Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Cardiotocography: Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Echocardiography, Four-Dimensional: Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography using the added dimension of time to impart the cinematic perception of motion. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Canrenoic Acid: A synthetic pregnadiene derivative with anti-aldosterone activity.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Magnetocardiography: The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Abortion, Threatened: UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Heart Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the heart.Tocolytic Agents: Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Nuchal Translucency Measurement: A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.Hydrops Fetalis: Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.

Graphic monitoring of labour. (1/866)

The parturograph is a composite record designed for the monitoring of fetal and maternal well-being and the progress of labour. It permits the early recognition of abnormalities and pinpoints the patients who would benefit most from intervention. Observations are made from the time of admission of the mother to the caseroom and recorded graphically. Factors assessed include fetal heart rate, maternal vital signs and urine, cervical dilatation, descent of the presenting fetal part, and frequency, duration and intensity of uterine contractions.  (+info)

Restriction of placental and fetal growth in sheep alters fetal blood pressure responses to angiotensin II and captopril. (2/866)

1. We have measured arterial blood pressure between 115 and 145 days gestation in normally grown fetal sheep (control group; n = 16) and in fetal sheep in which growth was restricted by experimental restriction of placental growth and development (PR group; n = 13). There was no significant difference in the mean gestational arterial blood pressure between the PR (42.7 +/- 2.6 mmHg) and control groups (37.7 +/- 2.3 mmHg). Mean arterial blood pressure and arterial PO2 were significantly correlated in control animals (r = 0.53, P < 0.05, n = 16), but not in the PR group. 2. There were no changes in mean arterial blood pressure in either the PR or control groups in response to captopril (7.5 microg captopril min-1; PR group n = 7, control group n = 6) between 115 and 125 days gestation. After 135 days gestation, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the fetal arterial blood pressure in the PR group but not in the control group during the captopril infusion (15 microg captopril min-1; PR group n = 7, control group n = 6). 3. There was a significant effect (F = 14.75; P < 0.001) of increasing doses of angiotensin II on fetal diastolic blood pressure in the PR and control groups. The effects of angiotensin II were different (F = 8.67; P < 0.05) in the PR and control groups at both gestational age ranges. 4. These data indicate that arterial blood pressure may be maintained by different mechanisms in growth restricted fetuses and normally grown counterparts and suggests a role for the fetal renin-angiotensin system in the maintenance of blood pressure in growth restricted fetuses.  (+info)

Heart specific expression of mouse BMP-10 a novel member of the TGF-beta superfamily. (3/866)

Here we report the cloning and expression of murine BMP-10, a novel member of the TGF-beta superfamily. In the mouse embryo, BMP-10 expression begins at 9.0 d.p.c. and is restricted to the developing heart. Initially, BMP-10 expression localizes to the trabeculated part of the common ventricular chamber and to the bulbus cordis region. After 12.5 d.p.c., additional BMP-10 expression is seen in the atrial wall. The data presented here suggest that BMP-10 plays an important role in trabeculation of the embryonic heart.  (+info)

YAC complementation shows a requirement for Wt1 in the development of epicardium, adrenal gland and throughout nephrogenesis. (4/866)

The Wilms' Tumour gene WT1 has important functions during development. Knock-out mice were shown to have defects in the urogenital system and to die at embryonic day E13.5, probably due to heart failure. Using a lacZ reporter gene inserted into a YAC construct, we demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the early proepicardium, the epicardium and the subepicardial mesenchymal cells (SEMC). Lack of WT1 leads to severe defects in the epicardial layer and a concomitant absence of SEMCs, which explains the pericardial bleeding and subsequent embryonic death observed in Wt1 null embryos. We further show that a human-derived WT1 YAC construct is able to completely rescue heart defects, but only partially rescues defects in the urogenital system. Analysis of the observed hypoplastic kidneys demonstrate a continuous requirement for WT1 during nephrogenesis, in particular, in the formation of mature glomeruli. Finally, we show that the development of adrenal glands is also severely affected in partially rescued embryos. These data demonstrate a variety of new functions for WT1 and suggest a general requirement for this protein in the formation of organs derived from the intermediate mesoderm.  (+info)

