non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis is already in clinical use for fetal blood-type screening. (
  • As a partnership between UCI Health and CHOC, The Fetal Care Center of Southern California brings together experts in maternal-fetal medicine and pediatrics, so both mom and baby are cared for-no matter the diagnosis. (
  • We provide comprehensive fetal diagnosis, education and treatment plans to families facing congenital conditions. (
  • Also a leader in improving the diagnosis and treatment of complex fetal conditions, the institute continues to focus on multi-site, longitudinal research with the goal of creating future therapies and better outcomes for conditions such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, fetal lung lesions and congenital heart defects. (
  • The Ochsner fetal care team performs various invasive and non-invasive procedures to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment, including amniocentesis, cervical cerclage and ultrasounds. (
  • Her Dr. Sun's research interests include improved prenatal diagnosis and care and management of fetal congenital heart disease. (
  • Prenatal Diagnosis Rate of Critical Congenital Heart Disease Remains Inadequate with Significant Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities and Technical Barriers. (
  • Fetal Diagnosis of Dextroposition, Left Pulmonary Artery Sling, Partial Anomalous Left Pulmonary Artery, and Aortic Coarctation. (
  • Double trouble: fetal diagnosis of a pulmonary artery sling and vascular ring. (
  • The risk of fetal congenital heart defect (CHD) gradually increased with increasing pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), in a study that used 10-year registry data of all live births, stillbirths, abortions, and terminated pregnancies in Denmark. (
  • Your healthcare provider may do fetal heart monitoring during late pregnancy and labor. (
  • Fetal heart rate monitoring is especially helpful if you have a high-risk pregnancy. (
  • These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive pregnancy even when there are complex heart problems and not be affected until after birth, when these pathways begin to close. (
  • So, things like CT scans that use radiation we can't use, MRI which is safe to use in pregnancy and has been used for things like say the brain for example, is very limited when it comes to the heart because it's very small and it moves very quickly. (
  • Some heart defects are not evident until the baby is born, but others may be detected during pregnancy with an ultrasound. (
  • Heart rates are as individual as the baby and the circumstances of each mother's pregnancy. (
  • Conclusion Heart failure during pregnancy is associated with unfavourable fetal outcomes including prematurity and low birth weight. (
  • During the pregnancy, the heart of the fetus will develop to the point where it starts beating on its own. (
  • Fetal heart monitoring may also be conducted during the middle or middle end of the pregnancy period. (
  • Ms Colburn, who has an older son Parker, 3, said a 20-week pregnancy scan at MFM identified Matilda had a congenital heart defect (CHD) called Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) - a serious heart problem in which the two main arteries leaving the heart are reversed. (
  • Fetal dopplers are useful to monitor the baby's heartbeat during pregnancy with high risk or when the baby isn't moving as frequently as they normally do. (
  • Technical problems have hampered attempts to isolate individual fetal cells and, even when such cells could be found, there was no guarantee that they were from the present pregnancy. (
  • Fetal ultrasound is a test used during pregnancy. (
  • As early as 12 weeks of pregnancy, we're able to screen for and diagnose a wide range of structural, functional and rhythm-related heart disorders. (
  • During your routine anomaly scan between 18 weeks and 21 weeks of pregnancy, your sonographer should take a good look at your baby's heart. (
  • Determining fetal hypoxia starting from the fifth month of pregnancy will not be difficult. (
  • If no measures to normalize the oxygen supply to the fetus have given the desired effect or the symptoms of fetal hypoxia persist for more than twenty-eight weeks of pregnancy, it is best to have a cesarean section immediately. (
  • High blood sugar is linked to congenital heart defects during pregnancy. (
  • During pregnancy and during the first trimester, maternal diabetes is associated with diabetic embryopathy in the fetus, which affects the heart, neural tube, and the great vessel. (
  • [ 1 ] Although initial research showed promise, the fetoplacental response to bypass was characterized by cytokine activation, endothelial dysfunction, and increased resistance in the placenta, with fetal hypoxia and demise as end results. (
  • Waste products from the fetal blood are transferred back across the placenta to the mother's blood. (
  • The fetal circulation is composed of the placenta, umbilical blood vessels encapsulated by the umbilical cord, heart and systemic blood vessels. (
  • A major difference between the fetal circulation and postnatal circulation is that the lungs are not used during the fetal stage resulting in the presence of shunts to move oxygenated blood and nutrients from the placenta to the fetal tissue. (
  • The placenta functions as the exchange site of nutrients and wastes between the maternal and fetal circulation. (
  • Fetal hemoglobin enhances the fetus' ability to draw oxygen from the placenta. (
  • This enables fetal hemoglobin to absorb oxygen from adult hemoglobin in the placenta, where the oxygen pressure is lower than at the lungs. (
  • In the fetal stage, the lungs fill with fluid and collapse because the fetus is within the amniotic sac and the placenta is providing the oxygen it needs to grow. (
  • Each year, less than 2% of pregnant women in the United States undergo amniocentesis (in which a small amount of amniotic fluid containing fetal cells is taken for analysis) or chorionic villus sampling (CVS - in which fetal tissue is extracted from the placenta). (
  • Biologists have known for decades that some fetal cells pass through the placenta and into the mother's blood stream. (
  • This test shows the movement of blood through the umbilical cord, in the baby's heart, or between the baby and the placenta. (
  • In this case, treatment is primarily aimed at normalizing the flow of blood to the uterus and placenta, but in case of acute fetal hypoxia, it is recommended to induce labor by artificial means, rather than using any treatment methods. (
  • [ 10 ] The concept of performing balloon valvuloplasty in fetuses with stenotic heart valves followed the successful introduction of neonatal balloon valvuloplasty in the 1980s, with the first reported case performed in a fetus with aortic stenosis (AS) in 1991. (
  • Same fetus as in previous video, now at 34 weeks' gestation, with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome due to aortic stenosis present earlier in gestation. (
  • Fetal heart rate monitoring measures the heart rate and rhythm of your baby (fetus). (
  • Blood flow through the fetus is actually more complicated than after the baby is born ( normal heart ). (
  • The oxygen-rich blood that enters the fetus passes through the fetal liver and enters the right side of the heart. (
  • Most of the blood that leaves the right ventricle in the fetus bypasses the lungs through the second of the two extra fetal connections, known as the ductus arteriosus. (
  • Since the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus are normal findings in the fetus, it is impossible to predict whether these connections will close normally after birth in a normal fetal heart. (
  • As a result, the fetus develops a congenital (present at birth) heart defect. (
  • Fetal heart monitoring is a procedure to monitor the heart rate of the fetus. (
  • This should stimulate the fetus and cause the heart rate to change. (
  • [ 14 ] They also suggest that successful fetal procedures lead to improvement in functional chamber development and myocardial function while the fetus is still in utero. (
  • A heart rate of less than 120 indicates fetal hypoxia, a dangerous pathological process characterized by a decreased supply of oxygen to the fetus. (
  • For example, a large lung malformation may compress the fetus' heart. (
  • Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and non-genetic, or "environmental factors working on the fetus. (
  • This approach requires an entirely different technical proficiency and instrumentation from open repair and is part of the commitment by the institute to pursue substantive advancements in fetal medicine," said Director of The Chicago Institute for Fetal Health, Aimen Shaaban, MD , who is an expert in fetal intervention surgery. (
  • For more information about The Chicago Institute for Fetal Health, please visit . (
  • Additionally, in December the team marked the important milestone of completing 100 fetal surgeries, underscoring the Chicago Institute's reputation as regional leader and pioneer in interventional fetal medicine. (
  • Many of these operations are new and on the leading edge, underscoring the Institute's mission to be a pioneer in interventional fetal medicine. (
  • Experimental animal models of open fetal cardiac surgery began in the 1980s, with the aim of describing the physiologic and pathologic impacts of extracorporeal circulatory bypass. (
  • The earliest reported human fetal cardiac therapy of any kind took place in 1975 and involved maternal-fetal transplacental administration of a beta blocker in the setting of fetal ventricular tachyarrhythmia. (
  • [ 9 ] The first open in-utero cardiac procedure was reported a decade later, in 1986, with a pacemaker placement for complete heart block. (
  • this technology has also enabled the field of congenital heart disease to gain greater understanding of the unique fetal hemodynamics and the mechanisms involved in the evolution of cardiac disease in utero. (
  • Intervention for cardiac defects fits into existing fetal care structures and is an extension of services and clinical research protocols related to fetal treatment. (
  • Experimental studies on open fetal cardiac surgery began in the 1980s in animal models to study the physiologic and pathologicl mechanisms of extracorporeal circulatory bypass. (
  • In this article, we discuss the technique for doing pulsed wave Doppler for fetal cardiac valves. (
  • Foetal heart rate deceleration with combined spinal-epidural analgesia during labour: a maternal haemodynamic cardiac study. (