Cardiac blood flow studies in fetuses with homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 at 12-13 weeks of gestation. (5/866)

OBJECTIVE: Fetuses affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 develop anemia as early as the first trimester. Our objective was to study hemodynamic indices in affected fetuses at 12-13 weeks of gestation to determine whether these would be useful in the prediction of anemia. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SUBJECTS: Women referred before 14 weeks of gestation for the prenatal diagnosis of homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1. METHODS: Transabdominal and/or transvaginal Doppler sonography was performed to measure the flow velocities in the fetal ascending aorta and pulmonary artery at 12-13 weeks. The Doppler indices were compared between those that were subsequently confirmed to be affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 and those that were unaffected. RESULTS: Between June 1997 and April 1998, 60 eligible women were recruited. Doppler examination was successful in 58 fetuses. Of these, 22 were subsequently confirmed to be affected by homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1. The diagnosis was made by chorionic villus sampling and DNA analysis in two affected fetuses and by cordocentesis and hemoglobin evaluation in 20 affected fetuses. Hemoglobin concentrations could be measured in ten fetuses and these ranged from 4 to 8 g/dl. The affected fetuses had significantly higher peak velocities at the pulmonary valve and ascending aorta and a larger inner diameter of the pulmonary valve than that in unaffected fetuses. The total cardiac output was increased by one-third in affected fetuses and was mainly due to an increase of the right-side cardiac output. CONCLUSION: In the early stage of anemia, the fetus responds mainly by increasing its right-side cardiac output. However, there is extensive overlap of the values of cardiac output between the affected and the unaffected fetuses, precluding its use in the prediction of anemia.  (+info)

Characteristics of blood flow in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses with hypercoiled cord. (6/866)

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the characteristics of fetoplacental blood flow of growth-restricted fetuses with hypercoiled umbilical cord. SUBJECTS: Eight growth-restricted fetuses with hypercoiled cord. METHODS: Flow velocity waveforms of the umbilical cord artery and vein, fetal abdominal aorta and fetal inferior vena cava were analyzed. RESULTS: The resistance index in the umbilical artery in the hypercoiled cases was lower than that in normal fetuses. Early-diastolic reversed flow was observed in the abdominal aorta in some cases. In all cases, umbilical venous pulsation was observed in the entire cord until delivery. In one case, fetal heart failure occurred, resulting in pre-mature delivery. An atrophic type of single umbilical artery was observed in four cases. CONCLUSION: Fetal blood flow disturbance caused by a hypercoiled umbilical cord may be a cause of growth restriction.  (+info)

Prevalence of aneuploidy with a cardiac intraventricular echogenic focus in an at-risk patient population. (7/866)

The objective of this study was to determine the relative risk for aneuploidy in the presence of a cardiac intraventricular echogenic focus in a patient population at high risk for aneuploidy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients referred to a fetal diagnostic center who were undergoing amniocentesis. Records and second trimester sonograms were reviewed. Approximately 5100 comprehensive prenatal sonograms were obtained over a 2 year study period. Karyotyping by amniocentesis was done in 2412 women; 84 of the karyotypes (3.5%) were abnormal. Fetuses with no ultrasonographic findings suggestive of aneuploidy had a 1.4% (28 of 1940) prevalence of significant chromosomal abnormalities. An intraventricular echogenic focus was found in 149 of the women with karyotype analysis; 15 had an abnormal karyotype. Fetuses with intraventricular echogenic foci had a relative risk of 3.30 of aneuploidy when compared to fetuses without echogenic cardiac foci. The presence of an isolated intraventricular echogenic focus carried a relative risk of 4.08 compared to those fetuses in which ultrasonography had no finding associated with aneuploidy. In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate that presence of an intraventricular echogenic cardiac focus carries an increased risk of fetal aneuploidy.  (+info)

Loss of a gp130 cardiac muscle cell survival pathway is a critical event in the onset of heart failure during biomechanical stress. (8/866)

Biomechanical stress is a major stimulus for cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. By generating mice that harbor a ventricular restricted knockout of the gp130 cytokine receptor via Cre-IoxP-mediated recombination, we demonstrate a critical role for a gp130-dependent myocyte survival pathway in the transition to heart failure. Such conditional mutant mice have normal cardiac structure and function, but during aortic pressure overload, these mice display rapid onset of dilated cardiomyopathy and massive induction of myocyte apoptosis versus the control mice that exhibit compensatory hypertrophy. Thus, cardiac myocyte apoptosis is a critical point in the transition between compensatory cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. gp130-dependent cytokines may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing in vivo heart failure.  (+info)

  • Sixteen fetal sheep were given either continuous intravenous infusion of lactated Ringer solution (LR) or enalaprilat, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor beginning at 127 days gestational age. (elsevier.com)
  • After discovering a medical device known as a fetal heart doppler monitor, which allows one to hear a baby s heartbeat from inside the womb, Harris was thrilled with the peace of mind this little piece of technology brought. (webwire.com)
  • Martinelli, P. / Tissue Doppler imaging of the fetal heart . (elsevier.com)
  • With in depth articles, tips, product reviews, and medical information about ultrasound technology, the site aims to fully enlighten parents-to-be about the benefits of fetal heart dopplers, and how they help to make the experience of pregnancy even more wonderful than it already is, said Harris. (webwire.com)
  • The loops allowed two cardiologists to visualize fetal blood flow, a component of heart health that can't be easily observed with current prenatal imaging technologies. (auntminnie.com)
  • While the MRI technique is similar to ones used for adult cardiac imaging, the team had to overcome numerous technical limitations for prenatal imaging, including correcting for fetal motion and a much faster heart rate. (auntminnie.com)
  • Studies of prenatal detection of congenital heart disease (CHD) in the UK, Italy, and Norway indicate that it should be possible to improve the prenatal detection rate of CHD in Sweden. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Companies that sell fetal heart monitors advertise them as a way to have peace of mind by making sure your baby's heart is beating strong. (mamanatural.com)
  • The research team tested the new 4D imaging method with seven fetal cases, including three healthy subjects, two subjects with right-sided aortic arches, and two with other cardiac abnormalities. (auntminnie.com)
  • Fetal heart can regenerate to restore its normal anatomy and function in response to injury, but this regenerative capacity is lost within the first week of postnatal life. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the hearts of one-day-old mouse retain full regenerative potential and are able to restore normal anatomy and function after cardiac injury [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • October 12, 2020 -- Clinicians could have better information about fetal heart health thanks to a new imaging method developed by researchers from London. (auntminnie.com)
  • abstract = "The fetal heart is highly sensitive to changes in mechanical load. (elsevier.com)
  • This regenerative capacity of the neonatal mouse heart, however, becomes lost within the first week of postnatal life. (hindawi.com)
  • Conclusions: The human fetal heart remains highly isotropic until 14-19 weeks, at which time cardiomyocytes self-align into coherent tracts. (harvard.edu)
  • To achieve 4D imaging, the researchers reconstructed multiple 3D images into cine loops that simulate fetal heartbeats. (auntminnie.com)
  • The results in this paper are exciting because no one has been able to look at the fetal heart using MRI in four dimensions like this," stated Roberts, a perinatal imaging research associate at King's College London. (auntminnie.com)
  • Our work is motivated by the need for high-resolution dynamic imaging in the assessment of fetal congenital heart disease [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For more useful information and helpful facts about purchasing or renting fetal heart dopplers, visit the site at http://www.dopplerfetal.net . (webwire.com)
  • Thus, we conclude a sustained reduction in systolic pressure load decreases hyperplastic growth in the fetal heart. (elsevier.com)
  • It remains unknown, however, when in fetal life this anisotropic pattern develops and whether the human heart is structurally fully mature at birth. (harvard.edu)
  • We aimed here to use diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) tractography to characterize the evolution of fiber architecture in the developing human fetal heart. (harvard.edu)