  • stroke volume (SV), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO) and total vascular resistances (TVR) inputting systolic and diastolic blood pressure before combined epidural analgesia and after 5', 10', 15' and 20 min. (
  • Here, we investigate the dynamics of the cardiac myocyte epigenome during development and in chronic heart failure. (
  • However, the detailed epigenetic processes involved in maturation from fetal to adult CMs and in cardiac disease leading to terminal heart failure have not been fully uncovered, yet. (
  • Minute Stroke Distance Is a More Reproducible Measurement Than Cardiac Output in the Assessment of Fetal Ventricular Systolic Function. (
  • They determined the relative risk (RR) of having offspring with any CHD, or one of 17 types of severe CHD, or one of the five most common types of severe CHD (univentricular heart, transposition of the great arteries , atrioventricular septum defect, coarctation of the aorta , and Tetralogy of Fallot). (
  • A fetal echo may be performed by the maternal fetal medicine specialist or a pediatric cardiologist. (
  • Your Mercy care team may include maternal and fetal medicine specialists, pediatric cardiologists working in collaboration with pediatric cardiovascular surgeons (when necessary), Fetal Care Team coordinator, neonatologists, nurses, genetics counselors and other professionals, all dedicated to your baby's heart care. (
  • Your pediatric cardiologist will explain how the defect affects your baby's heart and what to expect from treatment. (
  • We're ranked #1 in pediatric cancer, heart surgery, cardiology & more. (
  • Depending on what your testing results show, we may manage your care or coordinate next steps with other fetal and pediatric heart specialists at UCSF. (
  • This program is a partnership between UCSF's Pediatric Heart Center and Fetal Treatment Center . (
  • There are only about 20 hospitals in North America that offer fetal surgery , and the procedure is done by highly trained pediatric surgeons, fetal cardiologists and other specialists. (
  • At Ochsner, specially-trained maternal-fetal medicine specialists - called perinatologists - have partnered with neonatology and pediatric surgery to make up one of the only 24/7 fetal therapy teams in the Gulf South. (
  • Outside of helping provide care for patient as a fetal cardiology director, Dr. Sun enjoys mentoring and teaching medical students, residents, fellows and sonographers as a associate professor and educator in fetal and pediatric cardiology. (
  • The institute's physical presence in 2020 also grew, more than tripling its space in the Regenstein Fetal Health Suite on the fifth floor of Lurie Children's main hospital, allowing much of the testing and care families may need in one location. (
  • The Regenstein Fetal Health Suite opened in 2020, centralizing multidisciplinary consults and diagnostics. (
  • When a woman becomes pregnant, her baby's heart is one of the first organs to form. (
  • Objectives The goal of this study is to report the prevalence, aetiology and clinical outcome of pregnant women with heart failure. (
  • While the overall mortality rate was low, pregnant women with heart failure carried an excess risk of death compared with controls. (
  • During a fetal ultrasound, a device called a transducer is placed on the pregnant person's belly. (
  • Objective: To evaluate the presence or not of depression, the existent of maternal-fetal bond and to verify if the maternal-fetal bond can be a risk factor for depression in pregnant women with heart disease. (
  • Method: We interviewed 20 pregnant women with heart disease, being 10 of clinic and 10 hospitalized in the nursery of the Obstetric Clinic Division - HCFMUSP, through the application of semi-driven interview and Prime-MD. Results: 75% of the patients interviewed reported positive aspects in relation to the feelings associated to the moment that the baby moves, what probably demonstrates a good mother-baby bond. (
  • Conclusion: Depression was not diagnosed among the pregnant woman with heart disease, what possibly links to a good mother-baby bond's development. (
  • Last month, two research groups independently published proof that the fetal genotype - the genetic status at a given locus - can be derived for thousands of sites from samples of fetal DNA with just a 10-millilitre blood draw from a pregnant woman 2 , 3 . (
  • Analysing the free-floating fragments of fetal DNA that exist in a pregnant woman's blood serum is proving more successful. (
  • At the first manifestations of symptoms of fetal heart rate deceleration, a pregnant woman is immediately hospitalized. (
  • A total of 436 pregnant jeopardize maternal and fetal well-being women were recruited for the study who and in which there are no contraindications had a clinically unfavourable cervix and in- to the use of labour induction methods. (
  • Very rarely, a fetal heart defect will need to be surgically repaired via intrauterine surgery before the baby is born. (
  • We are experts in specialized procedures such as fetal blood sampling, intrauterine transfusion, and in-utero shunt placement to treat certain fetal conditions. (
  • Fetal dopplers are safe for utilize and do not emit harmful radiation. (
  • Fetal dopplers are safe to use and don't emit harmful radiation, making them a popular choice among expecting parents. (
  • Since performing the first successful open fetal surgery in 1981, UCSF has remained a world leader in diagnosing and treating birth defects before delivery. (
  • It has named open fetal surgery to repair spina bifida as one of the common fetal therapies it offers. (
  • [ 1 ] Although initial research showed promise of reproducibility in technique, the fetoplacental response to bypass, characterized by an end result of fetal hypoxia and demise, deterred complete success. (
  • Kourtney Kardashian had to have 'urgent fetal surgery' to save her baby's life. (
  • As someone who has had three really easy pregnancies in the past, I wasn't prepared for the fear of rushing into urgent fetal surgery. (
  • It's often used during prenatal visits to count the baby's heart rate. (
  • Should a prenatal ultrasound indicate your baby may have a heart defect, or if you have risk factors, your obstetrician will most likely order a test called a fetal echocardiogram to examine your baby's heart before birth. (
  • Fetal ultrasound should only be done for medical reasons as part of prenatal care, based on the advice of a doctor or other licensed health care professional. (
  • Fetal ultrasound is a routine part of prenatal care in the U.S. This is because it's a low risk procedure that gives important information. (
  • Based on this method 13 , 14 , we used a nuclear staining strategy to isolate CM nuclei from intact prenatal and postnatal human heart tissue and subjected these nuclei to comprehensive analysis of the epigenome during prenatal development, postnatal maturation, and in heart failure. (
  • Here we describe the human CM epigenome during prenatal development and postnatal maturation of the heart from infant to adult age and in terminal failure. (
  • Hundreds of unborn babies with life-threatening heart conditions like Matilda Guy are being given a chance of survival thanks to a specialist cardiology team at the Mater Centre for Maternal Fetal Medicine (MFM) in South Brisbane. (
  • Royal Brompton has a foetal cardiology centre, which is known worldwide. (
  • Cite this: High Maternal BMI Ups Risk of Fetal Congenital Heart Defects - Medscape - Jul 11, 2023. (
  • Our sonographers receive extensive training and our specialists have skilled expertise in reading fetal echocardiograms. (
  • Mount Sinai's Maternal Fetal Medicine team includes specialists who are experts in caring for women with high-risk pregnancies. (
  • Our maternal fetal medicine specialists are uniquely trained in fetal diagnostic procedures, including state-of-the-art 3D and 4D ultrasounds, chorionic villus sampling, and amniocentesis. (
  • Over the past five years, our fetal specialists have provided more than 11,000 consults with patient families and have seen patients from 33 states and 4 countries. (
  • As the culmination of fetal care and translational research in the region, the institute also fosters training of future fetal surgeons, maternal fetal medicine physicians, neonatologists, and medical imaging specialists. (
  • If we look at the heart - so if we suspect that there may be a problem with the heart then that patient will get referred on from the screening ultrasound to see a specialist so like a Foetal Cardiologist. (
  • I had been working as a foetal cardiologist in Brazil, but an opportunity arose to join the clinical group in 2020 as a research sonographer and I took it as I wanted to dedicate some time to research and studying. (
  • A fetal medicine specialist, fetal cardiologist or specially trained sonographer will perform the scan and discuss the findings with you immediately. (
  • The baby's mother, father or sibling has a congenital heart defect. (
  • Matilda, who was born at Mater Mothers' Hospital in January, was just 10 days old when she underwent open heart surgery - after a fetal heart ultrasound had identified she had a congenital heart defect that would have been fatal if left untreated. (
  • This is, after all, where the normal fetal heart rate commonly lies. (
  • There are certain fetal heart monitoring principles and practices that need to be followed and paid careful attention to. (
  • [ 15 , 16 ] as well as provided evidence that fetal valvuloplasty in conditions of atretic or stenotic valves of the aorta and pulmonary artery can facilitate the chance of biventricular circulation after birth, whereas septoplasty for intact or severely restrictive interatrial septum may improve postnatal stability and chances of survival after initial palliative surgery. (
  • The closure of the ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, and foramen ovale completes the change of fetal circulation to newborn circulation. (
  • At birth, the start of breathing and the severance of the umbilical cord prompt various changes that quickly transform fetal circulation into postnatal circulation. (
  • The function of these shunts is to bypass the lungs and maintain proper circulation to important fetal tissue. (
  • This blood consists of oxygenated placental blood and deoxygenated blood returning from the fetal circulation. (
  • This major trigger will facilitate the transformation from fetal to postnatal circulation in many ways. (
  • Whereas genetic contributors have become increasingly defined, as was recently summarized in an American Heart Association Scientific Statement published in "Circulation", which was co-authored by Vidu Garg, MD, the director of the center at nationwide children's hospital for cardiovascular research in the research institute. (
  • We offer fetal interventions such as amniocentesis, shunts, transfusions and other procedures. (
  • This is a summary of a preprint research study , "Maternal obesity, interpregnancy weight changes and congenital heart defects in the offspring: A nationwide cohort study," by researchers from Copenhagen, Denmark, published on medRxiv and provided to you by Medscape. (
  • In 1982, Harrison et al published a letter in the New England Journal of Medicine asserting that there were certain "simple [fetal] structural defects. (
  • FCI, the focus of this article, is a term referring to catheter-based procedures for a narrow subset of congenital heart defects. (
  • Congenital heart defects are the most common type of birth defect. (
  • The mother has taken medications known to cause congenital heart defects. (
  • There are many types of congenital heart defects. (
  • In some cases, babies with congenital heart defects may need surgery or other treatment at the time of birth or within a few days or weeks. (
  • Our specialized program aims to diagnose congenital heart defects as early and as accurately as possible. (
  • Learn how a fetal echocardiogram diagnoses heart defects in utero. (
  • Furthermore, roughly 40% of individuals with FASD have congenital heart defects (CHDs). (
  • Our preliminary data shows an optimal dose of 1µM glutathione increased survival from 46% to 84% and decreased gross body or heart defects among survivors from 50% to 14% compared to ethanol injected controls. (
  • OCT heart imaging also demonstrates a decrease in heart defects commonly found in FASD. (
  • Conotruncal heart defects examined in the Endicott area. (
  • We're also part of the Neonatal Cardiovascular Center of Excellence , which treats premature and seriously ill infants with heart birth defects. (
  • This type of scan looks for heart defects. (
  • The institute continues to expand, pioneering research to further enhance therapies and treatments for conditions such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, fetal lung lesions and congenital heart defects. (
  • The underlying molecular mechanism, by which changes in the level of maternal glucose causes congenital heart defects, is actively under investigation in our laboratory and others. (
  • The most common serious congenital disorders are congenital heart defects, neural tube defects and Down syndrome. (
  • Defects may involve abnormal formation of the heart's walls or valves or of the blood vessels that enter or leave the heart. (
  • Symptoms of heart birth defects vary with age. (
  • Treatment includes open-heart surgery for severe defects, use of a catheter with a balloon at its tip to open or widen valves or blood vessels, use of a device placed by catheter to close certain holes or extra blood vessels, or medications. (
  • Atrial and Ventricular Septal Defects Atrial and ventricular septal defects are holes in the walls (septa) that separate the heart into the left and right sides. (
  • The authors conclude that workers who were involved in manufacturing oryzalin sired offspring having an unusual cluster of birth defects, especially those of the heart. (
  • Dr. Aimen Shaaban , fetal surgeon and director of the Institute, said he regularly receives positive updates from families who have undergone a fetal intervention procedure and have made excellent progress. (
  • But there are some limits, and even when you have those very expert operators, when you're in that very specialist environment of foetal cardiologists, there are some things that we can't necessarily see as clearly as we'd like. (
  • Continuous FHR monitoring was expected to result in dramatic reduction of undiagnosed fetal hypoxia, but disillusionment rapidly set in as studies showed that the outputs of FHR monitors were often unreliable and difficult to interpret, resulting in increased rates of Caesarean deliveries of healthy infants, with little evidence that reductions in adverse outcomes were attributable to the use of FHR monitors. (
  • Since its opening, the Chicago Institute has become the top fetal center in Illinois with the most patients and the best outcomes. (
  • Fetal pulmonary valvuloplasty (FPV) would not meaningfully change the clinical course for either of these two groups. (
  • Given the now substantial body of knowledge regarding the fetal physiology and natural history of these lesions in utero and the success of balloon aortic and pulmonary valvuloplasty in preventing or reversing newly onset ventricular dysfunction postnatally in infants, there is a theoretical rationale for intervention to relieve valvar stenosis or to enlarge a restrictive atrial septal opening in fetal life. (
  • With the lung collapsed, pulmonary vascular resistance remains high during the fetal stage to prevent blood flow into the lungs. (
  • Fetal MRI correlates with postnatal CT angiogram assessment of pulmonary anatomy in tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve. (
  • In children and adults, all blood returning to the heart from the body (blue blood from the veins, which is low in oxygen) goes through the right atrium and then through the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery, and from there it enters the lungs. (
  • When oxygenated blood enters the IVC, it moves in parallel with deoxygenated blood from the fetal systemic veins, establishing a bilaminar blood flow as it enters the right atrium. (
  • In a sheep preparation the blood flow to fetal organs was studied 3 to 10 days after surgery by means of the microsphere technique over a range of fetal arterial O2 content from 6 to 1 mM. (
  • Click here to read some updates about families who have experienced a fetal surgery. (
  • The institute offers one of the few fetal surgery fellowships in the United States. (
  • Kourtney Kardashian, 44, revealed she udnerwent fetal surgery to save her baby's life. (
  • Here's everything you need to know about fetal surgery after Kourtney Kardashian revealed undergoing the procedure to save her baby's life. (
  • Read on for everything you need to know about fetal surgery. (
  • What is fetal surgery? (
  • Fetal surgery is a surgical treatment performed on a baby while it's still in the womb. (
  • In Canada, one centre that handles procedures like fetal surgery is the Ontario Fetal Centre in partnership with Sinai Health and Toronto SickKids hospital. (
  • What does fetal surgery look like? (
  • A new NCHS report presents 2013 fetal and perinatal mortality data by maternal age, marital status, race, Hispanic origin, and state of residence, as well as by fetal birthweight, gestational age, plurality, and sex. (
  • Trends in fetal and perinatal mortality are also examined. (
  • We suspect that this gene-environmental interaction is related to the deformation of specific epigenetic processes in the fetal heart. (
  • The good news is that advances in technology allow you to do this in the at-home comforts of your home using a fetal doppler. (
  • A fetal Doppler is portable device that utilizes ultrasound technology to detect the baby's heartbeat. (
  • One of the main advantages of using a fetal doppler is that it gives you the capability to monitor the heartbeat of your baby at any time, giving you peace of mind knowing that your baby is in good health and doing well. (
  • When choosing the best doppler to hold your baby's fetal there are many things to think about. (
  • Sonoline B Fetal Doppler The device on the hand is inexpensive, simple to use and gives accurate results. (
  • Philips Avalon FM50 Fetal Monitor A console doppler can be described as a more sophisticated device that is commonly employed for medical purposes. (
  • The good news is that advances in technology have made it possible for you to listen in the comfort of your own home using a fetal doppler. (
  • A fetal doppler can be described as a handheld device that uses ultrasound technology to identify your baby's heartbeat. (
  • One of the main advantages of an fetal doppler is the ability to hear the heartbeat of your baby anytime, allowing you peace of mind that your baby is in good health and doing well. (
  • When you are deciding on the ideal doppler to hold your baby's fetal, there are several things to think about. (
  • Sonoline B Fetal Doppler: This handheld device is affordable, easy to use and gives accurate results. (
  • Researchers performed a cohort study of all singleton pregnancies in Denmark with estimated due dates between June 1, 2008, and June 1, 2018, using data from the Danish Fetal Medicine database. (
  • Fetal dopplers are also helpful in monitoring your baby's heartbeat during high-risk pregnancies or if the baby is not moving as frequently as they normally do. (
  • The website describes a procedure for late second-term and third-term pregnancies that involves the injection of poison or air into a baby's heart to kill him or her. (
  • Medical statistics show that in 10-15% of all pregnancies, fetal heart rate deceleration is observed. (
  • Fetal mortality rates were highest for teenagers, women aged 35 and over, unmarried women, and women with multiple pregnancies. (
  • Since the late 19th century, decelerations of fetal heart rate have been known to be associated with fetal distress. (
  • To understand the mechanisms those are involved in the appearance of foetal heart rate decelerations (FHR) after the combined epidural analgesia in labour. (
  • Correlation between the appearance of foetal heart rate decelerations and the modification of maternal haemodynamic parameters . (
  • In early and late decelerations, the slope of fetal heart rate change is gradual, resulting in a curvilinear and uniform or symmetrical waveform. (
  • With variable decelerations, the slope of fetal heart rate change is abrupt and erratic, giving the waveform a jagged appearance. (
  • Such decelerations are common during active labor and not associated with tachycardia, loss of variability, or other fetal heart rate changes. (
  • Importantly, early decelerations are not associated with fetal hypoxia, acidemia, or low Apgar scores. (
  • Unusual consequence of a fetal atrial septal aneurysm. (
  • But often, the umbilical cord can be heard pulsating rather than the actual heart beating. (
  • Several new items were added that improve the data file's value for monitoring and research of factors affecting fetal mortality. (
  • The U.S. fetal mortality rate was 5.96 fetal deaths at 20 weeks of gestation or more per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths, not significantly different from the rate of 6.05 in 2012. (
  • The lack of decline in fetal mortality in recent years, coupled with declines in infant mortality, meant that more fetal deaths than infant deaths occurred in the United States for 2011-2013 (although the rates were essentially the same). (
  • In 2013, the fetal mortality rate for non-Hispanic black women (10.53) was more than twice the rate for non-Hispanic white (4.88) and Asian or Pacific Islander (4.68) women. (
  • In Canada, the first in-utero spina bifida operation was completed in 2017 at the Ontario Fetal Centre. (
  • In 2020, the Institute became the first fetal center in Illinois to perform and offer an innovative fetoscopic, or minimally invasive, option for spina bifida repair in utero, a procedure that significantly improves recovery and outcome for the mother and the baby. (
  • A fetal echocardiogram (echo) is a detailed ultrasound exam that takes images of the baby's heart. (
  • They are also referred for fetal echo if another anomaly is diagnosed which has associations with CHDs, including a diaphragmatic hernia and chromosome anomaly. (
  • What is a fetal echo? (
  • A fetal echo is a specialist, detailed scan of your baby's heart. (
  • If she spots something she thinks needs a closer look, she will refer you for a fetal echo scan. (
  • It's natural to feel alarmed if you're referred for a fetal echo. (
  • If you need a fetal echo, your doctor will refer you to either your local fetal medicine unit, or a specialist hospital. (
  • The fetal echo looks at how the blood is flowing through your baby's arteries and veins. (
  • Rest assured that even if the scan does pick up a small heart problem, very often this won't affect your baby's health in the long term. (
  • However, reshaping of the epigenome of these terminally differentiated cells during fetal development, postnatal maturation, and in disease remains unknown. (
  • The team performs 300 fetal echocardiograms each year. (
  • Furthermore, local oversight should dictate whether, on procedure-based grounds, the proposed fetal intervention constitutes human subjects research, innovative therapy, or clinical care,as well as ensure that the appropriate counseling and consent procedures are followed. (
  • The procedure, the website says, involves using a "spinal needle" that is injected "into the fetal heart. (
  • There is no existing evidence which supports a correlation between an unborn baby's heart rate and its gender. (
  • Our Fetal Cardiovascular Program evaluates the health of unborn babies' hearts, and when we find a problem, our experts determine the best treatment approach. (
  • The Cleveland Clinic claimed fetal surgeons can do minimally invasive procedures as early as 16 weeks of the baby's development. (
  • What was found instead was that there is a change in baby heart rate according to their gestational age. (
  • During labor, your healthcare provider will watch your uterine contractions and your baby's heart rate. (
  • This measures fetal heart rate along with uterine contractions. (
  • The periodic fetal heart rate refers to deviations from baseline that are temporally related to uterine contractions. (
  • Late Deceleration � The fetal heart rate response to uterine contractions can be an index of either uterine perfusion or placental function. (
  • The National Institutes of Health on Friday decided to disband an independent advisory board that reviews applications for federal funding of projects outside the NIH that use fetal tissue from aborted babies in their research. (
  • The Trump administration's policy required all applicants for NIH grants involving fetal tissue from elective abortions to be reviewed by an ethics board, but a notice released by the NIH Friday states that "HHS/NIH will not convene another NIH Human Fetal Tissue Research Ethics Advisory Board. (
  • It says, "HHS is reversing its 2019 decision that all research applications for NIH grants and contracts proposing the use of human fetal tissue from elective abortions will be reviewed by an Ethics Advisory Board. (
  • The notice adds, "NIH reminds the community of expectations to obtain informed consent from the donor for any NIH-funded research using human fetal tissue … and of continued obligations to conduct such research only in accord with any applicable federal, state, or local laws and regulations, including prohibitions on the payment of valuable consideration for such tissue. (
  • During a House Appropriations subcommittee hearing on Thursday, HHS Secretary Xavier Becerra had indicated that the NIH's fetal tissue policy could change, The Hill reported . (
  • We applaud the Biden administration and Secretary Xavier Becerra for prioritizing science and reversing the Trump administration's arbitrary barriers to both extramural and intramural researchers on the use of fetal tissue in scientific research," Reps. Suzan DelBene, D-Wash., Mark Pocan, D-Wis. (
  • and Jan Schakowsky, D-Ill., leaders of a group of 26 Democratic House members calling for the lifting of the restriction on research involving fetal tissue from elective abortions, said. (
  • Owing to technical restrictions, these studies were performed in heart tissue and therefore the affected cell type(s) could not be identified. (
  • In contrast to previous findings in heart tissue, expression of the pathological gene program in heart failure was not accompanied by changes in the CM DNA methylome but by active histone marks. (
  • The average fetal heart rate is between 110 and 160 beats per minute. (
  • This theory states that if the fetal heart rate is above 140 beats per minute (BPM), then the baby is more likely to be a girl. (
  • Normally, the fetal heart rate is 120-160 beats per minute. (
  • The fetal heart rate may change as your baby responds to conditions in your uterus. (
  • An abnormal fetal heart rate may mean that your baby is not getting enough oxygen or that there are other problems. (
  • It may also be used to check the fetal heart rate during labor. (
  • The healthcare provider may also check your baby's heart rate continuously during labor and birth. (
  • The rate and pattern of your baby's heart rate are shown on a screen and printed on paper. (
  • Because the fetal heart rate and contractions are recorded at the same time, these results can be looked at together and compared. (
  • Fetal heart rate monitoring may be used to check how preterm labor medicines are affecting your baby. (
  • This measures the fetal heart rate as your baby moves. (
  • Your healthcare provider may have other reasons to use fetal heart rate monitoring. (
  • You should not have internal fetal heart rate monitoring if you are HIV positive. (
  • Certain things may make the results of fetal heart rate monitoring less accurate. (
  • One old wives tale is based around using the baby's heart rate as a predictor for what gender they will be. (
  • If the heart rate is below 140 BPM then the chances are that the baby will be a boy. (
  • The issue is, of course, what if the baby's heart rate varies between 120-160 BPM? (
  • Each time you go to your maternity care provider for an ante-natal check, they will listen to your baby's heart rate. (
  • But does the heart rate test work? (
  • What does heart rate measure? (
  • And interestingly, this is what happened when they were looking for a correlation between fetal heart rate and gender. (
  • As the baby matures, the heart rate adjusts to its size. (
  • Likewise, the more active the baby, the higher their heart rate will be. (
  • Just like us, during periods of inactivity and sleep, their heart rate tends to slow down. (
  • It makes perfect sense that on any given day a baby's heart rate will rise and fall according to what it is up to. (
  • So be open-minded about using your baby's heart rate as a means of predicting its gender. (
  • Neonatal death rate was higher in the heart failure group (1.0% vs 0.4%, p=0.03). (
  • The mother may have to have her right hip raised to provide a clearer reading of the fetal heart rate. (
  • This device is used to monitor the fetal heart as well as the rate of contraction of the mother's uterus. (
  • Background The Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) states that if adequate positive pressure ventilation (PPV) was given for a low heart rate (HR), the infant's HR should increase within the first 15 s of PPV. (
  • This year's challenge invites participants to develop software capable of detecting fetal QRS complexes in multichannel noninvasive ECG recordings, making accurate estimates of fetal heart rate, RR intervals, and QT intervals. (
  • The first fetal heart rate (FHR) monitors were developed more than 50 years ago, and became widely available by the mid-1970s. (
  • Acceleration refers to an increase in fetal heart rate above baseline and deceleration to a decrease below the baseline rate. (
  • These Accelerations are visually apparent abrupt increases- defined as onset of acceleration to a peak in less than 30 seconds-in the fetal heart rate baseline. (
  • Such early deceleration was first described by Hon (1958), who observed that there was a heart rate drop with contractions and that this was related to cervical dilatation. (
  • Head compression probably causes vagal nerve activation as a result of dural stimulation, and this mediates the heart rate deceleration (Paul, 1964). (
  • A late deceleration is a smooth, gradual, symmetrical decrease in fetal heart rate beginning at or after the contraction peak and returning to baseline only after the contraction has ended. (
  • Fetal therapy is a broad term that encompasses a range of transplacental medications, catheter-based interventions, fetoscopic procedures, minimally invasive fetoscopic surgical procedures, open fetal surgical procedures, and ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedures. (
  • Blood flow to the fetal lungs decreased progressively with hypoxia. (
  • They help with energy production and play important roles in the heart, lungs, blood vessels, and immune system. (
  • How can scientists image the hearts of babies still in the womb? (
  • Acute and chronic fetal hypoxia can lead to fetal death in the womb or death of the baby during the first week of life. (
  • If the echocardiogram confirms that your baby has a heart defect, our multi-disciplinary team will recommend the best treatment options to you and your family. (
  • We were in absolute shock when we found out Matilda could die if her heart defect was left untreated. (
  • You were born with a heart defect, or have already had a baby with a heart defect. (
  • You have diabetes , as this means you are slightly more likely to have a baby with a heart defect. (
  • Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a well-known and very common birth defect. (
  • About one in 100 babies is born with a heart defect. (